Plats pt3  bryophytes
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Plats pt3 bryophytes

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Plats pt3  bryophytes Plats pt3 bryophytes Presentation Transcript

  • Bryophytes
  • Bryophytes
    • Bryophytes are nonvascular plant; examples are mosses and their relatives.
  • WHERE THEY ARE FOUND
    • THRIVE IN WET ENVIRONMENTS OR IN AREAS WHERE THERE IS LOTS OF RAINFALL AT LEAST PART OF THE YEAR
      • SWAMPS
      • MARSHES
      • NEAR STREAMS,
      • RAINFORESTS
      • ALONG THE WEST COAST OF BC & STATES
  • Unique to Bryophytes
    • have no lignin usually
    • are small, low-lying, (generally) moisture-loving plants
    • have no roots, only filamentous rhizoids
    • THE ONLY LAND PLANTS WITH A DOMINANT GAMETOPHYTE!  The sporophyte is parasitic on the gametophyte. This stems from the embryo being retained in the female sex organ of the gametophyte. 
  • Groups of bryophytes
    • Bryophytes included mosses, liverworts, and hornworts.
    Mosses Liverworts Hornworts
    • SCARCER THAN MOSSES
    • NEED TO LIVE IN PLACES THAT ARE CONSTANTLY WET
    • LOOK LIKE FLAT LEAVES GROWING ALONG THE GROUND
    LIVERWORTS
  • HORNWORT
    • LOOK LIKE GAMETOPHYTE OF LIVERWORT
    • SPOROPHYTE LOOKS LIKE A HORN
  • Mosses
    • The most common bryophytes are mosses, which are members of the phylum Bryophyta.
    • Mosses grow most abundantly in areas with water-in swamps and bogs, near streams, and in rain forests.
  • BRYOPHYTES LACK SEVERAL CRITICAL ADAPTATIONS TO DRY PLACES
    • LACK WATER CONDUCTING TUBES
      • IN BRYOPHYTES, WATER PASSES FROM CELL TO CELL BY OSMOSIS & BY MEANS OF SURFACE TENSION AROUND THE STEMS
      • WHAT DOES THIS MEAN?
  • WHAT ELSE?
    • BRYOPHYTES LACK PROTECTIVE SURFACE COVERING TO KEEP WATER FROM EVAPORTAING FROM THEIR CELLS
    • WHAT DOES THIS MEAN?
  • THERE IS MORE
    • THEY LACK TRUE ROOTS
      • ROOTS CONTAIN WATER CONDUCTING TUBES THAT ENABLE A PLANT TO ABSORB AND TRANSPORT WATER EFFICIENTLY
    • THEY HAVE RHIZOIDS INSTEAD
      • WHAT IS THEIR FUNCTION?
  • Rhizoids
    • Rhizoid are in fungi, a root like hypha that penetrates the surface of an object; in mosses, a long, thin cell that anchors the moss to the ground and absorbs water and minerals from the surrounding soil.
  • Protonema
    • Protonema is the mass of tangled green filaments in mosses that forms during germination.
  • Antheridia
    • Antheridum is the male reproductive structure in some algae and plants.
  • Archegonia
    • Archegonium is the female reproductive structure in some plants, including mosses and liverworts.
  •  
    • During at least one stage of their life cycle, bryophytes produce sperm that must swim through water to reach eggs of other individuals.
    • Therefore, they must live in places where there is rainfall or dew for at least part of the year
  •  
  • Role of Bryophytes
    • Many are pioneer plants, growing on bare rock and contributing to soil development.
    • In bogs and mountain forests they form a thick carpet, reducing erosion.
    • In forest ecosystems they act like a sponge retaining and slowly releasing water
    • They provide habitat for other plants and small animals as well as microorganisms like N 2 -fixing blue-green bacteria
    • Lacking a cuticle and transport tissue they readily absorb whatever is around them and can serve as bio-indicators of pollution and environmental degradation