Earland
<ul><li>Phylogenetic Tree </li></ul><ul><li>General Trends and Groupings </li></ul><ul><li>Defining Characteristics of Eac...
Earland
<ul><li>Cellular –  Porifera </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues –  Cnidaria </li></ul><ul><li>Organs-  all others </li></ul>Earland
<ul><li>None –  Porifera </li></ul><ul><li>Radial –  Cnidaria </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral –  All others </li></ul><ul><ul>...
<ul><li>None –  Porifera </li></ul><ul><li>Diploblastic –  Cnidaria   </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>endoderm & Ectoderm wi...
<ul><li>Diploblastic Acoelomate –  Cnidaria </li></ul><ul><li>Triploblastic Acoelomates –  Platyhelminthes </li></ul><ul><...
Earland Digestive Cavity Digestive Lining Solid Tissue Body Wall No cavity between body wall & digestive tract Cnidaria
Earland Digestive Cavity Digestive Tract Pseudocoelom Body Wall Body cavity partially lined with mesoderm Partial Lining N...
Earland Digestive Cavity Digestive Tract Coelom Body Wall Body cavity completely lined with mesoderm Complete Lining Annel...
Earland
<ul><li>Bilateral animals can be divided into two main groups based on embryological development </li></ul><ul><li>Protost...
Earland Protostome <ul><li>Coelom forms from the solid masses in the embryo </li></ul><ul><li>blastopore becomes the mouth...
Earland
Earland blastopore archenteron (primitive gut) Future anus mouth Blastopore becomes the mouth and the anus forms secondarily
Earland blastopore archenteron (primitive gut) Future mouth anus Blastopore becomes the anus and the mouth forms secondarily
Earland 2 cells 4 cells 8 cells Blastomeres divide at an oblique angle to one another, so that each lies in the furrow cre...
Earland 2 cells 4 cells 8 cells Blastomeres divide in a symmetrical fashion, producing layers of cells directly on top of ...
Earland 4-cell stage One blastomere is removed Development  is arrested  (or is defective)
Earland 4-cell stage One blastomere is removed Development continues    each blastomere is capable of regulating its deve...
Earland Porifera No true tissues True tissues 2 tissue layers; radial symmetry Ctenophora Cnidaria 3 tissue layers; bilate...
Earland
<ul><li>Simplest Animal </li></ul><ul><li>Adults are sessile-  can’t   move on their own </li></ul><ul><li>Lack true tissu...
<ul><li>Outer layer protects the interior and has many holes through which water can enter the sponge </li></ul><ul><li>In...
Earland
Earland
<ul><ul><li>Tissue Level of Organization  - Cells organized into distinct tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rudimentary n...
<ul><li>Radial symmetry , most do not have a head and are sessile </li></ul><ul><li>Tentacles with stinging cells called  ...
<ul><li>Polyp -cylindrical body with tentacles radiating from one end, sessile </li></ul><ul><li>Medusa - umbrella shaped ...
<ul><li>Hydrozoa- hydras, some corals, Portuguese man-o-war </li></ul><ul><li>Scyphozoa-jellyfish </li></ul><ul><li>Anthoz...
Earland
<ul><li>The flatworms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of  bilateral symmetry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to move ...
Chapter 22 (a) Digestive System Gastrovascular Cavity Pharynx (b1) Excretory System Excretory Canal Excretory Pore (b2) Ne...
<ul><li>Class Turbellaria- planarians , free-living, non-parasitic, live in moist environments </li></ul><ul><li>Class Tre...
<ul><li>Roundworms-small, cylindrical worms with pointed heads and tapered tails </li></ul><ul><li>3 tissue layers </li></...
Earland Bilateral Triploblastic Pseudocoelom
<ul><li>Advanced gastrovascular cavity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tubular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two openings </li></ul></u...
Earland
<ul><li>Segmented worms </li></ul><ul><li>Closed circulatory system -when blood is contained in vessels </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Repeating rings identical nerve ganglia </li></ul><ul><li>Excretory structures </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced locomoti...
Earland
<ul><li>Muscular mass of tissue called a foot and a multifunctional structure called the mantle </li></ul><ul><li>Mantle-o...
<ul><li>Bilateral Symmetry  Coelomate </li></ul><ul><li>Moist muscular body without a skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Found in ...
<ul><li>Foot – Mantle - Visceral Mass - Shell </li></ul><ul><li>Classes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gastropoda—snails and sea sl...
Earland
<ul><li>Lack body segments </li></ul><ul><li>Rough or spiny surface </li></ul><ul><li>Contain a tough endoskeleton </li></...
<ul><li>Class Echinoidea-sea urchins </li></ul><ul><li>Class Asteroidea-sea stars </li></ul><ul><li>Class Crinoidea- sea l...
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Animal review

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  • Biology: Life on Earth (Audesirk) Chapter 22 (a) Cnidarians and flatworms have no cavity between the body wall and digestive tract.
  • Biology: Life on Earth (Audesirk) Chapter 22 (b) Roundworms are pseudo-coelomates.
  • Biology: Life on Earth (Audesirk) Chapter 22 (c) Annelids have a true coelom.
  • Biology: Life on Earth (Audesirk) Chapter 22 An evolutionary tree of some major animal phyla
  • Biology: Life on Earth (Audesirk) Chapter 22 Flatworms such as planarians have well-developed organ systems. (a) The elaborately branched digestive system, the centrally located ventral pharynx, and eyespots in the head are clearly visible. (b) (Left) The excretory system consists of branching tubes that conduct excess fluid to the outside through numerous pores. Cilia keep the fluid moving. (Right) The nervous system of flatworms shows clear cephalization, with eyes and a brain composed of ganglia cells in a well-defined head. Ladderlike nerve cords carry signals through the rest of the body.
  • Animal review

    1. 1. Earland
    2. 2. <ul><li>Phylogenetic Tree </li></ul><ul><li>General Trends and Groupings </li></ul><ul><li>Defining Characteristics of Each Phylum </li></ul><ul><li>Major Classes within each Phylum </li></ul><ul><li>Examples or species from each Phylum/Class </li></ul>Earland
    3. 3. Earland
    4. 4. <ul><li>Cellular – Porifera </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues – Cnidaria </li></ul><ul><li>Organs- all others </li></ul>Earland
    5. 5. <ul><li>None – Porifera </li></ul><ul><li>Radial – Cnidaria </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral – All others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pentamerous Radial Symmetry – Echinoderm Adults only </li></ul></ul>Earland
    6. 6. <ul><li>None – Porifera </li></ul><ul><li>Diploblastic – Cnidaria </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>endoderm & Ectoderm with mesoglea between </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Triploblastic – All others </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Endoderm, Mesoderm, Ectoderm </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Earland <ul><li>Endoderm - digestion and respiration structures </li></ul><ul><li>Mesoderm - muscles, bones, blood, skin, and reproductive organs </li></ul><ul><li>Ectoderm - skin, brain, and nervous system </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Diploblastic Acoelomate – Cnidaria </li></ul><ul><li>Triploblastic Acoelomates – Platyhelminthes </li></ul><ul><li>Pseudocelomate – Nematoda </li></ul><ul><li>Coelomates – Annedlida and everything above </li></ul>Earland
    8. 8. Earland Digestive Cavity Digestive Lining Solid Tissue Body Wall No cavity between body wall & digestive tract Cnidaria
    9. 9. Earland Digestive Cavity Digestive Tract Pseudocoelom Body Wall Body cavity partially lined with mesoderm Partial Lining Nematoda
    10. 10. Earland Digestive Cavity Digestive Tract Coelom Body Wall Body cavity completely lined with mesoderm Complete Lining Annelida
    11. 11. Earland
    12. 12. <ul><li>Bilateral animals can be divided into two main groups based on embryological development </li></ul><ul><li>Protostomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body cavity forms within a space between the body wall and the digestive cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. nematodes, arthropods, flatworms, annelids, mollusks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deuterostomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body cavity forms as an outgrowth of the digestive cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. echinoderms, chordates </li></ul></ul>Earland
    13. 13. Earland Protostome <ul><li>Coelom forms from the solid masses in the embryo </li></ul><ul><li>blastopore becomes the mouth </li></ul><ul><li>spiral / determinate cleavage </li></ul><ul><li>mosaic development </li></ul><ul><li>(Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca,) </li></ul>Deuterostome <ul><li>Coelom forms from a portion of the digestive tube </li></ul><ul><li>blastopore becomes the anus </li></ul><ul><li>radial / indeterminate cleavage </li></ul><ul><li>regulative development </li></ul><ul><li>(Echinodermata, Chordata) </li></ul>
    14. 14. Earland
    15. 15. Earland blastopore archenteron (primitive gut) Future anus mouth Blastopore becomes the mouth and the anus forms secondarily
    16. 16. Earland blastopore archenteron (primitive gut) Future mouth anus Blastopore becomes the anus and the mouth forms secondarily
    17. 17. Earland 2 cells 4 cells 8 cells Blastomeres divide at an oblique angle to one another, so that each lies in the furrow created by the cells beneath them
    18. 18. Earland 2 cells 4 cells 8 cells Blastomeres divide in a symmetrical fashion, producing layers of cells directly on top of one another
    19. 19. Earland 4-cell stage One blastomere is removed Development is arrested (or is defective)
    20. 20. Earland 4-cell stage One blastomere is removed Development continues  each blastomere is capable of regulating its development even when separated from the others Development continues
    21. 21. Earland Porifera No true tissues True tissues 2 tissue layers; radial symmetry Ctenophora Cnidaria 3 tissue layers; bilateral symmetry Platyhelminthes No body cavity Body cavity Pseudocoel Nematoda Rotifera Coelom Protostome development Annelida Mollusca Insecta Deuterostome development Mammalia Echino- dermata
    22. 22. Earland
    23. 23. <ul><li>Simplest Animal </li></ul><ul><li>Adults are sessile- can’t move on their own </li></ul><ul><li>Lack true tissues and organs, most are unspecialized – Cell Level of Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete digestive system </li></ul><ul><li>No Symmetry </li></ul>Earland
    24. 24. <ul><li>Outer layer protects the interior and has many holes through which water can enter the sponge </li></ul><ul><li>Inner layer are lined with collar cells, which have flagella </li></ul><ul><li>Amoebocytes wander through the jelly-like material and pick up food from the collar cells for digestions, transport oxygen, dispose of waste and can change into other cells for support </li></ul><ul><li>Have special chemical defenses to protect from predators, disease organisms, humans use these chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Related closely to protists and are the earliest animals. </li></ul>Earland
    25. 25. Earland
    26. 26. Earland
    27. 27. <ul><ul><li>Tissue Level of Organization - Cells organized into distinct tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rudimentary nerve network and contractile tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No true organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incomplete Digestive System - One digestive opening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduce sexually and asexually </li></ul></ul>Chapter 22
    28. 28. <ul><li>Radial symmetry , most do not have a head and are sessile </li></ul><ul><li>Tentacles with stinging cells called cnidocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Has poisonous barbs called nematocysts , that fire when touched, once prey has been captured, the tentacles move it to the gastovascular cavity </li></ul>Earland
    29. 29. <ul><li>Polyp -cylindrical body with tentacles radiating from one end, sessile </li></ul><ul><li>Medusa - umbrella shaped form with fringed tentacles on the lower edge, move freely </li></ul><ul><li>Some cnidarians exist in both forms and some one or the other </li></ul>Earland
    30. 30. <ul><li>Hydrozoa- hydras, some corals, Portuguese man-o-war </li></ul><ul><li>Scyphozoa-jellyfish </li></ul><ul><li>Anthozoa- sea anemones and most corals </li></ul>Earland
    31. 31. Earland
    32. 32. <ul><li>The flatworms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of bilateral symmetry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to move forward using aggregations of nerve cells, ganglia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>True organs begin to evolve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most are hermaphroditic (can self-fertilize) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many are free living—planarians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some are parasitic—tapeworm and fluke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triploblastic -ectoderm-outside, mesoderm-middle, endoderm-inside </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incomplete digestive system-1 way in/out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acoelomate -no body cavity </li></ul></ul>Chapter 22
    33. 33. Chapter 22 (a) Digestive System Gastrovascular Cavity Pharynx (b1) Excretory System Excretory Canal Excretory Pore (b2) Nervous System Nerve Cord Brain
    34. 34. <ul><li>Class Turbellaria- planarians , free-living, non-parasitic, live in moist environments </li></ul><ul><li>Class Trematoda- flukes , parasites that absorb nutrients from the body of a host harming it, may have more than 1 host </li></ul><ul><li>Class Cestoidea- tapeworms , parasitic, live inside 1 or more hosts, contain flat segments each with reproductive organs </li></ul>Earland
    35. 35. <ul><li>Roundworms-small, cylindrical worms with pointed heads and tapered tails </li></ul><ul><li>3 tissue layers </li></ul><ul><li>Complete digestive tract with mouth and anus </li></ul><ul><li>Digestion highly specialized </li></ul><ul><li>Free-living and non-parasitic roundworms are the most abundant but parasitic types are hookworm, pinworm, threadworm and trichinosis </li></ul><ul><li>Many are introduced through poorly cooked pork or walk barefoot in infected areas </li></ul>Earland
    36. 36. Earland Bilateral Triploblastic Pseudocoelom
    37. 37. <ul><li>Advanced gastrovascular cavity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tubular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two openings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advanced sensory &quot;ganglionic brain&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Lack circulatory and respiratory systems </li></ul><ul><li>Depend on diffusion for gas exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Most are harmless - Some parasitic </li></ul>Chapter 22
    38. 38. Earland
    39. 39. <ul><li>Segmented worms </li></ul><ul><li>Closed circulatory system -when blood is contained in vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>Coelomate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Class Polychaeta-sandworms, bristleworms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class Oligochaeta-Earthworms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class Hirudinea-leeches </li></ul></ul>Earland
    40. 40. <ul><li>Repeating rings identical nerve ganglia </li></ul><ul><li>Excretory structures </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced locomotion ability </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrostatic Endoskeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual Repro. Some hermaphrodites </li></ul><ul><li>Evolved many rudimentary organ systems </li></ul>Chapter 22
    41. 41. Earland
    42. 42. <ul><li>Muscular mass of tissue called a foot and a multifunctional structure called the mantle </li></ul><ul><li>Mantle-outgrowth of the body surface that drapes over the animal, produces the shell in clams and snails </li></ul><ul><li>Gills are housed in the mantle cavity in aquatic species </li></ul>Earland
    43. 43. <ul><li>Bilateral Symmetry Coelomate </li></ul><ul><li>Moist muscular body without a skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Found in aquatic or moist terrestrial habitats </li></ul><ul><li>Have a calcium carbonate shell </li></ul><ul><li>Complex, concentrated, ganglionic brain </li></ul><ul><li>Open circulatory system </li></ul>Chapter 22
    44. 44. <ul><li>Foot – Mantle - Visceral Mass - Shell </li></ul><ul><li>Classes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gastropoda—snails and sea slugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bivalvia— scallops, oysters, mussels, & clams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cephalopoda—octopuses, squid, nautiluses </li></ul></ul>Earland
    45. 45. Earland
    46. 46. <ul><li>Lack body segments </li></ul><ul><li>Rough or spiny surface </li></ul><ul><li>Contain a tough endoskeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Water vascular system-network of fluid-filled canals that branch into tube feet that function in locomotion, feeding and respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Many echinoderms can regenerate lost parts and even internal organs </li></ul>Earland
    47. 47. <ul><li>Class Echinoidea-sea urchins </li></ul><ul><li>Class Asteroidea-sea stars </li></ul><ul><li>Class Crinoidea- sea lilies </li></ul><ul><li>Class Holothuroidea- sea cucumbers </li></ul><ul><li>Class Concentricyloidea-sea daisies </li></ul>Earland
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