• Like
Sec 2 History Chapter 9
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Sec 2 History Chapter 9

  • 19,781 views
Published

 

Published in Education
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • welcome =)
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • Interesting and Wonderful Slides! Thank you so much, really helped me a lot in my homework and now I can better understand this topic. :) Thank you! (:
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • YOU ARE AWESOME ! THANKS SO MUCH :D
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • THIS IS EXCELLENT MAN
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
19,781
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
7

Actions

Shares
Downloads
863
Comments
4
Likes
9

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2.
    • 1945 – Singapore was still a British colony
    • 1948 – Our baby step
    • 1955 – Child
    • 1959 – Teenage years
    • Now, we want
    • independence!
    How did Singapore achieve Independence?
  • 3.
    • Merge with the Federation of Malaya
      • Federation of Malaya: the 11 states in the Malay Peninsular (Malaya)
    • Was the merger successful?
      • Nope!
      • (We had a break-up in 1965)
    How did Singapore achieve Independence?
  • 4. Essential question for the chapter:
    • Was the merger destined to fail?
    How did Singapore achieve Independence?
  • 5.
    • Reasons for Merger
      • Singapore
      • Malaya
    • Process of merger
      • Referendum
      • Konfrontasi
    • Challenges during 1963-1965
    • Reasons for separation
      • Singapore
      • Malaya
    How did Singapore achieve Independence?
  • 6.
    • Political reasons
    • Economic reasons
    How did Singapore achieve Independence? Let’s merge! Here are my reasons… Hm…
  • 7.
    • A jingle that was aired in Singapore at the time of the creation of Malaysia :
    • Unite through merger
    • And we will stand
    • Happy and free in one strong band
    • Equal through merger, citizens all
    • Malaysia brings wealth for one and all
    • Equality, special rights and freedom are yours
    • With merger and Malaysia.
    How did Singapore achieve Independence?
  • 8.
    • To gain independence (freedom from British!)
      • Singapore government saw that Singapore’s best hope for complete freedom was through a merger with Malaya.
    How did Singapore achieve Independence? With you, I can be freeeeeeeeeee
  • 9.
    • To be free from communist threats
      • PAP believed that if Singapore were to join Malaya, Malaya can suppress the communist threats in Singapore. This is because Malaya was a strong anti-communist country.
    How did Singapore achieve Independence? With you, I can be protected!
  • 10.
    • To fulfill their promise that was made during the 1959 elections
      • PAP promised the Singaporeans that PAP will achieve independence. Now that they are the government, they need to fulfill the promise made. Or else, the locals will lose their trust in PAP.
    How did Singapore achieve Independence? I need to keep the support of my people…
  • 11.
    • Unite through merger
    • And we will stand
    • Happy and free in one strong band
    • Equal through merger, citizens all
    • Malaysia brings wealth for one and all
    • Equality, special rights and freedom are yours
    • With merger and Malaysia.
    How did Singapore achieve Independence?
  • 12.
    • Situation that Singapore was in…
      • Singapore lacked natural resources
      • Slow economic growth: declining entrepot trade
      • Increasing unemployment: there was a growing population that required jobs.
      • Declining trade due to tariffs introduced by Malaya on goods traded between the two countries.
    How did Singapore achieve Independence?
  • 13.
    • AND SO… Merger as a solution to all the problems!
    • Raw materials
      • Malaya had many natural resources.
      • Singapore could tap on these resources if both countries merges.
    How did Singapore achieve Independence? We need raw materials…
  • 14.
    • Merger can increase trade and industries, job opportunities and economic growth for Singapore!
      • Common Market: an agreement between countries allowing goods produced in one country to enter another country without having to pay taxes.
      • Goods can be bought and sold freely in the Common Market. This will lead to an increase of trade, expansion of industries and in turn, can create more jobs for Singaporeans.
    How did Singapore achieve Independence?
  • 15.
    • Political reasons
    How did Singapore achieve Independence? Having heard all my reasons, whadyathink? Hm… Well… I’m not convinced…
  • 16.
    • Initially, before 1961, Malaya DID NOT WANT Singapore.
    • Why not?
    How did Singapore achieve Independence?
  • 17.
      • “ First, Singapore has about one million Chinese… The inclusion of this one million into the Federation will upset the racial balance of power in the Federation . Second, Singapore has too many pro-Communists who are supported by the Chinese in Singapore.”
      • - Tunku Abdul Rahman (Malaya’s Prime Minister)
    How did Singapore achieve Independence?
  • 18.
    • Initially, before 1961, Malaya DID NOT WANT Singapore.
    • Why not?
      • Tunku was scared that Malaya will have more Chinese than Malays.
      • Tunku was scared that Malaya would be influenced by the communists in Singapore.
    How did Singapore achieve Independence?
  • 19.
    • After 1961, Tunku changed his mind!
    How did Singapore achieve Independence? So how? How? How? How? I’m still waiting for you… Well… OK! =D
  • 20.
    • Wah.. How come he changed his mind?
      • Troublesome Situation in Singapore:
        • Pro-communist PAP leader, Ong Eng Guan left PAP and challenged them in a by-election (p.g.180).
        • He won the Hong Lim by-election and defeated the PAP candidate.
        • This made Tunku scared that the radicals would take over PAP and make Singapore a communist country. Communists could use Singapore as a base to spread Communism to Malaya.
        • Tunku did not want this to happen.
  • 21. How did Singapore achieve Independence?
    • For Security
      • Tunku wanted to avoid the situation whereby Singapore becomes communist and give trouble to Malaya. Communists would most probably use Singapore as base to spread communism to Malaya
  • 22. How did Singapore achieve Independence? To a certain extent, their interests match! (Security against the communists) And so, Malaya and Singapore began to work on the terms of the merger… Reasons Singapore Malaya Political
    • To gain Independence
    • For Security (suppress communist threats)
    • To keep the Promise made in the 1959 elections
    - For Security (Don’t want Singapore to become communists) Economic
    • For Raw materials
    • For Economic growth (trade, jobs, Common Market)
    Nil
  • 23.
    • For Singapore, they want to MERGE :
    • M anage the communist threats
    • E nsure the continued support from people
    • R aw materials please
    • G et my independence!
    • E conomic growth (money!)
    How did Singapore achieve Independence?
  • 24. How did Singapore achieve Independence? Er.. Actually, me also.. heehee But.. You know, I have some conditions to the merger…
  • 25.
    • Different political and economic demands by both Singapore and Malaya
    • Konfrontasi: Protests by Indonesia and Philippines
    • Referendum: Winning the support of Singaporeans
    WE OPPOSE!!! Both of you cannot be together!
  • 26. Demands by both Singapore and Malaya
    • Different political and economic demands by both Singapore and Malaya (pg. 184)
    How did Singapore achieve Independence?
  • 27. How did Singapore achieve Independence? Demands Singapore Malaya Agreement Political - Want independence (but the structure to be decided by the people) - Wanted Sabah, Sarawak and Brunei to be included in the merger Economic
    • Common Market
    • Providing a loan of $150 million for the development of Sabah and Sarawak
    • To collect its own revenue and then send an agreed sum of money to Kuala Lumpur as taxes each year
    • Common Market AFTER merger
    • $50 million grant from Singapore for the development of Sabah and Sarawak
    • To collect revenue in Singapore and then give Singapore what it needs to run the state
    • Common Market to be established in stages
    • Providing a loan of $150 million for the development of Sabah and Sarawak
    • To collect its own revenue and then send an agreed sum of money to Kuala Lumpur as taxes each year
  • 28. Referendum How did Singapore achieve Independence?
    • Radicals in PAP hated merger (because they supported communism)
    • PAP split! The Radicals left PAP and formed Barisan Socialis , where they organized campaigns to oppose the merger.
    • PAP had to try to convince Singapore that Malaya was necessary for Singapore’s stability and survival
  • 29. Referendum
    • Held on 1 st Sept 1962
    • Referendum:
      • a direct vote by people of the country to decide on a particular issue, instead of the government making the decision.
    • Results
      • 71% of the people supported what PAP wanted.
    How did Singapore achieve Independence?
  • 30.  
  • 31. Pg. 183 of your textbook
  • 32. Konfrontasi
    • Cobbold Commission
      • Made up of 3 British men and 2 Malays from Sabah and Sarawak, and was led by Lord Cobbold
      • Aim: to find out whether the people of both colonies of Sabah and Sarawak wanted to join Malaysia.
      • Results: more than 2/3 of the people wanted merger.
    How did Singapore achieve Independence?
  • 33. Konfrontasi
    • BUT… Indonesia and Philippines opposed the merger.
    • Konfrontasi: A campaign by Indonesia and Philippines to oppose the merger
      • Indonesia: felt that Sabah and Sarawak should join Indonesia and NOT Malaya
      • Philippines: claimed that Sabah belonged the Philippines
    How did Singapore achieve Independence? You belong to meeeee
  • 34. Konfrontasi
    • United Nations Commission
      • United Nations (p.g. 185): an international organization which tries to get all countries to work together in maintaining peace and dealing with international problems.
      • Sent to Sabah and Sarwak to find out whether people wanted merger or not.
      • Results: People WANTED merger.
    How did Singapore achieve Independence?
  • 35.  
  • 36.
    • Singapore, Sabah and Sarawak joined the Federation of Malaya to form Malaysia on the 16 th September 1963
    How did Singapore achieve Independence?
  • 37.
    • Singapore and Malaysia ‘broke up’ in 1965.
    • WHY?!
    How did Singapore achieve Independence?
  • 38. Problems faced during the merger
    • Background:
    • Singapore politics: Multiracial in outlook
    • Malaysia politics: Communal politics
    • UMNO
    • MCA
    • MIC
    • Formation of Alliance Party
    • Formation of Singapore Alliance
    How did Singapore achieve Independence?
  • 39.
    • 1. 1963 Singapore Elections
    • Who is involved?
      • Singapore Alliance: A political party
      • Aim of Singapore Alliance:
        • To win seats in the Singapore Legislative Assembly.
    How did Singapore achieve Independence? Problems faced during the merger
  • 40. 1963 Singapore Elections
    • When did it happen?
      • September 1963
    • What happened?
      • Singapore Alliance decided to challenge PAP in the Singapore elections of 1963.
    • Results of elections:
      • Singapore Alliance did not win any seat in the election, not even in areas where there were more Malays.
    How did Singapore achieve Independence?
  • 41.
    • Consequences
      • UMNO became unhappy because it meant that they were not popular in Singapore.
      • Alliance Party vowed to re-organize Singapore Alliance to defeat PAP in next election
      • Such comments affected the relationship between UMNO and PAP in a negative manner.
    How did Singapore achieve Independence? 1963 Singapore Elections
  • 42.
    • 1964 Federal Elections
    • Who is involved?
      • Alliance Party
      • PAP (wanted to establish itself as a Malaysian political party)
    • When did it happen?
      • April 1964
    How did Singapore achieve Independence? Problems faced during the merger
  • 43. 1964 Federal Elections
    • What happened?
      • PAP participated in the 1964 Federal elections of Malaysia.
      • Their political campaigns attracted large crowds.
    • Results of elections:
      • PAP won only 1 seat.
      • The Alliance party won 89 out of 104 seats.
    How did Singapore achieve Independence?
  • 44.
    • What were the consequences?
      • Even though they WON, Alliance Party was very upset with PAP even though PAP did not win. They felt politically threatened.
      • Alliance Party started an anti-PAP campaign using media (newspapers)
        • Spread rumors to Malays to spoil PAP’s reputation.
        • Created more tensions and problems between PAP and Alliance Party
    How did Singapore achieve Independence? 1964 Federal Elections
  • 45.
        • E.g. Resettlement project in Singapore. [Utesan Melayu, a Malay newspaper claimed that 3000 Malay residents were affected by the project but in reality, only 200 Malay families were affected. Newspaper claimed that PAP discriminates Malays in Singapore. Alliance Party wants Malays in Singapore to support them instead of PAP.]
    How did Singapore achieve Independence? 1964 Federal Elections
  • 46.
    • 1964 Racial Riots
    • Who was involved:
      • UMNO, PAP, Singaporean Chinese and Malays
    • When did it happen :
      • July and Sept 1964
    How did Singapore achieve Independence? Problems faced during the merger
  • 47. 1964 Racial Riots
    • What happened?
      • During the celebration of Prophet Muhammad’s birthday in July 1964, there was a clash between Chinese policemen and Malay participants.
      • It turned into full-blown race riots.
    How did Singapore achieve Independence?
  • 48. How did Singapore achieve Independence?
  • 49.
    • Why did it happen?
      • Alliance Party’s anti-PAP campaign created tensions and anger between the Chinese and Malays in Singapore.
        • These tensions turned into violence during the celebration.
    How did Singapore achieve Independence? 1964 Racial Riots
  • 50.
    • What were the consequences?
      • 36 killed, 556 injured
      • Roughly 3000 arrested
      • Damage of properties
      • Fear and suspicion between the Chinese and the Malays
    How did Singapore achieve Independence? 1964 Racial Riots
  • 51.
    • Malaysian Solidarity Convention
    • What is it?
      • A political party formed by PAP and other Malaysian political parties who opposed the Alliance Party
    How did Singapore achieve Independence? Problems faced during the merger
  • 52. Malaysian Solidarity Convention
    • Why was it formed?
      • Main aim: to campaign for a ‘Malaysian Malaysia’ where everyone would be treated equally regardless of their race or religion.
      • A response to what the Alliance Party did.
        • After the riots, Alliance Party and PAP had an agreement not to challenge each other politically.
        • Alliance Party went back on their word, and said they wanted to participate again in Singapore’s elections in 1967.
    How did Singapore achieve Independence?
  • 53.
    • What were the consequences:
      • Seen as a challenge to Alliance Party
      • Seen as a threat to the special privileges enjoyed by Malays
    • Caused a further strain in relations between PAP and UMNO
    How did Singapore achieve Independence? Malaysian Solidarity Convention
  • 54.
    • Political reasons
    • Economic reasons
    How did Singapore achieve Independence?
  • 55. Reasons for separation
    • Political reasons:
    How did Singapore achieve Independence?
    • 1. Differences in political ideology: Communalism vs Multiracialism
            • - Malaya expected Singapore to follow their political system
            • - Malaya: Communal politics (where political parties were formed along racial groups)
            • - Singapore: multiracialism (where political parties include different races)
  • 56. How did Singapore achieve Independence? Reasons for separation Political reasons:
    • 2. Different treatment of races
      • - Malaya: Malays were given special privileges and rights to help them improve on their standard of living
    • - Singapore: meritocracy for all - everyone is equal and is treated equally regardless of race or religion
  • 57. How did Singapore achieve Independence? Reasons for separation Political reasons:
    • 3. Political rivalry between Alliance Party and PAP
      • - This can be seen from the 1963 Singapore Elections, 1964 Federal Elections and the Malaysian Solidarity Convention
  • 58.
    • Economic
    Reasons for separation
    • Not enough economic benefits
      • - The Central Government delayed the setting up of the Common Market
    • Introduction of new taxes by the Central Government
    • Increase of Singapore’s contribution of its revenue to Central Government (from 40% to 60%)
      • - Singapore felt that these were was an unfair decision
    • Singapore was seen as an economic rival (for Malaya)
  • 59.
    • LINK: These political and economic differences led to disagreements and increased tensions between the Alliance Party and PAP.
    How did Singapore achieve Independence?
  • 60.
    • In the end, Tunku Abdul Rahman realized that the many disagreements could not be settled. He felt that it was best for Singapore to leave Malaysia. PAP finally agreed to the decision.
    How did Singapore achieve Independence?
  • 61. And so…
    • This love story between Malaysia and Singapore comes to an end…
  • 62. MERDEKA!!!
    • Singapore’s independence!
    • 9 th August 1965
    • Independent nation
      • Nation: consists of an organized population and government
    • a Republic:
      • a republic is a nation governed by representatives elected by the people, and where the Head of State is not a king or queen, but a President.
    How did Singapore achieve Independence?
  • 63. How did Singapore achieve Independence?
  • 64.
    • Joined the United Nations on 16 th September 1965
    • Formed ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) on 8 th August 1967 to help to keep the peace among neighboring countries
      • Founding members: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand.
    How did Singapore achieve Independence?
  • 65.
    • How did this happen?
    How did Singapore achieve Independence?