Earland's Animal Review - Bio 11
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  • Biology: Life on Earth (Audesirk) Chapter 22 (a) Cnidarians and flatworms have no cavity between the body wall and digestive tract.
  • Biology: Life on Earth (Audesirk) Chapter 22 (b) Roundworms are pseudo-coelomates.
  • Biology: Life on Earth (Audesirk) Chapter 22 (c) Annelids have a true coelom.
  • Biology: Life on Earth (Audesirk) Chapter 22 An evolutionary tree of some major animal phyla
  • Biology: Life on Earth (Audesirk) Chapter 22 Flatworms such as planarians have well-developed organ systems. (a) The elaborately branched digestive system, the centrally located ventral pharynx, and eyespots in the head are clearly visible. (b) (Left) The excretory system consists of branching tubes that conduct excess fluid to the outside through numerous pores. Cilia keep the fluid moving. (Right) The nervous system of flatworms shows clear cephalization, with eyes and a brain composed of ganglia cells in a well-defined head. Ladderlike nerve cords carry signals through the rest of the body.

Transcript

  • 1. Earland
  • 2.
    • Phylogenetic Tree
    • General Trends and Groupings
    • Defining Characteristics of Each Phylum
    • Major Classes within each Phylum
    • Examples or species from each Phylum/Class
    Earland
  • 3. Earland
  • 4.
    • Cellular – Porifera
    • Tissues – Cnidaria
    • Organs- all others
    Earland
  • 5.
    • None – Porifera
    • Radial – Cnidaria
    • Bilateral – All others
      • Pentamerous Radial Symmetry – Echinoderm Adults only
    Earland
  • 6.
    • None – Porifera
    • Diploblastic – Cnidaria
          • endoderm & Ectoderm with mesoglea between
    • Triploblastic – All others
          • Endoderm, Mesoderm, Ectoderm
    Earland
    • Endoderm - digestion and respiration structures
    • Mesoderm - muscles, bones, blood, skin, and reproductive organs
    • Ectoderm - skin, brain, and nervous system
  • 7.
    • Diploblastic Acoelomate – Cnidaria
    • Triploblastic Acoelomates – Platyhelminthes
    • Pseudocelomate – Nematoda
    • Coelomates – Annedlida and everything above
    Earland
  • 8. Earland Digestive Cavity Digestive Lining Solid Tissue Body Wall No cavity between body wall & digestive tract Cnidaria
  • 9. Earland Digestive Cavity Digestive Tract Pseudocoelom Body Wall Body cavity partially lined with mesoderm Partial Lining Nematoda
  • 10. Earland Digestive Cavity Digestive Tract Coelom Body Wall Body cavity completely lined with mesoderm Complete Lining Annelida
  • 11. Earland
  • 12.
    • Bilateral animals can be divided into two main groups based on embryological development
    • Protostomes
      • Body cavity forms within a space between the body wall and the digestive cavity
      • e.g. nematodes, arthropods, flatworms, annelids, mollusks
    • Deuterostomes
      • Body cavity forms as an outgrowth of the digestive cavity
      • e.g. echinoderms, chordates
    Earland
  • 13. Earland Protostome
    • Coelom forms from the solid masses in the embryo
    • blastopore becomes the mouth
    • spiral / determinate cleavage
    • mosaic development
    • (Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca,)
    Deuterostome
    • Coelom forms from a portion of the digestive tube
    • blastopore becomes the anus
    • radial / indeterminate cleavage
    • regulative development
    • (Echinodermata, Chordata)
  • 14. Earland
  • 15. Earland blastopore archenteron (primitive gut) Future anus mouth Blastopore becomes the mouth and the anus forms secondarily
  • 16. Earland blastopore archenteron (primitive gut) Future mouth anus Blastopore becomes the anus and the mouth forms secondarily
  • 17. Earland 2 cells 4 cells 8 cells Blastomeres divide at an oblique angle to one another, so that each lies in the furrow created by the cells beneath them
  • 18. Earland 2 cells 4 cells 8 cells Blastomeres divide in a symmetrical fashion, producing layers of cells directly on top of one another
  • 19. Earland 4-cell stage One blastomere is removed Development is arrested (or is defective)
  • 20. Earland 4-cell stage One blastomere is removed Development continues  each blastomere is capable of regulating its development even when separated from the others Development continues
  • 21. Earland Porifera No true tissues True tissues 2 tissue layers; radial symmetry Ctenophora Cnidaria 3 tissue layers; bilateral symmetry Platyhelminthes No body cavity Body cavity Pseudocoel Nematoda Rotifera Coelom Protostome development Annelida Mollusca Insecta Deuterostome development Mammalia Echino- dermata
  • 22. Earland
  • 23.
    • Simplest Animal
    • Adults are sessile- can’t move on their own
    • Lack true tissues and organs, most are unspecialized – Cell Level of Organization
    • Incomplete digestive system
    • No Symmetry
    Earland
  • 24.
    • Outer layer protects the interior and has many holes through which water can enter the sponge
    • Inner layer are lined with collar cells, which have flagella
    • Amoebocytes wander through the jelly-like material and pick up food from the collar cells for digestions, transport oxygen, dispose of waste and can change into other cells for support
    • Have special chemical defenses to protect from predators, disease organisms, humans use these chemicals
    • Related closely to protists and are the earliest animals.
    Earland
  • 25. Earland
  • 26. Earland
  • 27.
      • Tissue Level of Organization - Cells organized into distinct tissues
      • Rudimentary nerve network and contractile tissue
      • No true organs
      • Incomplete Digestive System - One digestive opening
      • Reproduce sexually and asexually
    Chapter 22
  • 28.
    • Radial symmetry , most do not have a head and are sessile
    • Tentacles with stinging cells called cnidocytes
    • Has poisonous barbs called nematocysts , that fire when touched, once prey has been captured, the tentacles move it to the gastovascular cavity
    Earland
  • 29.
    • Polyp -cylindrical body with tentacles radiating from one end, sessile
    • Medusa - umbrella shaped form with fringed tentacles on the lower edge, move freely
    • Some cnidarians exist in both forms and some one or the other
    Earland
  • 30.
    • Hydrozoa- hydras, some corals, Portuguese man-o-war
    • Scyphozoa-jellyfish
    • Anthozoa- sea anemones and most corals
    Earland
  • 31. Earland
  • 32.
    • The flatworms
      • Development of bilateral symmetry
      • Ability to move forward using aggregations of nerve cells, ganglia
      • True organs begin to evolve
      • Most are hermaphroditic (can self-fertilize)
      • Many are free living—planarians
      • Some are parasitic—tapeworm and fluke
      • Triploblastic -ectoderm-outside, mesoderm-middle, endoderm-inside
      • Incomplete digestive system-1 way in/out
      • Acoelomate -no body cavity
    Chapter 22
  • 33. Chapter 22 (a) Digestive System Gastrovascular Cavity Pharynx (b1) Excretory System Excretory Canal Excretory Pore (b2) Nervous System Nerve Cord Brain
  • 34.
    • Class Turbellaria- planarians , free-living, non-parasitic, live in moist environments
    • Class Trematoda- flukes , parasites that absorb nutrients from the body of a host harming it, may have more than 1 host
    • Class Cestoidea- tapeworms , parasitic, live inside 1 or more hosts, contain flat segments each with reproductive organs
    Earland
  • 35.
    • Roundworms-small, cylindrical worms with pointed heads and tapered tails
    • 3 tissue layers
    • Complete digestive tract with mouth and anus
    • Digestion highly specialized
    • Free-living and non-parasitic roundworms are the most abundant but parasitic types are hookworm, pinworm, threadworm and trichinosis
    • Many are introduced through poorly cooked pork or walk barefoot in infected areas
    Earland
  • 36. Earland Bilateral Triploblastic Pseudocoelom
  • 37.
    • Advanced gastrovascular cavity
      • Tubular
      • Two openings
    • Advanced sensory "ganglionic brain"
    • Lack circulatory and respiratory systems
    • Depend on diffusion for gas exchange
    • Sexual reproduction
    • Most are harmless - Some parasitic
    Chapter 22
  • 38. Earland
  • 39.
    • Segmented worms
    • Closed circulatory system -when blood is contained in vessels
    • Bilateral symmetry
    • Coelomate
      • Class Polychaeta-sandworms, bristleworms
      • Class Oligochaeta-Earthworms
      • Class Hirudinea-leeches
    Earland
  • 40.
    • Repeating rings identical nerve ganglia
    • Excretory structures
    • Advanced locomotion ability
    • Hydrostatic Endoskeleton
    • Sexual Repro. Some hermaphrodites
    • Evolved many rudimentary organ systems
    Chapter 22
  • 41. Earland
  • 42.
    • Muscular mass of tissue called a foot and a multifunctional structure called the mantle
    • Mantle-outgrowth of the body surface that drapes over the animal, produces the shell in clams and snails
    • Gills are housed in the mantle cavity in aquatic species
    Earland
  • 43.
    • Bilateral Symmetry Coelomate
    • Moist muscular body without a skeleton
    • Found in aquatic or moist terrestrial habitats
    • Have a calcium carbonate shell
    • Complex, concentrated, ganglionic brain
    • Open circulatory system
    Chapter 22
  • 44.
    • Foot – Mantle - Visceral Mass - Shell
    • Classes
      • Gastropoda—snails and sea slugs
      • Bivalvia— scallops, oysters, mussels, & clams
      • Cephalopoda—octopuses, squid, nautiluses
    Earland
  • 45. Earland
  • 46.
    • Pentamerous radial symmetry - Lack body segments
    • Rough or spiny surface
    • Dermal endoskeleton
    • Water vascular system -network of fluid-filled canals that branch into tube feet that function in locomotion, feeding, circulation and respiration
    • Many echinoderms can regenerate lost parts and even internal organs
    • External Reproduction with two sexes
    • Larva are bilateral and go through indirect development
    Earland
  • 47.
    • Class Echinoidea-sea urchins
    • Class Asteroidea-sea stars
    • Class Crinoidea- sea lilies
    • Class Holothuroidea- sea cucumbers
    • Class Concentricyloidea-sea daisies
    Earland
  • 48. Earland
  • 49.
    • Notochord
    • Dorsal Hollow Nerve Chord
    • Pharyngeal Slits
    • Postanal Tail
    • Segmented Muscles - M yotomes
    Earland
  • 50.
    • Phylum Chordata
    • Invertebrates Vertebrates
    • Keep Nerve Chord in all
    • Cephalochordata aquatic keep gills Lancelets – all 5 char
    • Urochordata
    • Tunicates/Sea squirts – keep pharyngeal slits only
    Earland