Why Cite?PlagiarismGetting StartedIn-text CitationsFigures and TablesSample PaperAdditional ResourcesReferencesPageMenu
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Apa Guide

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Apa Guide

  1. 1. Why Cite?PlagiarismGetting StartedIn-text CitationsFigures and TablesSample PaperAdditional ResourcesReferencesPageMenu
  2. 2. Why Cite?PlagiarismGetting StartedIn-text CitationsFigures and TablesSample PaperAdditional ResourcesReferencesPageMenuWhy do we cite?When a scholar or researcher writes a research-based paper, new knowledge iscreated. The credibility of the new knowledge depends on the credibility of thesources that author uses. When we write research-based papers, we show oursources because it gives greater authority to our conclusions.Moreover, not citing sources can result in plagiarism. We’ll talk about ways to avoidplagiarism in a moment.Why are there different styles?In addition to APA, there are other styles: MLA, Chicago, Harvard, AMA, etc. Why somany? Each style is ideal for a different type of scholarship. The Chicago style, forexample, is perfect for historians because of the way it handles footnotes. The AMAstyle, on the other hand, is better suited to medical research. This guide covers theAPA style, which is popular in the social sciences.
  3. 3. Why Cite?PlagiarismGetting StartedIn-text CitationsFigures and TablesSample PaperAdditional ResourcesReferencesPageMenuDPlagiarismYou will want to avoid plagiarism at all cost. Whether it is intentional or accidental,it makes no difference. The consequences for plagiarism can be severe. Properlyciting your sources is the best way to avoid it. This video should give you anoverview: http://youtu.be/Fw6NxvwP41U
  4. 4. Why Cite?PlagiarismGetting StartedIn-text CitationsFigures and TablesSample PaperAdditional ResourcesReferencesPageMenuDGetting StartedIn this section we will setting up our papers using basic APA formatting. Specifically,this section will cover:1. Margins2. Font3. Line Spacing4. Cover Page Header5. Cover Page6. Second Page Header
  5. 5. Why Cite?PlagiarismGetting StartedIn-text CitationsFigures and TablesSample PaperAdditional ResourcesReferencesPageMenuDMarginsAPA requires 1 inch margins for top, bottom, right, and left. Here is how to checkyour document’s margins in Word 2010. 1 inch margins will usually be selected bydefault.
  6. 6. Why Cite?PlagiarismGetting StartedIn-text CitationsFigures and TablesSample PaperAdditional ResourcesReferencesPageMenuDFontAPA asks you to use a 12 point serif font, preferably Times New Roman.
  7. 7. Why Cite?PlagiarismGetting StartedIn-text CitationsFigures and TablesSample PaperAdditional ResourcesReferencesPageMenuDLine SpacingAPA requires your paper be double-spaced. Click on the Home tab and select theLine and Paragraph Spacing button. By default your document will be set to 1.15.Change that to 2.0 (seen below).
  8. 8. Why Cite?PlagiarismGetting StartedIn-text CitationsFigures and TablesSample PaperAdditional ResourcesReferencesPageMenuDHeaderAPA requires that you place “Running head: TITLE OF YOUR PAPER” in theleft-hand corner of your paper and the page number in the right. Here’s howto do this is Word 2010:First go to the Insert tab (seen here).Select Header, and then choose EditHeader.
  9. 9. Why Cite?PlagiarismGetting StartedIn-text CitationsFigures and TablesSample PaperAdditional ResourcesReferencesPageMenuDHeader cont.Once we clicked Edit Header, the Header & Footer Tools tab opened up. This firststep is important: we need to check off the “Different First Page” box. This is becauseAPA requires that the first page header be slightly different than subsequent pages.We will add our page number first. Select “Page Number” and “Top of Page” as seenbelow. Choose the page number that runs to the far right.
  10. 10. Why Cite?PlagiarismGetting StartedIn-text CitationsFigures and TablesSample PaperAdditional ResourcesReferencesPageMenuDHeader cont.On the title page your header must be formatted like this: “Running head: TITLE OFYOUR PAPER.” NOTE: for longer titles, use an abbreviated version.Once you have added your page number, immediately begin typing in your title (seebelow).Hit the Tab key on your keyboard once or twice to push your title to the left handside of your paper.
  11. 11. Why Cite?PlagiarismGetting StartedIn-text CitationsFigures and TablesSample PaperAdditional ResourcesReferencesPageMenuDHeader cont.Close out of the header by clicking “Close Header and Footer” or by hitting the ESCkey on your keyboard.Remember, the title page header is different than subsequent pages. Once we havefinished our cover page and moved onto page two, we will need to add the header again.This will be the heading for the remainder of your paper. Follow the same process asbefore, except for the final step.1. Choose Insert tab2. Select Header , then Edit Header3. Add a page number4. Type in your title in all capital letters. This time will are omitting “Runningheader:”
  12. 12. Why Cite?PlagiarismGetting StartedIn-text CitationsFigures and TablesSample PaperAdditional ResourcesReferencesPageMenuDCover PageThe cover page of an APA formatted document includes the following information:o Full title of your papero Your nameo Your institutional affiliation (ie, Carteret Community College)Begin by hitting the enter key four to six times or until you’re about a third of theway down the page. Your cover page must be centered, so select the center option(seen below).
  13. 13. Why Cite?PlagiarismGetting StartedIn-text CitationsFigures and TablesSample PaperAdditional ResourcesReferencesPageMenuDCover PageFirst type in your paper’s title and hit enter. Now type in your own name and hitenter. Finally, type in: Carteret Community College. Your cover page should look verysimilar to the one below:
  14. 14. Why Cite?PlagiarismGetting StartedIn-text CitationsFigures and TablesSample PaperAdditional ResourcesReferencesPageMenuDSecond Page headerAfter finishing the cover page, you can hit the enter key until you drop to the secondpage, or else select the Insert tab and hit Page Break. Either way, we are now onpage two.Because we selected Different First Page on the header menu, we will need to addour header again. So once more:1. Select the Insert tab.2. Choose Header, and Edit Header.3. Choose Page Number and select the right side page number.4. In all capital letters type your papers name. NOTE: this time we are notadding “Running head:” to the title.5. Hit the ESC key on your keyboard, or the Close Header & Footer buttoninstead.
  15. 15. Why Cite?PlagiarismGetting StartedIn-text CitationsFigures and TablesSample PaperAdditional ResourcesReferencesPageMenuDAbstractOnce the new header is added to page two, you can add an abstract of your paper.An abstract is a summary of the content of your paper.1. Type and center “Abstract” onthe first line2. Without indenting, type in yourabstract beginning on line two.3. Immediately below the abstract,indent and type “Keywords:” initalics.4. Add keywords that describe thecontent of your paper.5. Hit the enter key until you dropto the third page, or else selectthe Insert tab and hit Page Break.
  16. 16. Why Cite?PlagiarismGetting StartedIn-text CitationsFigures and TablesSample PaperAdditional ResourcesReferencesPageMenuDThird PageOn the first line, type in the name of your paper, but this time not in all capitals. Hitenter and then tab. You can now begin typing in the text of your paper. Your secondpage should look very similar to the example below:3
  17. 17. Why Cite?PlagiarismGetting StartedIn-text CitationsFigures and TablesSample PaperAdditional ResourcesReferencesPageMenu In-text CitationsUse in-text citations every time you reference information from an outside source.The general format for APA in-text citations is:(author, year-of-publication)If you are quoting directly from the source, you will also need to include the pagenumber. Cite it like this:(author, year-of-publication, p.xxx)Here’s a typical example:Reading is best done in a well-lit area (Spence, 2003).
  18. 18. Why Cite?PlagiarismGetting StartedIn-text CitationsFigures and TablesSample PaperAdditional ResourcesReferencesPageMenu In-text CitationsWhen you refer to the author by name in your paper, you can leave the author’sname out of the citation. Here’s an example:Mayfield (2009) noted that the theory was first popularized in the early post-war years.Here’s an example where a direct quote is included:As Christgau (2009) noted, “by second hearing its loveliness is almost literallyhaunting, an aural déjà vu” (p. 117).The important thing is that you always include the author’s name, the publicationdate, and when quoting directly, the page number. And when you include theauthor’s name in your document, do not include it in the citation.
  19. 19. Why Cite?PlagiarismGetting StartedIn-text CitationsFigures and TablesSample PaperAdditional ResourcesReferencesPageMenu In-text CitationsWhat if your source has more than one author? Use the formats below:One author (Wilson, 2011)Two authors (Wilson & Love, 2011)Three authors (Wilson, Love, & Jardine, 2011)Four authors (Wilson, Love, Jardine & Johnston, 2011)Five authors (Wilson, Love, Jardine, Johnston, & Campbell, 2011)Six authors (Wilson et al., 2011)
  20. 20. Why Cite?PlagiarismGetting StartedIn-text CitationsFigures and TablesSample PaperAdditional ResourcesReferencesPageMenu Longer QuotationsAt times you may need to quote an extended passage from a book. If the quote ismore than 40 words long, you need to use a block quote. Do not use quotationmarks around block quotes. Finally, the citation goes outside the period that endsthe quote. Here’s an example:Christgau (2009) wrote:Painfully crackpot and painfully sung, but also inspired, not least because itcalls forth forbidden emotions. For a surrogate teenager to bare his growingpains so guilelessly was exciting, or at least charming; for an avowed adult toexpose an almost childish naivete is embarrassing, but also cathartic; and for arock and roll hero to compose a verbally and musically irresistible paean toJohnny Carson is an act of shamanism pure and simple. (p. 117)
  21. 21. Why Cite?PlagiarismGetting StartedIn-text CitationsFigures and TablesSample PaperAdditional ResourcesReferencesPageMenu Figures and TablesIn APA, any figures and tables you wish to include are not included in the main textof your paper. Instead they are placed on a separate page(s) after the referencespage. APA also states:• Figures and tables should not be included in your research papers if the figure ortable does not add substantively to the understanding of the paper or duplicatesother elements of the paper.• All elements within the figure or table should be labeled or explained.• Figures and tables must be referenced in text and given proper credit in thefigure or table caption.In Text ExamplesEtiam at turpis augue. Ut ut mattis arcu (see Figure 1). Phasellus mattis, risus eudapibus accumsan, enim turpis viverra erat, et adipiscing neque felis et metus (seeTable 1).
  22. 22. Why Cite?PlagiarismGetting StartedIn-text CitationsFigures and TablesSample PaperAdditional ResourcesReferencesPageMenu4Figuresand Tables cont.To the right is an example of afigure and table. This pagewould appear after thereferences page.
  23. 23. Why Cite?PlagiarismGetting StartedIn-text CitationsFigures and TablesSample PaperAdditional ResourcesReferencesPageMenuReferences PagePutting together a references page correctly is not difficult, but it does require someattention to detail. Here is an example:5
  24. 24. Why Cite?PlagiarismGetting StartedIn-text CitationsFigures and TablesSample PaperAdditional ResourcesReferencesPageMenuDReferences PageTo get started:1. On line one, type: References2. Center it and go to line two3. Begin typing in your first reference. References must be in alphabeticalorder, based on author’s last name. We can change the indentation tomatch the example below after we have typed them all in.6
  25. 25. Why Cite?PlagiarismGetting StartedIn-text CitationsFigures and TablesSample PaperAdditional ResourcesReferencesPageMenuReferences PageReferences are formatted differently depending on the format of your source, but allAPA references follow this basic pattern:Author, Date, Title, Publication information, Page numberThis guide will cover book, periodical, and website referencing. See “Additionalresources” to find information on other formats.
  26. 26. Why Cite?PlagiarismGetting StartedIn-text CitationsFigures and TablesSample PaperAdditional ResourcesReferencesPageMenu Book ReferencesPrint books:Author, A. A. (year of publication). Title of work. Location: Publisher.Notice that we:1. Use initials for the author’s first name.2. Italicize the title.3. Capitalize only the first word of the title, with the exception of any propernouns.Here are a couple of examples:Hesse, H. (2008). The journey to the East. New Delhi, India:Heritage.Nietzsche, F. (1998). Twilight of the idols, or, how to philosophize with ahammer. New York, NY: Penguin.
  27. 27. Why Cite?PlagiarismGetting StartedIn-text CitationsFigures and TablesSample PaperAdditional ResourcesReferencesPageMenu Book ReferenceseBooks:Author, A. A. (year of publication). Title of work. Retrieved fromhttp://www.xxxxxxxxNotice that we still:1. Use initials for the author’s first name.2. Italicize the title.3. Capitalize only the first word of the title, with the exception of any propernouns.4. Replace the publisher information with the URLHere is an example:Nietzsche, F. (1998). Twilight of the idols, or, how to philosophize with ahammer. Retrieved fromhttp://www.netlibrary.com/summary.asp?id=12314
  28. 28. Why Cite?PlagiarismGetting StartedIn-text CitationsFigures and TablesSample PaperAdditional ResourcesReferencesPageMenu Periodical ReferencesPrint Articles:Author, A. A. (year of publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume(issue),pp-pp.Notice that we:1. Use initials for the author’s first name.2. Italicize the periodical’s title, not the article’s title.3. Capitalize only the first word of the article title, with the exception of anyproper nouns.4. Fully capitalize the periodical’s title.Here is an example:Jung, C. (2011). Warming to the rising sun. Food Arts, 2(2), 62-65.
  29. 29. Why Cite?PlagiarismGetting StartedIn-text CitationsFigures and TablesSample PaperAdditional ResourcesReferencesPageMenu Periodical ReferencesElectronic Articles:Author, A. A. (year of publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical,volume(issue), pp-pp. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxxxNOTE: if you have the DOI number for an article, use that instead of the “Retrievedfrom” line.Here are a couple examples. Notice in the first example we use a “Retrieved from”link, while in the second we use the DOI number:Alexander, C. (2011, March 23). Canes feeling loose. News &Observer. Retrieved from http://www.newsobserver.com/Tsirlin, A. A. (2008). Irreversible microeconomics: Optimalprocesses and equilibrium in closed systems. Automation & RemoteControl, 69(7), 1201-1215. doi:10.1134/S0005117908070114
  30. 30. Why Cite?PlagiarismGetting StartedIn-text CitationsFigures and TablesSample PaperAdditional ResourcesReferencesPageMenu Website ReferencesWebpage on a Website:Author, A. A., & Author, A. A. (Date of publication). Title of article ordocument. Title of Website. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxxxxxNotice that we:1. Use initials for the author’s first name.2. Capitalize only the first word of the article title, with the exception of anyproper nouns.3. Fully capitalize (and italicize) the website’s name.Here is an example:Marshall, J. (2011, March 24). What could go wrong? Talking Points Memo.Retrieved from http://talkingpointsmemo.com/
  31. 31. Why Cite?PlagiarismGetting StartedIn-text CitationsFigures and TablesSample PaperAdditional ResourcesReferencesPageMenuReferences PageWe should now have our references sorted alphabetically on our references page (asseen below). APA requires that all references appear with hanging indentation. Wewill now look at how to apply hanging indent to our references.
  32. 32. Why Cite?PlagiarismGetting StartedIn-text CitationsFigures and TablesSample PaperAdditional ResourcesReferencesPageMenuReferences PageHighlight your references (as seen below)
  33. 33. Why Cite?PlagiarismGetting StartedIn-text CitationsFigures and TablesSample PaperAdditional ResourcesReferencesPageMenu References PageWith your references highlighted, click on the Paragraph dialog box.
  34. 34. Why Cite?PlagiarismGetting StartedIn-text CitationsFigures and TablesSample PaperAdditional ResourcesReferencesPageMenu References PageLook for the drop box for “Special” indentation (seen below). Select “Hanging.”
  35. 35. Why Cite?PlagiarismGetting StartedIn-text CitationsFigures and TablesSample PaperAdditional ResourcesReferencesPageMenu References PageYour references page should now be finished.
  36. 36. Why Cite?PlagiarismGetting StartedIn-text CitationsFigures and TablesSample PaperAdditional ResourcesReferencesPageMenu Sample PaperA sample APA paper is included below. Just click on the paper.
  37. 37. Why Cite?PlagiarismGetting StartedIn-text CitationsFigures and TablesSample PaperAdditional ResourcesReferencesPageMenu Additional ResourcesTo see more examples of APA references, try here:APA Reference examplesThese online guides to APA may also be helpful:Research and Documentation Online, APA guidePurdue Owl APA guideYou can find additional APA sample papers here:APA sample paper 2APA sample paper 3

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