Confronting Climate Change


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"Climate change occurs due to the earth’s internal processes such as volcanic eruptions, amount of sunlight (solar radiation) coming into the earth’s atmosphere, and lastly because of human activities such as the creation o Green House Gases (GHGs). "

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  • Sources of greenhouse gases *These gases are to be gradually decreased under the Kyoto Protocol
  • Confronting Climate Change

    1. 1. CONFRONTINGCLIMATE CHANGE Angela Colmenares-Sabino Earth Island Institute Philippines
    2. 2. B a s ic F a c t s o nC lim a t e & W e a t h e r
    3. 3. B a s ic F a c t s o nC lim a t e & W e a t h e rWeather changes according to time of year. These are the changing seasons.Different patterns of weather including rainfall, winds, & temperature found in different parts of the world are called CLIMATES. Climate – the usual weather in a particular region for long periods of time
    4. 4. B a s ic F a c t s o nC lim a t e & W e a t h e rEARTH’s CLIMATES Hot climates are found near the equator where the Sun is closest. Polar regions are the coldest. In between are temperate lands which have warm summers & cool winters.
    5. 5. W h a t is C lim a t eC ha ng e ?  Climate change – is the change of the climate of the world or a specific region after a long period of time Climate change occurs due (from decades to millions of years). to the earth’s internal processes such as volcanic eruptions, amount of sunlight (solar radiation) coming into the earth’s atmosphere, and lastly because of human activities such as the creation o Green House Gases (GHGs).
    6. 6. G r e e n ho u s e E ffe c t& C lim a t e C h a n g e
    7. 7. G r e e n ho u s e E ffe c t& C lim a t e C h a n g e
    8. 8.  Australian researchers have found that the iron-rich faeces of sperm whales boosts the growth of phytoplankton, marine plants which suck in carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. They estimate that the whales are responsible for removing 400,000 tonnes of carbon each year, removing the equivalent of the emissions of 40,000 cars each year.
    9. 9. G r e e n ho u s e E ffe c t& C lim a t e C h a n g e
    10. 10. G lo b a l W a r m in g is a G lo b a l W a r n in g ! Earth’s climate is getting warmer than it was 100 years ago. By burning fossil fuels –coal, oil & natural gas, there is an increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere that is more than nature can absorb. Destruction of forests, pollution in our waters, and the whole ecological imbalance made it even worse!
    11. 11. G lo b a l W a r m in g isa G lo b a l W a r n in g !
    12. 12. Breakdown of the anthropic greenhouse gas emissions by gas, in billion tons carbon equivalent, in 2004. Source : IPCC, 2007
    13. 13. G lo b a l W a r m in g is aG l o b aEffects a r n i nWarming: l W of Global g !
    14. 14. W h e n d id G lo b a l W a r m in g B e g a n ?  Industrial Revolution in the 18th Century (1700s)  World Order in the 1700s: Emergent capitalist countriesAccording theIntergovernmental Panel onClimate Change (IPCC)report in 1998: the currentdegree of global warming ofthe planet since theindustrial revolution hasnot been unprecedented inthe last 10,000 years
    15. 15. Who produces the Most GHG’s?
    16. 16. USSaudiArabia Aus. Can. CO2 Emissions in 2002, UNEPPhils.
    17. 17. Who p ro d uc e s theMos t GHG’ s ?
    18. 18. Who p ro d u c e s theMos t GHG’ s ? Developed, industrialized, capitalist countries such as the United States, Japan, Canada, Australia & other European Countries. Together, they generate 6200% more than underdeveloped countries Capitalist countries produced 80% of all GHGs in the 1800s
    19. 19. Who p ro d uc e s the M o s t According H the Natural Resources Defense Council, G to G ’ s ? the Union of Concerned Scientists and the US Public Interest Research Group Education Fund, in their 1997 report:• 80% of all CO2 emitted in the atmosphere came from the top 122 oil producing countries• Oil production by companies such as Exxon Mobil, Gazprom exceeds the total emissions by countries like Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, Mexico, Argentina, Chile and the whole of Africa.
    20. 20. Who p ro d uc e s theMos t GHG’ s ?
    21. 21. Who p ro d u c e s theMos t GHG’ s ?
    22. 22. The US, top global warming villain • The US has 5% (300 million) of the world’s population but has the largest CO2 emissions in the world at 25% • These emissions are equal to the emissions of 135 poor countries with a total population of 3 billion • US & US Transnational Corporations are the biggest producers and users of oil in the whole world. 79% of the C02 emissions in the US is used to burn oil for energy and electricity.
    23. 23. The US, top global warming villain *In 2004, 10 of the biggest oil giants in the US controlled 55% of oil production in the US while the 50 biggest companies controlled 77% of all production
    24. 24. The US, top global warming villain*In particular, the Exxon Mobil Corporation is responsible for the biggest GHG emissions in the entire world for a single entity*If Exxon Mobil was a country it would rank 6th in terms of GHG emissions in 2005
    25. 25. The US, top global warming villain
    26. 26. It’s a whole system in crisis!“The Americaneconomy’s ultimatepurpose is toproduce moreconsumer goods.”•materials economy = extraction to production to distribution toconsumption to disposal.•linear system on a finite planet -we can not run a linear system on a finiteplanet indefinitely•“some people in this system matter a little more than others; some have alittle more say.”•Government and Corporation
    27. 27. Characteristics of capitalist production Production for profit Anarchic Wasteful and pollutive Monopoly on production, resources, capital Division of the world –market, raw materials and war
    28. 28. The Cost: Who’s paying for their greed? 2 billion people affected with 600,000 fatalities globally (1990-1999) More than 2/3 of deaths occurred in Asia 127 major disasters, 23% of all disasters worldwide, occurred in WPR in the past 10 years Philippines is considered the most disaster-prone with its active volcanoes and an average of 20 typhoons a year. Loss of loved ones, homes, livelihoodSource: WHO in the Philippines, 2005
    29. 29. Climate Change and the Philippine Situation *Philippine contribution in 1999 was 0.3%; say 0.6% in 2005 Average Disaster Per Year (1980-2010) Drought: 0.23 Earthquake*: 0.39 Epidemic: 0.32 Extreme temp: ... Flood: 3.03 Insect infestation: 0.03 Mass mov. dry: 0.10 Mass mov. wet: 0.77 Volcano: 0.45 Storm: 6.35Source: Wildfire: 0.03cid=135
    30. 30. Climate Change and the Philippine Situation Human Exposure - Modeled number of people present in hazard zones that are thereby subject to potential losses. Hazard type Population Exposed Country ranking Cyclone 16,267,090 2nd out of 89 Drought 2,173,490 33rd out of 184 Flood 788,572 8th out of 162 Landslide 110,704 4th out of 162 Earthquake 12,182,454 2nd out of 153 Tsunami 894,848 5th out of 76 According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): The Philippines ranks 4th in the Global Climate Risk Index!Source:
    31. 31. V. Response To Climate Change Mitigation Measures - IPCC: “An anthropogenic intervention to reduce the sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases.” Ex. Kyoto Protocol, COP15, CDM, Cap and Trade Adaptation Measures – IPCC: defines adaptation as the, “adjustment in natural or human systems to a new or changing environment.” Ex. Community Development, Urban Planning, Disaster Preparedness, Disaster Response, Relief and Rehabilitation, Creating more Health System Responses
    32. 32. W h a t is K y o t o P r o t o c o l? The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement to address climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions caused primarily by burning oil, gas and coal. On December 2006, 169 countries signed the Kyoto Protocol and agreed to cut down on their greenhouse emissions by 5.2% Cut down on key GHGs relative to 1990 levels. Cuts have to be accomplished between by 2008-2012. Cuts in greenhouse gas emissions of approximately 30-60% must be expected before 2030.
    33. 33. F a ilu r e o f K y o t oP ro to c o l
    34. 34. W h a t s h o u ld w e d o ? all recycle & lessen carbon footprint. But it Yes, we should is not enough. It doesn’t get to the core of the problem “But the good thing about such an all pervasive problem is that there are so many points of intervention.” “There are people working here on saving forests and here on clean production. People working on labor rights and fair trade and conscious consuming and blocking landfills and incinerators and, very importantly, on taking back our government so it is really is by the people for the people.” “All this work is critically important but things are really gonna start moving when we see the connections, when we see the big picture. When people along this system get united, we can reclaim and transform this linear system into something new, a system that doesn’t waste resources or people.” -Annie Leonard, Story of Stuff
    35. 35. What should we do?