Bryophytes are nonvascular plant; examples are mosses and their relatives.
WHERE THEY ARE FOUND
THRIVE IN WET ENVIRONMENTS OR IN AREAS WHERE THERE IS LOTS OF RAINFALL AT LEAST PART OF THE YEAR
ALONG THE WEST COAST OF BC & STATES
Unique to Bryophytes
have no lignin usually
are small, low-lying, (generally) moisture-loving plants
have no roots, only filamentous rhizoids
THE ONLY LAND PLANTS WITH A DOMINANT GAMETOPHYTE! The sporophyte is parasitic on the gametophyte. This stems from the embryo being retained in the female sex organ of the gametophyte.
Groups of bryophytes
Bryophytes included mosses, liverworts, and hornworts.
Mosses Liverworts Hornworts
SCARCER THAN MOSSES
NEED TO LIVE IN PLACES THAT ARE CONSTANTLY WET
LOOK LIKE FLAT LEAVES GROWING ALONG THE GROUND
LOOK LIKE GAMETOPHYTE OF LIVERWORT
SPOROPHYTE LOOKS LIKE A HORN
The most common bryophytes are mosses, which are members of the phylum Bryophyta.
Mosses grow most abundantly in areas with water-in swamps and bogs, near streams, and in rain forests.
BRYOPHYTES LACK SEVERAL CRITICAL ADAPTATIONS TO DRY PLACES
LACK WATER CONDUCTING TUBES
IN BRYOPHYTES, WATER PASSES FROM CELL TO CELL BY OSMOSIS & BY MEANS OF SURFACE TENSION AROUND THE STEMS
WHAT DOES THIS MEAN?
BRYOPHYTES LACK PROTECTIVE SURFACE COVERING TO KEEP WATER FROM EVAPORTAING FROM THEIR CELLS
WHAT DOES THIS MEAN?
THERE IS MORE
THEY LACK TRUE ROOTS
ROOTS CONTAIN WATER CONDUCTING TUBES THAT ENABLE A PLANT TO ABSORB AND TRANSPORT WATER EFFICIENTLY
THEY HAVE RHIZOIDS INSTEAD
WHAT IS THEIR FUNCTION?
Rhizoid are in fungi, a root like hypha that penetrates the surface of an object; in mosses, a long, thin cell that anchors the moss to the ground and absorbs water and minerals from the surrounding soil.
Protonema is the mass of tangled green filaments in mosses that forms during germination.
Antheridum is the male reproductive structure in some algae and plants.
Archegonium is the female reproductive structure in some plants, including mosses and liverworts.
During at least one stage of their life cycle, bryophytes produce sperm that must swim through water to reach eggs of other individuals.
Therefore, they must live in places where there is rainfall or dew for at least part of the year
Role of Bryophytes
Many are pioneer plants, growing on bare rock and contributing to soil development.
In bogs and mountain forests they form a thick carpet, reducing erosion.
In forest ecosystems they act like a sponge retaining and slowly releasing water
They provide habitat for other plants and small animals as well as microorganisms like N 2 -fixing blue-green bacteria
Lacking a cuticle and transport tissue they readily absorb whatever is around them and can serve as bio-indicators of pollution and environmental degradation