Fundamental concept of anatomy physiology ircs course 1.03.11
Fundamental Concepts ofAnatomy & Physiology in Ayurveda Dr. S.K. Sharma, M.D. (Ay) Ph.D Adviser (Ayurveda)Department of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, Homoeopathy (AYUSH) Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India Telefax : 011-23328576 E-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org www.indianmedicine.nic.in
Ayu + VedaLife: The unified State of Science: Body, Mind & Soul Knowledge Ayurveda = Science of Life
Mind Body Soul Trinity: Personality in AyurvedaPURUSH Soul CONSCIOUS (Living)PRAKRITI Mind Non-living Matrix Body
AYURVEDA-What it has? Ayurveda is a science of life which deals with promotion of positive health Etiological factors of various diseases Pathogenesis of diseases Clinical manifestations of almost all known diseases Various dietary and seasonal regimens Curative methods for treating illness Vast Materia Medica of Plants, Minerals, Metals and Animal by products for various dosage forms
Eight Branches of Ayurveda“Astang Ayurveda”- As Described by Charaka 3000 yrs ago Kayachikitsa Shalyatantra Internal Medicine Surgery Kaumarbhritya Shalakyatantra Gynae, Obs & Paediatrics ENT & Opthalmology
Eight Branches of Ayurveda“Astang Ayurveda”- As Described by Charaka 3000 yrs ago Agadtantra Bhootvidhya Toxicology Psychiatry Rasayana Vajikarana Rejuvnative and Anti-aging therapy Aphrodisiac
Objectives of AyurvedaPreventive Care to Preserve Health Therapeutic means to treat Disease Disease Care Vs Health Care
Ayurvedic Approach of Health and DiseasePromotion Prevention of of Health Disease Ayurveda Science of Longevity with quality of life Holistic management of disease
Definition of Health Dosha - 3 (Vata, Pitta, Kapha) Physical & Agni - 13 (Metabolic fire) Physiological Dhatu - 7 (Body tissues)Components of Mala - 3 (Waste products) health Indriya - 5 (Sensory motor organs) Psychological Manas - 1 (Mind) Spiritual Atma - Soul One whose doshas, agni, functions of doshas and malas are in state of equilibrium, who has cheerful atman, mind, intellect and sense organs is designated as healthy.
MAN AND BIOSPHERE Geographical Environment Mind S R T P V K Body Socio Cultural EnvironmentMacrocosm (Universe) Vs Microcosm (Man)
PANCHAMAHABHUTA THEORY- 5 elementsAKASH VAYU AGNI JALA PRITHVI Space Air Fire Water Earth VATA PITTA KAPHA + SOUL TRIDOSHA THEORY- 3 DOSHAS HEALTH DISEASE AYURVEDAEQUILIBRIUM DISEQUILIBRIUM of 3 DOSHAS of 3 DOSHAS
Panch Sense Sensory Properties ActionsMahabhutas Organs Faculty *Creates natural void in the body Produces softness, Space Ears Hearing * No distinct taste lightness and porosity *Light, clear and dry. *Governs inhalation, exhalation, opening and closing of eyelids, Creates dryness, Air Skin Touch extension and contraction of lightness and joints, locomotion and other emaciation. motor functions. *slightly bitter taste *Rough & bright eyes Helps in digestion, *Controls temperature and luster maturation, improves Fire Eyes Visual(Sight) of body colour. eye sight *Pungent taste *Heavy, immobile, compact & *Increases firmness & rough. Earth Nose Smell *Controls organs as teeth, nails, strength of the body flesh, skin, tendons & muscles. emollient andnutrient, *Acts as a purgative *Sweet taste. *Imparts glossiness. *Cold, heavy fluid *Enhances fluid *Slimy, fat and sweat by nature content & purgative Water Tongue Taste *Sweet & astringent, sour & *Acts as nutrient, saline taste. emollient and purgative.
Three Doshas (Tridoshas) Tridoshas are Vata, PItta & Kapha Tridosha concept is applicable in living organisms Tridoshas are biological entities responsible for structure, function and behaviour dimensions of all living organisms Therefore human body mind constitution (Prakriti), diseases, Medicines and Food all has been categorized in Vata type, Pitta type and Kapha type. But nothing is absolute pure; every thing is permutation and combination of Tridoshas
HUMAN BEING (Soul + Intellect + Mind + Body)Food: Human body - Three Dosha: Drugs:V 1. Vatta V V P 2. Pitta P P K 3. Kapha K K Five elements:S 1. Space S S A 2. Air A A F 3. Fire F F W 4. Water W W E 5. Earth E E
The Malas Malas are the various waste products of the dhatus produced during the normal metabolical process. The three primary malas being Purisa (faeces), Mutra (urine) and Sweda (sweat). Purisa is the waste left back after nutrients of digested food have been absorbed in the small intestine. Mutra The first stage of urine formation begins in the large intestine where fluids are absorbed into the system. The entire urinary system (kidneys, uterus, bladder and urethra) takes part in the formation and elimination of urine, regulating the fluid balance in our body and also maintaining blood pressure. Sweda is the third primary mala , and it occurs as a waste product during the synthesis of meda dhatu (fatty tissue). Eliminated through skin pores, it controls body temperature and helps to regulate the electrolytic balance.
Concept of Body (Sarira)There are two type of Sarira Gross body (Sthula Sarira) Sthula sarira:-The gross body is the combination of the five eternal elements known as the panchamahbhuta and it provide matrix for consciousness. It is also seat of all the diseases and pains Subtle body (Suksma Sarira) Suksma sarira :- subtle body is composed of five sense-organs (jnanaindriya) five karmaindriya (motar organs), mahat (intellect), ahamkara (ego), manas (mind) and five tanmatras (subtle elements). Subtle body carries all the impression of previous life through mind. Subtle body is a seat of atma (soul) . It is only Indian concept which elaborates what happens after death & rebirth.
Concept of Sapta Dhatus ( 7 Body Tissues)Body is made up of Seven Tissues and their function is to maintain the body matrix 1. Rasa 5. Asthi (Plasma) (Bones) 2. Rakta 6. Majja (Blood) (Bone marrow) 3. Mansa 7. Shukra (Muscles) (Reproductive tissues) 4. Medas (Fats) Ojas (Responsible for Immunity)
Dhatu Nirmana & Poshan Krama Ksheer-dadhi Nyaya: (Whole conversion) Kedari-kulya Nyaya:(Sequential Conversion) Kalekapot Nyaya: (Whole conversion but time takenfor conversion depends on sequence)
Body-Mind Constitution (Prakriti) It is the group of specific characters emerged by the union the “Shukra” (Spermatozoa) and the “Shonita” (Ovum) of the parents at the time of conception. This formulate the Genetic Architect of body-mind and decides health, likes & dislikes It can tell us the diseases susceptibility of an individual.
Concept of Prakriti (Body Mind Constitution and Temperament) Concept of Prakriti (human constitution) occupies prime position in relation to physiological attributes to health and disease. Prakriti is a composite whole of Mind-Body complex. It is determined by relative predominance of dosha in intra-uterine life of a fetus. Prakritiis unchangeable throughout the life span, but one can take remedial measures in diet and behavior suitable to his/her prakriti to maintain health and prevention of disease.
Prakriti A. Deha Prakriti (7 types)Physical manifestations: Single, Dual and Three Doshaj Types of Saririk Prakriti (7)Vataja, Pittaja, Kaphaja, Vata+Pitta, Vata+Kapha, Pitta+Kapha, and Tridoshaj B. Manas Prakriti (16 types) Psychic Manifestations: Types of Manasik Prakriti Satvik (7), Rajasik (6),Tamasik (3)
Significance of Prakriti in Clinical Medicine For Promotive & Preventive Health Know your prakriti and diseases susceptibility Prakriti will tell the risk factors, course of disease, complications and prognosis Follow your diet, behaviour, profession and life style suitable to your prakriti to lead a healthy life. Curative Health Select the drugs and dose as per prakriti Drug body interaction and reaction pattern depend upon the prakriti of individual & drug Associated complications of a disease, prognosis and their treatment can be improved as per prakriti of disease & individual
Ojas Essence of all body tissues Site of Ojas- Hridya Gets nutrition from food Two types Par Oja- Ardhanjali Apar Oja- Eight Drops Ojakshaya Visransan: Mild deficiency Vyapat: Moderate deficiency Kshaya- Severe deficiency- Loss of Immunity
Twacha (Skin), Kala (Membranes) Six Layers Six Kalas Avbhasini Mansadhara Lohita Raktadhara Shweta Medadhara Tamra Shelshmadhara Vedini Prishadhara Mansdhara Pittadhara
Asthi (Bones) Bones form the structure and whole body rests on this structure Bones are formed from Pitraj Bhava during embryonic development There are 206 bones in the body
Sandhi (Joints) The places where Bones meet are called Sandhis Number of Sandhis in body As per Charaka- 290 As per Sushruta- 210 Types-Two: Chala & Achala Types-Eight: Kora (Hinge Joints), Ulukhal (Ball & Socket), Samudag (Slightly movable), Pratar (Gliding), Tunnasevni (Suture), Vayastunda (Jaw), Shankavarta
Anatomical Division of Body Shadang Shakha (4)- Extremities - two hands, two legs Madhya Sarira- Middle Body Urdhvajatru- Above neck
Concept of Srotas in Body (Macro & Micro Channels of Circulation) Human body is made up of srotas (Macro- & Micro- Channels) Smooth flow of materials inside channels leads to health & fitness Obstruction in srotas initiates the disease process- intracellular to system level E.g.- The function of athero-thrombotic plaques is responsible for Cardiovascular disorders Endothelial dysfunction leads to obstruction and variety of diseases in the body Srotas concept is very significant from clinical point of view for prevention & cure of diseases
Charaka Samhita describes thirteen srotas.Three srotas connect the individual to the external world: Prana vaha srota--the channels carrying prana, the breath. Anna vaha srota--the channels transporting solid and liquid foods Udaka vaha srotas--the channels transporting water (no Western equivalent)Seven srotas represent channels to and from the tissues (dhatus): Rasa vaha srotas--the channels carrying plasma and lymph Rakta vaha srotas--the channels carrying blood cells and specifically hemoglobin Mamsa vaha srotas--the channels carrying muscle nutrients and wastes Meda vaha srotas--the channels supplying the various adipose tissues of the body Asthi vaha srotas--the channels bring nutrients to the bones and transporting wastes. Majja vaha srotas--the channels supplying the bone marrow and nerves including the brain Sukra vaha srota--the channels carrying the sperm and ova and supplying their nutrients
Conti….Three srotas regulate the elimination of metabolic waste products: Purisha vaha srotas--the channels which carry the feces Mutra vaha srotas--the channels which carry the urine Sveda vaha srotas--the channels which carry perspirationTwo srotas are specific for women: Artava vaha srotas--the channels which carry the menstrum Stanya vaha srotas--the channels carrying the breast milk during lactationOne srota is associated with the mind (manas): Mano vaha srota--the channels which carry thoughts, ideas, emotions, and impressions
Obstruction of Srotas in Aetiopathogenesis of Diseases Intestinal Obstruction Common Bile Duct Obstruction Arthroscerosis Coronary Artery Disease Transient Ischemic Attack
Cleaning-Purification of Srotas for Treatment of Diseases Panchkarma procedures like Sweating, Emesis, Purgation, Enema etc. are meant for purification of Srotas – At Macro- & Micro- levels Kaphahara medicines are aimed to reduce the obstruction of srotas Activities like fasting, exercise also clear the Srotas – lead to good health Yogic Shatkriya (Six procedures)- Neti, Dhauti, Nauli Basti, Kapalbhati, Trataka etc.
Concept of Agni – Metabolic Fire Physiological concept of digestion and metabolism is based on the concept of Agni- Metabolic fire Food digestion in stomach & GIT is initiated by major Jathragni. This can be equated with enzymes, hormones and secretions of digestion. Nutrition & tissue metabolism is carried out by seven Dhatwagnies – at various tissues of body Micro-digestion and bio-transformation at cellular, subatomic and elemental levels is carried out by 5 Bhutagnis at gene level Therefore from gross to subtle level, digestion, nutrition & metabolism is carried out by 13 types of metabolic fires-Agnis The status of health and nutrition depends upon
CONCEPT OF AGNI (BIOLOGICAL FIRE) Normal Agni FoodEssence of digested Waste products (Mala) food (Sara) normal excretion- Nutrition to body- Organs- Tissues- Cells- Nutrition of Panchbhoota (5 elements)Balance of Dosha – VPK - Health
CONCEPT OF AMA (Toxic metabolites are produced due to improper digestion) Abnormal Agni (abnormal biological fire) Aahar (Food)Improperly digested Improper waste products food products & accumulation ofwastes- Malnutrition of the body tissue- Formation of Ama (undigested toxic food products)- Toxic metabolites (act as allergens)- Start of Antigen- Antibody Reaction- Stimulates – auto-immune complex formation
Significance of Agni in Aetiopathogenesis / Clinical Medicine Digestive Disorders Dyspepsia Irritable Bowel Syndrome Colitis Allergies of Skin, Respiratory system Autoimmune Disorders Rheumatoid Arthritis Life Style Disorders Metabolic Syndrome Obesity
Six Stages of Pathogenesis - Shatkriyakala S 1. Sanchaya 4. Sthansamshraya(Stage of Accumulation) A (Stage of Deposition at weak site) M 2. Prakopa P 5. Vyaktavastha (Stage of Vitiation) R (Stage of Disease Manifestation Signs & Symptoms) A 3. Prasara (Stage of Spread) P 6. Bhedavastha (Stage of Complications) T I
Marma Vigyana (Vital Points of Body) Trimarma- Vasti, Hridya, Shir Total Numbers of marmas: 107 Types- Based on Structure & Based on Discomfort/ Dysfunction Mansamarma, Siramarma, Snayumarma, Sandhimarma, Asthimarma, Dnamnimarma Sadhyapranahara, Kalantarpranahar, Vaikalyakar, Vishalyagh, Rujakara
Trividh Naadi, Shatchakra- Components of Nervous System Ida, Pingala Sushmuna 14 major Nadis, Overall more than 3.5 Lakh Shatchakra Muladhar Swadhishthan Manipoor Anahat Vishuddh Agyachakra