MONOCOTS include corn, wheat, lilies, daffodils, orchids, and palms
DICOTS include roses, clover, tomatoes, oaks, and daisies
There are several differences between these two groups:
Name of organ Monocots Dicots Coteledons = leaves of embryo One seed leaf Two seed leaves Stem thickness Don’t grow thicker yearly Grow thicker yearly
Name of plant organ Structure in monocots Structure in dicots Function of organ ROOTS One function of a root is to absorb water and nutrients. A second function is to anchor the plant to keep it from moving.
STEMS One function is to provide support A second is to transport water to leaves and sugars to root
Name of plant organ Structure in monocots Structure in dicots Function of organ LEAVES One function is to capture sunlight A second is to provide the function of photosynthesis in special organelles A third is to provide exchange for CO 2 and O 2 (carbon dioxide in and oxygen out)
Name of plant organ Structure in monocots Structure in dicots Function of organ FLOWERS AND FRUITS Sexual reproduction
The nucleus of the megaspore undergoes 3 successive mitotic divisions. The 8 nuclei that result are distributed and partitioned off by cell walls to form the embryo sac . This is the mature female gametophyte generation .
The egg cell will start the new sporophyte generation if it is fertilized.
The large central cell, which in most angiosperms contains two polar nuclei , will after its fertilization develop into the endosperm of the seed.
When a pollen grain reaches the stigma, it germinates into a pollen tube . The generative nucleus divides by mitosis forming 2 sperm nuclei . These, along with the tube nucleus, migrate down the pollen tube as it grows through the style and into the ovule chamber.
The pollen tube with its contents makes up the mature male gametophyte generation .
Fruits are a development of the ovary wall and sometimes other flower parts as well.
Fruits promote the dispersal of their content of seeds in a variety of ways.
Wind. The maple "key" and dandelion parachute are examples.
Water. Many aquatic angiosperms and shore dwellers (e.g., the coconut palm) have floating fruits that are carried by water currents to new locations.
Hitchhikers. The cocklebur and sticktights achieve dispersal of their seeds by sticking to the coat (or clothing) of a passing animal.
Edible fruits. Nuts and berries entice animals to eat them. Buried and forgotten (nuts) or passing through their g.i. tract unharmed (berries), the seeds may end up some distance away from the parent plant.
Mechanical. Some fruits, as they dry, open explosively expelling their seeds. The pods of many legumes (e.g., wisteria) do this.