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Nov Nov Presentation Transcript

  • Organ Donation/Transplantation -Australia -United States -Canada
  • What are the steps for organ donation???
    • Diagnosis
    • Referral/Evaluation
    • Waiting
    • The Call
    • Transplant
    • Recovery and Survival
    • Writing to the donor family
  • 34.3 per 1,000,000 75,000 United States 13.5 per 1,000,000 3,990 Canada 10 per 1,000,000 1,764 Australia # of donors per population Waiting List #’s
  • Canada facts:
    • The oldest Canadian organ donor was over 90 years of age while the oldest tissue donor was 102 years old.
    • Total actual organ donors in 2001 was 399, of those 193 were living donors.
    • The total number of transplants in 2001 was 641.
    • Living donations may be made only by persons who are at least 16 years old, mentally competent, and able to make a free and informed decision.
    • Donations after death may be made by persons who are at least 16 years old by consenting either a) in writing (donor card) or b) orally in the presence of at least two witnesses during the person’s last illness.
    • Death must be determined by at least two physicians and no physician who has had any association with the proposed transplant recipient may take part in the determination of death, and no physician who took part in the determination of death may participate in the transplant process.
    • The need for organs continues to exceed the supply, thus various jurisdictions in Canada have tried different organ donation systems.
      • The “opt-out” system, in which organs may be removed for transplantation after death unless a person had officially registered an objection to donating while he or she was alive.
  • Australia organ transplant facts:
    • Each state pursues its own policy on local kidney matching, providing its own weighting scheme for those kidneys which do not fall into the above best matched groups.
    • The first transplant operations commonly performed in Australia were corneal transplants, which date from the 1940’s. However, the first organ transplants began around 1963 after medical advances had made kidney transplantation an effective treatment.
    • In all, about 30,000 tissue and organ transplants have been performed in Australia.
  • Australia continued…
    • In 2000, close to 200 people became organ donors after death, benefiting over 650 organ transplant recipients.
    • It is estimated that currently only 1% of the people who die in a year might have the potential for organ donation. (Due to few people die in circumstances that allow them to donate).
    • Total number of transplants that occurred in 2000 was 673.
    • There is an approximate waiting list of four years for a kidney transplant, one year for a heart transplant, and six months for a liver transplant.
  • Australia again…
    • In 2000, 196 deceased people became organ donors. They made up 0.15% of all people who had died during this year.
    • During 1989 and 2000, there have been 2,387 donors (an average of 199 per year).
    • Donors ranged in age from less than 1 year to 77 years, with an average of 41 years.
    • The donation rate per 1,000 deaths is 1.5.
  • United States…important facts
    • The United States transplantation list grows five times faster than the rate of donation.
    • Half of the people listed for an organ transplant will not receive one due to the shortage of donated organ. 16 people die each day waiting for live-saving organ transplants.
    • A new name is added to the National Transplant Patient waiting list every 14 minutes.
  • U.S., again…
    • Approximately 14 million blood donations occur every year in the United States. About 12 million units of whole blood are transfused annually.
    • It is estimated that 15,000 brain deaths occur in the United States each year, but only about 30 percent of that number become organ donors.
    • More than 2,200 of the patients on the national waiting list are children.
    • In the United States, there are currently 59 Organ Procurement Organizations across the country providing services to the 261 transplant centers.
  • N/A 13.5 419 Canada 1.5 10.2 196 Australia 1.0 10.9 97 Sweden 1.2 12.5 1,026 Germany 1.3 13.4 845 United Kingdom and Ireland 1.6 15.3 880 Italy 1.9 17.0 1,016 France 2.6 22.3 5,984 United States 2.5 25.6 256 Belgium 3.9 33.9 1,345 Spain # per 1,000 deaths # per million pop. # of Donors Country
  • All countries:
    • Require some sort of donor card/form that must be signed.
    • Not only must you sign a card, but your wishes must be known by your family.
    • One donor can save the lives of up to eight people, a tissue donor may enhance the lives of more than 50 individuals.
  • Organ trafficking/selling interesting facts…
    • All countries deal with illegal organ selling-buying.
    • U.S. put a congressional ban on payment for organs in 1984.
    • A kidney in turkey is approximately $2,700, while an Indian or Iraqi kidney pays about $1,000.
    • Wealthy clients may pay up to $150,000 for a kidney that matches.
    • An auction on eBay in February 2000 drew a bid of $100,000 for a human kidney, until the company put a stop to the bidding.
    • Another auction in September 1999 drew $5.7 million.
    • Organ trafficking has become an international trade.
    • In a single village in Moldova, 14 out of 40 men were forced to sell their body parts for money to survive and support their families.
    • In Bosnia-Herzegovina sellers are offering organs openly, through newspaper ads. Prices reach about $68,000.
    • In Russia, a grandmother was reported selling her grandson for $70,000. He was then smuggled to the West and there he was killed and dismembered for his organs.
    • Organ trafficking is the outcome of the international ban on organ sales and live donor organs. Thus, whereever there is a demand there is a market.
  • Organ trafficking is the outcome of the international ban on organ sales and live donor organs. Thus, where ever there is a demand there is a market.