Sec 3 Social Studies Chapter 3 (Singapore)
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Sec 3 Social Studies Chapter 3 (Singapore) Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Healthcare in Singapore
  • 2. Healthcare in Singapore
  • 3.
    • Topics
    • Challenges of managing healthcare
    • Who pays for the healthcare services?
    • Singapore healthcare
    • Have Singapore’s healthcare policies met the needs of the people?
    Healthcare in Singapore
  • 4.
    • What are some complaints that you have about healthcare in Singapore?
      • Visiting a doctor?
      • Getting MCs?
      • Paying for the bills?
    Healthcare in Singapore
  • 5.  
  • 6.
    • Providing basic healthcare
    • Providing quality healthcare
    • Providing affordable healthcare
    What are the challenges of managing healthcare in Singapore?
  • 7.
    • Providing basic healthcare
      • E.g. ensuring that there are medical officers and facilities who are accessible to the citizens of Singapore
    • Providing quality healthcare
      • People in more developed countries expect more and better healthcare services [this affects the popularity of the government]
    What are the challenges of managing healthcare in Singapore?
  • 8. `
    • Providing affordable healthcare [due to increasing expenditure on healthcare]
      • Over the years, funds have been invested in research for better treatments, more effective medicines and training for better-qualified medical staff. As a result, the costs of healthcare increases.
    What are the challenges of managing healthcare in Singapore?
  • 9.
    • Individual
      • Out of your own pocket:
        • people pay for healthcare services when they receive treatment. [e.g. patients pay the doctor directly after visiting the doctor]
      • Personal insurance:
        • People buy medical insurance and make claims from the insurance company to pay for certain medical treatment such as surgery.
    Who pays for these healthcare services?
  • 10.
    • Employer
      • Employer-paid insurance: Employers pay a certain sum of money for insurance for their workers. Employers can claim medical fees from the insurance company when medical services are used by their workers.
      • Government taxes: Government collects taxes from the people, and uses a certain percentage of the taxes to pay for medical services used.
    Who pays for these healthcare services?
  • 11.
    • 1960s :
      • Healthcare: part of Singapore’s plans for improvement and development after independence
      • Ensure basic healthcare in Singapore
        • E.g. clinics and outpatient dispensaries were built to provide healthcare for a growing population [Outpatient dispensaries: government clinics where patients went for simple medical treatment that did not require hospitalization]
        • E.g. Everyone were asked to go for vaccination against diseases (as diseases such as tuberculosis were common)
        • E.g. Medical officers and nurses were sent to schools to provide healthcare for students
    History of healthcare in Singapore: 1960s
  • 12.
    • 1970s:
      • Background: Singapore’s economy has improved and the standard of living was higher. People wanted better healthcare services.
      • Provision of better quality of healthcare
        • E.g. Polyclinics replaced outpatient dispensaries, and provided a wider range of healthcare services such as medical check-ups for babies.
        • E.g. better quality of healthcare and facilities in government hospitals.
    History of healthcare in Singapore: 1970s
  • 13.
    • How is the government managing healthcare today?
    What is the approach to healthcare in Singapore today?
  • 14. Government’s approach to Healthcare in Singapore today. What is the approach to healthcare in Singapore today?
  • 15.
    • Medisave
    • A certain amount of money from people’s Central Provident Fund (CPF) is put into their Medisave account
    • This money can be used to pay hospital bills and certain medical treatment when needed.
    How is the Individual responsible for his own healthcare?
  • 16.
    • Why Medisave?
      • Medisave encourages Singaporeans to be responsible for their own health
      • Government does not have to increase taxes, or take on the burden of healthcare in Singapore.
      • Healthcare as a shared responsibility.
    How is the Individual responsible for his own healthcare?
  • 17.
    • So.. Is Medisave good?
    • Singaporeans have accepted Medisave as a way to pay part of their medical bills.
    • Singaporeans are able to pay for healthcare
    • Less burden for the government.
    How is the Individual responsible for his own healthcare?
  • 18.
    • So.. Is Medisave ALL good?
    Source A: A view by a heart specialist, Dr Charles Toh, on the medisave scheme in 1983. With Medisave, people would have to take care of themselves. Sometimes, the financial burden would be transferred to their children when a person cannot pay his hospital bill. Worse of all, what about the people who cannot pay their hospital bills?
  • 19.
    • Source B: A comment by the retired and former Health Minister, Dr Toh Chin Chye, on the Medisave Scheme in 1983.
    • Healthcare is the responsibility of the government. It is the duty of the government to find ways of using taxpayers’ money to meet different objectives. Moreover, smaller companies would find it hard to bear additional costs arising from Medisave.
  • 20. Source A: A view by a heart specialist, Dr Charles Toh, on the medisave scheme in 1983. Source B: A comment by the retired and former Health Minister, Dr Toh Chin Chye, on the Medisave Scheme in 1983. With Medisave, people would have to take care of themselves. Sometimes, the financial burden would be transferred to their children when a person cannot pay his hospital bill. Worse of all, what about the people who cannot pay their hospital bills? Healthcare is the responsibility of the government. It is the duty of the government to find ways of using taxpayers’ money to meet different objectives. Moreover, smaller companies would find it hard to bear additional costs arising from Medisave.
  • 21.
    • Bad point:
    • not all Singaporeans make CPF contributions and therefore, do not have Medisave. These group of people would be affected by healthcare costs. E.g. Tuition teachers, self-employed Singaporeans.
    How is the Individual responsible for his own healthcare?
  • 22.
    • MediShield
    • National healthcare insurance scheme
    • Medisave is used to pay for this scheme
    • Patients can make claims from MediShield to pay for large hospital bills that Medisave does not cover.
    How is the Individual responsible for his own healthcare? MediSave STILL not enough.. Lucky got MediShield…
  • 23.
    • (MediShield)
    • Changes are made to MediShield to help cater to the specific needs of people
    • E.g. people above 40 years old would be able to pay for healthcare in case of disability if they pay premiums for MediShield.
      • Premiums: the money that you pay regularly for insurance
    How is the Individual responsible for his own healthcare?
  • 24.
    • Why MediShield?
    • To help people who require long-term treatment of more serious illnesses but are unable to pay for their hospitalization
    How is the Individual responsible for his own healthcare?
  • 25.
    • Is MediShield good?
    • Healthcare is made more affordable
    • Needs of specific groups of Singaporeans are catered to
    How is the Individual responsible for his own healthcare?
  • 26.
    • Summary
    • Medi-S 2
      • Medisave
      • MediShield
    How is the Individual responsible for his own healthcare? MS 2
  • 27.
    • Government subsidies
    • direct subsidies are given to government hospitals, polyclinics and some nursing homes for the elderly
    • Why such subsidies?
    • To ensure that basic healthcare services are available for all Singaporeans
    How is the Government responsible for healthcare?
  • 28.
    • government gives different rates of subsidies to the different classes of wards in hospitals
    • E.g. Class C wards receive the most in subsidies (80%)
    • Why such subsidies?
      • To ensure that healthcare remains affordable especially for the lower-income group
    How is the Government responsible for healthcare?
  • 29.
    • Is government subsidies good?
    • Ensures that basic healthcare is affordable for Singaporeans
    How is the Government responsible for healthcare? HURRAY FOR Government subsidies!
  • 30.
    • Medifund
    • $200 million and the interest earned from this fund, is given to public hospitals to provide help for needy patients
    • patients who need help can apply for this fund at the hospital
    How is the Government responsible for healthcare?
  • 31.
    • Why Medifund?
    • For Singaporeans who are unable to afford healthcare despite Medisave, Medishield and government subsidies.
    • E.g. low-income workers, or self-employed people.
    How is the Government responsible for healthcare?
  • 32.
    • So… Is Medifund good?
    • Ensures that basic healthcare is affordable for Singaporeans
    How is the Government responsible for healthcare? HURRAY FOR Medifund!!!
  • 33.
    • Restructuring of hospitals
    • Hospitals would have more freedom to reorganize to meet the needs of Singaporeans
    How is the Government responsible for healthcare?
  • 34.
    • Why restructure?
    • Needs of Singaporeans will be more catered to.
    • Government would be able to reduce the amount of subsidies to hospitals.
    How is the Government responsible for healthcare?
  • 35.
    • So… Is restructuring good?
    • People were concerned that restructuring would mean higher hospital bills. Feedback was given to the government.
    How is the Government responsible for healthcare?
  • 36. How is the Government responsible for healthcare?
  • 37.
    • Why means-testing?
    • Ensure fair distribution of government subsidies [no ‘freeloaders’ or abuse of the healthcare system]
    How is the Government responsible for healthcare?
  • 38.
    • Why means-testing?
    • E.g. For patients staying in Class C wards in hospitals, they receive more govt subsidies as compared to patients in Class A wards.
    • Rich families may choose to stay in a Class C ward just to save on cost even though they can afford a Class A or B ward.
    • Govt subsidies
      • given to a family who does not need the help.
      • Other poor families who need the money, does not get the money!
    How is the Government responsible for healthcare?
  • 39.
    • So… Is Means-testing good?
    • currently being debated about in the Parliament, to consider how such a policy would affect Singaporeans.
    How is the Government responsible for healthcare?
  • 40.
    • Summary
      • Government subsidies
      • Restructuring
      • Medifund
      • Means-testing
      • M&Ms R.Really Good!
    How is the Government responsible for healthcare?
  • 41.
    • Why?
    • One way to cope with rising costs of healthcare for BOTH the government and individuals. a healthy person will not require medical treatment and therefore, he can save on medical expenses.
    How is the Government responsible for healthcare?
  • 42.
    • How?
      • Schools and workplaces have programmes to emphasise on the need to maintain good health
      • E.g. regular physical exercises and a well-balanced diet are encouraged.
    How is the Government responsible for healthcare?
  • 43. How is the Government responsible for healthcare?
  • 44.
    • Government provides monetary aid to organisations that provide healthcare support services
    How is the Community responsible for healthcare?
  • 45.
    • Why?
      • The community can provide some healthcare support services for Singaporeans. [Some patients who are discharged from hospitals may still need medical care.]
      • It is not possible for the government to run all healthcare services
    How is the Community responsible for healthcare?
  • 46.
    • Examples:
      • Voluntary welfare organisations and private organisations are given money by the government to run community hospitals, nursing homes and day rehabilitation centres for patients. [E.g. St. Andrews’ Community Hospital]
      • Support is given by the government to oragnisations that provide specific healthcare support services.
    How is the Community responsible for healthcare?
  • 47.  
  • 48.
    • Is healthcare in Singapore affordable?
      • YES
        • Medisave helped patients who have little savings afford healthcare
        • Medishield and Medisave helped patients pay for part of hospital’s bill
  • 49.
    • Is healthcare in Singapore affordable?
      • NO
        • Elderly who used to work but had no schemes to help them make compulsory savings – dependent on family members, community and government
        • People who are unable to work – dependent on government for their healthcare needs
  • 50.
    • Are healthcare policies in Singapore successful?
      • Yes
        • High quality of healthcare services
        • Increased life expectancy
        • Low infant mortality
        • Used only less than 3% of GDP
        • People are more aware of the need to be responsible for their own healthcare – Medishield/ Medisave
        • Medifund for the needy
        • Community help/ services for the needy
  • 51.
    • Are healthcare policies in Singapore successful?
      • No
        • Old people without medisave/ insurance not able to afford healthcare services
        • Healthcare costs is continuing to rise
        • Still very much dependent on government subsidies
  • 52.