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  • 1. Global I Review
  • 2. Social Sciences
    • Different ways to study the development of humans & human societies
  • 3. Geography
    • Location (where), place (what), (who) lives there, (how) do humans adapt to that place or move through it?
  • 4. Impact
    • How do the different characteristics of a place impact the way people live there?
  • 5.
    • Rivers provide water for:
    • Irrigation
    • drinking
    • travel
    • fertile soil (delta)
    • The first civilizations developed near rivers (Egypt, Mesopotamia, Indus)
    Adaptation Rivers & River valleys Place
  • 6. Act as barriers Barriers can protect from invasion, but hamper cultural diffusion (India) Less farmland = terrace farming (Inca, Japan) Mountain barriers led to Greek city-states instead of Greek empire Adaptation Mountains Place
  • 7. Deserts act as Barriers No farmland, very little travel or trade Isolated societies Gobi Desert = isolation & ethnocentrism in China Adaptation Deserts Place
  • 8. Flat areas, fertile farmland, easy to travel through People living on plains are easily invaded Assyrians & Prussians developed great armies in order to defend themselves Poland got run over Adaptation Plains Place
  • 9. History
    • The study of past events, particularly in human affairs.
  • 10. Primary vs. Secondary Sources
    • A primary source is a document which was written or created during at the time… they were there! (diaries, letters, speeches)
    • A secondary source interprets and analyzes primary sources. These sources are one or more steps removed from the event… they weren’t there! (textbooks, magazine articles, encyclopedias)
  • 11. Economic$
    • How to meet unlimited wants with limited resources
      • What is made?
      • How is it made?
      • Who makes it?
      • Who gets what is made?
  • 12. Economic Systems Known as the “free-market” system. Government should not tell businesses what to do All businesses owned by people, not government Example: USA (sort of) Capitalism (laissez-faire) “ hands off” “ allow them to do”
  • 13. Mix between communism & capitalism Some businesses owned by people Large industries owned by the government Government can pass laws telling businesses what to do Example: Sweden, Germany, UK Socialism (Mixed)
  • 14. Government owns all businesses, has complete control over the economy No private ownership Example: Cuba, North Korea Command/communism AKA “Marxism”
  • 15. Focus on “favorable balance of trade” (sell more stuff to other countries than you buy from them) Get as much gold & silver as possible Led to European colonialism in the 1500’s Mercantilism
  • 16. Neolithic Revolution = civilization Farming (domestication of plants & animals) Led to Led to Led to Led to Specialized jobs Laws Record-keeping Governments
  • 17. The Neolithic revolution led to organized societies, centralized, governments, towns, villages, & cities… in short, the Neolithic revolution led to EVERYTHING!
  • 18. Ancient Mesopotamia:
    • Land between Tigris & Euphrates rivers
    • Modern day Iraq
    • Earliest civilization
    • 1 st to do/create many things
  • 19. Fertile Crescent
    • Civilization began along the fertile crescent - a region stretching from Egypt to Iraq
  • 20. City-State
    • An independent state consisting of an independent city and its surrounding territory.
  • 21. Cuneiform
    • Sumerian system of writing and record-keeping. Reed stylus & wet clay
  • 22. CIVIL ization
    • C ities; advanced
    • I nstitutions; complex
    • ad V anced technology
    • I ndividual jobs (specialized workers)
    • L iterate (record keeping)
    = advanced civilization
  • 23. Code of Hammurabi
    • 1 st written laws
    • “an eye for an eye”
    • People were = before the law
  • 24. Ancient Egypt
    • Polytheistic, record-keeping, silt from Nile flooding
  • 25. Pharaoh
    • God-king of Egypt
    • Total control
    • Descendent of Ra (the Sun God)
  • 26. Hieroglyphics
    • Ancient Egyptian writing system
    • Pictograms (Ideas not sounds)
    • Papyrus
  • 27. River delta
    • Triangular shaped area where river empties into the sea.
    • Deposited rich soil from Central Africa
    • Egyptians used that soil to grow crops.
  • 28. Scribes
    • Paid record-keepers in Egypt
    • Used papyrus & hieroglyphics
    • Example of specialized jobs
  • 29.  
  • 30. Gift of the Nile
    • Fertile soil, fresh water for drinking and bathing, transportation and trade, materials for building, for making cloth for clothes, and even for making paper - made from the wild papyrus weed, that grew along the shores of the Nile.
    • Because of the annual flooding of the Nile, the ancient Egyptians enjoyed a high standard of living compared to other ancient civilizations. Without the Nile, Egypt would be a desert.
  • 31.  
  • 32. Ancient India
    • Indus River valley
    • River provided:
      • Irrigation
      • Transportation
      • Food & drink
    • Planned City: Mohenjo-Daro PLUMBING
    • Writing system (seals)
  • 33. Ancient China
    • Huang He (Yellow) river provided irrigation, drinking water & transportation to this first Chinese civilization
  • 34. Mandate of Heaven
    • “Right to Rule”
    • Mandate = god’s approval
    • Bad things = god’s displeasure
  • 35. Feudalism
    • The peasants live on the king or lord’s land and give him crops in return for military protection
  • 36. China’s Sorrow
    • Huang He (Yellow) River provides necessities of life, but also floods often; these floods devastate communities near the river
  • 37.
    • A dynasty would remain in power as long as it was providing good government . When a dynasty went into decline, and began to abuse its power, it was said to lose the Mandate of Heaven. A strong leader would emerge to claim the Mandate, and establish a new dynasty.
  • 38. Writing System
    • Shang Dynasty
    • The ancient Chinese system of writing used pictographs , or drawings of objects, and ideographs , or drawings that expressed a thought or idea.
  • 39. Cuneiform, hieroglyph, seals, & pictogram Record keeping Centralized, monarchy Government Hierarchical, rigid class system. You are born into your position in society & cannot move up Social structure Near rivers or river valleys; fresh water, irrigation, transportation Location What Ancient River Valley Civilizations have in common
  • 40. Monotheistic, based on Judaism & Christianity, 5 pillars of faith Koran Muhammad 600 CE Saudi Arabia Mecca & Medina Islam Monotheistic, based on Judaism Love & forgiveness Bible/New Testament Yeshua of Nazareth 30 BCE Middle East Christianity 1 st monotheistic religion 10 Commandments Torah & Talmud Abraham 2000 BCE Fertile Crescent Judaism 4 noble truths, 8-fold path “ life is suffering” Siddhartha Gautama 500BCE India, spread all over Asia Buddhism Caste system, polytheism, Dharma/Karma Vedas No founder 1500 BCE India Hinduism What? Who? When Where
  • 41. The Indo-European Migrations
  • 42. MAIN IDEAS
    • Culture: A group of nomadic people moved into India and took over what was left of Harappan civilization
    • Government: Under Aryan rule, Indian society developed a distinct system of social classes that still affects India today.
    • Belief Systems: Over time, the belief of the Aryans developed into the religion of Hinduism.
    • Language: Indo-European language becomes basis of Indian Language: Hindi
  • 43. Phoenicians
  • 44. Carriers of Civilization
    • Traded throughout the Mediterranean
    • Phonetic alphabet
    • Cultural diffusion
    • 1 st naval & trading power in the world
  • 45. Bantu Migration
    • Most important migration in AFRICAN history
    • Large group of people Bantu settled all over central & southern Africa
    • Language spread
    • Iron technology spread
  • 46. Regents questions: related to what we’ve reviewed… so far
    • Base your answer this question on the passage
    • below and on your knowledge of social studies.
    • Geneticists are tracing the movements of people
    • in prehistoric Europe using our DNA as a time
    • machine. . . .
    • — Joe Palca, “Tracing Human Migration Through DNA,”
    • NPR Weekend Edition Saturday, August 11, 2007
    •  This passage suggests that modern science can be used to
    • (1) aid historical analysis
    • (2) show the development of a point of view
    • (3) explain ancient medical practices
    • (4) predict future events
  • 47.
    • Why is Southeast Asia considered a crossroads?
    • (1) Large deposits of oil are available.
    • (2) A number of trade routes intersect.
    • (3) A single culture is dominant.
    • (4) Rivers serve as highways
  • 48.
    • In which economic system used by early
    • civilizations are decisions about the distribution
    • of goods based primarily on customs, beliefs, and habits?
    • (1) mixed (3) traditional
    • (2) free-market (4) command
  • 49.
    • The Neolithic Revolution is often considered a
    • turning point in history because
    • (1) city dwellers learned to control fire
    • (2) societies became more nomadic
    • (3) nuclear families evolved into extended
    • families
    • (4) permanent settlements developed in river
    • valleys
  • 50.
    • Which name identifies the region located
    • between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers?
    • (1) Cape of Good Hope (3) Mesopotamia
    • (2) Sinai Peninsula (4) Horn of Africa
  • 51.
    • • Analyzing the design of a Shang bronze pot
    • • Deciphering the writing on the Rosetta Stone
    • • Examining the fabric of a Japanese kimono
    • These actions are most often performed by
    • (1) a political scientist (3) a sociologist
    • (2) a geographer (4) an archaeologist
  • 52.
    • An economist is a social scientist who focuses on
    • the study of the
    • (1) development of spiritual practices
    • (2) establishment of legal systems
    • (3) creation and implementation of social class
    • systems
    • (4) production and exchange of goods and
    • services
  • 53.
    • Which heading best completes the partial outline
    • below?
    • (1) Examples of Early Technology
    • (2) Results of Cultural Diversity
    • (3) Characteristics of Civilizations
    • (4) Causes for the Neolithic Revolution
  • 54.
    • Which statement about China is a fact rather than
    • an opinion?
    • (1) Flooding was the worst disaster to affect
    • ancient Chinese civilizations.
    • (2) The Mandate of Heaven was an idea
    • developed in ancient China.
    • (3) Early Chinese civilizations were the most
    • important civilizations in the world.
    • (4) Dynastic governments were highly effective in China
  • 55.
    • Which document is considered a primary source?
    • (1) encyclopedia article
    • (2) modern textbook
    • (3) biography
    • (4) personal correspondence
  • 56. China… Warring States
    • Different warlords were fighting for control of China
    • No one felt safe
    • Chaotic period led to new ways of thinking
  • 57. Picture Picture Picture China has a strong government that does not tolerate dissent and uses harsh punishments (Tiananmen Square Massacre) People are naturally evil Harsh ruler & harsh punishments will make them behave Han Feizi Li Si Legalism Focus on nature & beauty (literature & paintings) Dao De Jing (book) People must learn to live in harmony with nature (yin & yang balance) Laozi Daoism Set up family & social roles that continue today Civil Service exam system Filial Piety (respect for elders) 5 Relationships (oldest male in charge) Confucius Confucianism Impact Beliefs Founder Belief System
  • 58. The Qin Dynasty
    • Qin Shi Huangdi unified China following the warring states period
    • Qin Shi Huangdi = 1 st Emperor of China
    • Began Great Wall of China
    • Expanded China
    • Built infrastructure
    • Standardized language, currency, weights
    • Civil Service Exams
    • Cruel ruler, burned books
    • {Qin is where we get the word “China” from}
  • 59.  
  • 60. What are the most important geographic features of Greece? Sparta Athens
  • 61.  
  • 62. Ancient Greek Geography
    • 1) Peninsula surrounded by water = travel & trade
    • 2) Nice Climate = people exchanging ideas
    • 3) Mountains
      • isolated people (city-states not empire)
      • Very little farmland = small population, need for colonies
  • 63. Athens & Pericles
    • Greek Golden Age: The Ancient Greeks were the first to use democracy as a form of government.  Under Pericles, male citizens in Athens participated in the daily running of government.
    • Athens = democracy
    • Sparta = oligarchy
  • 64. Greco- Roman or Classical tradition S ocrates P lato A ristotle - Hippocrates “ Father of Medicine” -Sophocles: tragic plays -Homer: The Odyssey & The Iliad -Paintings & sculptures of “ideal” people - Architecture, columns Philosophy Medicine Literature Art
  • 65. Ancient Rome
    • (Central location helped them conquer Europe)
    • Roman Achievements:
    Write this
  • 66. Constantine was the 1 st Roman Emperor to convert to Christianity which became the official religion of the Empire & spread all over Europe Adoption of Christianity Aqueducts, Roman Road, arches Roman techniques & styles are still in use today Roman Architecture Began with Augustus Caesar, 200 year long peace, time of cultural and intellectual achievements for Rome. Allowed Christianity to spread Pax Romana Written laws. Everyone = before the law Influenced the Enlightenment 12 Tables Rome became a rep ublic. People elected Senators to rep resent them (indirect democracy) Republican Government
  • 67. Julius Caesar
    • Ended the Roman Republic by becoming “Dictator for Life”
    • Assassinated
    • Caesar = emperor, tsar, czar, kaiser
    D4L
  • 68. Causes of the Rise of the Roman Empire
    • Geographic: central location on Mediterranean
    • Political: centralized government: created infrastructure (roads, bridges, etc.)
    • Military: Well-trained, large military
  • 69. Causes of the Fall of the Roman Empire
    • Economic: inflation (Roman currency worth less & less)
    • Political/social: series of terrible emperors, Romans less interested in politics
    • Military: Roman empire became too big to control, Roman army full of mercenaries
  • 70. Effect of Rome’s Rise
    • Political: stable government throughout Europe, spread of Roman Laws (12 Tables)
    • Economic: Increased trade, universal currency
    • Social: Spread of Latin language, spread of Christianity
  • 71. Effect of Rome’s Fall
    • Political: no government, no protection
    • Economic: decreased trade due to unsafe roads
    • Social: lack of education
    The fall of the Roman Empire
  • 72. European Feudal System
    • King: Largest landowner, controlled country
    • Noble: Given land by King, expected to protect the king
    • Knights: Warriors hired by king/noble for protection
    • Peasants/serfs: tied to land on manor, gave labor & crops in return for protection
  • 73. The only thing that united Europe during the Dark Ages was the Roman Catholic Church. Not only was almost everyone Christian, but they were all Catholics Economic/Political Manor System (Manoralism) … self-sufficient – economic side of feudalism (serfs were bound to the land) 3 field system Decentralized government Social Feudal system Strict social classes Most of Europe was Catholic 10% tithe
  • 74. Feudalism Around The World
    • Japanese Feudalism: Similar to European Feudalism
  • 75. Chivalry & Bushido
    • Ways of controlling warriors in both feudal Europe & feudal Japan
    • Codes based on loyalty & honor
    • Samurai lived up to code of Bushido
    • Knights usually failed to live up code of Chivalry
  • 76. End of Feudalism in Europe The Black Death  Plague killed 1/3 of Europe’s population  Helped end Feudalism
  • 77. End of Feudalism in Europe The Crusades Increased trade & travel to the Mideast Helped end Feudalism
  • 78. The End of Feudalism
    • The Plague:
      • -- Fewer serfs = wages
      • -- caused people to question the Catholic Church & other authorities
    • 2) The Crusades:
    • -- led to the commercial revolution
    • -- More interest in classics
    • -- Cultural diffusion
  • 79. The Renaissance
    • -Increased literacy
    • - Secularism
    • Humanism
    • Questioning authority
    Da Vinci (Renaissance Man) Michelangelo (Sistine Chapel, Pieta) Began in Italy (Italian city-states grew wealthy from Crusade trade + Roman ruins) Renewed interest in art & knowledge “ rebirth” of European culture based on Greco-Roman Classics Effects Artists Location Definition
  • 80. The Reformation Decreased power of RC Church Creation of many new Christian churches Religious wars Martin Luther : RC Priest who wrote 95 Theses John Calvin : predestination theocracy in Geneva Guttenberg: Printing press spread ideas Began in Germany, spread all over Europe Especially Northern Europe -Creation of new Christian churches -Reaction against the RC Church’s corruption (indulgences) Secular humanism Effects Important People Location Definition
  • 81. The Counter-Reformation Reform in RC Church Catholic Missionaries Spanish Inquisition Ignatius of Loyola (founded Jesuits) Rome, Spain, New World Catholic Church’s reforms Effects Important People Location Definition
  • 82. Regent’s Questions The information on this map suggests that the Black Death was primarily spread by the actions of (1) invading armies (2) merchants (3) nomadic peoples (4) explorers
  • 83.
    • The basic idea of this book is simple: to tell the
    • story of the Crusades as they were seen, lived,
    • and recorded on ‘the other side’—in other words,
    • in the Arab camp. Its content is based almost
    • exclusively on the testimony of contemporary
    • Arab historians and chroniclers. . . .
    • — Amin Maalouf, The Crusades Through Arab Eyes,
    • Al Saqi Books
    • This passage indicates that the author’s emphasis is on
    • (1) cause and effect (3) reenactment
    • (2) chronological order (4) point of view
  • 84.
    • Which geographic factor contributed to the rise of the Renaissance in Italian city-states?
    • (1) mountainous terrain of the Alps
    • (2) location near the coast of the Mediterranean Sea
    • (3) navigable waters of the Danube River
    • (4) ease of travel on the Northern European Plain
  • 85.
    • What was a major characteristic of the
    • Renaissance in Europe?
    • (1) Secular achievements were emphasized.
    • (2) Suffrage was granted to men and women.
    • (3) Most literature was written in Arabic.
    • (4) Most ancient Greek and Roman ideas were
    • rejected.
  • 86.
    • Which advancement in technology revolutionized
    • the way ideas were spread throughout western
    • Europe in the 15th century?
    • (1) development of the astrolabe
    • (2) introduction of the telegraph
    • (3) improvements to the printing press
    • (4) creation of the telescope
  • 87.
    • • Classical Greco-Roman ideas were revived.
    • • Wealthy patrons supported the arts and
    • education.
    • • Humanism spread throughout western
    • Europe.
    • Which period in European history is most closely
    • associated with these statements?
    • (1) Early Middle Ages (3) Renaissance
    • (2) Industrial Revolution (4) Hellenistic Period
  • 88.
    • One similarity between Martin Luther and
    • Henry VIII is that they
    • (1) argued against the establishment of a theocratic state
    • (2) protested against the ideas of the Enlightenment
    • (3) died during the Reign of Terror
    • (4) challenged the teachings of the Catholic Church
  • 89.
    • • Literacy rates rise.
    • • Shakespeare’s sonnets circulated.
    • • Secular ideas spread.
    • Which innovation led directly to these
    • developments?
    • (1) printing press (3) paper currency
    • (2) astrolabe (4) caravel
  • 90.
    • Which belief system is most closely associated with the terms Eightfold Path , Four Noble
    • Truths , and nirvana ?
    • (1) Buddhism (3) Judaism
    • (2) Christianity (4) Shinto
  • 91.
    • What inference can be drawn from the location of the church in this drawing?
    • (1) The mill was managed by the church.
    • (2) Religion played a significant role in the lives of the residents.
    • (3) The church controlled trade within the manor.
    • (4) The church played a limited role in education.
  • 92.
    • Confucianism had a strong impact on the
    • development of China mainly because this
    • philosophy
    • (1) established a basic structure for military rule
    • (2) provided a basis for social order
    • (3) contained the framework for a communist
    • government
    • (4) stressed the importance of the individual
  • 93. Mauryan Empire 1 st time India was unified. Very large, well-administered, & had an extensive system of roads India was not permanently unified by the Mauryan Empire 321 BCE Chandragupta Maurya & Asoka Importance Leader& Dates
  • 94. Gupta Empire Golden Age. Advancements in Mathematics, science, literature, art & medicine -concept of Zero -plastic surgery Chandra Gupta & Chandra Gupta II 320 CE Importance Leader& Dates
  • 95. Mughal Empire Expanded India, Taj Mahal, increased trade & cultural diffusion Akbar the Great (absolute monarch) 1542 Importance Leader& Dates
  • 96. Han Dynasty GOLDEN AGE, silk road trade  cultural diffusion, Confucianism  Civil Service Exams Wudi 206 BCE- 220 CE Importance Leader& Dates
  • 97. Tang Dynasty Strict social structure Gunpowder Block printing Smallpox vaccine 618-907 Taizong Importance Leader& Dates
  • 98. Song Dynasty Increased trade with foreign countries Gunpowder Moveable type printing 960-1279 Song Taizu Wu Zhao (only female emperor) Importance Leader& Dates
  • 99. Ming Dynasty Took over from Mongol emperors Porcelain Voyages of Zeng He (Zeng He travelled a lot & wrote about it) 1368 – 1644   Importance Leader& Dates
  • 100. Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire) Justinian Code of Laws (based on 12 Tables) Constantinople Kept Greek & Roman traditions alive Justinian Importance Leader& Dates
  • 101. Ottoman Empire Absolute monarchs “ Sick man of Europe” destroyed by Nationalism & WWI Armenian genocide Late 1200’s Suleiman the Magnificent Importance Leader& Dates
  • 102. Mongol Empire One of largest empires on earth Pax Mongolica : time of peace throughout empire, trade increased along the Silk Road Took over China… Kublai Khan (Marco Polo) Genghis Khan, 1279 Importance Leader& Dates
  • 103. Empires of ancient Africa
    • Empires gained wealth through GOLD & SALT
    • Mansa Musa’s hajj put Mali on the map
    M M M M M ansa usa ali uslim ecca
  • 104.  
  • 105. The Maya
  • 106. Mayan Empire -Only advanced writing system in the Americas -Solar Calendar (almost perfect) -Advanced architecture 250 CE – 800’s Importance Leader& Dates
  • 107.  
  • 108.  
  • 109. Aztec Empire
    • Tenochtitlan: planned city built in a lake, largest in the world at the time
    • Chinampas (floating farms) & causeways (roads) = Aztec adaptation to geography
    • Conquered by Cortes (Spain)
    Montezuma II 1325-1519 Importance Leader& Dates
  • 110. The Inca
  • 111. Inca Empire
    • Terrace Farming
    • Inca trail
    • Quipu: knotted cords used to keep track of things
    • Conquered by Pizarro (Spain)
    Pachacuti 1483-1532 Importance Leader& Dates
  • 112.  
  • 113. What happened to the Aztec & Inca Empires?
    • They were destroyed by Spanish conquistadores
    • Superior technology (guns & steel) combined with European diseases wiped out New World population
  • 114. Reasons for New World Exploration
    • Seeking route to spices of the East that would cut out Italian & Ottoman middlemen
    • God (convert natives to Catholicism), Gold, & Glory
  • 115. Technology of exploration:
    • The astrolabe (navigation) and the Caravel (new ship) made long voyages possible.
  • 116. Columbian exchange:
  • 117. Encomienda System:
    • System of forced labor set up by the Spanish. Native Americans had to work for Spanish lord. Feudalism imported to the New World
    • Encomienda System = slavery
  • 118. At least 10 million Native Americans killed through conquest or Disease This led to…
  • 119. Massive importation of slaves from Africa. Spanish & Portuguese colonies needed labor to grow cash crops Part of Mercantile System
  • 120. Atlantic Slave Trade:
    • Millions of Africans were kidnapped and taken to the New World as forced labor
  • 121. Middle Passage
    • At least 20% of kidnapped Africans died during the journey across the Atlantic (The Middle Passage)
  • 122. Effects of the Atlantic Slave trade
    • Societies throughout the continent of Africa were disrupted or destroyed
  • 123. Triangular Trade
  • 124. Regent’s Questions
    • The use of the terms Encounter and Columbian exchange represents attempts to describe the
    • (1) nature of cultural interactions
    • (2) establishment of land grants
    • (3) results of scientific innovations
    • (4) origins of divine right theory
  • 125.
    • Which element of civilization is most clearly
    • shown in this Maya artwork?
    • (1) urbanization
    • (2) a system of education
    • (3) a code of laws
    • (4) social classes
  • 126.
    • Which achievements are most closely associated with the Tang and Song dynasties of China?
    • (1) wheel and stirrup
    • (2) chinampas and calendar
    • (3) gunpowder and movable wooden type
    • (4) mosaics and domes
  • 127.
    • Which institution served as the primary unifying force in medieval western Europe?
    • (1) legislature (3) monarchy
    • (2) church (4) military
  • 128.
    • The trans-Saharan trade carried out by West
    • African civilizations was primarily based on an exchange of
    • (1) gold and salt
    • (2) ivory and silk
    • (3) silver and tea
    • (4) hardwoods and animal skins
  • 129.
    • China’s image of itself as the Middle Kingdom is
    • associated with
    • (1) welcoming foreign ideas and influences
    • (2) mixing Western religions with traditional
    • Chinese philosophies
    • (3) controlling how contact occurs with other
    • cultures
    • (4) building the Grand Canal to expand trade
    • within China
  • 130.
    • Which factor most influenced the development of diverse cultures in pre Columbian South America?
    • (1) trade agreements
    • (2) geographic features
    • (3) imported religious ideas
    • (4) peasant revolts
  • 131.
    • Based on the information shown on this map, most manufactured goods were produced in
    • the West Indies
    • English colonies
    • (3) Europe
    • (4) Africa
  • 132.
    • One similarity between the Gupta Empire and
    • the Arab dynasties of the Islamic Golden Age is
    • that they
    • (1) made advances in mathematics and literature
    • (2) gained wealth by obtaining gold from the
    • Americas
    • (3) stressed the importance of dharma and karma
    • (4) controlled territories around the Mediterranean
    • seacoast
  • 133.
    • Which conclusion about Zheng He’s voyages is valid based on the information on this
    • map?
    • (1) His fleet traveled only as far as the Bay of Bengal.
    • (2) His expeditions sailed to ports in Asia and Africa.
    • (3) His fleet conquered and controlled Luzon.
    • (4) His expeditions traded directly with the interior of Africa.
  • 134.
    • Technological achievements made during the Tang and Song dynasties were important because they
    • (1) were used to defeat Kublai Khan
    • (2) contributed to economic growth and cultural
    • advancement
    • (3) increased contact with the Americas
    • (4) led to social equality between men and
    • women
  • 135. Absolute Monarchs in Europe (1500-1800)
    • Absolute monarch had absolute power over country & citizens
  • 136. Causes of absolutism
    • - Decline of Feudalism in the Middle Ages  As Feudal lords lost power, kings gained it.
    • - Decline of the Catholic Church  As the Church’s influenced weakened, kings gained power.
  • 137. Divine Right
    • Absolute monarchs believed they were chosen by God
    • They answered to God, not their people
  • 138. English Civil War, Petition of Right, England became a Constitutional Monarchy NO, but Charles I tried Charles I Charles II England Ivan = 1 st Czar Peter tried to westernize & modernize Russia YES Ivan the Terrible Peter the Great Russia Built Versailles Mercantilism War of Spanish succession YES Louis XIV France Spanish Armada defeated by British Spanish colonies in New World YES Philip II Spain Important Events Absolute monarch? Leader(s) Country
  • 139. The Scientific Revolution:
    • Inspired by the Renaissance
    • New ways of thinking about the natural world
    • Scientific method & observation
  • 140. Scientific Revolution Conflict with Catholic Church, questioning the Catholic Church People want to order politics & government (Enlightenment) Copernicus & Galileo Isaac Newton Heliocentric Theory Theory of Gravity Effects Important People Description
  • 141. The Enlightenment:
    • philosophers using reason & scientific method to bring about positive change (progress) in both government and society
  • 142. Beginning of the end for European divine right monarchies American Revolution French Revolution Latin American Revolutions John Locke (Natural Rights) Montesquieu (Separation of Powers) Voltaire (Religious tolerance) Rousseau (Social Contract) European thinkers inspired by Renaissance secular humanism & the Scientific Revolution began to develop new and better ways to govern Effects Important People Description
  • 143. Turning point : The Enlightenment changed EVERYTHING
    • Inspired the American Revolution
    • American Revolution inspired French Revolution… which led to European nationalism
    • Improved women’s rights
    • Increased educational opportunities
    • Led to the Industrial Revolution
    • Religious freedom
    • Abolishment of torture
  • 144. Revolutions around the World… inspired by the Enlightenment
  • 145. French Revolution
    • 97% people in France had no power, but paid all the taxes
  • 146. The French Revolution, Overview Causes Revolution Effects 1) Social Estates General End of French Inequality Meeting Monarchy 2) Absolute Violent Global Spread of Monarchy Revolution Revolution 3) Economy Robespierre’s Napoleon Reign of Terror conquers Europe
  • 147. Napoleon Bonaparte
    • Took over France in a coup d’ etat
    • Became emperor of France
    • Conquered most of Europe, EXCEPT…
    • Defeated by Russian winter
    • Strong Central government
    • Napoleonic Code
    • Spread Enlightenment ideas
  • 148. Congress of Vienna
    • Triumph of Diplomacy, Triumph of Conservatism
    • Restored monarchies of Europe after Napoleonic Wars
    • BALANCE OF POWER
  • 149. Nationalist Revolutions
    • Nationalism = the desire to form your own country (nation)
    • Powerful force that created new countries & destroyed old empires
    + - Italy & Germany Ottoman Empire & Austro-Hungarian Empire
  • 150. Latin American Revolutions
    • Causes:
      • Spread of Enlightenment ideas
      • America & French Revolutions
      • Creoles & mestizos had no power
  • 151. Latin American social classes
    • Peninsulares - men born in Spain
      • held highest offices
    • Creoles - Spaniards born in Latin America
      • officers in army, but not in government
      • often resented power of the peninsulares
    • Mestizos - mixed European and Indian
    • Mulattos - mixed European and African
    • Indians
    • Slaves
  • 152. Hidalgo led a successful revolt of mestizos, creating an independent Mexico Father Hidalgo Creoles & Mestizos had no political power & were inspired by Enlightenment & American & French Revolutions Spain Mexico Bolivar & San Martin led successful armed rebellions creating new, independent countries Simon Bolivar Jose de San Martin Creoles & Mestizos had no political power & were inspired by Enlightenment & American & French Revolutions Spain Spanish South America French sugar plantation colony, African slaves led by L’Overture successfully overthrew French Toussaint L’Overture Slave Revolt Enlightenment French Rev. American Rev. France Haiti Description Leader Causes Colonizer Country or Region
  • 153. European Nationalism
  • 154. Causes
    • French Revolution
    • Enlightenment
      • Certain people had same: history, language, culture, religion, etc.
  • 155. Otto von Bismarck, “Blood & Iron” Chancellor. United Germany through wars (Franco-Prussian war) and politics; 1871 Germany Garibaldi, Cavour, helped to unite the different kingdoms within Italy into one country; 1861 Italy
  • 156.  
  • 157. Definition
    • Time period in the late 1700’s through the 1800’s when more and more products were produced by machines, and new inventions completely changed travel & communication
  • 158. Why England?
    • The Scientific & Commercial Revolutions
    • England had coal, iron, a large workforce, stable government, & financial institutions
  • 159. Important inventions of the later Industrial Revolution
    • Bessemer Process = faster, better steel
    • Chemicals = medicine, soap, & fertilizers
    • Dynamo = electricity everywhere
    • Interchangeable parts & assembly line = products made faster & cheaper by unskilled workers
  • 160. New coal-powered plants & factory waste badly pollute the air & water Pollution: Desire for raw materials leads many industrial countries to colonize Need for Natural Resources: Factory workers underpaid, large families in cramped housing. Women & children working in factories Slums & Poverty: Public schools mandatory to create an educated workforce Education: New developments in soap, medicine & food production = people living longer Longer life-span Rise of the middle class, rise of wealthy factory owners, increase in poor workers New Society: People moved from farms to cities, cities grew Urbanization:
  • 161. Communism (Marxism) Everything is owned by the government Government closely regulates the economy (sets prices, tells factories what to make, etc.) No private property Capitalism (Free Market, Laissez-Faire) Government should not interfere with economy Prices determined by supply & demand Private property for all
  • 162. Labor Unions
    • Workers organizing to make their jobs and pay better  led to 8 hour workday, safer workplaces, weekends off
  • 163. Increased Democracy & Suffrage:
    • Reforms passed in many countries allowing more people to vote… including women.
  • 164. Imperialism
  • 165. Definition
    • when a strong nation takes over a weaker nation or region and dominates its economic, political, or cultural life.
  • 166. White Man’s Burden
    • Justification for imperialism:
      • Imperialism is OK because we are making savage people’s lives better with our superior technology & bringing them the good news of Christianity  Social Darwinism
  • 167. Africa; The Berlin Conference
    • To avoid conflict with one another in Africa, European leaders met in Berlin, Germany. The European powers set about carving up Africa. No African leaders were invited
  • 168. THE MAIN REASON FOR IMPERIALISM: RAW MATERIALS/NATURAL RESOURCES
  • 169. India, “The Jewel in the Crown”
    • Most valuable colony of the British Empire.
    • Many natural resources
    • British divided & conquered Hindus & Muslims
  • 170.
    • The Amristar Massacre
    • British soldiers killed hundreds of Indians who were peacefully protesting
    • After the massacre most Indians turned against the British  became nationalists
    • The Sepoy Mutiny
    • -“Sepoys” Indian soldiers who worked for the British
    • Sepoys revolted
    • India officially became a British Colony
    • Sepoy rebellion = 1 st act of Indian nationalism
  • 171. China
  • 172. N R A E T S I I O S N T A A L N I C S E T Chinese martial artists fought back against Open Door Policy, crushed by European armies Boxer Rebellion Chinese citizens fought back against Spheres of Influence, crushed by Chinese gov’t & European armies Taiping Rebellion Britain imported opium to China (balance of trade), Chinese fought back, Britain defeated them & forced them to sign an unequal treaty Opium Wars European nations forced China to sign unequal treaties giving them control over Chinese land Spheres of Influence
  • 173. Japanese Geography
    • Japan has very few natural resources, they needed colonies to get natural resources
  • 174. Meiji Restoration:
    • Westernizing & modernizing Japan
    • In response to Europe colonizing most of Asia, the Japanese Emperor modernized & westernized Japan
    • MEIJI = MODERNIZE
    • MEIJI = MODERNIZE
    • MEIJI = MODERNIZE
    • MEIJI = MODERNIZE
    • MEIJI = MODERNIZE
    • MEIJI = MODERNIZE
    No more isolationism
  • 175. Wars:
    • Japan defeated China & Russia in war
      • Gained territory
      • Gained experience
      • Gained respect
      • Japanese military gained political power
  • 176. Greater East Asia Co Prosperity Sphere
    • Japan colonized much of East Asia including Korea & China
    • They committed human rights violations (Rape of Nanking)
    • Used natural resources for military (WWII)
  • 177. Loss of natural resources Loss of traditional culture Racism Forced labor Artificial boundaries (civil war) Infrastructure Education Medicine Improved agriculture Improved communications (-)Negative(-) (+)Positive(+) Effects of Imperialism
  • 178. Again, the main reason for imperialism is…
  • 179.
    • Which statement accurately reflects population
    • changes that occurred as a result of the Age of
    • Exploration?
    • (1) Most Latin American populations became
    • more culturally diverse.
    • (2) One third of Europe’s population died due to
    • exposure to diseases from the Americas.
    • (3) The introduction of goods from the Americas
    • caused a decline in Asian populations.
    • (4) Native Americans migrated to Africa causing
    • increases in African populations.
  • 180.
    • Enlightenment thinkers encouraged the
    • improvement of society through the
    • (1) teachings of the church
    • (2) use of reason
    • (3) development of absolutism
    • (4) establishment of a rigid social hierarchy
  • 181.
    • “ Angry Mob Destroys Bastille”
    • “ Robespierre’s Execution Ends Reign of Terror”
    • “ Napoleon Seizes Power”
    • Which country’s revolution is referred to in these headlines?
    • (1) Spain (3) France
    • (2) Austria (4) Russia
  • 182.
    • The slogan “Blood and Iron” and a united
    • Germany are most closely associated with
    • (1) Prince Metternich (3) Camillo Cavour
    • (2) Simón Bolívar (4) Otto von Bismarck
  • 183.
    • Which pair of natural resources were used to change transportation and manufacturing in Great Britain during the Industrial Revolution?
    • (1) gold and salt
    • (2) diamonds and petroleum
    • (3) copper and tin
    • (4) coal and iron ore
  • 184.
    • What is one reason for Japan’s involvement in the first Sino-Japanese War and the annexation of Korea?
    • (1) pursuit of imperialistic goals
    • (2) reaction to foreign invasions
    • (3) institution of five-year plans
    • (4) need for a warm-water port
  • 185.  
  • 186. “ MAIN causes of WWI ”
    • M ilitarism
    • A lliances
    • I mperialism
    • N ationalism
  • 187. Militarism
    • Glorification of War & Military
    • Build up of large reserve armies
    • Mobilization – getting ready for war (starts other nations mobilizing)
      • Naval Expansion – Germany expands navy
      • wants to be equal to G.B. (most powerful)
      • G.B. feels threatened, expands, develops new battleship - Dreadnought
  • 188. Alliances
    • Defense Agreements Among Nations
    • Triple Alliance - (1882) Germany, Italy, Austria-Hungary
    • Triple Entente - (1907) France, Russia, Great Britian
      • Entente : Friendly understanding between nations
  • 189. Imperialism
    • One Country dominating another. Europeans fought over colonies & territory
    • Countries who believed that they were superior thought it was alright to conquer and rule others – particularly if they were inhabited by races they thought were inferior (social Darwinism)
  • 190. Nationalism
    • Extreme pride in one’s nation or desire to form a nation
    • French Nationalists sought revenge against Germany for loss of Alsace-Lorraine
    • Slavic Nationalism - Pan-Slavism : Unify all Slavic people under one empire
  • 191. Immediate Causes of WWI
    • Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
      • Austria-Hungary
      • June 28, 1914
      • Sarajevo
      • Killed by Gavrilo Princip - member of Serbian nationalist group called the “Black Hand”
  • 192.  
  • 193. Allies vs. Central Powers
    • Allies
      • Great Britain
      • Russia
      • Italy (switched sides)
      • France
      • United States – April 6, 1917
    • Central Powers
      • Germany
      • Austria-Hungary
      • Turkey (Ottoman Empire)
      • Bulgaria
      • Italy (switched sides)
  • 194. Result:
    • Total war
    • Trench Warfare
    • New technology (Industrial Revolution)
    13 million people dead World was horrified No one wanted another war…ever
  • 195. End of WWI & The Treaty of Versailles
    • Ottoman Empire collapsed
    • Failed peace led to WWII
    • Punished Germany: War Guilt & Reparations  led to rise of Hitler
    • Woodrow Wilson (USA) 14 Points; League of Nations was created to prevent another war, couldn’t stop WWII
  • 196. The Causes of WWII G F A L T REAT DEPRESSION ASCISM EAGUE OF NATIONS PPEASEMENT REATY OF VERSAILLES
  • 197.
    • Economic crisis led to rise of dictators & desperation
    • Fascist leaders Mussolini & Hitler started WWII
    • League couldn’t stop fascist aggression
    • Appeased (gave in to) Hitler because UK, USA, & France were afraid of another war
    • Unfair treaty was a major cause of Hitler’s rise
  • 198. -End of Czar -COLD WAR & nukes -Stalin became dictator of USSR for decades and killed millions -5 year plans to modernize USSR -WWI caused tremendous suffering throughout Russia. -Czar was ineffective. -Bolsheviks (communists) promised “Peace, land, & bread” -1 st ever communist revolution Lenin (1st leader of USSR) Stalin (took over USSR after Lenin’s death; cult of personality, 5 year plans)
    • Political Causes:
    • (1) weak Czar
    • (2) Spread of Marxist ideas
    • Social Causes:
    • Peasant’s desire for land
    • Deaths from WWI
    • Economic Causes:
    • (1) food & fuel shortages [WWI],
    Effects Description People Causes
  • 199. Between the wars
    • Spanish flu pandemic killed 50 million people worldwide
  • 200. Great Depression
    • Worldwide financial disaster destroyed the economies of many countries. Ruined German economy + WWI reparations = hyperinflation & rise of Hitler
    I’m off to buy a loaf of bread
  • 201. -Japanese military controlled government -imperialism in Asia; Rape of Nanking -Attacked Pearl Harbor - Formed an alliance with Germany & Italy Fascist dictator Hitler was elected -Anschlus with Austria -invaded Czechoslovakia -Invaded Poland (start of WWII) -formed an alliance with Italy & Japan -Fascist dictator Mussolini took over. -invaded Ethiopia -formed an alliance with Germany & Japan Japan Germany Italy
  • 202. League of Nations
    • Could not stop German, Italian, or Japanese aggression
    • USA not a member
    • Powerless
  • 203. Nazi-Soviet nonaggression Pact
    • Hitler & Stalin agreed not to fight each other
    • 1 front war for Germany
    • Hitler broke pact & was defeated by Russian winter (Napoleon)
  • 204. Axis vs. Allies
    • Axis
    • Germany
    • Italy
    • Japan
    • Allies
    • England
    • France
    • USSR
    • USA
  • 205. -Nazis hanged for war crimes during the Holocaust - “just following orders” not an excuse -USA dropped 2 bombs on Japan -1 st and last time nuclear weapons used against people -Cold War
    • Hitler’s plan to kill all Jews
    • Started with Nuremberg laws
    • >11 million people systematically killed (6 million Jews)
    -Allied invasion of occupied France -2 front war -turning point -Germany broke non-aggression pact -Needed oil -Defeated by geography and millions of USSR troops Nuremberg trials Nuclear weapons The Holocaust D-Day German invasion of USSR
  • 206. After WWII – The Post war period
  • 207. The Cold War
    • Causes:
      • After WWII the two most powerful countries on earth were the USA & USSR
      • USA was capitalist & democratic
      • USSR was a communist dictatorship
      • Each country thought the other was trying to control the world
  • 208. Cold War Alliances
    • NATO:
    • USA
    • UK
    • France
    • W. Germany
    • Italy
    • Turkey
    • Warsaw Pact
    • USSR
    • Poland
    • Czechoslovakia
    • E. Germany
    • Albania
    Defensive alliances; if one was attacked, all would defend
  • 209. Easing of tensions between USA & USSR. Agreement to limit nuclear weapons Détente & SALT Communist revolutions in Cuba led by Castro. Communist revolutions in Nicaragua led by Sandinistas & opposed by the Contras (US intervention) Cold War in Latin America Vietnam divided between communist North & capitalist South. Long war. Vietnam communist country Vietnam War CASTRO. Closest we’ve come to nuclear war. USSR missiles in Cuba, USA stopped building of missile bases Cuban Missile Crisis Korea divided between communist North & capitalist South. Long war. North Korea still communist (Kim Jong Il) Korean War USA gave millions of dollars to help rebuild Europe after WWII & stop them from becoming communist Mar$hall Plan: Germany was divided; East Germany controlled by the USSR, West Germany democratic. Berlin Wall Ge r ma ny: Soviet troops remained in Eastern European countries, USSR controlled those governments The Iron Curtain:
  • 210. Communist Revolution in China:
    • - China still a communist country
    • Control of people by Chinese government (1 child policy, internet restrictions)
    • China part capitalist; trade imbalance
    -Civil war & Long March: communists defeated nationalists -Great Leap Forward (modernize) -Cultural Revolution -Tiananmen Square Massacre Mao Zedong: leader of Chinese communists defeated Chiang Kai Shek (nationalist) in civil war Imperialism in China by European countries & Japan Chinese peasants wanted reform Effects Events People Causes
  • 211. Effects of the Cold War:
    • Wars in Korea, Vietnam, & Afghanistan
    • Nuclear proliferation
  • 212. End of the Cold War: Solidarity movement (Lech Walesa) helped end Soviet domination, Poland independent Poland Iron Curtain fell, Berlin Wall fell; Germany reunited, Eastern Europe independent Germany & Eastern Europe Gorbachev’s reforms (Glasnost & Perestroika) failed, USSR collapsed, Boris Yeltsin President of Russian Federation USSR
  • 213. Nonalignment:
    • Countries that refused to take sides in the Cold War were nonaligned; India
  • 214. The End of Imperialism
  • 215. Jewish people established a homeland, fought wars with Arab neighbors Herzl (Zionism) David Ben Gurion Israel (British mandate) Middle East Both led civil disobedience campaigns against UK, jailed, became 1 st Prime Minister Jomo Kenyatta Kwame Nkrumah (pan-African) Kenya (Britain) Ghana (Britain) Africa Successful campaign of civil disobedience: Salt March, Homespun Movement -partition: India given independence, but split Gandhi Nehru India (Britain) Pakistan (Britain) Asia Events: People: Countries: Region:
  • 216.  Human Rights Abuses:
  • 217. 300,000 Chinese murdered by Japanese army during their campaign of Asian imperialism Japanese Army 1937 The Rape of Nanking (China) Over 11 million people systematically murdered by Nazis, 6 million Jews who Hitler blamed for the world’s problems Adolph Hitler Heinrich Himmler 1941-1945 The Holocaust (Europe) Serbian army “ethnically cleansed” (murdered) over 200,000 Bosnian Muslims; rape camps Slobodan Milosevic 1992-1995 Serbian War Crimes (Europe) Bosnian Genocide Students protested for more democratic government. Thousands were killed or jailed by Chinese government Deng Xiaoping 1989 Tiananmen Square Massacre (China) Dark-skinned Sudanese being slaughtered by Janjaweed & Sudan gov’t for land & resources Janjaweed militias 2003-present Genocide in Sudan (Darfur) Hutus massacred 800,000 Tutsis who had historically been given more opportunity in Rwanda Hutus vs. Tutsis 1994 Genocide in Rwanda Communists captured the country, killed 2 million in killing fields & forced labor camps Pol Pot 1975-1979 Khmer Rouge (Cambodia) Events: People: Date: Region:
  • 218.  Important Conflicts:
  • 219.
    • 1947 partition violence
    • Conflict over Kashmir
    • Pakistan Civil War; India helped Bangladesh
    • Nuclear arms race
    • Terrorist attacks in India
    Nehru (1 st Indian Prime Minister) Al Jinnah (1 st Pakistani Prime Minister) 1947-present India/Pakistan
    • - Balfour Document (UK promised Jewish homeland, wouldn’t disturb Arabs)
    • -1948 UN recognized Israel
    • Wars with Arab neighbors, especially Egypt; Israel always won
    • Intifada & occupation: Palestinians protesting Israeli occupation (terrorism) Gaza blockade
    Netanyahu (Israeli Prime Minister) Yassar Arafat (former leader of PLO) Hamas (terrorist group) 1948-present Israel/Palestine Events: People: Dates: Region:
  • 220. England trying to takeover Ireland, Irish resist using terrorism. Northern Ireland belongs to England Catholics (Irish) vs. Protestant (British) IRA Gerry Adams 1916-1998 Ireland Anti-government protests have led to the resignation of Mubarak in Egypt, government change in Tunisia, civil war in Libya (NATO bombings) Hosni Mubarak 2011 Democracy movements in North Africa & Middle East 9/11/01 Al Qaeda attacked the USA. US went to war in Afghanistan to destroy terrorist organization. Al Qaeda attacked London, Madrid, & Mumbai killing hundreds. Bin Laden dead Osama bin Laden George W. Bush Al Qaeda 2001-present War on Terror
  • 221.  Important Events:
    • Ongoing current events and issues that have significant impact on the world.
  • 222. Improvements in agriculture in developing countries: irrigation systems, new machines, chemical fertilizers and pesticides, new Genetically modified crops Green Revolution: INDIA Overpopulation Too expensive to help small farmers Used for cash crops More food Longer lifespan Negative (-) Positive (+)
  • 223.
    • 7 billion people in the world. Challenges:
    • More demand for resources leads to scarcity (poverty & starvation)
    • More demand for resources leads to conflict (Darfur) & may lead to conflicts over oil & fresh water
    • Adaptations to population growth: China’s 1 child policy
    Population Growth: (especially in China & India)
  • 224.
    • deforestation: acres of Amazon rainforest lost every minute (less oxygen & extinction)
    • Pollution: water & air being poisoned leading to species extinction and health problems
    • Global warming: icecaps melting leads to extinction, loss of fresh water, spread of diseases, flooding, etc. extreme weather events endanger people & communities
    Environmental Concerns:
  • 225.
    • At least 8 countries have an arsenal of nuclear weapons
    • India & Pakistan have nukes pointed at each other
    • Israel has nukes & is constantly threatened by neighbors
    • Many missing nuclear weapons (terrorists)
    • Iran, North Korea, and several other scary countries are developing nukes
    Nuclear Proliferation:
  • 226.
    • Developed (rich, northern) countries consume large percentage of the world’s resources leading to massive starvation and suffering in Africa, Asia, and Latin America
    Developed vs. Developing Countries
  • 227.
    • World Trade Organization loans developing (poor) countries money, corrupt leaders steal that money, the WTO forces those countries to pay loans back with interest & cut programs for their people
    • Free trade agreements between countries mean no tariffs, therefore workers are being paid less and less, as more and more products are being made in sweatshops.
    Economic Problems; Free Trade & Debt:
  • 228. Global organization created after WWII to prevent wars. Security council… kinda weak United Nations Economic cooperation between many European countries. Reduced tariffs & single currency: the Euro European Union African countries cooperating diplomatically & defending each other in case of war African Union Latin American countries cooperating diplomatically & defending each other in case of war OAS Organization of American States North American Free Trade Agreement, no tariffs between Mexico, USA, & Canada. Lowered wages in North America. Illegal immigration NAFTA Description Organization
  • 229. Europe Africa South America North America Asia Australia
  • 230.
    • Label:
    India Russia China France Cuba Egypt South Korea Germany Iraq Japan Greece Israel Mexico South Africa Pakistan Vietnam England Afghanistan Kenya Spain