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The Energy Foundation -- China Green Schools Best Practice Design Guide The Energy Foundation -- China Green Schools Best Practice Design Guide Presentation Transcript

  • China Green Schools Best Practices Design Guide Energy Foundation Pilot Program Eco-Tech International October 2008
  • Preface Background Acknowledgements The idea to create this guide came about, in part, as a result of a This guide would not have been possible without the collective Green Schools Workshop conducted 6-10 October 2008 in Chengdu, knowledge and inspirational outlook offered by many esteemed China, through the collaboration of the Southwest Architecture Design practitioners and existing guidelines on green building. The team of and Research Institute, the Energy Foundation, Eco-tech International, experts and “green warriors” involved in the Sichuan Green Schools and many highly experienced practitioners from around the world. Intent Pilot Program contributed not just their time, but their experiences from on applying green building principles and concepts of sustainability into years of expertise in this field. For this, they deserve thanks and the design of at least ten new schools being built in the aftermath of the recognition. They are: Lawrence Eighmy, Darren Cassel, and Mark May 2008 Sichuan earthquake, the team collaborated over several days Rostafin from the Stone House Group / Green Schools Alliance; and several interactive sessions. Through site visits, existing design Makrand Bhoot from P-A-T-H; Khee Poh LAM from Carnegie Mellon review, consideration of Chinese building codes and green building University; LIN Bo Rong from Tsinghua University; SONG Ling from guidelines, and incorporation of internationally recognized green building the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development Green Building approaches, the team generated a set of project-specific and general Labeling Office; WU Ping from the Energy Foundation; and ZHOU Zhe, guidelines for integrating sustainability into schools. It is therefore in ZHANG Jin Ying, MENG Shi Rong, and Elizabeth Balkan from Eco- coordination with the Sichuan Green Schools Pilot Program, supported by Tech International. Many thanks are likewise extended to the the Energy Foundation and the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Southwest Architecture Design and Research Institute Sichuan Green Development that the first China Green Schools Best Practices Design Schools Pilot Program team of experts and participants. They are: Guide has been developed, with the hope that many more similar efforts project leader Professor FENG Ya, GAO Qing Long, XU Ke, XU will follow in the same spirit. Ming,CHEN Hong, DENG Qiang, and XU Jun Fei. Hoping you benefit from this Green Schools Design Guide, This guide draws heavily on the State of California’s Collaborative for High Performance Schools Best Practices Manual, Volume II: Design, Elizabeth Balkan 2002 Edition, both for specific recommendations and general Eco-Tech International principles. Consideration has also been given to the US Green Buildings Council LEED for Schools for New Construction and Major Renovation and the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings, and the Carbon Trust Best Practices Guide.
  • Sustainability Goals & Measures Table of Contents IV. Energy Conservation Bright Ideas Electricity Savings Checklist Preface Electricity Efficiency Strategies Background Efficient HVAC Systems Acknowledgements Table of Contents Energy Efficiency Checklist for HVAC Systems HVAC Strategies I. Taking an Integrated Approach Resources Integrated Concepts & Goals Building Enclosures Ways to Enhance Integration Ways to Build Efficiently Specific Strategies Building Enclosure Strategies II. Sustainability by Design Ranking Fuel Types Commissioning Innovative, Low-cost Renewable Technologies Responsibilities of the Commissioning Agent Examples of Accessible Renewables Careful Site Selection Creating a Job-Site Operations Plan V. Water Efficiency Applicability & Compliance with Code Waterways & Water Wise Documentation & User Manual Creation Water Efficiency Checklist Monitoring Water Conservation Strategies Training & Education Reaching Higher Ground: Channeling Water III. Ecosystem Protection Effectively Our Planet, Our Responsibility Ways to Ensure Site & Ecosystem Protection VI. Reduced & Responsible Materials Use Strategies for Preservation & Improvement Setting Goals Site Protection -- Erosion & Sediment Control Reducing Resource Use Reducing Unwanted Heat Materials Efficiency Strategies Using Materials Responsibly Greening Your Materials Use Environmentally Friendly Materials Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) Resources
  • Sustainability Goals & Measures Table of Contents IX. H ealth & Indoor Air Quality VII. Health & Indoor Air Quality Healthy Schools Make Healthy Children Health & Indoor Air Quality Checklist Strategies for a Healthy School Environment Rethinking Conventional Methods -- Fans VIII. Visual & Acoustic Comfort Seeing More Clearly Ways to Achieve Visual Comfort Lighting Systems Strategies Lighting Systems -- Light Shelf Fine-tuning Acoustical Systems in Schools Achieving Acoustical Comfort IV. Safety Safety & Sustainability Go Together Safety + Sustainability Checklist Green Strategies that Make Schools Safer X. Education: Teaching by Example Green Schools Offer Learning Opportunities Learning Possibilities Checklist Green Educational Strategies XI. Addressing Misperceptions about Sustainability Green as High-Tech Green as Expensive Green & Industrialized Countries
  • Taking an Integrated Approach Integrated Concepts & Goals Ways to Enhance Integration The following recommendations offer specific ways to use an Integrated design considers all building systems &components integrated approach to enhance sustainability: together, bringing together various disciplines involved in designing a building and reviewing recommendations as a whole. Integrated design • Draw from Eclectic Sources of Information recognizes that each discipline's recommendations impact other • Involve various stakeholders during all stages of the aspects of the building project. This approach allows for optimization of project both building performance and cost. • Use of energy modeling & other simulation tools • Site visits & construction oversight Often, HVAC systems are designed independently of lighting systems, for example, and lighting systems are designed without consideration of day lighting opportunities. The architect, mechanical engineer, electrical engineer, contractors, and other team members each have Specific Strategies their scope of work and often pursue it without adequate • Draw from Eclectic Sources of Information Communication and interaction with other team members. This can result in oversized systems or systems that are optimized for non LEED Schools  typical conditions. China Green Building Guidelines  California Collaborative for High Performance Schools  Even a small degree of integration provides some benefits, allowing Sichuan Green Schools Workshop  professionals working in various disciplines to take advantage of efficiencies that are not apparent when they work in isolation. Design • Involve various stakeholders during all stages of the integration is the best way to avoid redundancy or conflicts with aspects of the building project planned by others. project Public-private Partnerships  The earlier that integration is introduced in the design process, the Community Engagement  greater the benefit. For a high performance school, project team International Exchanges  collaboration and integration of design choices should begin no later Multidisciplinary Specialists  than the programming phase.
  • Taking an Integrated Approach • Use of energy modeling & other simulation tools  Energy-Plus http://www.lbl.gov/  DOE 2 http://www.lbl.gov/  TRACE http://www.trane.com/  BLAST http://www.bso.uiuc.edu/ • Site visits & construction oversight  Improve consistency between design and completed project
  • Sustainability by Design Means: Commissioning Commissioned Systems The commissioning agent is responsible for coordinating and carrying The contractor should be informed of the types of systems that will be out the commissioning process. For complex projects, the commissioned, the types of information that may be required, and his commissioning agent should be brought on as part of the design responsibilities in terms of correcting problems that are identified. Types phase. However, for most schools, commissioning may not be needed of systems to be commissioned may include: until construction start-up, and knowledgeable in-house personnel may HVAC Kitchen equipment • • fill the role of the commissioning agent. Commissioning should Air & water delivery system Building envelope continue well into start-up, and be integrated into the operation and • • maintenance plan. Energy management system Renewable energy system • • Electrical & lighting system Fume hoods Responsibilities of the commissioning agent • • Fire / life safety system Gas delivery system • • Assisting with a clear statement of the design intent for each  building system Security system Emergency power supply • • Writing the commissioning specifications and incorporating them in  the appropriate divisions of construction specifications Irrigation system Plumbing • • Carrying out pre-functional and functional testing of all equipment  and systems to be commissioned using procedures designed in advance Careful site selection Reviewing operation and maintenance documents to be provided  by the contractor If and when designing for a school to be built on a new site, careful Developing operation and maintenance training curricula and  consideration of the site should be an integral part of the design materials to ensure they meet needs of staff process. Schools sites should be selected in accordance with their Writing a final report including all commissioning documentation  ability to ensure children’s safety (I.e. consideration of earth fault lines, and recommendations for the school and area schools flood paths, etc), co-exist with the natural ecosystem, and integrate with the community.
  • Sustainability by Design Means: Creating a Job-site Operations Plan Documentation & User Manual Creation The easier it is for staff to perform regular checks and maintenance A sustainable job-site operations plan describes goals, construction on building systems, the better building performance needs can be practices to achieve those goals, methods to train or otherwise met and costly maintenance can be avoided. For this reason, communicate these goals to field personnel, and methods to track and documenting building design features is critical for O&M staff as well assess progress towards those goals. For each component of the plan as the school’s users. The contractor, commissioner, or design team (waste reduction, IAQ, and site protection), these elements will be should develop a user manual that includes the following information specified. In addition, the plan will specify the method of documenting on the buildings systems: compliance with these goals, including in the case of product substitutions. Contact information of the installing contractor  Product data  Test data  Applicability & Compliance with Code Performance curves (for pumps, fans, chillers, etc.)  Installation instructions  The climate in which a school is situated should be considered in the Operation requirements  design process. Likewise, pursuing energy and performance standards Preventive maintenance requirements  that comply or exceed relevant national and local building codes should Parts lists  be an integral part of the design. Troubleshooting procedures specific to the equipment design and  application Monitoring Sound O&M practices can help keep the school operating at commissioning levels. Some of these practices include: Establishing and implementing a preventive maintenance  program for all building equipment and systems Using commissioning checklists and functional tests as a basis  for periodic testing of equipment Reviewing monthly utility bills for unexpected changes in building  energy use Using energy accounting software to track building energy use  Tracking all maintenance, scheduled or unscheduled, for each  piece of equipment. Periodic reviews of these documents may indicate whether certain pieces of equipment require tune-ups Updating building documentation to reflect current building usage  and any equipment change-outs Assessing operator training needs annually 
  • Sustainability by Design Means: Training & Education Training is one of the most important ways to get the most out of green design and realize superior performing schools. Training gives building operators and managers, as well as teachers and other staff, the skills to perform quality O&M practices, thereby helping the building to continue to perform optimally. While training topics will differ according to design and individuals school’s needs, the following topics serve as a starting point for developing training materials tailor-made for your school: Descriptions of equipment and systems installed and their  warranties or guarantees Equipment start-up and shutdown procedures, operation in normal  and emergency modes, seasonal changes, and manual/automatic control Requirements and schedules for maintenance on all O&M-sensitive  equipment Indoor health & air quality, health, visual & acoustic comfort, and  safety issues Recommendations for special tools and spare parts inventory  Emergency procedures  Operation and adjustment of dampers, valves, and controls  Hands-on operation of equipment and systems  Common troubleshooting problems, their causes, and corrective  actions Review of O&M manuals, and their location onsite  Building walk-through  Review of related design intent documents  Energy management control system operation and programming  Control sequences and strategies  Thermostat programming  Relevant commissioning reports and documents  When and how to re-commission building systems  The maintenance work order management system  Sound energy management practices 
  • Ecosystem Protection Our Planet, Our Responsibility • Avoid materials that harm the ecosystem Ecosystem protection includes the use of products and techniques  Eliminate materials that harm the natural ecosystem through that do not introduce pollutants or degradation at the project site or at toxic releases or by producing unsafe concentrations of the site of extraction, harvest, or production. A sustainable school is substances one designed to be environmentally responsive to the site,  Give preference to locally manufactured materials and incorporating natural conditions such as wind, solar energy, moisture to products to eliminate air pollution due to transportation enhance the building’s performance. • Preserve & restore natural features & areas on, or Ways to Ensure Site & Ecosystem Protection near, the site • Specify indigenous materials  During construction, develop & implement operations plan to • Avoid materials that harm the ecosystem protect the site • Preserve & restore natural features & areas on, or near,  Evaluate the potential impact of specified site materials on the site the natural ecosystems located on site or adjacent to the • Reduce, Reuse, Recycle site  Take steps to eliminate stormwater runoff and erosion that • Consider & minimize the ecological impact of construction can affect local waterways and adjacent ecosystems  Maintain connection to nearby natural ecosystems Strategies for Preservation & Improvement • Reduce, Reuse, Recycle • Specify indigenous materials  Consider a school-wide recycling program, using natural waste for composting  Use native landscaping and materials adapted for the site • Minimize the ecological impact of construction  Consider noise pollution of construction  Prevent polluting the air with dust and particulate matter, I.e. from cement
  • Ecosystem Protection Site Protection -- Erosion & Sediment Control Reducing Unwanted Heat Creating an Erosion and Sediment Control Plan during the design Buildings add heat when their surfaces are dark and highly phase of the project is worth considering. There are a range of absorbent of sunlight, which can hurt wildlife and habitat. To strategies that can be sought, including temporary and permanent prevent this “heat island” effect, consider adding a green, seeding, mulching, earth dikes, silt fencing, sediment traps and vegetated roof or using light-colored and pervious materials on the sediment basins. Some of these approaches are illustrated below. roofs and other surfaces for reflectivity. The use of landscape shading for constructed areas may likewise help reduce undesirable heat. In the place of a concrete pathway or courtyard, • Sediment Retention Pond consider a grass path or open field.  Basic retention ponds, or bioswales, can be created on even • Green Roofs in China small plots of land, using simple design methods and minimal equipment • Sediment & Erosion Control Fencing  Sediment and Erosion Control Fencing can be made from local straw or other basic materials
  • Energy Conservation Bright Ideas Energy-efficient schools cost less to operate, allowing money to be used on other items essential to the educational goals of schools. Energy- efficient schools also reduce emissions to the environment, since energy use is related to emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur oxides (SOx), nitrous oxides (NOx), and other pollutants. Use of daylighting is one way to reduce electricity costs in schools. Properly designed systems can substantially reduce the need for electric • Optimize the number & types of luminaires lighting, which can account for 35% to 50% of a school's electrical  Use suspended indirect or direct/indirect luminaires in energy consumption. Also, daylight provides savings during the day, classrooms to provide soft uniform illumination when demand for electric power is at its peak and electricity rates are at  Consider using additional accent and directional task lighting for their highest. This decrease in demand, if it is met by a combination of specific uses (such as display areas) high efficiency electric lighting equipment and controls, can substantially lower a school’s electricity usage. • Incorporate controls to ensure peak system performance Electricity Savings Checklist  Use automatic sensors or dimmers that adjust to changes in light throughout the day The following design principles promote electricity savings and  Install devices that turn off when sufficient natural light is sustainability in schools: available Design for high efficiency • Optimize the number & types of luminaires • • Integrate electric lighting & daylighting strategies Incorporate controls to ensure peak system performance • Integrate electric lighting & daylighting strategies  Consider the amount of natural light available, based on • seasonal, elevation, and other conditions  Provide time controlled lighting for public, outdoor spaces Electricity Efficiency Strategies • Design for high efficiency  Use “Super” T-8 florescent lamps with electronic ballasts for general lighting applications  Consider using T-5 lamps if justified by life-cycle costs
  • Energy Conservation Efficient HVAC Systems HVAC Strategies A school's HVAC system provides the heating,ventilating and air • Use high efficiency equipment conditioning necessary for the comfort and well-being of students, teachers, and staff. To ensure peak operating efficiency, the HVAC  Use energy efficient labeled products (see “Resources”) system in a high performance school should use high efficiency equipment; be quot;right sizedquot; for the estimated demands of the facility; and include controls that boost system performance. • “Right-size” the system The HVAC system is one of the largest energy consumers in a school.  Apply any safety factors to a reasonable base condition for the Even modest improvements in system efficiency can represent relatively building: not the hottest or coldest day of the year with maximum large savings to a school's operating budget. With the highly efficient attendance; not the most temperate day of the year with the systems available today -- and the analysis tools that can be used school half full to select and size them -- there’s no reason why every school HVAC  Select systems that operate well under part-load conditions system can't be designed to the highest levels of performance. The key to optimizing HVAC system performance is an integrated design • Incorporate controls that boost system performance approach that considers the building as an interactive whole rather than  Consider the natural light available, based on seasonal, as an assembly of individual systems. For example, the benefits of an energy-efficient building enclosure may be wasted if the HVAC elevation, and other conditions equipment is not sized to take advantage of it. Oversized systems,  Provide time controlled lighting for public, outdoor spaces based on rule-of-thumb sizing calculations, will not only cost more, but  Consider individual HVAC controls for each classroom will be too large to ever run at peak efficiency and will waste energy  Installing electric meters in each building facilitates better every time they turn on. An integrated approach, based on an accurate monitoring of quantity used and peak use times estimate of the impact of the high efficiency building enclosure, will allow the HVAC system to be sized for optimum performance. The resulting system will cost less to purchase, will use less energy, and will run more efficiently over time. Energy Efficiency Checklist for HVAC Systems Schools wishing to deploy efficient HVAC systems should follow these guidelines: • Use high efficiency equipment • “Right-size” the system • Incorporate controls that boost system performance
  • Energy Conservation Resources • Energy Efficiency Labels  China Standard Certification Center (previously the Center for Certification of Energy Conservation Products) http://www.cecp.org.cn/  Chinese Energy Efficiency Label, China National Institute of Standardisation www.energylabel.gov.cn
  • Energy Conservation Building Enclosures • Consider high mass materials, like concrete or brick The building enclosure (walls, roofs, floors, and windows) of a sustainable  Use the building’s thermal mass to store heat and temper heat school should enhance energy efficiency without compromising durability, transfer maintainability, or acoustic, thermal, or visual comfort. An energy-efficient  Consider adding thermal mass to increase the storage capacity building enclosure is one that integrates and optimizes moisture control, and energy efficiency of the building insulation levels, glazing, shading, thermal mass, air leakage control, and light-colored exterior surfaces. • Control air leakage An energy-efficient building enclosure will reduce a school's overall  Complement insulation methods, such as double pane glass, operating expenses and will also help the environment. Many of the with construction oversight to ensure tightly-sealed buildings techniques employed -- high performance glazing, shading devices, light- colored surfaces -- are easy for students to understand and can be used as instructional aids. The key to optimizing the building enclosure is an integrated approach to design that considers how all the components of the building shell interact with each other and with the building's HVAC systems. Tools to analyze these interactions are readily available and can be used to create the optimal building enclosure based on total system performance. As part of an integrated approach, consider the actions described below. Ways to Build Efficiently • Control heat gain & glare • Consider high mass materials, like concrete or brick • Control air leakage Building Enclosure Strategies • Control heat gain & glare  Consider shading devices to reduce solar heat gain and minimize glare
  • Energy Conservation Ranking Fuel Types Examples of Accessible Renewables In the hierarchy of fuel types based on environmental criterion only, • Charging Bike energy generated from renewable, non-depleting resources is at the top, as the most desirable option. Gas is the second most attractive option, followed by oil. Coal is the least environmentally friendly fuel type. Cost RMB 1000 Power Outlet 35-45W at 12VDC Power Duration 6:1 to 9:1 recharge ratio Benefits Easy to maintain, locally available parts • Water-pump Playground Equipment  Children’s play generates usable groundwater  Information about this equipment can be found at Play Pumps Gas boiler: a preferred option for schools International (www.playpumps.org) Innovative, Low-cost Renewable Technologies A variety of innovative and low-cost renewable technologies have been developed specifically with the goal of deployment in schools in mind. At the same time, other basic renewable equipments have been designed specifically for weather and other conditions in China, and are manufactured and available in China as well. Check with large international organizations, such as the Energy Foundation and Clinton Foundation, municipal organizations such as the Shanghai Energy Conservation Supervision Center, or your local government to determine what incentives might be available to avail inexpensive, or wholly subsidized renewable energy technologies for your school. • Solar Water Heaters
  • Water Efficiency Waterways & Water Wise • Specify water-conserving fixtures & equipment  Consider automatic lavatory faucet shutoff controls Fresh water is an increasingly scarce resource. Green schools strive to control and reduce water runoff from its site, consume freshwater as  Simple devices, such as aerators, can improve water savings efficiently as possible, and recover and reuse gray water to the extent dramatically feasible. Basic efficiency measures can reduce a school’s water use by  Automatic flushing toilets simultaneously reduce water use & 30% or more. These reductions help the environment, locally and improve hygiene regionally. Water Efficiency Checklist A high performance, sustainable school trying to conserve water should do the following: Design landscaping to use water efficiently • Set water use goals for the school • Specify water-conserving fixtures & equipment • Consider using recycled or rainwater for non-potable use • Water Conservation Strategies Automatic Flushing Toilets • Design landscaping to use water efficiently • Consider using recycled or rainwater for non-potable use Reduce water use  Provide for hardy, native vegetation   Decrease use of potable water for sewage conveyance by using Use drip irrigation in lieu of sprinklers or irrigation  gray and/or black water systems. Opportunities include toilet Use captured rain or recycled site water for irrigation  flushing and irrigation “Design in” cisterns for capturing rainwater   Consider on-site wastewater treatment • Set water use goals for the school  Recommended goal: 20% less than the baseline calculated for the building (not including irrigation)
  • Water Efficiency Reaching Higher Ground: Channeling Water Effectively Collecting rain water for non-potable use such as irrigation and toilet flushing begins with a smart paving approach. Pervious ground tiling, a material widely available in China, offers a great starting point for smart water collection systems. The tiling below can be used in a pathway, parking lot, or quadrangle application. The addition of small pebbles or sand in the middle makes this paving approach safe for children. Pervious Ground Tiling
  • Reduced & Responsible Materials Use Setting Goals • Reduce the amount of construction waste going to landfills Reduced and Responsible Materials Use refers to two overarching goals: 1) use of products that conserve raw materials, including energy  Develop and implement a management plan for sorting and or water, or are / can be reused or salvaged before / after site use, as recycling construction waste well as minimizing waste -- including construction and demolition (C&D) source, and 2) use of building products that are manufactured in ways • Design to facilitate recycling & user-friendly operation that reduce hazardous emissions, conserve raw materials, including energy and water, or are / can be reused or salvaged before / after site  Provide in the design an area within the building dedicated to use. separating, collecting, storing and transporting materials for recycling Addressing these goals provides significant environmental benefit.  Avoid products that unnecessarily complicate operation and According to WorldWatch, buildings account for 40% of many processed maintenance procedures, and provide training to ensure proper materials (such as stone, gravel, and steel) and 25% of virgin wood upkeep and ensure full service life harvested. These withdrawals can cause landscape destruction, toxic runoff from mines, deforestation, biodiversity losses, air pollution, water pollution, siltation, and other problems. Reducing Resource Use A high performance, sustainable school can achieve reduced material use by doing the following: • Maximize recycled content of all new materials • Reduce the amount of construction waste going to landfills • Design to facilitate recycling & user-friendly operation • Specify salvaged or refurbished materials Materials Efficiency Strategies • Maximize recycled content of all new materials  Set a goal to reach 25% recycled content
  • Reduced & Responsible Materials Use Greening Your Materials Use • Specify salvaged or refurbished materials  New building materials contain more embodied energy, on • Eliminate materials that may introduce indoor air account of the resources required for manufacturing therefore use pollutants of new materials increases a building’s resource consumption & environmental pollution  Avoid materials that harm the natural ecosystem through toxic releases or by producing unsafe concentrations of substances  Products that pollute water, air, or other natural resources where they are extracted, manufactured, used or disposed of should be avoided  Source from an environmentally conscious supplier (see “Resources”) • Sourcing locally reduces carbon footprint only if all processes occur in the region  This includes extraction, processing, and manufacturing Using Materials Responsibly • When evaluating materials, consider their impact on A high performance, sustainable school can achieve responsible material the acoustic & visual quality of the classroom use by doing the following: • Eliminate materials that may introduce indoor air pollutants • Source locally to reduce your school’s carbon footprint • When evaluating materials, consider their impact on the acoustic & visual quality of the classroom
  • Reduced & Responsible Materials Use Environmentally Friendly Materials • Produced from rapidly renewable material: Includes material that is grown or cultivated and can be replaced in a Besides price, availability, performance and aesthetics, the following relatively short amount of time (defined by the type of material) characteristics make materials environmentally preferable: • Made with industrial byproducts: Includes material that • Durable: Offers (proven) longer service life compared to other is created as a result of an industrial process (fly ash, for options in a given product category example) • “Healthy”: Does not introduce toxics or polluting emissions into • Marketed in an environmentally responsible the building manner: Includes products available with minimal packaging • Made with recycled content: Includes materials that have been recovered or otherwise diverted from the solid waste stream, either during the manufacturing process (pre-consumer), or after Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) consumer use (post-consumer) Material Safety Data Sheets, which must be prepared by product • Salvaged or reused: Includes materials that are refurbished manufacturers, can provide some information and in particular can and used for a similar purpose; not processed or remanufactured for help identify problem ingredients that may be toxic or emit another use significant VOCs. For example, the Health Hazard Rating (0 is low, 5 is high) found on an MSDS provides some indication of whether • Recyclable: Can be collected, separated or otherwise recovered a product is appropriate for indoor school environments. MSDS’s from the solid waste stream for reuse, or in the manufacture or are often incomplete, however. Generally they do not include assembly of another package or product information about environmental attributes other than toxicity of • Responsibly produced: Extracted, harvested or manufactured regulated ingredients. MSDS’s are primarily useful for eliminating in an environmentally friendly manner (includes certified wood building materials that may cause serious environmental problems. products) • Environmentally benign: Includes or introduced no, or low amounts of, known pollutants to the natural ecosystem (included non ozone-depleting or toxic materials) • Low in embodied energy: Does not require significant amounts of energy to produce or transport the material (includes locally manufactured or extracted options in a given product category)
  • Reduced & Responsible Materials Use Resources • China Building Material Industry Association http://www.cbminfo.com/ • Beijing International Green Building Materials Exhibition http://www.chinabuilding.org/index.asp • International Building & Construction Trade Fair 2009 http://www.wes-expo.com.cn/building/2006/intro.asp • China Buildings Doors Windows Curtain Walls & Equipment http://www.cnbdw.com • China Eco Expo (2007 & 2009) http://www.ecoexpo.com/EcoExpo2008/ • Energy Foundation China Sustainable Energy Program -- Buildings http://www.efchina.org/CSEPCN/FProgram.do?act=list&type=Progr ams&subType=5 • International Eco Expo http://www.ecoexpo.com/EcoExpo2008/ • China Energy Management Company Association http://www.emca.cn/ • China Energy World http://www.chinagb.net/
  • Health & Indoor Air Quality Healthy Schools Make Healthy Children • Provide adequate ventilation The quality of the air inside a school is critical to the health and  Install carbon dioxide and airflow measurement equipment. performance of children, teachers and staff. According to the US  For naturally ventilated areas, follow these eight steps to better Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the concentration of pollutants ventilation: inside a building may be two to five times higher than outside levels. 1) Develop design requirements Children are particularly vulnerable to such pollutants because their 2) Plan airflow paths breathing and metabolic rates are high relative to their size. 3) Identify building uses and features that might require special attention 4) Determine ventilation requirements Health & Indoor Air Quality Checklist 5) Estimate external driving pressures 6) Select types of ventilation devices A high performance, sustainable school should provide superior quality 7) Size ventilation devices indoor air by doing the following: 8) Analyze the design Eliminate & control sources of contamination • Provide adequate ventilation • • Prevent unwanted moisture accumulation Prevent unwanted moisture accumulation •  Provide HVAC systems and controls designed to limit space Keep latent heat inside by providing better insulation • relative humidity to 60% or less during all load conditions, both occupied and unoccupied Strategies for a Healthy School Environment • Keep latent heat inside by providing better insulation • Eliminate & control sources of contamination  Use non-toxic adhesives and sealants  Reduce or eliminate cleaning supplies that contain harmful chemicals  Use only non-lead paint  Ensure that desks and other furniture has a non-formaldehyde coating
  • Health & Indoor Air Quality Rethinking Conventional Methods -- Fans Though easy to source and less energy intensive than air conditioning, conventional fans may not be the best choice for optimum ventilation. Research suggests that downward fans may actually circulate stale air instead of channeling it outside. By contrast, low-velocity fresh air introduced near the floor displaces warmer, dirty air, which is gently pulled into the return. Consider turning your fan upside down, or rather, sideways; and placing it in another part of the room. Harnessing the Winds of Change: Going from Ceiling Fan to Upright Floor Fans
  • Visual & Acoustic Comfort Seeing More Clearly Factors Affecting the Visual Environment: • Layout & Site Orientation Performing visual tasks is a central component of the learning process for both students and teachers. A high performance school should provide a rich visual environment -- one that enhances, rather than hinders, learning and teaching. Students spend much of their day engaged in visual tasks — writing, reading printed material, reading from visual display terminals, or reading from blackboards, whiteboards, and overheads. They must constantly adjust their vision from a “heads-up” to “heads-down” position and back again. Inadequate lighting and/or glare can seriously affect a student’s ability to learn. On the other hand, a comfortable, productive visual environment — one that takes into account more than simply the amount of light hitting the desktop — will enhance the learning experience for both students and teachers. Visual comfort results from a well- designed, well-integrated combination of natural and artificial lighting systems. • Number, type & placement of light fixtures • Number, type, & placement of windows Ways to Achieve Visual Comfort  North-facing windows should be minimized  South-facing window size should be maximized • Integrating natural & electric lighting strategies Maximizing use of day lighting reduces the need for  artificial lighting, which, in turn, reduces electricity bills and waste heat • Balancing the quantity & quality of light in each room • Controlling or eliminating glare
  • Visual & Acoustic Comfort Lighting Systems Strategies Lighting Systems -- Light Shelves Indoor & Outdoor light shelves may reduce the need for electric • Integrate natural & electric lighting lighting while still complying with building code. Light shelves can be  Consider the amount of natural light available, based on made from inexpensive, simple materials, like a wooden board or seasonal, elevation, and other conditions cement slab.  Use automatic sensors or dimmers that adjust to changes in light throughout the day  Install devices that turn off when sufficient natural light is External Light Shelf available  Provide time controlled lighting for public, outdoor spaces • Balancing the quantity & quality of light in each room  Avoid excessively high horizontal light levels  Illuminate spaces as uniformly as possible, avoiding shadows or sharp distinctions between dark and light  Provide task or accent lighting to meet specific needs (e.g., display areas, whiteboards, team areas)  Develop different approaches for different rooms, rather than adopting a “one size fits all” design Internal Light Shelf • Controlling or eliminating glare  Interior or exterior additions -- such as shades, a light shelf or even trees -- can filter daylight and control glare  Consider light-colored ceiling surfaces to help reflect daylight within the room Without a Light Shelf With a Light Shelf No lights are on in either photo
  • Visual & Acoustic Comfort Fine-tuning Acoustical Systems in Schools Trying to hear in a poor acoustical environment is like trying to read in a room with poor lighting: stress increases, concentration decreases, and learning is impaired. Noise from outside the school (from vehicles and airplanes, for example), hallways (foot traffic and conversation), other classrooms (amplified sound systems and inadequate sound transmission loss), mechanical equipment (compressors, boilers, and ventilation systems), and even noise from inside the classroom itself (reverberation) can hamper students’ concentration. By using the information and tools available, newly constructed schools can provides an acoustic environment that positively enhances the learning experience for students and teachers. Achieving Acoustical Comfort • Reducing sound reverberation time inside the classroom  Hard surfaces -- like blackboards and concrete floors and ceilings -- increase reverberation  Soft surfaces -- like fabric pin-up boards, carpet, and curtains -- reduce reverberation • Limit transmission of noise from outside the classroom • Minimize background noise from the building’s HVAC system
  • Safety Safety & Sustainability Go Together • Ensure simultaneous compliance with green regulations & safety codes Making schools safer will also make them more sustainable. In order to enhance safety in schools, whenever possible school sites that are less  China National Earthquake-resistance code vulnerable to natural disasters should be selected. When schools must be  National and Local Building Codes built in areas susceptible to earthquakes, flooding, and other natural  China Green Building Guidelines disasters, it is a good idea for designers and other project participants to keep in mind that more material use does not necessarily deliver more structurally sound schools. The use of modeling, traditional and time- proven structural approaches, and construction oversite will help your school become a place that protects students while protecting the earth’s precious resources as well. Safety + Sustainability Checklist • Protect lightbulbs to prevent injury from shatters • Ensure simultaneous compliance with green regulations & safety codes Green Strategies that Make Schools Safer • Protect light bulbs to prevent injury from shatters  Light bulbs with trace mercury can be harmful when broken, as during an earthquake, if not covered. Installing a protection cover under the lamp can prevent injury and increase illumination.  Inexpensive, locally available materials such as paper can be used
  • Education: Teaching by Example Green Schools Offer Learning Opportunities • Foster the Next Generation of Conservationists  Participation of students in maintaining their school exposes Perhaps one of the greatest advantages that green schools offer is a them early on to concepts of stewardship everyday living example of sustainability. Government officials and administrators wishing to give students a better understanding of  Deployment of renewable energies helps students understand environmental protection and sustainable development should consider resource use & constraints green schools to be a meaningful, direct, and highly influential means of doing so. • Use Signs & Posters to Illustrate & Explain Green The use of these strategies can help teach students about the importance of protecting natural habitats and the impact of human Features activities on ecological systems. • Set Up a User’s Guide for Systems Operation & Learning Possibilities Checklist Management Schools wishing to maximize the educational benefits of green design  A guide should be created for building systems operators as should do the following: well as students • Incorporate Facilities into the Curriculum  Curriculum designed for students should describe not only the building features, but also explore the relationship between • Foster the Next Generation of Conservationists human ecology, natural ecology and buildings. • Use Signs & Posters to Illustrate & Explain Green Features • Set Up a User’s Guide for Systems Operation & Management Green Educational Strategies • Incorporate Facilities into the Curriculum  Retention ponds become a water testing classroom  Landscaping leads to a lesson on biodiversity & climate
  • Addressing Misperceptions about Sustainability Green as High-Tech  Building sustainability into schools requires taking a long- term approach. Green schools will last years longer than • Misperception: Building Green Requires Advanced non-green schools, yielding energy savings and Technology environmental benefits for a much longer period of time. Those savings can really add up, in resource as well as • Reality: Many Green Building strategies are simple, low- monetary terms! tech, and make use of commonly available resources • Examples: Green & Industrialized Countries  Sediment and Erosion Control Fencing can be made from local straw or other basic materials • Misperception: Only Economically Developed  Light shelves can be made from simple, readily available Countries can Build Green materials, like a wooden board or cement slab • Reality: Building Green is as or more appropriate in  China’s manufacturing capacity means that most materials and equipment can be sources domestically a developing country context as it is in industrialized countries • Examples / Statistics:  The US and China are the world's top two energy users Green as Expensive and emissions producers • Misperception: Building Green is Costly  Emissions are fast increasing due to China's 70% dependence on coal for energy and rising energy • Reality: Green Building strategies range from demands inexpensive to more costly; and much can be done given  China’s leaders have announced the policy of the “Circular even a small budget Economy,” an initiative towards Sustainable Development that indicates a need to balance economic development • Examples: with environmental and resource protection  Bioswales offer an inexpensive way to retain stormwater  Educating building users and children about saving water, electricity, and other resources is free, and can bring about as much or more conserved resources than expensive equipment