Contemporary Theory Bauman Imsh 2010


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The importance of activities, character, context, and narrative found in virtual and game-based environments are examined from aesthetic, cultural, and ethical perspectives for learning among the clinical health sciences.

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Contemporary Theory Bauman Imsh 2010

  1. 1. Examining Contemporary Theory for Virtual and Game-Based Learning Eric Bauman, PhD, RN, Paramedic © Copyright by Eric B. Bauman 2010 All Rights Reserved
  2. 2. Author Information and COI Statement Eric Bauman, PhD, RN Faculty Associate University of Wisconsin School of Medicine & Public Health Department of Anesthesiology COI: Consultant -Vernon M emorial Healthcare and TM FD Investments: Pfizer, SHSAX
  3. 3. What’s Wrong with Traditional Theory Nothing & Everything • Traditional theory provides historical prospective and in some cases a starting point for contemporary theories. • Traditional learning theories predate modern technology including virtual and game-based immersive environments. • The learner can no longer be seen as an empty vessel waiting around for a fill-up of expertise • Traditional learning theories often does not adequately address behavioral aspects of professional practice such as Culture & Diversity
  4. 4. Students are Students, Right? What worked for me is good enough for today’s students • Most of today’s students grew up in the age of the Internet - they embrace digital culture. They are likely to have a high degree of media literacy and adaptability • Students are well positioned to take advantage of virtual and game- based learning environments and opportunities • Digital media is no longer seen as a facet of culture limited to entertainment and communication. • The modern learner is accustomed to multi-media environments and is comfortable using these environments for academic, personal, and professional gain. Students today don’t expect good engaging technology - they DEMAND IT! • Institutions that do not embrace a sense of media literacy find it increasingly difficult to compete for today’s best and brightest students
  5. 5. Historical Perspective Experiential Learning Theories • Schön (1983): Reflection-on-Action. Reflection through internal dialog or talk-back – Contextually Emergent • Benner (1984): Thinking-in-Action. Reflection of previous experience effects current practice – Contextually Emergent • Kolb (1984): Experiential Processes as Cyclical and reflective
  6. 6. Contemporary Theories • Created Environment1 • Designed Experience2 • Socially Situated Cognition3 • Ecology of Culturally Competent Design4 (Bauman 20071;Games & Bauman4; Squire, 20062 Gee, 1991,19933
  7. 7. Created Environment • An environment that has been specifically engineered to accurately replicate an actual existing space, producing sufficient authenticity and fidelity to allow for the suspension of disbelief. Simulated environments, whether fixed in the case of mannikin-based simulation laboratories resembling elaborate theatrical sets, or existing in virtual reality, are created environments. Bauman, 2007
  8. 8. Designed Experiences • A Designed Experience is engineered to include structured activities targeted to facilitate interactions that drive anticipated experiences. These activities are created to embody participant experience as performance. Many theme parks are based in part on the theory of designed experience. Squire 2006
  9. 9. Socially Situated Cognition • Refers to learning theory that is situated within a material, social, and cultural world. Learning that is situated takes place in contextually specific and authentic environment with a host of values and expectations. Gee,1991,1993
  10. 10. Ecology of Culturally Competent Design • Addresses the rigors and challenges of accurately situating culture within virtual environments using a four- element model that emphasizes the importance of activities, contexts, narratives, and characters. Bauman, In Press; Games and Bauman, In Press
  11. 11. Activity • Interactivity is one of the most important defining characteristics of successful learning in games and virtual worlds. • Participation in virtual worlds is only meaningful when players are actively engaged in their environment rather than passively observing it • The game and its environment define identity and develop affinity groups • In the health sciences, virtual spaces include familiar settings where learners can practice many of the activities germane to the professions they hope to join (Gee, 2003; Taekman, Segall, Hobbs and Wright 2007)
  12. 12. Context • Virtual simulated spaces can be designed in ways that authentically capture environmental fidelity – Replicate in virtual form aspects of the real world that students occupy in actual practice • Safer environments where students could afford to learn from mistakes with no risk to patients – virtual worlds provide opportunities for learning and professional development without the consequences associated with actual therapeutic misadventure • Virtual simulation overcomes some of the barriers associated with fixed or physically created environments – Money, Location, Space allocation Games and Bauman, In Press; Squire 2006; Bauman, 2007
  13. 13. Narrative • Narratives provide peoples’ memories with a collection of patterns that help them recognize and make sense of the world • Narratives assist players in the negotiation of their identities, particularly projective identities. Projective identities place learners in the shoes of the virtual identities they are playing • Narratives also provide spaces for reflection on the consequences of student action or inaction. Learners can be encouraged to see the consequences of their decisions from multiple perspectives and deliberate practice (Bruner, 1991; Gee, 1991, 2003)
  14. 14. Character • The fluidity and malleability of virtual environments applies not only to the look and feel of virtual teaching spaces, but also learners identities • The ability to try on multiple identities may be of great value for the construction of learning experiences involving culture and diversity • Players shape and design their avatars (characters), which become their in-world identities • Identity expectation related to one’s future professional affinity group is an important tenet of learning (Gee, 2003; Squire, 2006)
  15. 15. So why should we turn to these new fangled theories? & capt_weasle Why turn to theories that stem from the modern videogame movement and the entertainment industry? & darrenjames140
  16. 16. Because we are interested in teaching our students to become something other than good technicians!
  17. 17. What we are really interested in… • Identity and Consequence • Acculturation and Indoctrination of a professional into practice • Cultural Competence • Learning as Behavioral Change Popkewitz, 2007
  18. 18. Identity and Consequence • Virtual communities encourage participants to “try on” different identities and reflect on the consequences of their decisions while “wearing” these identities. • Identity is fluid and malleable - How can we use this fluidity to enhance learning experiences? • As instructors should we or do we need to impose restrictions on in-world identity (Gee, 2003; Turkle, 1995)
  19. 19. Acculturation - Indoctrination • Part of the educational experience focuses on learning how to become part of a cohort • Beyond the required professional knowledge base, novice clinicians must come to understand the conduct and expectations of the rank and profession they hope to join How to: Look - Act - React Gee, 2003; Popkewitz, 2007
  20. 20. Cultural Competence • Published literature readily discusses the importance of integrating cultural competence into health sciences curricula • There is little literature to indicate that simulation and standardized patient education has readily integrated culture and diversity into health sciences curricula. • Both obvious and subtle cues related to culture, gender, and race can often have profound social-cultural implications and biological consequences related to diagnosis and treatment • Cues derived during observational and behavioral encounters may drive important decisions related to diagnosis and patient care. (Culhane-Pera, Reif, Egli, Baker, and Kassekert, 1997; Tervalon and Murray Garcia, 1998; Smedley, Stith, and Nelson, 2003; Steele and Aronson, 1995)
  21. 21. Learning as Behavioral Change • Through in-world interaction and during post experience debriefing instructors can facilitate behavioral responses from students that represent either cultural competence or cultural cliché and stereotypes • Educators bear the responsibility for providing environments that provide a safe medium to facilitate the transfer of knowledge and facilitate behavioral change • Web-based and virtual worlds can provide a translational platform for behavioral change related to culture and diversity Thiagarajan, 1992; Games and Bauman 2009
  22. 22. Transition from the virtual world to the real world • Avatars and virtual worlds can be designed to evoke students preconceived notions of culture and identity – In terms of cohort social norms and cues – In terms of professional expectations and cues • Virtual or web- based communities that authentically replicate real-world clinical experiences can provide translational educational and research experiences for both students and educators • Virtual or web-based experiences may provide consistent exposure to diverse cultural content across curricula that are NOT available in actual clinical or traditional mannikin-based simulation environments
  23. 23. References Bauman, E. (2007). High fidelity simulation in healthcare. Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Wisconsin- Madison, United States. Dissertations & Thesis @ CIC Institutions database. (Publication no. AAT 3294196) Bauman, E, (In Press). Virtual reality and game-based clinical education. In Gaberson, K.B., & Oermann, M.H. (Eds) Clinical teaching strategies in nursing education (3rd ed).New York, Springer Publishing Company. Benner, P. (1984). From novice to expert: Excellence and power in clinical nursing practice. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley. Bruner, J. (1991). The narrative construction of reality. Critical Inquiry 18 (Autumn), 1-20. Culhane-Pera, K.A., Reif, C., Egli, E., Baker, N.J., and Kassekert (1997). A curriculum for multicultural education in family medicine. Family Medicine, 29(10), 719-723. Games, I. and Bauman, E. (In Press). Virtual worlds: An environment for cultural sensitivity education in the health sciences. International Journal of Web Based Communities. Gee, J. P. (1991). Memory and myth: A perspective on narrative. In A. McCabe & C. Peterson (Eds.), Developing narrative structure (pp. 1 - 26). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Gee, J.P. (2003) What Videogames Have to Teach Us Ab out Learning and Literacy. New York, NY: Palgrave- McMillan. Popkewitz, T. (2007). Cosmopolitianism and the age of school reform: science, education and making a society by making the child. Routledge. Smedley, B. D, Stith, A. Y, and Nelson, A. R. (Eds.). (2003) Unequal treatment: Confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. Steele, C.M. & Aronson, J. (1995) Stereotype Threat and the Intellectual Test Performance of African Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 69(5), 797-811. Squire, K. (2006). From content to context: Videogames as designed experience. Educational Researcher. 35(8), 19-29. Taekman J.M., Segall N., Hobbs G., and Wright, M.C. (2007). 3DiTeams: Healthcare team training in a virtual environment. Anesthesiology. 2007: 107: A2145. Tervalon, M. and Murray-Garcia, J. (1998). Cultural humility versus cultural competence: A critical distinction in defining physician training outcomes in multicultural education. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 9(2), 117-125. Turkle, S. (1995) Life on the screen. Identity in the age of the Internet. New York: Touchstone.
  24. 24. Special Thanks • Eric Graves: American Research Institute • Gerald Stapleton: University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine • Jerry Heneghan: Virtual Heroes • Melanie Lazarus: ARCHIMAGE • Jeff Taekman: Duke University - Human Simulation and Patient Safety Center • Bob Waddington: SimQuest • Allan Barclay: University of Wisconsin - Madison, Ebling Library
  25. 25. Contact Information Eric Bauman, PhD, RN B6/319 CSC Department of Anesthesiology 600 Highland Avenue Madison, WI 53792-3272 Email: Office: 608-263-5911 Linkedin: