Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience<br />Market-o...
Background<br />Increasing urbanization<br />Increasing income<br />Increasing demand for meat, milk and milk products <br...
But, hindered by <br />Weak AI delivery system and low pregnancy rates<br />Inbreeding??<br />High prices for improved dai...
Simple requirement for cattle reproductive performance <br />Cow♀<br />Bull♂<br />Environment<br />Nutrition<br />Genetic<...
Reproductive cycle<br />Involution/breeding season<br />Critical 75-90 days<br />Parturition<br />Conception<br />Gestatio...
Some technological options<br />Conventional artificial insemination (AI)<br />Hormonal oestrus synchronization plus AI<br...
Stages of bovine oestrous cycle<br />
What is oestrus synchronization?<br />Occurrence/induction of estrus in all females in a group at the same time; or simply...
Natural hormones for oestrus synchronization<br />Prostaglandins<br />PRID<br />Syncromate B <br />Ear Implant<br />
General Response to Prostaglandin: PGF2α<br /><ul><li>Estrus  (heat): 2-5 days after treatment
Estrus interval - heifers ~50 hours;   cows ~72 hours
Estrus response  - about 60-65% of treated herd
Pregnancy rate to AI – about 50% of responding cows/heifers</li></li></ul><li>Why synchronize? - Ethiopian context<br />To...
Options to improve use of human resource for AI services <br />Use of Regional/Zonal mobile teams; AI large numbers of ani...
Performance of existing AI system (National data; Dessalegn et al., 2010)  <br />One AI technician inseminates about 300 a...
Mobile teams - preliminary data from Tigray and SNNPR<br />Oestrus response to hormonal treatment = 90%<br />Two AI techni...
A Possible Scenario<br />
Assumptions on annual output of a mobile team<br />Two person team <br />work 40 weeks in 10 villages/year  (2 weeks/villa...
Applying this to the proposed plan  - Oromia<br />Existing plan<br />Sixty (60) Woredas/year involving 60 technicians<br /...
Management  factors affecting conception<br />Animal handling facility<br />A.I. technicians <br />Body condition score, h...
Just do the right thing and do it right – <br />No silver bullet!!<br />
Attempts to solve the problem<br />IPMS Experience <br />Tigray, Amhara, SNNPR<br />
Hands-on training - regional teams @ EMDTI<br />
Community Mobilization – Mekelle-AdigratMilkshed, Tigray and Dale, SNNPR<br />
Good site, lots of space and good animal handling facility!<br />Poor animal handling facility<br />
Good conditioned animals<br />
Poor conditioned animals<br />Pre-mature heifer calves<br />
An old man asked by his wife to take the cows…no clue about the cow..when asked about the cow, he says ‘let me check with ...
Women know better about their cows!!<br />
Many on-lookers affect efficiency!!<br />
Support from administration and PA officials… KEY<br />
Explain properly and set clear expectations<br />
Agree on clear roles and responsibilities<br />
Practice, practice, practice  - Key<br />
Team work and multi-tasking – Key and critical<br />
A little experience and record keeping!<br />
Poor animal handling facility – causes stress, is high risk, creates inefficiency!!<br />
Be prepared for on the spot insemination and treatment of some sick animals <br />
Exhausted…….some break! Carry enough water and some food...<br />
Beef System – Metema, Amhara<br />Good export market – live animals & meat<br />High cattle population and large holdings<...
Highland Zebu, Transhumance & Heat Stress<br />
Young Boran bulls at Andassa Ranch, Bahir Dar<br />
Supplemented with synchronization and AI<br />
Boran crossbred calves…<br />
Key lessons<br />Capacity building – multidisciplinary regional teams<br />Proper Planning – commodity development<br />En...
THE FUTURE  <br />(for discussion) <br />
Introduction and testing other dairy breeds for fluid milk and butter systems<br />Guernsey<br />Jersey<br />Ayrshire<br /...
Beef system - Our own Boran….in <br />Kenya<br />South Africa<br />USA<br />Australia<br />
Potential milk sheds for fluid milk<br />Tigray<br /><ul><li>Adgirat-Mekelle
Adwa-Axum-Shire</li></ul>Amhara<br /><ul><li>Gondar
Bahir Dar
Debre Markos
Dessie
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Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience

  1. 1. Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience<br />Market-oriented Smallholder Development <br />Azage Tegegne<br />IPMS Experience Sharing Workshop<br />June 2 - 3, 2011<br />
  2. 2. Background<br />Increasing urbanization<br />Increasing income<br />Increasing demand for meat, milk and milk products <br />Excellent pre-conditions<br />GoE– favourable enabling environment, GTP, AGP, LGP<br />Suitable agro-ecology <br />Large livestock population <br />Tradition of livestock keeping <br />Culture of consumption of animal products <br />Large labour force <br />Huge market opportunity, etc<br />
  3. 3. But, hindered by <br />Weak AI delivery system and low pregnancy rates<br />Inbreeding??<br />High prices for improved dairy animals<br />About 50% - male calves in dairy system<br />Low level of promotion of indigenous breeds<br />Weak targeted technological interventions<br />
  4. 4. Simple requirement for cattle reproductive performance <br />Cow♀<br />Bull♂<br />Environment<br />Nutrition<br />Genetic<br />Diseases<br />Management<br />Joining/Mating<br />Conception<br />Calving<br />Weaning<br />
  5. 5. Reproductive cycle<br />Involution/breeding season<br />Critical 75-90 days<br />Parturition<br />Conception<br />Gestation<br />280 days<br />
  6. 6. Some technological options<br />Conventional artificial insemination (AI)<br />Hormonal oestrus synchronization plus AI<br />Sexed semen<br />Sex fixer<br />Embryo transfer and sexed embryos<br />In-vitro fertilization plus sexed semen<br />
  7. 7. Stages of bovine oestrous cycle<br />
  8. 8. What is oestrus synchronization?<br />Occurrence/induction of estrus in all females in a group at the same time; or simply…<br />
  9. 9. Natural hormones for oestrus synchronization<br />Prostaglandins<br />PRID<br />Syncromate B <br />Ear Implant<br />
  10. 10. General Response to Prostaglandin: PGF2α<br /><ul><li>Estrus (heat): 2-5 days after treatment
  11. 11. Estrus interval - heifers ~50 hours; cows ~72 hours
  12. 12. Estrus response - about 60-65% of treated herd
  13. 13. Pregnancy rate to AI – about 50% of responding cows/heifers</li></li></ul><li>Why synchronize? - Ethiopian context<br />To produce large number and uniform animals of desired germplasm (kick start) <br />To match calving with feed availability and market demand for dairy and meat <br />To control heat period and allow more accurate AI service<br />To improve the effectiveness and efficiency of AI service (AI staff deal year round; no AI in rural areas (butter and/or meat) <br />Possibility of avoiding milk production during fasting season <br />
  14. 14. Options to improve use of human resource for AI services <br />Use of Regional/Zonal mobile teams; AI large numbers of animals in a two weeks period through:<br />Community mobilization to bring animals with the desired characteristics to a central point with good animal handling facility<br />Use of hormonal synchronization and subsequent inseminationwithin 2-5 days of treatment<br />In a dairy system, use of sexed semen or sex fixer to increase the number of female <br />
  15. 15. Performance of existing AI system (National data; Dessalegn et al., 2010) <br />One AI technician inseminates about 300 animals per year<br />Pregnancy rate to first AI is about 27% = 81 calves/year<br />50% female = 41 calves/year<br />
  16. 16. Mobile teams - preliminary data from Tigray and SNNPR<br />Oestrus response to hormonal treatment = 90%<br />Two AI technicians working in as a team can inseminate about 200 synchronized cows in a 2 week period – 100 cows/AI technician<br />Result of pregnancy testing - 60% (due to increased precision and effectiveness of AI) <br />
  17. 17. A Possible Scenario<br />
  18. 18. Assumptions on annual output of a mobile team<br />Two person team <br />work 40 weeks in 10 villages/year (2 weeks/village)<br />synchronize & inseminate 200 cows/village = 2000 cows<br />1000 cows/AI technician <br />Pregnancy rate of 60% = 600 calves/AI technician<br />Use of sex fixer/sexed semen = 90% female<br />Number of female calves per AI technician = 540/year<br />
  19. 19. Applying this to the proposed plan - Oromia<br />Existing plan<br />Sixty (60) Woredas/year involving 60 technicians<br />300 AI x 60 technician = 18,000 AI/year<br />50% pregnancy rate = 9,000 (improved performance)<br />50% female calves = 4,500 female calves/year <br />Alternative approach<br />This would result in:<br />60 technicians x 540 female calves = 32,400 calves/year (7.2 times higher)<br />
  20. 20. Management factors affecting conception<br />Animal handling facility<br />A.I. technicians <br />Body condition score, health and cyclicity of cows/heifers<br />Semen quality and handling techniques<br />Heat detection accuracy and time of insemination<br />Heat stress <br />
  21. 21. Just do the right thing and do it right – <br />No silver bullet!!<br />
  22. 22. Attempts to solve the problem<br />IPMS Experience <br />Tigray, Amhara, SNNPR<br />
  23. 23. Hands-on training - regional teams @ EMDTI<br />
  24. 24. Community Mobilization – Mekelle-AdigratMilkshed, Tigray and Dale, SNNPR<br />
  25. 25. Good site, lots of space and good animal handling facility!<br />Poor animal handling facility<br />
  26. 26. Good conditioned animals<br />
  27. 27. Poor conditioned animals<br />Pre-mature heifer calves<br />
  28. 28. An old man asked by his wife to take the cows…no clue about the cow..when asked about the cow, he says ‘let me check with my wife first…’<br />School children with <br />no clue about the cow!!<br />
  29. 29. Women know better about their cows!!<br />
  30. 30. Many on-lookers affect efficiency!!<br />
  31. 31. Support from administration and PA officials… KEY<br />
  32. 32. Explain properly and set clear expectations<br />
  33. 33. Agree on clear roles and responsibilities<br />
  34. 34. Practice, practice, practice - Key<br />
  35. 35. Team work and multi-tasking – Key and critical<br />
  36. 36. A little experience and record keeping!<br />
  37. 37. Poor animal handling facility – causes stress, is high risk, creates inefficiency!!<br />
  38. 38. Be prepared for on the spot insemination and treatment of some sick animals <br />
  39. 39. Exhausted…….some break! Carry enough water and some food...<br />
  40. 40. Beef System – Metema, Amhara<br />Good export market – live animals & meat<br />High cattle population and large holdings<br />Large underutilized feed resource<br />Mainly highland zebu brought with settlers<br />Mismatch between genotype and environment<br />High environmental stress, particularly heat<br />Lower fertility and calving rate<br />High pre-weaning calf mortality<br />Slower growth rate, low market weight<br />Lower milk production<br />
  41. 41. Highland Zebu, Transhumance & Heat Stress<br />
  42. 42. Young Boran bulls at Andassa Ranch, Bahir Dar<br />
  43. 43. Supplemented with synchronization and AI<br />
  44. 44. Boran crossbred calves…<br />
  45. 45. Key lessons<br />Capacity building – multidisciplinary regional teams<br />Proper Planning – commodity development<br />Ensure necessary equipment and supplies for the team and safe and efficient field operation<br />Leadership - team formation, clear roles and responsibilities<br />Awareness creation and community mobilization<br />Facilities – animals handling, lab, equipment, etc<br />Technical, organizational & institutional arrangements<br />The technology is a means not an end by itself!!<br />Synchronization ≠ milk or meat!!!<br />
  46. 46. THE FUTURE <br />(for discussion) <br />
  47. 47. Introduction and testing other dairy breeds for fluid milk and butter systems<br />Guernsey<br />Jersey<br />Ayrshire<br />Norwegian Red<br />Brown Swiss<br />
  48. 48. Beef system - Our own Boran….in <br />Kenya<br />South Africa<br />USA<br />Australia<br />
  49. 49. Potential milk sheds for fluid milk<br />Tigray<br /><ul><li>Adgirat-Mekelle
  50. 50. Adwa-Axum-Shire</li></ul>Amhara<br /><ul><li>Gondar
  51. 51. Bahir Dar
  52. 52. Debre Markos
  53. 53. Dessie
  54. 54. Debre Berhan</li></ul>Oromia<br /><ul><li>Addis Ababa
  55. 55. Adama
  56. 56. Jimma
  57. 57. Ambo
  58. 58. Arsi
  59. 59. Wellega
  60. 60. Zewai-Shashemene</li></ul>SNNPR<br /><ul><li>Awassa-Dilla
  61. 61. Arbaminch
  62. 62. Butajira-Soddo</li></ul>Special<br /><ul><li>Harar
  63. 63. Dire Dawa
  64. 64. Jigjiga</li></li></ul><li>Potential for beef production and development using Boran cattle<br />
  65. 65. Sperm sexing technology<br />First commercial sexed semen 1999. <br />Flow cytometersare used to sort female sperm cells from the male sperm cells. <br />The female (X bearing chromosome) contains 3.8% more DNA than the male (Y bearing chromosome). <br />It is this difference in DNA content that is detected by the sensors when the sperm cells pass by a laser beam, one at a time in a fluid stream. <br />
  66. 66. On average sexed semen straw contains over 90% female sperm cells <br />In dairy system, almost doubles the number of heifer calves produced<br />Sex fixer with active constituent blocks the H-Y antibody receptor site on ovum; effectively blocking chance of Y chromosome from binding with ovum <br />
  67. 67. Mid to long-term – ET and in-vitro fertilization <br />
  68. 68. Training EIAR researchers – in-vitro fertilization technique<br />
  69. 69. Thank You!<br />♀<br />♂<br />

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