Moss Lab
Please return this when you are finished
All drawing/labeling is to be done on your white page.
Questions that ar...
Fern Lab
Please return this lab when you are finished
All drawing/labeling is to be done on your white page.
Questions tha...
                                              Conifers and Angiosperms
1. Obtain a specimen basket...
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Kingdom plantaw lab


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Kingdom plantaw lab

  1. 1. Moss Lab Please return this when you are finished All drawing/labeling is to be done on your white page. Questions that are italicized are answered on your own lined paper. 1. Obtain a specimen container of both the green live moss and the dried up moss. Observe the structures with a hand lens and then look at them under the low power dissecting scope (double eye pieces). Compare them with your text p.581. a. Sketch the gametophyte on the left half of your sheet and the sporophyte generation attached to the gametophyte on the right side-- as seen under the dissecting scope, not from the book!! Include measurements in millimeters of both structures. The sketches should be done to fill ½ of your page. b. Label each structure as either gametophyte or sporophyte. Also label the rhizoids, sporangia capsule, operculum (capsule lid), and spores. c. What are the spores coated with? Why is this important? 2. What is the chromosome condition of the sporophyte (n or 2n)? Of the spores? Of the gametophyte? What cellular process produces the spores? a. Make arrows connecting the sporophyte and gametophyte you drew to show the generalized life cycle. b. Label n, 2n, site of fertilization, meiosis, mitosis 3. If the spore capsule is intact, tease it open by loosening the operculum (tip). Spread the contents out onto a glass slide and prepare a wet mount of the spores. Use the high power microscope for this one (single eye piece). a. Make a detailed sketch of the spore capsule and operculum with a relative size comparison with a few spores in the drawing. Draw this along the corresponding arrow of the moss life cycle. 4. What is the protonemata? What does it become? Is it n or 2n? Is that part of the gametophyte or the sporophyte generation? Check out page 581 for help. a. Sketch it where it belongs into your life cycle circle that you drew for step 2 and label it protonemata and either n or 2n. 5. Return to the green leafy gametophyte, remove a small piece of plant and make a wet mounted slide of it. Examine it close up through the high power microscope. a. Is there any evidence of vascular tissue? How does this relate to the plant’s overall structure/size? How does it get nutrients/eliminate wastes? b. Draw another sketch, this time a close-up of the gametophyte’s cells – do this just to the right of your gametophyte. 6. Use the 5th edition text p. 547 and 553 or p. 577 and 581 of yours to see what Archegonia and Antheridia are and what they look like. a. What generation do the gametangia: archegonia and antheridia belong to? b. Make a simple sketch of these structures – ignoring all of the surrounding tissue - along your life cycle where you would find them. Label them as archegonia and antheridia. c. Is a moss heterosporous or homosporous? (see p. 586 for help) d. Is a moss heteromorphic or isomorphic? e. What is meant by the term embryophyte? 7. What conditions must be present for the sperm to reach the egg? a. Draw the flagellated sperm where it goes into your lifecycle, label it n. 8. List at least 4 features/characteristics that are lacking in the bryophytes but which many other, more evolutionarily advanced plants have.
  2. 2. Fern Lab Please return this lab when you are finished All drawing/labeling is to be done on your white page. Questions that are italicized are answered on your own lined paper. 1. Obtain a fern specimen basket and two microscopes: a hand lens, a low power dissecting scope (2 eye pieces) and a high power scope (monocular) a. Make a neat sketch of the doubly compounded fern plant on the right half of your paper. See p. 716 for an explanation of what doubly compounded means. b. Draw and label rhizoids, fiddle heads, frond, sori, and spores. c. Is this the sporophyte or gametophyte? Label that on the drawing. Also label n or 2n next to your sketches where appropriate. d. Turn to page 585 in your book. Sketch the green heart shaped fern plant (prothaleium) on the left side of your paper. Observe this slide under high power. e. Is this the gametophyte or the sporophyte? Label it as such and also label it with n or 2n. 2. On the gametophyte label and draw the following: a. archegonium, antheridium, egg, sperm, site of fertilization, label n and 2n where appropriate. b. Draw in arrows connecting the lifecycle between the sporophyte and gametophyte. c. Is the gametophyte photosynthetic? Is the sporophyte photosynthetic? 3. Are ferns Homosporous or Heterosporous? Why? 4. Find a fertile frond and find the sori, spore producing structures (there are a few fronds with very dark sori, these are the most mature—use them for this section of the lab). Cut off a small section of the frond containing one or two of these and study it carefully under the dissecting microscope. Find the scale-like “indusium” and carefully tear it away. The sporangia are located below. Remove one of these by its stalk and examine it separately. a. Sketch the sporangium b. To what structure in the moss is each of the spore cases analogous? c. Watch the sporangium periodically. If the conditions are right you may see spores being ejected. What might be the purpose(s) of catapulting the spores out away from the frond? 5. What are xylem and phloem: define them. Try to cut a thin cross section of the fern “stem”. If it is too thick, light will not pass through it and you will not see detail. Place it on a slide and put a drop of water onto it. Put it under the high power (one eye) microscope and sketch it next to your sporophyte drawing. Try to label the xylem and the phloem tubes. You may want to use page 719 & 724 in your text for help identifying each. 6. What are some ways in which ferns are better adapted to land than green algae (3) 7. Has sexual reproduction advanced over that in the moss? 8. Which is the dominant life cycle stage of the fern? Of the moss? 9. What are some ways in which ferns are as adapted to dry land as some other types of plants (3) 10. True or False: Fern eggs and sperm are produced through mitosis. 11. Most fern gametophytes have antheridia and archegonia on the same gametophyte. How do the gametophytes prevent self-fertilization?
  3. 3. SEED PLANTS LAB: Ch. 30 Conifers and Angiosperms 1. Obtain a specimen basket (conifers) one flower a dissecting scope (with two eye pieces) tweezers, a probe and a scalpel colored pencils if you’d like open your textbook to page 566, Ch 30. 2. a. What is the photosynthetic part of a conifer? b. Is this the sporophyte or the gametophyte? c. Is it n or 2n? d. How is this photosynthetic part well adapted to land? 3. Find the two types of cones connected to the branch in the basket. One is smaller than the other. Shake the smaller cone, that will give you a clue for question c. a. Put the small cone on the dissecting scope. What do you see? b. Sketch the small section of the cone produces and holds the clusters of pollen. c. Which is the male and which is the female cone? d. Are the cones haploid or diploid? e. _ _ _ _ _ sporangia develop into male gametophytes (pollen) f. _ _ _ _ sporangia develop into female gametophytes (ova) 4. The definition of Alternation of Generations is that the n and the 2n stages are both multicellular. One would think that the pollen and the egg are only single cells, as they are in humans and other animals. The gametophyte stage in conifers and angiosperms is greatly reduced (re-read p 568-569) Look at figure 30.4 on p.566. a. Draw the female conifer gametophyte(n), #6 in the life cycle. b. Label the many different cells in this gametophyte. c. Look at p.569 and draw #5, the female angiosperm gametophyte(n) of a flowering plant. Notice it is comprised of 8 cells. How many mitotic divisions make 8 cells? d. Label the cells as shown in the text. e. What is endosperm and what is it for? f. What is double fertilization? (only seen in angiosperms) g. Sketch the 2 celled male gametophyte (picture #3, p569), label the picture h. Each haploid cell of the male gametophyte is identical, but each has a different purpose. What are the two cells’ different functions? 5. The Torrey Pine tree distinctively has 5 needles per bundle; the other pine in your basket has 2 needles per bundle. What are some other differences you can? 6. What types of secondary products are found in conifers and angiosperms? 7. With tweezers and a scalpel, carefully dissect your flower, try to identify the parts using p. 567 in your book. Sketch the flower and label each part. When you are done with the external sketching and identification, try to carefully cut through the ovary. Do you see immature seeds? Try putting them under the dissecting microscope. 8. What exactly is a seed? How is it different from a spore? 9. Have you ever eaten an apple? What part of an angiosperm is that? Have you ever eaten a plant embryo? What was it?