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Information Systems for Strategic Advantage ISYS 363
Strategic Advantage and Strategic Necessity <ul><li>Strategic advantage refers to obtaining a sustainable competitive edge...
Auction sites <ul><li>Yahoo, Ebay </li></ul><ul><li>Necessity:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to search and view items, vi...
Being the First <ul><li>Internet Search Engines: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yahoo, Google </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teoma </li...
Being the First <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>higher market share </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher price </li...
New Way of Doing Business <ul><li>Digital Photo Printing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SnapFish </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DVD rental ...
PayPal <ul><li>PayPal is how individuals and businesses send and receive money online.  </li></ul><ul><li>Micropayments  a...
IT Doesn’t Matter – Nicholas Carr  <ul><li>The basis for a sustainable competitive advantage is not ubiquity but scarcity....
Carr’s Rules for Firms <ul><li>Spend less </li></ul><ul><li>Follow, don’t lead </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the risks of IT,...
Competitive forces model by Michael Porter Threat of  New Entrants Bargaining Power of Suppliers Bargaining Power of Custo...
Competitive Strategies <ul><li>Cost leadership strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>Product differentiation strategy. </li></ul><ul...
Strategic Roles for Information Systems <ul><li>Improving business operations </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting business innovat...
The Value Chain and Strategic IS <ul><li>It views a firm as a series, or chain, or network of basic activities that add va...
The Value Chain Administrative Coordination & Support Services Human Resource Management Technology Development Procuremen...
Business Process Reengineering (BPR) <ul><li>Often used to react to systems that can no longer function adequately in the ...
E-Commerce <ul><li>B2C </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual storefront, catalog, ordering processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O...
Interorganizational System (IOS) <ul><li>These link two or more firms so that they function as a single  system  to accomp...
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Adheres to Standard Formats Suppliers The  Firm Request for a price quote Price quote Pu...
CRM (customer relationship management)  <ul><li>CRM (customer relationship management) is an information industry term for...
Major Functions of CRM <ul><li>Helping an enterprise to enable its marketing departments to identify and target their best...
Targeted Marketing <ul><li>Community: People in specific communities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Online chat, Blogging, special ...
Push/Pull <ul><li>Internet push marketing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Email marketing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web page perso...
ERP (enterprise resource planning)  <ul><li>ERP is an integrated system that helps a manufacturer or other business manage...
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Information Systems for Strategic Advantage

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  • The Value Chain Concept , developed by Michael Porter, is useful for helping you to decide when and how to apply the strategic capabilities of IT. The Concept views a firm as a series, or chain, of basic activities that add value to a firm’s products and services, and thus add a margin of value to the firm. In this way some activities are seen as primary processes, while others are seen as support processes that provide direction and support for the specialized work of primary activities. Thus, the framework highlights where competitive strategies can best be applied in a business. For each activity, the role of strategic information systems (SIS) can contribute significantly to that activity’s contribution to the value chain. For example: Administrative Coordination &amp; Support Services . The key role of SIS here is in enterprise communication and collaboration. Human Resources Management. SIS role: Career development Intranet for employees. Technology Development. SIS role: Computer-Aided Design Extranets with partners. Procurement of Resources. SIS role: E-Commerce Extranet with suppliers. Primary Activities . These activities directly contribute to the transformation process of the organization. Inbound Logistics. SIS role: Automated Warehousing, JIT. Operations. SIS role: Computer-Aided Manufacturing. Outbound Logistics. SIS role: Online Data Entry. Marketing and Sales. SIS role: Interactive Targeted Marketing. Customer Service. SIS role: Customer Relationship Management. Teaching Tips This slide corresponds to Figure 2.9 on p. 61 and relates to the material on p. 59.
  • Transcript of "Information Systems for Strategic Advantage"

    1. 1. Information Systems for Strategic Advantage ISYS 363
    2. 2. Strategic Advantage and Strategic Necessity <ul><li>Strategic advantage refers to obtaining a sustainable competitive edge over competitors. The ability to obtain a greater than normal return on investment. </li></ul><ul><li>A strategic necessity is a system that must be installed to remain competitive and stay in business. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Auction sites <ul><li>Yahoo, Ebay </li></ul><ul><li>Necessity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to search and view items, view seller info and bid history, place a bid, online payment. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advantage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ebay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ebay store </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pay Pal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SkyPe </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Being the First <ul><li>Internet Search Engines: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yahoo, Google </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teoma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mooter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Desktop Search </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Google Desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copernic Desktop Search </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Being the First <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>higher market share </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher price </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Custom loyalty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retention through switching costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced reputation from being a leader </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product demand is not known </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher development costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free rider effects by followers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information system can be copied. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The basis for competition changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Firms tend to stay with their way of doing things </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Competitors are busy finding ways to change the market place </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. New Way of Doing Business <ul><li>Digital Photo Printing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SnapFish </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DVD rental </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NetFlix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.dvdrental101.com/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Online m usic store </li></ul><ul><ul><li>iTunes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>E-Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demo: ForestGIS </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. PayPal <ul><li>PayPal is how individuals and businesses send and receive money online. </li></ul><ul><li>Micropayments are means for transferring money, in situations where collecting money with the usual payment systems is impractical, or very expensive, in terms of the amount of money being collected. </li></ul>
    8. 8. IT Doesn’t Matter – Nicholas Carr <ul><li>The basis for a sustainable competitive advantage is not ubiquity but scarcity. </li></ul><ul><li>The core functions of IT have become available to all. </li></ul><ul><li>Computer programs today are industry specific, most “right out of box””. That is they are commodities. </li></ul><ul><li>Costs of doing business – paid by all but provide distinction to none. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Carr’s Rules for Firms <ul><li>Spend less </li></ul><ul><li>Follow, don’t lead </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the risks of IT, not the opportunities </li></ul>
    10. 10. Competitive forces model by Michael Porter Threat of New Entrants Bargaining Power of Suppliers Bargaining Power of Customers Rivalry among Existing Competitors Threat of Substitute Products
    11. 11. Competitive Strategies <ul><li>Cost leadership strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>Product differentiation strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation strategy: Finding new way of doing business. </li></ul><ul><li>Alliance strategy: Establish alliances with customer, suppliers, competitors, other company. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth strategy: expanding, diversifying, integrating. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Strategic Roles for Information Systems <ul><li>Improving business operations </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting business innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Locking in customers and suppliers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interorganizational IS, EDI, automatic inventory replenishment system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creating switching costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>make customers dependent on the continued use of innovative IS. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Raising barriers to entry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>discourage competitors from entering a market </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. The Value Chain and Strategic IS <ul><li>It views a firm as a series, or chain, or network of basic activities that add value to its products and services, and thus add a margin of value to the firm. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Margin is the value of the firm’s products and services less their costs, as perceived by the firm’s customers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Support activities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Administration, human resource management ,etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary activities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inbound logistics, operations, outbound logistics, marketing, etc. </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. The Value Chain Administrative Coordination & Support Services Human Resource Management Technology Development Procurement of Resources Inbound Logistics Operations Outbound Logistics Marketing and Sales Customer Service Competitive Advantage
    15. 15. Business Process Reengineering (BPR) <ul><li>Often used to react to systems that can no longer function adequately in the current business environment of the firm </li></ul><ul><li>BPR is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business process to achieve dramatic improvements, such as cost, quality, service, and speed. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Ford Motor Accounts Payable </li></ul>
    16. 16. E-Commerce <ul><li>B2C </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual storefront, catalog, ordering processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online customer support, secure payment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B2B </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whole sale and supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrating a company’s internal systems with those of its suppliers, partners, and customers. </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Interorganizational System (IOS) <ul><li>These link two or more firms so that they function as a single system to accomplish a common goal </li></ul><ul><li>Generate internal efficiency in addition to interorganizational efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Provides customers with unique product features, reduced search-related costs, and raises the customer’s switching costs </li></ul>
    18. 18. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Adheres to Standard Formats Suppliers The Firm Request for a price quote Price quote Purchase order Acknowledge P.O. receipt Invoice
    19. 19. CRM (customer relationship management) <ul><li>CRM (customer relationship management) is an information industry term for methodologies, software, and usually Internet capabilities that help an enterprise manage customer relationships in an organized way. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, an enterprise might build a database about its customers that described relationships in sufficient detail so that management, salespeople, people providing service, and perhaps the customer directly could access information, match customer needs with product plans and offerings, remind customers of service requirements, know what other products a customer had purchased, and so forth. </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Major Functions of CRM <ul><li>Helping an enterprise to enable its marketing departments to identify and target their best customers, manage marketing campaigns with clear goals and objectives, and generate quality leads for the sales team. </li></ul><ul><li>Allowing the formation of individualized relationships with customers, with the aim of improving customer satisfaction and maximizing profits; identifying the most profitable customers and providing them the highest level of service. </li></ul><ul><li>Providing employees with the information and processes necessary to know their customers, understand their needs, and effectively build relationships between the company, its customer base, and distribution partners. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Targeted Marketing <ul><li>Community: People in specific communities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Online chat, Blogging, special interest groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Content: Advertising banner placed on web pages. </li></ul><ul><li>Context: Advertising appears only in web pages that are relevant to the product. </li></ul><ul><li>Demographic </li></ul><ul><li>Online behaviors: cookies </li></ul>
    22. 22. Push/Pull <ul><li>Internet push marketing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Email marketing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web page personalization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet pull marketing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product web page </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. ERP (enterprise resource planning) <ul><li>ERP is an integrated system that helps a manufacturer or other business manage the important parts of its business, including product planning, parts purchasing, maintaining inventories, interacting with suppliers, providing customer service, and tracking orders. ERP can also include application modules for the finance and human resources aspects of a business. Typically, an ERP system uses or is integrated with a relational database system. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An integrated system </li></ul></ul>
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