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Krss prelim 2010 4_e5n_geo elect_ans scheme
 

Krss prelim 2010 4_e5n_geo elect_ans scheme

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    Krss prelim 2010 4_e5n_geo elect_ans scheme Krss prelim 2010 4_e5n_geo elect_ans scheme Document Transcript

    • KENT RIDGE SECONDARY SCHOOL PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION 2010 COMBINED HUMANITIES (GEOGRAPHY) 2192/02 PAPER 2 Answer Scheme SEC 4 EXPRESS/5 NORMAL (ACADEMIC) Monday 30 August 2010 1 hour 30 minutes KENT RIDGE SECONDARY SCHOOL KENT RIDGE SECONDARY SCHOOL KENT RIDGE SECONDARY SCHOOL KENT RIDGE SECONDARY SCHOOL KENT RIDGE SECONDARY SCHOOL KENT RIDG KENT RIDGE SECONDARY SCHOOL KENT RIDGE SECONDARY SCHOOL KENT RIDGE SECONDARY SCHOOL KENT RIDGE SECONDARY SCHOOL KENT RIDGE SECONDARY SCHOOL KENT RIDG KENT RIDGE SECONDARY SCHOOL KENT RIDGE SECONDARY SCHOOL KENT RIDGE SECONDARY SCHOOL KENT RIDGE SECONDARY SCHOOL KENT RIDGE SECONDARY SCHOOL KENT RIDG KENT RIDGE SECONDARY SCHOOL KENT RIDGE SECONDARY SCHOOL KENT RIDGE SECONDARY SCHOOL KENT RIDGE SECONDARY SCHOOL KENT RIDGE SECONDARY SCHOOL KENT RIDG Name: ___________________________( ) Class: Sec __________ READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST Write your name, class and index number clearly in the spaces at the top of this page provided. Do not open this question paper until you are told to do so. Answer ONE question in Section A and ONE question in Section B. Write your answers in the space provided on the question paper At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together. The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part of question. The total mark for this paper is 50. _________________________________________________________________________________ This Answer Scheme consists of printed pages, including this page. Setter: Mrs Melanie Tee [Turn over Section A
    • Answer one question from this section. 1a Fig. 1 shows information on the climate in two countries. Country A Country B Latitudinal location 22° N of Equator 64° N of Equator Precipitation Heavy rainfall during the months of Low precipitation of an average of June to September and average 65mm to 110mm per annum. precipitation of 2100 mm per annum. Temperature Temperature range of 7°C and average Wide temperature range of 23°C with temperature of 27°C per annum. highest average temperature of 14°C per annum. Fig. 1 (i) Identify the climate type and the natural vegetation that can exist in Country A and Country B respectively. [4] Country A Climate - Tropical Monsoon Climate Vegetation type – Tropical Monsoon forest Country B Climate – Cool temperate continental climate Vegetation type – Coniferous forest [Award one mark for each factor] (ii) Compare the structure and the density of the natural vegetation found in Countries A and B. [4] Structure - Tropical Monsoon forest has three vertical layers while the coniferous has no distinct layers. [1] - The average height of the tropical monsoon forest is shorter of about 15 metres as compared to coniferous forest with a uniform height of 20 metres to 30 metres. [Award 1 mark for indication of specific height] Density - It is denser in a tropical monsoon forest as compared to a coniferous forest. [1] (iii) Explain how the natural vegetation in Country B adapts to its physical environment. [5] Leaves - Needle-like leaves with small surface area that helps to reduce water loss to transpiration. - Evergreen leaves that do not shed their leaves during autumn so that photosynthesis can take place even in low temperatures. Flowers and Fruits - Cones of flowers and fruits protect the seeds from the cold. Bark and branches - Thick bark to protect the trees from extreme cold temperatures. Secondary 4 Express/5 Normal (Academic) 2 2192/2 Combined Humanities (Geography) Kent Ridge Secondary School Preliminary Examination 2010
    • - Flexible and downward sloping branches to enable snow to prevent accumulation of snow on branches. - Conical shaped trees that help them to withstand strong winds so that they sway with the wind. Roots - Shallow and spreading roots that allow for the absorption of water from the soil surface. [Award one mark for each factor] b Fig. 2 shows the movement of soil water in a forested area and an urban area. Fig. 2 Explain why there is a difference in the quality of water in the forested area and urban area. [4] - The quality of water is better from the forested area. [1] This is due to more infiltration of rainwater into soil and more interception from vegetation cover as compared to the urbanized area [1] and results in lesser surface runoff.[1] With lesser surface runoff, sediments are not washed into the river which does not deteriorate the quality of water. [1] c Describe the negative impacts of deforestation and assess how effective the measures are in promoting sustainability of the forests. [8] Negative impacts of deforestation One of the impacts of deforestation is the loss in biomass that limits the ability for Earth to support life. For example, the loss of biomass has greatly affected the food chain and the ability for the Kalimantan rainforest to support plant and animal life. A loss of biodiversity in Kalimantan could lead to extinction and endangerment of some animal and plant species. For example, the Proboscis monkey. This could limit the opportunity for education for the younger generation. Changes in nutrient cycle which resulted in infertility of soil. This is due to the lack of vegetation that could promote an increase in surface runoff; that affects the fertility of the soil. Hence, very little of the original vegetation could be replaced back and the soil is unable to cultivate the crops. Other impacts - Lesser quantity of water due to lesser transpiration and cloud formation and rainfall. - Floods have occurred in Kalimantan due to higher rate of soil erosion. Secondary 4 Express/5 Normal (Academic) 3 2192/2 Combined Humanities (Geography) Kent Ridge Secondary School Preliminary Examination 2010
    • - Higher chances of floods due to the absence of roots that lead to soil erosion. Soil sediments that are deposited into the river results in a shallower river bed, hence reduces the ability to contain water and deteriorates the quality of water. - Air pollution and haze in Central Kalimantan. Resulted in closure of schools and impacts on the tourism industry. Effectiveness of measures Ministry of Forestry was set up to be responsible for ensuring that forest resources are protected and sustained even in the generation of income. It is also responsible for the legislation of illegal logging. Community involvement such as the local government which can decided on how the forest is being used and enforce laws to make sure that there is no misuse of the forest. Some measures implemented are Afforestation, which refers to the planting of trees on areas not covered by forests and Reforestation which refers to the replanting of trees in abandoned agriculture land. The planting of teak trees has allowed the restoration of the forest as it is fast-growing. However, the rate of restoration is not as fast as the rate of clearing. This is because there is not enough incentive for the local people to participate in such a project. As only teak trees are planted, there is a lack of support for the flora and fauna of the forest. MOF has introduced laws to ensure that forests are carefully logged and severe penalties are enforced for irresponsible and illegal timber logging. For example, selective cutting is implemented to ensure that valuable trees are left undisturbed. These measures have allowed more time for the regeneration of trees. However, it is difficult to monitor logging and detect illegal logging activities, due to the lack of manpower and remoteness of forested areas. Selective logging can also affect the neighbouring trees as the survival of different plant species is dependent on one another. Conservation ensures that resources are used carefully with the setting up of nature reserves like Betung Kerihun Reserve in Kalimantan. However, detection of illegal logging is difficult due to lack of manpower. Controlling forest fires by the Indonesian government through Integrated Forest Fires Protection System and National Fire Management. It educates Indonesians on the impacts of forest fires. However, plantation companies continue to burn forest as it is the cheapest way to clear land and they are reluctant to change this agriculture method. * Any one of the three measures above. A full answer does not need to include all the above points, a maximum of 3 impacts of deforestation and evaluation of 3 strategies. Candidates at each level will show the following characteristics: Level 1 (0-3 marks) - One or two suggestions of management, but no detail. - No place reference or very general, e.g. in Asia - No supported effectiveness, or simple statements made, e.g. it was better. Level 2 (4-6 marks) - Suggestions of management, may be no more than good naming of measure, e.g. controlled logging, or very brief description. - Place reference given, but little detail. - Brief statements of effectiveness, . e,g “illegal logging has been reduced”. Level 3 (6-8 marks) - More than two measures named with some details. - Place reference(s) fairly specific - Clear statements of effectiveness. e.g “it has stopped the loss of trees, but it has reduced biodiversity.” Secondary 4 Express/5 Normal (Academic) 4 2192/2 Combined Humanities (Geography) Kent Ridge Secondary School Preliminary Examination 2010
    • 2a Fig. 3 shows the river velocity of a section of a river channel. Fig. 3 (i) Describe and explain the differences in river velocity of this section of a river channel. [4] - River velocity at the riverbed tends to be lower at about 71 cm/sec as compared to the surface of the river where velocity is over 100cm/sec. - Towards the right of Fig. 3, river velocity ranges from 71 cm/sec to over 100cm/sec. However, on the left of the riverbank, velocity is lower with a range of 71cm/sec to under 40cm/sec. - This could be due to the difference in gradient of the river channel - As it can be seen on the left of Fig. 3, gradient is less steep as compared to the right the river channel in Fig. 3. Hence, resulting in lower velocity. [Award one mark for each factor. No marks for answers without reference made to Fig. 3] (ii) Besides the factor mentioned in (i), what other factors affect the speed of the river? Explain your answer. [4] - Roughness of the river channel [1]. If there are more obstacles, such as boulders and rocks on the riverbed, speed of the river decreases. [1] - Wetted perimeter [1] If wetted perimeter is large, water as more contact with the length and breath of the river channel. Hence more friction is generated, reducing the speed of the river. [1] b The presence of vegetation allows for greater interception of rain. How does that presence affect the fertility of the soil and help in the prevention of floods? [5] - With greater inception of rain, the fertility of soil improves and there is greater prevention of floods. - The presence of vegetation reduces the impact of rainwater falling onto the ground - and gives more lag time for infiltration to take place. - Hence, the fertility of soil improves because there is decreased incidence of surface runoff and soil erosion. Secondary 4 Express/5 Normal (Academic) 5 2192/2 Combined Humanities (Geography) Kent Ridge Secondary School Preliminary Examination 2010
    • - With reduced occurrence of soil erosion and surface runoff, sediments are not washed into the riverbed, which in turn helps to prevent floods. [Award one mark for each factor] c Fig. 4 shows headlands and bays formed at a coast. Fig. 4 Using Fig. 4, explain how wave fraction leads to deposition along the coastline. [4] - As waves move in a parallel manner, their energy is concentrated on the headlands as the waves bend as they approach the headlands. - The bending of waves results in the slowing down of water due to shallower waters in front of the headland. - The difference in wave speeds is called wave fraction. - This causes wave energy to be concentrated on the headland and wave energy is weakened along the wider stretches of the bay, which results in deposition along the coastline. [Award one mark for each factor] d With reference to one or more named examples, assess the effectiveness of flood prevention measures. [8] - One of the measures in flood prevention is re-alignment involves the straightening of the river channel to remove meanders and reduces the length of the river channel, which would increase the speed of the river. When speed of the river increases, sediments accumulated along the river banks can be washed away quickly, reducing the occurrence of floods. There is also the disappearance of wetlands from re-alignment of the river as the river flows over a smaller area. Re-sectioning is the widening and deepening of the river channel to increase the ability to hold water. With re-sectioning, more surface runoff can enter the river without causing floods. The river bed and river bank can be smoothened out with cement, which reduces the friction caused, hence increasing the speed of water and allowing water to flow away more quickly. For example, the Singapore River. However, the increase in speed of the river after channelisation may result in flooding downstream. This is because the volume of water is increased and the river channel downstream may not be able to contain the increased in flow of water. An accumulation of sediments downstream may also result. This causes less sunlight to reach the seabed, thus affecting the marine life. Loss of marine life and wetlands due to the concretisation of river banks from re-sectioning of the river. Secondary 4 Express/5 Normal (Academic) 6 2192/2 Combined Humanities (Geography) Kent Ridge Secondary School Preliminary Examination 2010
    • Bank protection prevents soil erosion along the river banks by building dykes or artificial levees. These structures increase the capacity for water retention in the river. For example, gabions and revetments can also be built to divert the flow of water from the river banks to the centre of the river. This reduces the impact of the water on the river bank and reducing soil erosion and lessening the occurrence of flooding. Sediments may also be accumulated behind structures like dykes and gabions. This causes the riverbed to be shallower and increase the chances of flooding. Planting of vegetation allows the soil to be held together by the roots of the trees and plants. Vegetation will slow down the rate of surface runoff and reduces the amount of eroded sediments being transported into the river. A full answer does not need to include all the above points, a maximum of 3 strategies with evaluation of such strategies. Candidates at each level will show the following characteristics: Level 1 (0-3 marks) - One or two suggestions of management, but no detail. - No place reference or very general, e.g. in Asia - No supported effectiveness, or simple statements made, e.g. it was better. Level 2 (4-6 marks) - Suggestions of methods, may be no more than good naming of measure, e.g. re-alignment and re-sectioning. Brief description of methods. - Place reference given, but little detail. - Brief statements of effectiveness, . e,g “occurrence of flooding has been reduced”. Level 3 (6-8 marks) - More than two measures named with some details. - Place reference(s) fairly specific - Clear statements of effectiveness. e.g “it has reduced the occurrence of flooding, but it biodiversity of wetlands have been reduced due to reduction of wetlands”. Section B Answer one question from this section. 3a Figs. 5a and 5b show the population pyramids of two countries. Fig. 5a Secondary 4 Express/5 Normal (Academic) 7 2192/2 Combined Humanities (Geography) Kent Ridge Secondary School Preliminary Examination 2010
    • Fig. 5b (i) Using Figs. 5a and 5b, compare the population structure between the two countries. [3] - Birthrate and ages 0-4 years old for Nigeria in 2005 is higher with about 23 million young as compared with Japan, which has only about 6 million young for the year 2005. - Japan is facing an ageing population as the country has a greater proportion of people in the age group of 50 years and above. - More people in Japan live up to the life expectancy age of 80+ years old as compared to Nigeria. This can be seen that Japan has about 6 million people above the age of 80 while Nigeria has only about 2 million people. [Award one mark for each factor] (ii) Using Figs. 5a and 5b, assess the level of development for the respective countries and give reasons for your answer. [6] - Level of development is higher in Japan as compared to Nigeria in 2005. - This is because Nigeria has a higher birth rate and lesser proportion of people of being in the economically active age. - With higher birth rate, the country may not have enough resources, like the provision of food, housing and education for the young as compared to Japan who can provide for their young as they have a low birthrate. - This affects the level of development as people do not have access to education, which could affect the productivity and development of the country. - Japan has more people are in the economically age-range. This allows them to contribute more to the economy, hence encouraging development of the country. - Nigeria has a lower proportion of people living till retirement age, this could be due to the lack of healthcare in the country. With a higher death rate and lower proportion of people being economically active, the development of the country is negatively affected. [Award one mark for each factor] b Fig. 6 shows data on Human Development Index in some countries from 1992 to 2008. Secondary 4 Express/5 Normal (Academic) 8 2192/2 Combined Humanities (Geography) Kent Ridge Secondary School Preliminary Examination 2010
    • Fig. 6 (i) Using Fig. 6, compare the level of development between Indonesia and Malaysia and account for the differences. [5] - Indonesia has a lower level of development as compared to Malaysia. - It can be seen that Malaysia has a steady growth in terms of HDI from 0.75 in 1993 to about 0.83 in 2007. - On the other hand, Indonesia experiences a less steady growth from HDI of 0.64 to about 0.71 in 2007. However, in 2001 to 2002, it experienced a steep growth to HDI 0.7. - This could be because Indonesia may have difficulty in coping with the financial crisis in 2001, hence development is unstable. [Award 1 mark for each factor] (ii) Describe the limitations of Human Development Index as a measurement of development. [3] - HDI fails to measure human rights and freedom of people. - There is also a time lag between the time of collecting and publishing data of two years, hence data may not be accurate. - There could be discrepancies of data collected in rural areas as the economy depends heavily on informal trading. Hence, only income of people is used estimation. [Award one mark for each factor] c Describe the socio-economic and physical factors that cause uneven development between developed and less developed countries, and evaluate the effectiveness of the international efforts to alleviate this problem. [8] Socio-economic factors Cumulative causation where the core areas tend to receive more investment as compared to periphery areas. With more investment in the core areas, demand of goods and services increases as well, hence this attracts greater investment in the core area, encouraging development. The labour and resources needed for the new developments in the core areas come from the periphery areas. This is thus known as cumulative causation. With higher education, development would be encouraged productivity of the people increases. Population growth rate is low and sustained that ensures the availability of resources. Strong leadership encourages development and new investments. International cooperation International organizations, like World Bank and Asian Development Bank that provide loans and aid in the form of technology to help them to develop economically and socially. For example, in 1998, the World Bank’s Kecamatan Development Programme (KDP) provided aid to Indonesia. This allowed Sleepy Tirtomoyo to gain access to clean and reliable supply of water. International agreements, like the UN Millennium Development Goals helps LDC to alleviate poverty and hunger. For example, in Vietnam, people are taught necessary skills to look for jobs. However, the use of international organisations requires the cooperation of many countries and the decision-making process among countries may be tedious. Countries need to decide on the allocation of funds and the parties that will receive the aid. Because of the tedious process, aid may not reach the affected countries in a timely manner. In some countries, the government of the affected country may be corrupted and thus the people would not be able to receive aid meant for them. A full answer does not need to include all the above points, a maximum of 3 strategies with evaluation of such strategies. Candidates at each level will show the following characteristics: Secondary 4 Express/5 Normal (Academic) 9 2192/2 Combined Humanities (Geography) Kent Ridge Secondary School Preliminary Examination 2010
    • Level 1 (0-3 marks) - One or two suggestions of management, but no detail. - No place reference or very general, e.g. in Asia - No supported effectiveness, or simple statements made, e.g. it was better. Level 2 (4-6 marks) - Suggestions of methods, may be no more than good naming of measure, e.g. United Nations - Place reference given, but little detail. - Brief statements of effectiveness, e,g “better development”. Level 3 (6-8 marks) - More than two measures named with some details. - Place reference(s) fairly specific - Clear statements of effectiveness. 4a Fig. 7 shows a cartoon on the food situation in the world. Fig. 7 (i) Using Fig. 7, describe the situation of food supply in the world. [3] - There is uneven distribution of food between developed countries and less developed countries. - It can be seen that the less developed countries are not getting enough food - While the more developed countries, like UK, have sufficient amount of food and have easy access to food. [Award one mark for each factor] (ii) What are some impacts due to this situation? [3] - In less developed countries, the children are suffering from malnutrition and starvation. - In more developed countries, the children suffer from obesity and other health-related illnesses linked to obesity, like high-blood pressure. - These could affect the level of development in the country adversely, especially in less developed countries where there would be lack of manpower to contribute productively to the development of the country. [Award one mark for each factor] (iii) Explain the reasons for the situation of food supply as seen in Fig. 7. [6] - Affordability OR purchasing power a person has to obtain food. People in Nigeria may not earn enough income to purchase food to meet his nutritional needs. - Nigeria may lack the stability of food supply where the people in the country experiences food security. Secondary 4 Express/5 Normal (Academic) 10 2192/2 Combined Humanities (Geography) Kent Ridge Secondary School Preliminary Examination 2010
    • - The country lacks the income to import food and the favourable conditions to grow their own food. - For example, they may suffer from droughts or conflict that may disrupt the supply of food. - In more rural areas, transportation facilities may be lacking that hinders people in rural villages from obtaining a steady supply of food. - The country lacks the income to import food from other countries or even to engage in trading activities with other countries. [Award one factor for each factor. Do not accept Globalisation and availability of food outlets as answer as it would not be in context to Fig. 7.] b Fig. 8 shows the level of profit earned from the cultivation of crops in India. Describe the trend of profit earned from the cultivation of the crops in India from 1975 to 1995 and suggest reasons for it. [5] - It can be seen that Paddy, wheat and sugar cane experiences a steady growth of profits earned from 1975 to 1995. - For example, paddy has grown from $10 billion to $30 billion in profits. - However, there is a reduction of profits earned for coarse cereals from about $18 billion to a -$10 billion in 1995. - This could be because there is a change in food preference of the people in India as the country develops. - People may move away from consuming coarse cereals which is staple food to consuming more paddy and wheat. [Award one mark for each factor] c Explain the various strategies used by countries to respond to variations in food consumption and assess the sustainability of these strategies. [8] International organizations come together to help LDCs solve the problem of having insufficient food. For example, emergency famine relief, agriculture research and media campaigning. Secondary 4 Express/5 Normal (Academic) 11 2192/2 Combined Humanities (Geography) Kent Ridge Secondary School Preliminary Examination 2010
    • Programmes have been developed to provide food to people who are starving and having malnutrition. For example, UN World Food Programme (WFP) has helped to develop agriculture facilities such as roads and irrigation channels. The government could also response to these needs by providing for food subsidies to help the poor obtain food. However, this creates a heavy burden on government expenses and it has been widely criticise for inculcating reliance on the government. The government can equip people with the right skills, such as farming skills that have a lasting effect. However, this requires more time and money as investment, thus provision of help is also not provided for in a timely manner. Stock piling can be done by the government, which is to purchase a large amount of food for storage. This requires expensive storage facilities and a lot of income from the government. Hence it may not be feasible by LDCs as they lack the finances to build storage facilities. Stock piling results in DCs to control food supply. This creates another problem for the LDCs as they may not have enough food for purchase as they woirld normally purchase food from DCs. Food producers in LDCs can be encouraged to grow varieties of food demanded by DCs. This allows them to earn more income and thus would be able to have the purchasing power to obtain food. For example, coffee plantation. Secondary 4 Express/5 Normal (Academic) 12 2192/2 Combined Humanities (Geography) Kent Ridge Secondary School Preliminary Examination 2010