Plats pt3 bryophytes

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Plats pt3 bryophytes

  1. 1. Bryophytes
  2. 2. Bryophytes <ul><li>Bryophytes are nonvascular plant; examples are mosses and their relatives. </li></ul>
  3. 3. WHERE THEY ARE FOUND <ul><li>THRIVE IN WET ENVIRONMENTS OR IN AREAS WHERE THERE IS LOTS OF RAINFALL AT LEAST PART OF THE YEAR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SWAMPS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MARSHES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NEAR STREAMS, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RAINFORESTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ALONG THE WEST COAST OF BC & STATES </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Unique to Bryophytes <ul><li>have no lignin usually </li></ul><ul><li>are small, low-lying, (generally) moisture-loving plants </li></ul><ul><li>have no roots, only filamentous rhizoids </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>THE ONLY LAND PLANTS WITH A DOMINANT GAMETOPHYTE!  The sporophyte is parasitic on the gametophyte. This stems from the embryo being retained in the female sex organ of the gametophyte.  </li></ul>
  6. 6. Groups of bryophytes <ul><li>Bryophytes included mosses, liverworts, and hornworts. </li></ul>Mosses Liverworts Hornworts
  7. 7. <ul><li>SCARCER THAN MOSSES </li></ul><ul><li>NEED TO LIVE IN PLACES THAT ARE CONSTANTLY WET </li></ul><ul><li>LOOK LIKE FLAT LEAVES GROWING ALONG THE GROUND </li></ul>LIVERWORTS
  8. 8. HORNWORT <ul><li>LOOK LIKE GAMETOPHYTE OF LIVERWORT </li></ul><ul><li>SPOROPHYTE LOOKS LIKE A HORN </li></ul>
  9. 9. Mosses <ul><li>The most common bryophytes are mosses, which are members of the phylum Bryophyta. </li></ul><ul><li>Mosses grow most abundantly in areas with water-in swamps and bogs, near streams, and in rain forests. </li></ul>
  10. 10. BRYOPHYTES LACK SEVERAL CRITICAL ADAPTATIONS TO DRY PLACES <ul><li>LACK WATER CONDUCTING TUBES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IN BRYOPHYTES, WATER PASSES FROM CELL TO CELL BY OSMOSIS & BY MEANS OF SURFACE TENSION AROUND THE STEMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WHAT DOES THIS MEAN? </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. WHAT ELSE? <ul><li>BRYOPHYTES LACK PROTECTIVE SURFACE COVERING TO KEEP WATER FROM EVAPORTAING FROM THEIR CELLS </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT DOES THIS MEAN? </li></ul>
  12. 12. THERE IS MORE <ul><li>THEY LACK TRUE ROOTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ROOTS CONTAIN WATER CONDUCTING TUBES THAT ENABLE A PLANT TO ABSORB AND TRANSPORT WATER EFFICIENTLY </li></ul></ul><ul><li>THEY HAVE RHIZOIDS INSTEAD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WHAT IS THEIR FUNCTION? </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Rhizoids <ul><li>Rhizoid are in fungi, a root like hypha that penetrates the surface of an object; in mosses, a long, thin cell that anchors the moss to the ground and absorbs water and minerals from the surrounding soil. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Protonema <ul><li>Protonema is the mass of tangled green filaments in mosses that forms during germination. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Antheridia <ul><li>Antheridum is the male reproductive structure in some algae and plants. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Archegonia <ul><li>Archegonium is the female reproductive structure in some plants, including mosses and liverworts. </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>During at least one stage of their life cycle, bryophytes produce sperm that must swim through water to reach eggs of other individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, they must live in places where there is rainfall or dew for at least part of the year </li></ul>
  18. 20. Role of Bryophytes <ul><li>Many are pioneer plants, growing on bare rock and contributing to soil development. </li></ul><ul><li>In bogs and mountain forests they form a thick carpet, reducing erosion. </li></ul><ul><li>In forest ecosystems they act like a sponge retaining and slowly releasing water </li></ul><ul><li>They provide habitat for other plants and small animals as well as microorganisms like N 2 -fixing blue-green bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Lacking a cuticle and transport tissue they readily absorb whatever is around them and can serve as bio-indicators of pollution and environmental degradation  </li></ul>

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