Chapter Nine Measurement & Scaling
Chapter Objectives <ul><li>Identify  the four levels of measurement under which numbers generated through a survey can be ...
Chapter Objectives  (Cont’d) <ul><li>Discuss the various dimensions on which rating scales can vary. </li></ul><ul><li>App...
Harris Interactive: U.S.Based Survey Reputation Score of Top Ten Corporations
Harris Interactive: U.S. Based Survey Six Dimensions of  Reputation Reputation Workplace Environment Products and Services...
20 Attributes of the Six Dimensions Measured Using a  7 Point Scale <ul><li>Emotional Appeal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Like  <...
20 Attributes of the Six Dimensions Measured Using a  7 Point Scale  (Cont’d) <ul><li>Products and Services </li></ul><ul>...
Six Dimensions and Its Scales <ul><li>Vision and Leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Measurement <ul><li>Measurement is “the assignment of numbers to observations [or responses] according to some set of rule...
Measurement Levels <ul><li>Nominal </li></ul><ul><li>Ordinal  </li></ul><ul><li>Interval </li></ul><ul><li>Ratio  </li></ul>
Nominal-Scaled Responses <ul><li>Numbers forming a nominal scale are no more than labels used solely to identify different...
Nominal-Scaled Responses  (Cont’d) <ul><li>Which one of the following media influences your purchasing decisions the most?...
Central Tendency– Mode <ul><li>The mode is the most frequent category - only statistics applicable to nominal variable </l...
Ordinal-Scaled Responses <ul><li>An ordinal scale is more powerful than a nominal scale in that the numbers possess the pr...
Mode and Median <ul><li>The mode and the median are the most meaningful measures of central tendency for ordinal-scaled re...
Consider the following distribution of responses to the question about reading newspapers <ul><li>In this case, the mode i...
Interval-Scaled Responses <ul><li>An interval scale has all the properties of an ordinal scale and the differences between...
Interval-Scaled Responses  (Cont’d) <ul><li>How likely are you to buy a new automobile within the next six months? </li></...
Exhibit 9.1 Impact of Arbitrariness of an Interval Scale’s Starting Point
Ratio-Scaled Responses <ul><li>Ratio scales possess all the properties of an interval scale and the ratios of numbers on t...
Classes of Variables <ul><li>Attributes </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes <...
Attitudes <ul><li>Attitudes are similar to beliefs, except that they also involve respondents’ evaluative judgments </li><...
Attitudes – Conceptually and Operationally <ul><li>A conceptual definition of attitude may be “a predisposition to respond...
Attitude Scaling <ul><li>Attitudes  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Widely believed to be a key determinant of behavior </li></ul></...
Observing Overt Behavior <ul><li>Observation of overt behavior is useful when other attitude measurement methods are incon...
Analyzing Reactions to Partially  Structured Stimuli <ul><li>Projective Techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The approach of a...
Evaluating Performance on  Objective Tasks <ul><li>To evaluate performance on objective tasks, respondents are asked to co...
Monitoring Physiological Responses <ul><li>Monitoring physiological responses is based on the premise that a person's emot...
Self-report Measurements of Attitudes <ul><li>This method involves asking respondents relatively direct questions concerni...
Graphic Formats <ul><li>A graphic rating scale presents a continuum, in the form of a straight line, along which a theoret...
Itemized Formats <ul><li>Itemized rating scales have a set of distinct response categories </li></ul><ul><li>Any suggestio...
Comparative Assessments <ul><li>Comparative Rating Scale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides all respondents with a common fram...
Non-comparative Assessments <ul><li>Non-comparative Rating Scale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implicitly permits respondents to u...
Forced Response Choices <ul><li>A forced-choice scale does not give respondents the option of expressing a neutral or midd...
Forced Response Choices  (Cont’d) Indicate your overall opinion about eBay by checking one of the following categories: Ve...
Non-forced Response Choices <ul><li>A non-forced-choice scale give respondents the option to express a neutral attitude </...
Non-forced Response Choices  (Cont’d) Indicate your overall opinion about eBay by placing  a    mark in the category tha...
Balanced Response Choices <ul><li>A balanced scale is one that has an equal number of positive/favorable and negative/unfa...
Balanced Response Choices  (Cont’d) Indicate your overall opinion about eBay by checking one of the following categories: ...
Unbalanced Response Choices <ul><li>An unbalanced rating scale that can be used if respondents’ opinions about a subject a...
Labeled Response Choices
Unlabeled Response Choices
Exhibit 9.2 Rating Scales with  Picture Labels
Number of Scale Positions <ul><li>A scale with a large number of positions will not be meaningful if respondents are unabl...
Paired Comparison Scale <ul><li>In each of the following pairs, which store do you think is better?  </li></ul>(please che...
Commonly Used Multiple-item Scales <ul><li>Likert Scale </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic-Differential Scale </li></ul><ul><li>St...
Table 9.2 Likert Scale Items 6. 5. 4. 3. 2. 1. ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ The auction site support  syst...
Exhibit 9.3 Semantic-Differential  Scale Items
Exhibit 9.4 Pictorial Profiles Based on Semantic-Differential Ratings
Table 9.3 Stapel Scale -5 -5 -5 -5 -5 -5 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -3 -3 -3 -3 -3 -3 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 +1 +1 +1 ...
Strengths Of Multiple-Item Scales <ul><li>Validity </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Content validity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Validity <ul><li>The validity of a scale is the extent to which it is a true reflection of the underlying variable it is a...
Content Validity <ul><li>Face validity or content validity is the extent to which the content of a measurement scale seems...
Exhibit 9.5 Types of Equivalence
Construct Validity <ul><li>Construct Validity is the nature of the underlying variable or construct measured by the scale ...
Predictive Validity <ul><li>Predictive Validity refers to how well the attitude measure provided by the scale predicts som...
Reliability <ul><li>Reliability measures how consistent or stable the ratings generated by the scale are likely to be </li...
Test-Retest Reliability <ul><li>Test-Retest Reliability measures the stability of ratings over time and involves administe...
Split-Half Reliability <ul><li>Split-Half Reliability measures the degree of consistency across items within a scale and c...
Sensitivity <ul><li>Sensitivity  focuses specifically on its ability to detect subtle differences in the attitudes being m...
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  1. 1. Chapter Nine Measurement & Scaling
  2. 2. Chapter Objectives <ul><li>Identify the four levels of measurement under which numbers generated through a survey can be classified. </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish among attributes, behavioral variables, beliefs, and attitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>List and describe five methods for inferring people's attitudes. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chapter Objectives (Cont’d) <ul><li>Discuss the various dimensions on which rating scales can vary. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply the formats of Likert, semantic-differential, and Stapel scales and discuss how data generated by these scales are analyzed and interpreted. </li></ul><ul><li>Define validity, reliability, and sensitivity of a scale. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Harris Interactive: U.S.Based Survey Reputation Score of Top Ten Corporations
  5. 5. Harris Interactive: U.S. Based Survey Six Dimensions of Reputation Reputation Workplace Environment Products and Services Emotional Appeal Financial Performance Social Responsibility Vision and Leadership
  6. 6. 20 Attributes of the Six Dimensions Measured Using a 7 Point Scale <ul><li>Emotional Appeal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Like </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Workplace Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Well managed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appealing workplace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee Talent </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. 20 Attributes of the Six Dimensions Measured Using a 7 Point Scale (Cont’d) <ul><li>Products and Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong brand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Responsibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizenship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental stewardship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Six Dimensions and Its Scales <ul><li>Vision and Leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspiring vision </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Financial Performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth prospects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Past results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizes opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low risk </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Measurement <ul><li>Measurement is “the assignment of numbers to observations [or responses] according to some set of rules” </li></ul>
  10. 10. Measurement Levels <ul><li>Nominal </li></ul><ul><li>Ordinal </li></ul><ul><li>Interval </li></ul><ul><li>Ratio </li></ul>
  11. 11. Nominal-Scaled Responses <ul><li>Numbers forming a nominal scale are no more than labels used solely to identify different categories of responses </li></ul><ul><li>Example: What is your sex? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Male </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Female </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Nominal-Scaled Responses (Cont’d) <ul><li>Which one of the following media influences your purchasing decisions the most? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Television </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newspapers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magazines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Central Tendency– Mode <ul><li>The mode is the most frequent category - only statistics applicable to nominal variable </li></ul>
  14. 14. Ordinal-Scaled Responses <ul><li>An ordinal scale is more powerful than a nominal scale in that the numbers possess the property of rank order </li></ul><ul><li>How long do you spend reading newspapers on a typical weekday? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less than 5 minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 minutes to less than 15 minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15 minutes to less than 30 minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30 minutes or more </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Mode and Median <ul><li>The mode and the median are the most meaningful measures of central tendency for ordinal-scaled responses </li></ul><ul><li>Median – the category in which the 50th percentile response falls when all responses are arranged from lowest to highest (or vice versa) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Consider the following distribution of responses to the question about reading newspapers <ul><li>In this case, the mode is category 1, and the median is category 2. </li></ul>10 4 25 3 25 2 40 1 Percentage of Respondents Checking Category Response Category
  17. 17. Interval-Scaled Responses <ul><li>An interval scale has all the properties of an ordinal scale and the differences between the scale values can be meaningfully interpreted </li></ul>
  18. 18. Interval-Scaled Responses (Cont’d) <ul><li>How likely are you to buy a new automobile within the next six months? </li></ul><ul><li>(Please check the most appropriate category.) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Will definitely not buy _____ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> (1) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extremely unlikely _____ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> (2) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unlikely _____ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> (3) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Likely _____ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> (4) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extremely likely _____ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> (5) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Will definitely buy _____ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> (6) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Exhibit 9.1 Impact of Arbitrariness of an Interval Scale’s Starting Point
  20. 20. Ratio-Scaled Responses <ul><li>Ratio scales possess all the properties of an interval scale and the ratios of numbers on these scales have meaningful interpretations </li></ul><ul><li>What is your annual income before taxes? $______ </li></ul><ul><li>How far is your workplace from your home? _____ miles </li></ul>
  21. 21. Classes of Variables <ul><li>Attributes </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul>
  22. 22. Attitudes <ul><li>Attitudes are similar to beliefs, except that they also involve respondents’ evaluative judgments </li></ul><ul><li>For instance, do respondents feel print advertisements for cigarettes should be banned? </li></ul>
  23. 23. Attitudes – Conceptually and Operationally <ul><li>A conceptual definition of attitude may be “a predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably to a stimulus object” </li></ul><ul><li>An operational definition of attitude refers to a person’s attitude towards a particular retail store that may be measured as the total of the person’s expressed degree of agreement, on a 5-point, “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree” scale, with each of a set of 20 evaluative statements about various aspects of the retail store </li></ul>
  24. 24. Attitude Scaling <ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Widely believed to be a key determinant of behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can only be inferred and cannot be directly ascertained </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measures in which inferences are drawn from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observed overt behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual's reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance on objective tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological reactions </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Observing Overt Behavior <ul><li>Observation of overt behavior is useful when other attitude measurement methods are inconvenient or infeasible </li></ul><ul><li>An observation study can be used to ascertain the attitudes of very young children toward a variety of toys </li></ul>
  26. 26. Analyzing Reactions to Partially Structured Stimuli <ul><li>Projective Techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The approach of analyzing reactions to partially structured stimuli involves asking respondents to react to or describe in some fashion, an incomplete, vague stimulus </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Evaluating Performance on Objective Tasks <ul><li>To evaluate performance on objective tasks, respondents are asked to complete an ostensibly objective, well-defined task </li></ul><ul><li>The nature of their performance is then analyzed to infer their attitudes </li></ul>
  28. 28. Monitoring Physiological Responses <ul><li>Monitoring physiological responses is based on the premise that a person's emotional reactions to a stimulus will be accompanied by corresponding involuntary physiological changes </li></ul>
  29. 29. Self-report Measurements of Attitudes <ul><li>This method involves asking respondents relatively direct questions concerning attitudes toward whatever is of interest to the researcher </li></ul><ul><li>The questions are typically in the form of rating scales on which respondents check off appropriate positions that best reflect their feelings </li></ul>
  30. 30. Graphic Formats <ul><li>A graphic rating scale presents a continuum, in the form of a straight line, along which a theoretically infinite number of ratings are possible </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Indicate your overall opinion about eBay by placing a  mark at an appropriate position on the line below. </li></ul>Very Bad Very Good
  31. 31. Itemized Formats <ul><li>Itemized rating scales have a set of distinct response categories </li></ul><ul><li>Any suggestion of an attitude continuum underlying the categories is implicit </li></ul><ul><li>They essentially take the form of the multiple-category questions </li></ul>
  32. 32. Comparative Assessments <ul><li>Comparative Rating Scale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides all respondents with a common frame of reference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows the researcher to be confident that all respondents are answering the same question </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Non-comparative Assessments <ul><li>Non-comparative Rating Scale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implicitly permits respondents to use any frame of reference or no frame of reference at all </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Forced Response Choices <ul><li>A forced-choice scale does not give respondents the option of expressing a neutral or middle-ground attitude </li></ul>
  35. 35. Forced Response Choices (Cont’d) Indicate your overall opinion about eBay by checking one of the following categories: Very Neither Bad Very Bad Bad nor Good Good Good [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 What is your overall rating of eBay in comparison with other auction sites? Much worse Worse About the same Better Much better ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
  36. 36. Non-forced Response Choices <ul><li>A non-forced-choice scale give respondents the option to express a neutral attitude </li></ul>
  37. 37. Non-forced Response Choices (Cont’d) Indicate your overall opinion about eBay by placing a   mark in the category that best summarizes your feelings. Very Very Bad Good [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 What is your overall rating of eBay in comparison with other auction sites? Much worse Worse Better Much better ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
  38. 38. Balanced Response Choices <ul><li>A balanced scale is one that has an equal number of positive/favorable and negative/unfavorable response choices </li></ul>
  39. 39. Balanced Response Choices (Cont’d) Indicate your overall opinion about eBay by checking one of the following categories: Very Neither Bad Very Bad Bad nor Good Good Good [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 What is your overall rating of eBay in comparison with other auction sites? Much worse Worse About the same Better Much better ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
  40. 40. Unbalanced Response Choices <ul><li>An unbalanced rating scale that can be used if respondents’ opinions about a subject are anticipated to be predominantly positive </li></ul>
  41. 41. Labeled Response Choices
  42. 42. Unlabeled Response Choices
  43. 43. Exhibit 9.2 Rating Scales with Picture Labels
  44. 44. Number of Scale Positions <ul><li>A scale with a large number of positions will not be meaningful if respondents are unable to make fine mental distinctions with respect to whatever is being measured </li></ul><ul><li>More precise measurements should result as the number of scale positions increase </li></ul>
  45. 45. Paired Comparison Scale <ul><li>In each of the following pairs, which store do you think is better? </li></ul>(please check one online auction site within each pair) _______ Amazon or _______ eBay _______ eBay or _______ Yahoo! Auction _______ PriceLine.com or _______ eBay _______ eBay or _______ Ubid.com
  46. 46. Commonly Used Multiple-item Scales <ul><li>Likert Scale </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic-Differential Scale </li></ul><ul><li>Stapel Scale </li></ul>
  47. 47. Table 9.2 Likert Scale Items 6. 5. 4. 3. 2. 1. ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ The auction site support system is confusing ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ The auction site is not careful with personal information ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ The auction site responds to complaints quickly ________ ________ ________ Agree ________ ________ ________ Strongly Agree ________ ________ ________ The auction site commission is reasonable ________ ________ ________ User registration is complex at this site ________ ________ ________ The online auction site contains an abundance of exhibits Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree
  48. 48. Exhibit 9.3 Semantic-Differential Scale Items
  49. 49. Exhibit 9.4 Pictorial Profiles Based on Semantic-Differential Ratings
  50. 50. Table 9.3 Stapel Scale -5 -5 -5 -5 -5 -5 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -3 -3 -3 -3 -3 -3 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +2 +2 +2 +2 +2 +2 +3 +3 +3 +3 +3 +3 +4 +4 +4 +4 +4 +4 +5 +5 +5 +5 +5 +5 Confusing Support System Poor Protection of Personal Information Good Response to Complaints Low Commission Complex User Registration Abundance of Exhibits
  51. 51. Strengths Of Multiple-Item Scales <ul><li>Validity </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Content validity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Construct validity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Predictive validity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Test-retest reliability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Split-half reliability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sensitivity </li></ul>
  52. 52. Validity <ul><li>The validity of a scale is the extent to which it is a true reflection of the underlying variable it is attempting to measure </li></ul>
  53. 53. Content Validity <ul><li>Face validity or content validity is the extent to which the content of a measurement scale seems to tap all relevant facets of an issue that can influence respondents’ attitudes </li></ul>
  54. 54. Exhibit 9.5 Types of Equivalence
  55. 55. Construct Validity <ul><li>Construct Validity is the nature of the underlying variable or construct measured by the scale </li></ul>
  56. 56. Predictive Validity <ul><li>Predictive Validity refers to how well the attitude measure provided by the scale predicts some other variable or characteristic </li></ul>
  57. 57. Reliability <ul><li>Reliability measures how consistent or stable the ratings generated by the scale are likely to be </li></ul>
  58. 58. Test-Retest Reliability <ul><li>Test-Retest Reliability measures the stability of ratings over time and involves administering the scale to the same group of respondents at two different times </li></ul>
  59. 59. Split-Half Reliability <ul><li>Split-Half Reliability measures the degree of consistency across items within a scale and can only be assessed for multiple-item scales </li></ul>
  60. 60. Sensitivity <ul><li>Sensitivity focuses specifically on its ability to detect subtle differences in the attitudes being measured </li></ul>
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