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Transit Oriented Development : Environmental Imperative, Business Opportunity

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Presentation to world bank meeting of Chinese officials

Presentation to world bank meeting of Chinese officials

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  • transit-supported communities that optimize the use of land around transit stations. For Austin a lot of it will be about creating great communities regardless of transit. Better designed communities and neighborhoods where you can access some of your daily needs without having to drive. Ideally the future will bring us a more frequent and extensive transit service so that there is more potential to reduce auto trips and car ownership.
  • The development patterns of the last half century have not been kind to transit. In fact, they almost destroyed it. We have gone from lofts, shops, and office towers, to subdivisions, malls, and office parks. The post WWII American dream had no transit element. Edge cities and communities were built without consideration of transit, and sometimes tried to retrofit transit, an expensive and often ineffective approach.
  • Each transit mode serves a different form of development, generally on a spectrum from the most intensive transit, heavy rail, found in the highest density cities, while light rail offers a cheaper alternative for smaller cities, and buses can serve a wide range.
  • Each transit mode serves a different form of development, generally on a spectrum from the most intensive transit, heavy rail, found in the highest density cities, while light rail offers a cheaper alternative for smaller cities, and buses can serve a wide range.
  • Mixed-use, mixed-income TOD next to BART station Seniors. market-rate housing, office, retail, public library, health clinic Extensive façade and street improvements structured parking local nonprofit community development corporation
  • The next principle is to get the parking right, and to do that I recommend the Goldilocks principle: "Not too much, not too little, just right." It is important to balance transit for users and land for adjacent development
  •   Balance transit for users and land for adjacent development ·    Move it: Parking nearest the station--lost opportunity ·     Share it: Among patrons at different times of the day or week ·     Deck it: (and charge) ·     Wrap it: Shops, eateries, residences, and services ·     More attractive as an urban place, and creates a built-in clientele for the businesses
  • The next principle is to Make Buses a Great Idea Bus, especially to those who do not ride the bus today and businesses. [show of hands, how many live in community with heavy rail, light rail, bus only]. It is important to overcome the attitude that “Rail passenger linger, bus passengers loiter”. It is important for buses to serve a cross-section of the community. Bus is exclusive carrier in many large metropolitan areas, and even in rail markets provides most of the transit service. Reinventing the bus to appeal to a “choice” transit market has involved reinventing the vehicles, the routes, and the pricing. Boulder’s Hop, Skip, and Jump service and Denver’s 16 th street transit mall are both good examples of this. One of the hottest new trends is a Bus Rapid Transit, a hybrid which combines many of the features of rail – cool vehicles, off board boarding, traffic free travel, in a bus based service.
  • 7 minutes from South Station, Logan Bus Rapid vs. Rail New Convention Center Mixed use, 24/7 district
  • The next principle is to Encourage Every Price Point to Live Around Transit. Increasingly, transit is finding a market among upscale residents, especially those interested in ditching the car and the lawn and moving into the city. They are joining young workers who often choose to live in urban neighborhoods. Tech executives in Richardson Texas report that the new DART light rail line is a recruiting plus for younger tech workers who would prefer to live in more happening Dallas neighborhoods than in the suburbs. With the growing shortage of affordable housing, locations near transit hold special opportunity.
  • July 12, 2010 By MARK HARRINGTON   [email_address] With Hempstead Town's scaled-back plan for the Nassau hub dismissed by Charles Wang's Lighthouse group as "unviable," the focus shifts to a joint Wang-Shinnecock Indian casino project. A plan involving the Shinnecocks would not need Hempstead Town zoning approvals. Several people with knowledge of the discussions said Monday that talks among Wang's group, the Shinnecock Nation... July 12, 2010 Kate Murray unveiled her Mitchel Field Mixed-use District Alternative, known by its acronym, MFM. Instead of the Lighthouse’s “10-13.5 million square feet” for development, MFM’s total was “5.4 million square feet.” Instead of towering hotels, buildings would be limited to nine stories. Murray and Town Councilwoman Dorothy Goosby, a Democrat, hailed MFM as “vibrant,” “reasonable,” even “progressive.” The new plan would be “consistent with the suburban character” of the area. That drew a laugh from Long Island planner emeritus Lee Koppelman, a man who dealt with Robert Moses personally. “ It’s not a rural enclave by any means,” Koppelman says of the Nassau Hub. “It’s probably one of the most urban areas in the entire Nassau-Suffolk area.” Murray’s MFM was D.O.A. Newsday dubbed it “lackluster” and “disappointing.” Wang and his new BFF Ed Mangano issued a joint statement calling it “economically unviable.”
  • The best success story in clustering development around transit in America is probably the Rosslyn-Ballston corridor in Arlington, Virginia – with the exception of any new building in Manhattan, of course. It began during the planning phase of the Washington Metro, actually changing the location of the proposed lines, and developed into a community consensus on growth. One of the tests of the staying power of the vision is that it be embraced into the campaigns of elected officials, which it has been in Arlington.
  • In closing, if you are interested in getting more deeply into this topic, a new ULI book will be coming this fall. Thank you.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Transit Oriented Development : Environmental Imperative, Business Opportunity Robert T. Dunphy Transportation Consultant Instructor, Georgetown University World Bank Program – China Delegates December 15, 2011
    • 2. Outline
      • TOD defined and challenges in US
      • Remaking the image of transit
      • Making the Case
      • Transportation vs development
      • Principles for TOD
      • Successes and Failures
    • 3. Names?
      • transit-oriented development (TOD)
      • transit village
      • Smart growth
      Not TAD TOD
    • 4. What is TOD?
      • Most definitions include:
      • strong transit connection (designed to facilitate use of transit)
      • moderate to high density
      • mixed use
      • pedestrian-oriented
      Development Transit
    • 5. US - Development Transit Disconnect
      • Then
      • Now
    • 6. Population Growth and Commute Share Major US Transit Cities ~ 2000 - 2009
    • 7. Transit share in U.S. High growth Cities
    • 8. What do we mean by transit?
    • 9.  
    • 10. Or?
    • 11. Transit – Non User’s View
    • 12. Urban Transit: Often unattractive
    • 13. Remaking the Image of Transit
        • Ride/Comfort
        • Shelter
        • Connections
        • Speed/Reliability
        • Information
    • 14. The Transit Conundrum
      • “ A STUDY BY THE AMERICAN PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION ASSOCIATION REVEALS THAT 98 PERCENT OF AMERICANS SUPPORT THE USE OF MASS TRANSIT BY OTHERS”. THE ONION
      "Take The Bus... I'll Be Glad You Did."
    • 15. Reinvesting in Transit: Chicago
    • 16. New York
    • 17. Making the Case
      • Transit will work here
      • Transit Oriented Development will work here
    • 18. Why Do It?
      • Doing Good
        • Supports Transit
        • Better development
        • Reduces sprawl
      • Doing Well
        • Profitable, new market
    • 19. Global impacts
      • Energy security, peak oil
      • Land consumption
      • Climate change
    • 20. Development Does Not Happen Just Because of the Transit
      • It Takes:
        • Planning
        • Regulations
        • Incentives (possibly)
    • 21. Transportation Perspective
      • Urban Development - Good
        • Builds transit
        • Options to Driving
        • Improves real estate values
      • Conventional Suburban Development - Bad
        • Excessive driving
        • Transit difficult
        • Hard to walk
    • 22. Development Perspective
      • Urban MXD Hard
        • Takes longer
        • More expensive
        • Unproven Market, Hi Risk
      • Conventional Suburban
        • Easy to do, cheap
        • Where the Growth is
        • Few Opponents
    • 23. The Transit Market The Real Estate Market Principles for Transit Oriented Development
    • 24. Make It Better with a Vision
      • Agreement on growth plans among citizens, developers, officials
      • Helps public and private investments to work together
    • 25. Kendall, Miami
    • 26. Green Infrastructure – Regional vision
    • 27. Partner with Private Sector
      • Combine strengths to achieve better projects:
      • Transit agencies: land, transit
      • Local governments: planning, land assemblage, infrastructure
      • Private developers: land ownership, real estate experience, financing – Keep them happy
    • 28. Mid-Pike Massing Diagram
      • Old Georgetown Road
      • Hoya Street
      • Mon trose Parkway
    • 29. Think Development When Thinking Transit
      • Transit to connect nodes of activity
      • Transit-supportive densities, mix of uses, attractive places
      • Cheap transit routes create poor development options
    • 30. Downtown Plano, Texas
    • 31. Get the Parking Right
    • 32. Get the Parking Right
      •      Move
      •      Share
      •      Deck
      •      Wrap
    • 33. Make Buses a Great Idea
    • 34. Boston Silver Line
    • 35. Curitiba, Brazil
      • Extensive coverage
      • Fast service
      • Affordable
    • 36. Develop Affordable Housing
    • 37. Principles
      • Vision
      • Partnerships
      • Think Development
      • Parking
      • Buses
      • Housing
    • 38.  
    • 39. Transforming the Nassau Hub “America’s First Suburb”
      • Levittown, New York
    • 40.
      • Leading commercial center
        • Major malls
        • Offices
        • 2 colleges
        • residential
        • coliseum
      • Disconnected suburban pattern
      • Redesign - urban, connected
      • redeveloping the coliseum
      Source: RPA, Neighborhood Network Nassau Hub – an early suburban success
    • 41. The promise ''a vision for a new suburbia‘‘
      • Create a central axis for the government, shopping, college and medical complex.
      • High-paying jobs and expanded tax base while preserving neighborhoods
      • revenue-producing growth reduces property taxes
      • ''This is Suozzi Land, (a grandiose plan when we can’t maintain what we have”
        • Peter Schmitt, Nassau County Legislature
    • 42.  
    • 43. Nassau Coliseum Redevelopment
      • 2007 - Team chosen to redevelop land around Nassau Coliseum.
      • The developer's vision - big for Long Island: high rise housing, office, and attractions.
      • Town scaled back height and density to "preserve suburban character”
      • Without a few dense nodes, the Island's continued economic growth will be at risk.
    • 44. Revitalizing a Suburban strip – Arlington, VA
      • Declining corridor
      • Retail losses
      • Lumber yards
      • Pawn Shops
      • Oil Tanks
      Rosslyn, VA
    • 45. Arlington – Concept Plan
      • Relocate Transit
      • Cluster Development
    • 46. Rosslyn Ballston Land Use Plan
    • 47.  
    • 48. Citizen Vision Plan
      • Significant growth inevitable. All land redevelopable
      • Don’t repeat Rosslyn mistakes
        • Density half Rosslyn
        • Balance, emphasize retail
        • Early attention to amenities, architectural quality, pedestrian
        • 5 acres of parks in each bulls eye
    • 49.  
    • 50.
      • The Ridership Payoff
      • Balanced Development = Balanced Flows
      • 39% of residents use transit to commute
      • ~ 2/3 access by “non-motorized transport”
    • 51. Source: Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments
    • 52.  
    • 53. Tour notes
      • Rosslyn
      • Ballston
      • Court House
      • Clarendon
    • 54. TOD without transit Victorian Gardens, CA
    • 55. Making Projects Attractive to Developers
      • Good transit - top of the food chain
      • Be clear about what you are looking for
      • Don’t stifle creativity
      • Don’t be greedy
      • Make transit part of the solution
      • Even if no transit (now), much of the desired qualities possible
    • 56. Fred Dock Robert Cervero Maureen McAvey Doug Porter Bob Dunphy
    • 57. Thanks! Robert T. Dunphy 202-603-9907