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Ealand Algae Notes Bio 11
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Ealand Algae Notes Bio 11

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  • 1. ALGAE
  • 2.
    • Photosynthetic
    • Live in aqueous environments (ie. In or near water)
    • Lack external tubes to move water and materials from one part of the plant to another
    • Unicellular or multicellular
    • Cells have a cell wall
    • Contain chlorophyll a (sometimes other forms of chlorophyll also)
    • Complicated alternating sexual & asexual reproduction cycles
  • 3.
          • Unicellular algae = Kingdom Protista
          • Multicellular algae = Kingdom Plantae
  • 4.
    • Pros
    • don’t need protection from drying out
      • can have very thin leaf-like structures
        • these thin structures can exchange O2, CO2, & nutrients directly with the H2O
        • no specialized tissues for carrying
    • 2. don’t need stem-like structures for support
    • 3. reproductive cells can swim through water
  • 5.
    • Cons
    • water absorbs much of the suns energy that chlorophyll needs as it passes through it
        • particularly, sea water absorbs large amounts of red and violet wavelengths
  • 6.
    • 1881, the German plant physiologist T. W. Engelmann placed a filamentous green alga under the microscope and illuminated it with a tiny spectrum of visible light.
    • In the medium surrounding the strands were motile, aerobic bacteria.
    • After a few minutes, the bacteria had congregated around the portions of the filament illuminated by red and blue light.
    • Assuming that the bacteria were congregating in regions where oxygen was being evolved in photosynthesis, Engelmann concluded that red and blue light are the most effective colors for photosynthesis.
  • 7.  
  • 8.
    • With modern instruments, a plot of the rate of photosynthesis as a function of wavelength of light produces a graph like this. More precise than Engelmann's but telling the same story .
  • 9.
    • because sea water absorbs most of the red & violet wavelengths, the deeper you get, the dimmer and bluer the light gets
    • dim blue light contains very little energy that chlorophyll a can use
  • 10.
    • Algae has evolved two mechanisms to help
      • Additional types of chlorophyll
        • Chlorophyll b
        • Chlorophyll c
        • Chlorophyll d
      • Accessory pigments
        • Absorb different wavelength of light than chlorophyll and pass the energy they absorb on for photosynthesis
        • Reflect different wavelengths of light than chlorophyll  wide range of algae color
  • 11.
    • 1. Write a paragraph explaining how the following adaptations contribute to the survival of algae in water and might not contribute to the survival of algae on dry land
            • Thin leaf like structures
            • No waterproof covering
            • No stem like structures
            • No system of internal tubes
    • 2. Write a paragraph explaining the restriction that aquatic life places on algae’s photosynthetic ability, the proof of this theory, and the adaptations it has resulted in
  • 12. CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO TYPES OF CHLOROPHYL & ACCESORY PIGMENTS THEY HAVE
  • 13.  
  • 14.
    • Colonies: Assemblage of individual cells with variable or constant number of cells that remain constant throughout the colony life
  • 15.
    • Coenobium: Colony with constant number of cells, which cannot survive alone; specific „tasks“ among groups of cells is common
  • 16.  
  • 17.
    • Single Celled – Chlamydomonas
    • Colonial – Volvox
    • Multicellular – Ulva
  • 18.
    • CONTAIN CHOROPHYLLS a & b
    • STORE FOOD AS STARCH
  • 19.
    • CONTAIN CHLOROPHYLLS a & c
    • ALSO CONTAIN FUCOXANTHIN ACCESORY PIGMENT
  • 20.
    • CONTAIN CHOROPHYLL a & sometimes d
    • ALSO HAVE PHYCOBILIN ACCESORY PIGMENTS
    • LIVE DEEPER IN THE OCEANS BECAUSE PHYCOBILIN IS VERY EFFICIENT AT ABSORBING BLUE LIGHT
  • 21.
    • Algae, the major food of fish (and thus indirectly of many other animals), are a keystone in the aquatic food chain of life; they are the primary producers of the food that provides the energy to power the whole system.
    • They are also important to aquatic life in their capacity to supply oxygen through photosynthesis.
  • 22.
    • Seaweeds, e.g., the kelps and the red algae (nori), have long been used as a source of food, especially in Asia.
    • Kelp are also much used as fertilizer, and kelp ash is used industrially for its potassium and sodium salts.
    • agar and carrageen, used as a stabilizer in foods, cosmetics, and paints.