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Sericulture production guide

Sericulture production guide






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    Sericulture production guide Sericulture production guide Presentation Transcript

    • ¾N` MTƒ S] °pÉ
    • ¾N` MTƒ S] °pÉ ¯LT¾S] °pÆ ¯LT ¾N` U`ƒ” uw³ƒ“uØ^ƒ uTU[ƒ“ KÑuÁ uTp[w ›U^‡Ñu= ”Ç=Áј“ ¾’<a Å[ͨ<” ”Ç=ÁhiM›Ñ]~ ÅÓV Å[p ¾N` Ÿ<Ÿ<v” ¨ÃU Ø_¾N` É`” ¨ÃU ¾}gS’< ¾N` Mwf‹”uTU[ƒ“ K¨Ü ÑuÁ uTp[w ¾¨<ßU”³]” ”Ɂð^ Te‰M ’¨<::
    • Ów}¿¡•KAÍ=¨<” uTeóóƒ U`ƒ KÑuÁ ¡•KAÍ=¨<”¾T>unuƒ” G<’@ SõÖ`::
    • W”Ö[» 1 Ÿõ}— N` ›U^‹ ›Ña‹ /T@.„”/ ›Ñ` 1991 1993 1994 ‰Ã“ 46.4 54.5 58.0 Q”É 11.49 13.0 14.5 Íû” 5.7 5.0 4.5Å/¢`Á 1.2 1.2 1.6 w^²=M 1.9 2.37 2.5 U”ß:- ¯KU›kõ ¾N` T%u`
    • ¾N` U`ƒ Ówà W”Ö[» 2 Ÿõ}— N` LŸ= ›Ña‹“ ¾Ñu= SÖ” /.›?.›. 2000-2002/}.l ›Ñ` U`ƒ /T@.„/ Ñu= /¾›T@]μ” ÊL`/ ,000 2000 2001 2002 2000 2001 20021 ‰Ã“ 17,52® 14,485 17,842 33,3594 282,166 268,6522 ~`¡T@”e” 4,010 4,010 4,010 S.› S.› S.›3 Q”É 1,927 1,637 962 11,369 11,909 4,1414 Ë`S” 1,566 1,293 835 25,296 21,593 12,6045 ›<´u?¡e” 1,600 1,600 898 7,310 7,310 1,8826 ›¨<eƒ^K=Á 2,630 198 740 3,502 459 1,1247 ¿.›?e.›?. 466 384 1,410 2,229 2,352 2,3398 y?ƒ“U 340 880 560 2,470 2,810 7049 ÃL”É 700 271 178 4,194 3,315 2,08010 ×K=Á” 209 189 636 4,302 3,772 9,315 U”ß :- FAO trade Yearbook,2002 S.› - S[Í ›M}Ñ–U
    • ¾N` MTƒ” KTeóóƒK=Ÿ“¨’< ¾T>Ñv†¨< }Óv^ƒ
    • ¾YMÖ“ ›ÑMÓKAƒ SeÖƒ“ TÖ“Ÿ`G. ¾›ß` Ñ>²? YMÖ“ ¾›WM×™‹ YMÖ“ ¾MTƒ W^}Æ‹ ¾Ñu_−‹ YMÖ“ ¾›ß` Ñ>²? Ñ<w˜ƒK. sT> YMÖ“N. ¾[ÏU Ñ>²? YMÖ“YMÖ“¨< ¾”Ð] ¨ÃU ¾Ñ<KA }¡M MTƒ ¾N` ƒM `u=/MTƒ/ ¾N` É%[ U`ƒ ‚¡•KAÍ=
    • ¾N` MTƒ” KTeóóƒ K=Ÿ“¨’< ¾T>Ñv†¨< }Óv^ƒ1. ¾YMÖ“ ›ÑMÓKAƒ SeÖƒ“ TÖ“Ÿ`G. ¾›ß` Ñ>²? YMÖ“ ¾›WM×™‹ YMÖ“ ¾MTƒ W^}Æ‹ ¾Ñu_−‹ YMÖ“ ¾›ß` Ñ>²? Ñ<w˜ƒK. sT> YMÖ“N. ¾[ÏU Ñ>²? YMÖ“›ÖnLà YMÖ“¨< :- ¾”Ð] ¨ÃU ¾Ñ<KA }¡M MTƒ ¾N` ƒM `u=/MTƒ/ ¾N` É%[ U`ƒ ‚¡•KAÍ=
    • 2. ¾›?¡e‚”i” ›ÑMÓKAƒ SeÖƒFTC” T°ŸM ÁÅ[Ñ ¾‚¡’>¡ ÉÒõ U¡` ¾Ø^ƒ lØØ`
    • 3. ¾N` ƒM ²` T^u=Á“ Tv¹ ×u=Á TssU ¾N` ƒM ¨LÏ ²` /Parent stock/ ¾N` ƒM SY^ƒ ²` /Basic seed/
    • 4. ¾N` ƒM S• °îªƒ ²` T^u=Á“ Tv¹×u=Á TssU uôÈ^M u¡MKA‹
    • W”Ö[» 3:- ¨Å›Ñ^‹” K=Ñu< ¾T>‹K< ¾”Ð] }¡M ²a‹ /Varieties/ ¾²` ¯Ã’ƒ (Variety) uSe• ¨ÃU u´“w K=KS< eKS‰M U”ß u¯Sƒ ¾T>ÁeÑ–<ƒ ¾pÖM SÖ” /„”/ Kanva-2 uSe• ßU` ¾T>KT Q”É 30-35 S-36 ““ “” “” “” 38-45 S-54 ““ “” “” “” 45 S-1 ““ “” “” “” S[Í ¾KU S-799 ““ “” “” “” “” S-1635 ““ “” “” “” “” S-246 ““ “” “” “” “” S-13 u´“w ¾T>KT Q”É 8-10 S-34 ““ “” ““ 15 HR-2 ““ “” ““ 30-25 China White - ‰Ã“ 15-20 Chak majra - ““ 20-22 S-41 - ÃL”É S.›
    • 5. KT`u=Á ¡õM ¾T>ÁeðMÑ< Ów¯„‹” TÅ^˃6. KN` ƒKA‹“ KS• °îªƒ Ö?“ Øun TÉ[Ó ui−‹ }vÄ‹7. ¾N` U`U` T°ŸLƒ” TssU& TÖ“Ÿ` ¾”Ð] }¡M Ø“ƒ ¾`u=“ ¾²` ‚¡•KAÍ= Ø“ƒ ¾N` É%[U`ƒ ‚¡•KAÍ= ¾N` MTƒ ›?¡e‚”i”“ U`U``
    • 8. ¾ÑuÁ G<’@” TS‰†ƒ›U^Œ‹” uT%u` uTÅ^˃ ¾ÑuÁ ›pUSõÖ`¾Ñu_ ¿’>¾•‹ ¾Ÿ<Ÿ<v ”ÓÉ u=ÁŸ“¨<’< ¾Ñu= °ÉM”ÇL†¨< Td¨p&›U^Œ‹ uŸ}V‹ ›μvu= ŸT>Ñ–<“ ¾É%[ U`ƒ}¿¡•KAÍ= ŸT>ÖkS< vKGw„‹ Ò` Ó”–<’ƒ ¡•KAÍ=”Ç=•^†¨< TÉ[Ó&¾¨Ü ÑuÁ” uTðLKÓ Ÿ›U^Œ‹ ¨ÃU Ÿ¿’>¾•‹ Ò`TÑ“–ƒvKGw„‹ u”ÓÉ Y^ Là ”Ç=d}ñ ¾TÉ[Ó }Óv`¾ÑuÁ S[Í Y`¯ƒ Ó”v TÉ[Ó
    • 9. ¾N` É%[U`ƒ ‚¡•KAÍ= Tv³ƒ“ TW^Úƒ10. ¾Ø^ƒ“ Å[Í lØØ` TÉ[ÓG. Ø^ƒ Ÿõ}— ¾N` SÖ” /Higher silk content/ `´Sƒ /Longer filament/ ¾SÖ”Ö” wnƒ /Reelability/ ¾T>uLg< Ÿ<wŸ<v−‹ SÖ” % /Percentage of defective cocoons/K. Å[Í T¨<׃N. lØØ` TÉ[Ó11. ¾wÉ` ›p`xƒ KÑu_−‹ KvKGw„‹12. uvKÉ`h−‹ SNM ¾p”σ Y^ SõÖ`
    • ¾N` MTƒ ¾Se¡ Y^ ”penc?¾Ów`“ Y^ /Agro-business/›Ç=e ‚¡•KAÍ=¨ÅÑu_¨< ¾W[ç¨< u1996 ¯.U Å/w/w/Q/ ¡MM1997 ¯.U *aT>Á& ›T^& ƒÓ^áMKA‹
    • . ¾¡MM ”penc?−‹II ¾¡MM ”penc?−‹1. ¾Å/w/w/Q 31 ¨[Ç−‹ }S`Ö¨< 450 u<É•‹” KTssU pÊ Ÿ20-35 ›vLƒ ¾T>Ñ–<uƒ 56 ¾c?ƒ u<É•‹ }Å^Ï}ªM& Ÿ’²=I ¨<eØ 17 u<É•‹ uÑ<KA N` ƒM Y^ ËU[ªM:: 2715 Ñu_−‹ /1779 c?ƒ& 936 ¨”É“ 31 vKS<Á−‹ YMÖ“ ›Ó˜}ªM:: 1077.5 uLà Ÿ<wŸ<v }S`„ 600 Ÿ=.Ó ÁIM }g×DM:: G<Kƒ ¾ÓM ›U^Œ‹ u¨` eŸ 100 Ÿ=.Ó Ÿ<wŸ<v ¾TU[ƒ ›pU ðØ[¨< SgØ ËU[ªM::
    • uÓKcw ¾”Ð] N` ƒM ²` Ñw…M::World Vision, Self Help DevelopmentEthiopia, Goal Ethiopia Plan International¾}¨c’ ¾T‚]ÁM“ ¾YMÖ“ ÉÒõ¾cÖ< ÃÑ—K<::¾›ªX Ów`“ U`U` É`σ ¾Ñ<KA N`ƒM ²` TÅ^˃ ËUbM:: ¾”Ð]}¡MU Áv³ ÃÑ—M::
    • 2. ›aT>Á10 μ•‹“ 53 ¨[Ç−‹ KMT~ }S`ÖªM:: 95 Ñu_−‹ TMTƒ ËU[ªM:: K315 ¾μ”“ ¾¨[Ç Ów`““ ÑÖ` MTƒ ê/u?ƒ Lò−‹ ¾Ó”³u? TeÚuÝ ®¨<ÅØ“ƒ }"H>ÇDM:: K139 ¾¨[Ç vKS<Á−‹ YMÖ“ }cØ…M:: ¾N` MTƒ ûŸ?Ï u*aT>— }²ÒÏ„ KvKS<Á−‹}cØ…M:: 136.5 Ÿ=.Ó Ÿ<wŸ<v }S`„ 74.5 Ÿ=.Ó }g×DM:: 53 Ÿ=.Ó uÑuÁ Ùƒ ›M}gÖU:: 9 Ÿ=.Ó Ø^ƒ ¾TÁTEL eKJ’ KiÁß ›Mk[uU:: ›”É vKGwƒ u”Ð] N` ƒM MTƒ ËUbM:: Ÿ53 ¨[Ç−‹ K265 Ñu_−‹ /Ÿ¾¨[Ǩ< 5 / YMÖ“ KSeÖƒ pÇDM:: 150,000 ¾”Ð] }¡M l`Ø^ß KSƒŸM pÇDM::
    • 3. ›T^ 34 ¨[Ç−‹ }S`ÖªM:: K60 ÁIM ¾¨[Ç vKS<Á−‹ YMÖ“}cØ…M:: uÑuÁ eƒ^‚Í= Là ®¨<Å Ø“ƒ }"H>ÇDM:: T’<ªK< }²ÒÏ„ }cØ…M:: Ñu_−‹ Y^ ËU[ªM:: ¾”Ð] N` ƒM ²¨< Ÿ¨<ß Ñw…M:: 74 Ÿ=.Ó Ÿ<wŸ<v }S`…M:: ¾¡MK< Ønp”“ ›’e}— ›=”Æeƒ] u=a“SIDA uMT~ Là }dƒö ÁÅ[Ñ ÃÑ—M::
    • ¾›Èƒ Ów`“ U`U` É`σ ŸŸ?”Á ¾”Ð]}¡M l`Ø^ß /uvariety Å[Í vÁ¨pU/›eÑw„ Áv³ ÃÑ—M:: c=Å`eU uÓw`““ ÑÖ`MTƒ u=a uŸ<M K}ÖnT>−‹ ÃW^ÝM::u23 ¨[Ç−‹ K46 ¾MTƒ ×u=Á W^}™‹“115 Ñu_−‹ YMÖ“ KSeÖƒ °pÉ }óDM::u23 ¨[Ç−‹ 115 ¾N` MTƒ W`„ TdÁ×u=Á−‹” KSÑ”vƒ“ KTÅ^˃ pÇDM::¨Å 407,200 ÁIM ¾”Ð] }¡M l`Ø^ßKSƒŸMpÇDM:
    • 4. ƒÓ^à K10 ¾¨[Ç“ ¡MM vKS<Á−‹ YMÖ“ u14 ¨[Ç−‹ KT>Ñ–< ¾”edƒ °`v“ ¾Å” MTƒ vKS<Á ¾Ó”³u? TeÚuÝ }cØ…M:: u14 ¨[Ç−‹ 98000 ¾”Ð] }¡M ²` }}¡LDM:: uÑ<KA N` ƒM ›”É ÓKcw ¾MTƒ Y^ ËUbM:: ¾N` MTƒ T’<ªM }²ÒÏ„ }W^ß…M:: u20 ¨[Ç−‹ 1400 Ñu_−‹” uMT~ Là KTd}õ“ 500000 ¾”Ð] }¡M ²` l`Ø^ß KTW^Úƒ pÇDM::
    • III. ¾ôÈ^M ”penc? ¾N` MTƒ S] °pÉ }²ÒÏ…M & ¾N` MTƒ þK=c=“ eƒ^‚Í= }²ÒÏ…M:: ¾N` MTƒ ‚¡•KAÍ= ûŸ?Ï /u”Ð] }¡M/ }²ÒÏ„ }W^ß…M:: ¾”Ð] }¡M ²` /K2 “ S13/ ŸQ”É Ñw„ u›LÑ@ ¢K?Ï ¾}v³ ÃÑ—M& ŸÓ”xƒ SÚ[h ËUa ÃW^ÝM:: ¾N` ƒM ²` Tv¹ T°ŸM u›LÑ@ ¢K?Ï ¾}Ñ’v ÃÑ—M:: ¾N` Ÿ<wŸ<v ›U^Œ‹”“ }S^T]−‹” Ád}ð ›Ñ` ›kõ ¾N` MTƒ ®¨ÅØ“ƒ }"H>ÇDM:: MT~ u¾¡MK< K‚¡’>¡ ÉÒõ ›c×Ø“ KÓwà ”Ç=ÁS‹ }wKA uŸ<ÑÖU /clustering/ ”Ç="H@É }Å`ÕM::
    • K31 ŸÅ/w/w/Q&›T^&*aT>Á“ ƒÓ^à ¡MMK}¨<×Ö< vKS<Á−‹ ¾21 k” ¾›WM×™‹YMÖ“ }cØ…M::K3 vKS<Á−‹ ¾3 dU”ƒ ¾MUÉ M¨<¨<Øu‰Ã“ }Å`ÕM::¾Y^ SÅw ”Ç=ðkÉ ¾Y^ ´`´` }²ÒÏ„k`vDM::¾”Ð] N` ƒM ²` u²Lm’ƒ TW^Úƒ”Ç=‰M u›Ñ` ¨<eØ ¾N` ƒM ¨LÏ ²`T^u=Á /Parent stock/ KTÅ^˃ vKS<Á“K›Ñ^‹” ¾T>eTS< ²a‹ KTeÑvƒ ¾›ß`Ñ>²? °pÉ }óDM::uN` MTƒ .›?.›. 2006-2010 ¯.U PASDEP}²ÒÏ…M:: MT~” ¾ËS ¡MKA‹”ÁÖnMLM::
    • IV. ¾N` MTƒ“ Ówà }Óv^ƒ u‰Ã“MT~ uT>SKŸ†¨< ¾S”ÓYƒ ›"Lƒ“û`+−‹ ›S^`& Lò’ƒ“ }ÖÁm’ƒ
    • ¾Ów`“ T>’>e‚` /Ministry of AgricultureLò’„‹ þK=c= S”Åõ& eƒ^‚Í= Sk¾e& SS]Á T¨<׃ ¾”Ð] }¡M ²` TÅ^˃ ¾N` ƒM ²` TÅ^˃ /Parent stock & basic seed/ ¾T>S[~ƒ” ¾”Ð] }¡M“ ¾N` ƒM ²` Ø^ƒ uSq×Ö` ¨Å}ÖkT>−‹ ”Ç=Å`c< TÉ[Ó ¾}T[ ¾c¨< ÃM /uU`U`& uMTƒ& ¨}.../SõÖ` ¾YMÖ““ ¾›?¡e‚”i” ›ÑMÓKAƒ SeÖƒ ¾ÉÒõ ð”É /Supporting fund/ uSSÅw Ñu_−‹” Tu[ƒ ¾N` ƒM ui“ ÖL„‹ Sɏ’>ƒ TU[ƒ“TW^Úƒ
    • K”Ð] }¡M ui−‹“ ÖL„‹Sɏ’>ƒ TÅ^˃¾ŸwŸ<v Ó¸ ×u=Á“ ¾TU[‰ ów]"TssU /uËT] Ó³„‹/¾Ÿ<wŸ<v U`ƒ Ø^ƒ” Sq×Ö`wÉ` TS‰†ƒvKGw„‹ ¾N` TU[‰ ów]"”Ç=ÁslS< Tu[ƒ¾N` ›U^‹ T%u^ƒ” TssU}Õǘ MT„‹ ”Ç="H@Æ Tu[ƒ¯KU›kõ ¾‚¡’>¡ ÉÒõ SeÖƒ
    • ¾”ÓÉ“ Ú`nÚ`p T>/` /Ministry of Trade & Textile/uÓwà }Óv^ƒ” KTŸ“¨” ów]" TssUKT>ðMÑ< vKGw„‹ ¾S[Í“ ¾Tu[‰ ÉÒõSeÖƒ/MT~ ¨Å›=”Æeƒ] u}gÒÑ[v†¨<Ó³„‹/
    • Ÿ‰Ã“ ¾}Ñ–< MUÊ‹ ›"DÁ u›Ñ^‹” MT~”ueóƒ KSËS`“ KTÖ“Ÿ` ¾T>Ñu<” eM„‹ ¾N` ƒM ¨LÏ ²` TU[‰ /Parent stock/ “SW[© ¾N` ƒM Tv¹ /Basic seed multiplication/T°ŸM TssU Ÿ²=G< Ô” ¾U`U` }sTƒ TÅ^˃ËT] Ñu_−‹ ”Ç=}Ñ< ¾Tu[‰ S”ÑÅ‹”TS‰†ƒ /Suppprting fund/ ¾”Ð] }¡M uŸ< ÑÖU ”Ç=KT TÉ[Ó ¾}Å^Ë ¾YMÖ“ T°ŸM SÑ”vƒ YMÖ“ ÁÑ–< ¾N` MTƒ vKS<Á−‹ ŸT°ŸMËUa eŸ ¨[Ç“ ¾Ñu_−‹ TWMÖ— ×u=Á É[e”Ç=SÅu< TÉ[Ó KÑu_−‹ YMÖ““ Ö”"^ ¾›?¡e‚”i” ›ÑMÓKAƒSeÖƒ
    • ¾Ñu_ S]−‹ /}Ö]−‹/ TÅ^˃& K}ÖnT>Ñu_−‹ u›’e}— ØpU ›ÑMÓKAƒ ”Ç=cÖ<KTÉ[Ó¾Ÿ<wŸ<v ›U^Œ‹ /¾S<Á/ T%u` u¾MTƒ›"vu=¨< TssU”Å›eðLÑ>’~ ¾W`„ TdÁ ×u=Á−‹”TÅ^˃¾Ø^ƒ lØØ` Y^−‹ /ŸÏU ›”e„/”Ç=Ÿ“¨’< TÉ[Ó /¾N` ƒM ²`& ¾”Ð]}¡M ²`& ¾N` Ÿ<wŸ<v&/¾N` ƒM“ ¾”Ð] }¡M ²` Ÿ}¨c’ ¾MTƒY^ u%EL uÓ¸ ”Ç=W^ß TÉ[Ó¾Ÿ<wŸ<v ªÒ Ø^~” SW[ƒ uTÉ[ÓS}S”“ uØ^~ SW[ƒ Ñu_−‹ ¾¢”ƒ^ƒ¨<M uSð[U KÓ¸ ×u=Á¨< ”Ç=Áe[¡u<TÉ[Ó
    • vKGw„‹ uMT~“ uów]" TssU LÝ”Ç=d}ñ KSdw S_ƒ up“i ªÒ ¾T>ÁÑ–<uƒ”“K}¨c’ Ñ>²? Ÿk[Ø ’í ¾T>J’<uƒ” G<’@TS‰†ƒ v”¢‹ u}KÃU ¾T%u^ƒ“ ¾ÑÖ` MTƒ v”¢‹ }dò¨<” KTu[ƒ u›’e}— ¨KÉ wÉ` ¾T>cÖ<uƒ” S”ÑÉ Sk¾e ‚¡•KAÍ=−‹” KTe}ª¨p ¾óÓ”e ÉÒõ TÉ[Ó ›’e}— ¾N` TU[‰ /Silk reeling Centre/ TÅ^˃
    • Ÿ<wŸ<v ›U^”‹¾”lLM /²`/ TÅ^Í−‹ ¾Tcvcu=Á“ ¾TÉ[mÁ ×u=Á−‹ ¾TÖ”Ö— ów]"−‹
    • SWOT AnalysisÖ”"^ Ô•‹ /Strengths/ KN` MTƒ ›Sˆ ¾}ðØa Gwƒ SÑ–ƒ /¾Ñ<KA }¡M& ¾›¾` ”w[ƒ& ¾c¨< ÃM/& ¾TÃs[Ø ¾Ñu= TÓ— U”ß SJ’<& ¾TQu^© Gwƒ ›ÖnkU T¾ƒ /Sector Support/ “ ¾Ów[ Y“à É`σ }dò SJ”& u}¨c’ Å[Í YMÖ“ ScÖ~&
    • KN` MTƒ W`„ TdÁ ×u=Á−‹ TssU S‰K<&ÓKcw É`Ï„‹ /vKGw„‹/ uMTƒ“ uÉ%[ MTƒ‚¡•KAÍ=−‹ Là Sd}õ SËS^†¨< /›/›&›ªX& “´_ƒ/&Ÿu<É•‹ ÃMp ¾ÓM ›U^Œ‹ Ø^ƒ ÁK¨< ¾Ÿ<wŸ<vU`ƒ ÁS[~ SJ’<&¾þK=c=−‹& eƒ^‚Í=−‹ ¾MTƒ –L”& ¾‚¡•KAÍ=ûŸ=Ï S²Ò˃“ SW^Ú~&¾¨[Ç“ ¾μ” Lò−‹ eKMT~ Ó”³u?”Ç=•^†¨<“ ”Ç=Áe}vw ›¨<ÅØ“„‹SÅ[Ò†¨< /*aT>Á/&u¡MM Å[Í ¾N` MTƒ vKS<Á KSSÅw ´ÓσSÅ[Ñ< /ƒÓ^Ã/&
    • Å"T Ô•‹ /Weaknesses/ ¾ÑuÁ ›KSS‰†ƒ“ u²=I U¡”Áƒ ›”Ç”É u<É•‹“ ÓKcx‹Y^ TqT†¨<“ u›”ǔʇ ¾TU[ƒ õLÔƒ Sk’e& ¾°¨<kƒ“ ¡IKAƒ YMÖ“ ¨<e’<’ƒ/Ku<É•‹/ÓKcx‹/ ¾WKÖ’vKS<Á ›KS•`& ¾U`ƒ Ø^ƒ T’e& KMT~ vKu?ƒ ›KS• /›T^& Å/w/w/Q/& u<É•‹ ¾^d†¨< ¾T`u=Á u?ƒ“ ¾S• TMT>Á x ¾K?L†¨<SJ’< /Å/w/w/Q/& ¾u˃ Ø[ƒ& ¾N` ƒM ²` U`T ›KSJ”& ¾Ÿ<wŸ<v }ÖnT>−‹ /Ñ»−‹/¨<e” SJ”& ¾S_ƒ ØÁo ULi ›KTÓ–~& ŸvKÉ`h−‹ Ò` ¾p`w Ó”–<’ƒ ›KS•`&
    • ¾¨Åòƒ °ÉKA‹ /Opportunities/ É%’ƒ” Sk’e& um °¨<kƒ“ ¡IKAƒ uTÓ–ƒ }ÖnT>−‹ Ø^ƒ ÁK¨< U`ƒ TU[ƒ ËLK<& gÖ¨< ÃÖkTK<:: ²Lm’ƒ ÁK¨< ¾›Ñ` ¨<eØ ÑuÁ (}kvà ”Ç=•` TÉ[Ó)& ¾N` É%[U`ƒ ‚¡•KAÍ= TeÑvƒ ¾N` ƒM ¨LÏ ²` T^u=Á (Parent stock) TssU& SW[© ¾N` ƒM ²` TU[ƒ& ¾Ów[ W“à É`Ï„‹ (¾MTƒ É`Ï„‹) u}Ö“Ÿ[ G<’@ ÉÒõ ”Ç=cÖ< ¾TÉ[Ó& ¾N` Ÿ<wŸ<v ›U^‹ T%u^ƒ TssU“ Ÿ}kvà É`Ï„‹Ò` Ó”–<’ƒ ¾SõÖ` ¨ÃU Ø_ N` ¨Å¨Ü ÑuÁ SL¡&
    • YÒ„‹ /Threats/¾Ÿ<wŸ<v Ѹ−‹/ÑuÁ ‹Ó`U`T ¾N` ƒM ²a‹ ”Å›eðLÑ>’~›KSp[wuØ^ƒ ›KS¨ÇÅ` U¡”Áƒ „KA¨Å¯KU ÑuÁ SÓvƒ ›KS‰M&