History of Cavite Cavite is named as the Historical Capital of the Philippines. It is the cradle of Philippine Revolution, and the birthplace of Philippine Independence. Cavite got its name from a Tagalog word kawit (which means hook) owing to the hook-shaped land on the Old Spanish map. The land was formerly known as "Tangway" where Spanish authorities constructed a fort from which the city of Cavite rose. Archeological evidence in coastal areas show prehistorical settlements. According to local folklore, the earliest settlers of Cavite came from Borneo. In the 1600s, encomiendas or Spanish Royal land grants were given in Cavite and Maragondon. Jesuit priests brought in settlers from Mollucas. These settlers, known as "Mardicas," settled in Ternate and Maragondon. Other settlements grew and by the turn of the century, Cavite towns were already trading with one another. Traditional industries began to thrive as Manila's commerce grew. In 1872, Filipinos launched their revolt against Spain. Three Filipino priests—Jose Burgos, Mariano Gomez,and Jacinto Zamora—were implicated in the Cavite mutiny when 200 Filipinos staged a rebellion within Spanish garrisons. In August 28, 1896, when the revolution against Spain broke out, Cavite became a bloody theater of war. Led by Emilio Aguinaldo, Caviteños made lightning raids on Spanish headquarters, and soon liberated the entire province. Aguinaldo commanded the Revolution to its successful end: the proclamation of the Republic of the Philippines, on June 12, 1898 in Kawit, the first constitutional republic in Asia, and third established overall, after the Lanfang Republic in 1777, and the Republic of Formosa in 1895.
Cavite proudly stands as a place with a glorious past. Its warm and friendly people, whose ancestors came down with a noble cause, manifest industry and patience in various skills and professions, openly receptive to the entry and exchange of culture and technology that are of value to the province. In 1942, the Japanese Imperial forces entered Cavite, which was long the site of a major US naval base serving the United States Asiatic Fleet. In 1942 to 1945, Filipino soldiers of the 41st, 42nd and 43rd Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army was entering the provinces in Cavite with the recognized guerrillas of the Cavite Guerrilla Forces and the Filipino-American Cavite Guerrilla Forces or FACGF under by Colonel Mariano Castañeda of the Philippine Constabulary from the attack the Japanese troops since the battle for the Filipino recaptures in Cavite. In 1945, Filipino & American troops along with the Caviteño guerrilla fighters liberated in Cavite from the Japanese forces at the end of World War II.
Cavite is a historic, picturesque and scenic province providing a place conducive to both business and leisure. Tagaytay City serves as the main tourist center. Historical attraction and sites are Fort San Felipe and Sangley Point, both in Cavite City; Corregidor Island; General Trias; Calero Bridge, Noveleta; Battle of Alapan Marker and Flag in Imus; Zapote Bridge in Bacoor; Battle of Binakayan Monument in Kawit; Tejeros Convention Site in Rosario; and Aguinaldo Shrine, the site of the declaration of Philippine Independence in Kawit. Several old churches stand as glorious reminders of how the Catholic faith has blossomed in the Province of Cavite. Existing museums include Geronimo de los Reyes Museum, General Trias; Museo De La Salle, Dasmariñas; Philippine Navy Museum, Cavite City; Baldomero Aguinaldo Museum, Kawit; and Cavite City Library Museum, Cavite City. There are eight (8) world-class golf courses in the province. Natural wonders are mostly found in the upland areas such as Tagaytay Ridge, Macabag Cave in Maragondon, Balite Falls in Amadeo, Malibiclibic Falls in General Aguinaldo-Magallanes border, Mts. Palay-Palay and MataasnaGulod National Park in Ternate and Maragondon, SitioBuhay Unclassified Forest in Magallanes and flowers, vegetables and coffee farms. The Aguinaldo Shrine and Museum in Kawit is where the independence of the Philippines was proclaimed on June 12, 1898 by General Aguinaldo, the Philippines’ first president. The Andres Bonifacio House in General Trias is the former home of the country's revolutionary leader The site of his court martial in Maragondon is also preserved. Other historical sites include the Battle of Alapan and Battle of Julian Bridge Markers, the House of Tirona, and Fort San Felipe.
Corregidor - the famous last bastion of Philippine-American defense forces, is part of Cavite City. Corregidor is an island fortress where Filipino-American forces fought against the Japanese invaders in 1942. It has become a tourist attraction with tunnels, cannons and other war structures still well-preserved. The famous line of General Douglas McArthur said is associated with Corregidor: “I shall return!” There are first class hotels, inns and lodging houses to accommodate both foreign and local tourists. Conference facilities can be found in several convention centers, hotels and resorts in the province. Restaurants and specialty dining places offer mushroom dishes, native delicacies and exotic cuisines. Seafoods, fruits, coffee, organic vegetables, tinapa, handicrafts, ornamental plants also abound in the province. There are twenty-two (22) accredited tourism establishments and three (3) accredited tour guides. There are also tour packages being arranged with the Department of Tourism. Centuries old traditions and the very rich culture of Cavite have been the source of great pride to Caviteños.
History of Laguna The Province of Laguna was named after Laguna de Bay, the body of water that forms its northern boundary. Laguna de Bay, in turn, was named after the town of Bay (Laguna de Bay is Spanish which means "Lake of Bay"), the first provincial capital. Captain Juan de Salcedo with a band of one hundred Spanish-Mexican soldiers and many Bisayan allies conquered the province and its surrounding regions for Spain in 1571. Seven years later, two Franciscan friars started the work of Christianisation. In 1577, the Franciscan missionaries arrived in Manila, and in 1578 they started evangelizing Laguna, Morong (now Rizal), Tayabas (now Quezon) and the Bicol Peninsula. Juan de Placencia and Diego de Oropesa were the earliest Franciscans sent to these places. From 1580, the towns of Bay, Caliraya, Majayjay, Nagcarlán, Liliw, Pila, Santa Cruz, Lumbán, Páñgil[ and Sinilóan were founded. In 1678, Fray Hernando Cabrera founded San Pablo de los Montes (now San Pablo City) and built a wooden church and convent considered as the best and finest in the province. In 1670, delimitation of borders were made between Lucban, Majayjay and Cavite. The populous town at that time was Bay, the capital of the province until 1688, when the seat of the provincial government was moved to Pagsanján, and later, in 1858, to Santa Cruz. In 1754, the Province of Laguna and Tayabas were divided, with the Malinao River separating the towns of Majayjay and Lucbán. The province became a bloody battle ground for the Chinese during the two instances that they rose in revolt against Spain. In 1603's, the Chinese made their last stand in the mountains of San Pablo, and in 1639, they fortified themselves in the highlands of Cavinti and Lumbán, surrendering in Pagsanján a year later. The natives of Laguna proved loyal to the Spanish crown during the British invasion (1762-1764) when thousands rallied to its defense. When a detachment of British troops under Captain Thomas Backhouse entered the province in search of the silver cargo of the galleon Filipino, Francisco de San Juan of Pagsanján led a band of volunteers that fought them in several engagements in and around the town which was then the provincial capital (1688-1858).
Laguna was also exposed to the aspirations of its most famous son, Dr. José Rizal, who was born in Calambâ. The persecution of the Rizal family, along with their fellow landownders, toward the end of the century further aggravated the situation. In 1896, thousands of inhabitants, especially of Bay, Los Baños, Nagcarlan, Magdalena, Santa Cruz, and Pagsanjan had joined the revolutionary Katipunan. Laguna was one of the eight provinces to rise in revolt against the Spanish misrule led by Generals Paciano Rizal[ of Calambâ, SeverinoTaino of Pagsanján, AgüedaKahabagán of Calauan, and Miguel Malvar of Batangas. The ill-equipped revolutionaries fought the well-armed enemy until on August 31, 1898, when the last Spanish garrison surrendered to the victorious patriots in Santa Cruz. The province was cleared of Spaniards. There had been only one respite, the Pact of Biac-na-Bató on December 14 to 15, 1897. Laguna actively supported the first Philippine Republic proclaimed at Malolos on January 23, 1899. Its two delegates to the Malolos Congress, Don HiginoBenítez and Don Graciano Cordero, were natives of Pagsanján. Upon the outbreak of the Filipino-American War (1899-1901), Generals Juan Cailles and Paciano Rizal led the defense of Laguna until June 30, 1901, when surrender became inevitable. Cailles became the first Filipino Governor of Laguna under the American flag. The Province of Laguna progressed rapidly in peace. Roads were built, schools were established, and in 1917, the Manila Railroad Company extended its line to Laguna as far as Pagsanjan. During the Japanese occupation of the Philippines (1942-1945), Laguna was a center of Filipino resistance despite the presence of Makapili collaborators. Beginning in 1945, attacks by the Filipino soldiers of the 41st & 42nd Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and the recognized guerrillas against Japanese forces in Laguna increased in anticipation of the Liberation of the Philippines by joint Filipino & American forces.
Batangas HistoryEarly BeginningsLong before the Spaniards came, large centers of population already thrived in Batangas. Native settlements lined the Pansipit River, a major waterway. Mr. Robert C. Fox, an American archaeologist, revealed that based on archaeological findings particularly in Calatagan peninsula, the province has been trading with the Chinese since Yuan Dynasty until first phase of Ming Dynasty in the 13th and 15th century. Inhabitants of the province were also trading with Japan and India. Historians believed that the present Batangueños were descendants of the Borneandatus, DatuDumangsil and DatuBalensusa who sailed from Borneo to Panay Island as far as Taal Lake. They organized the first Malay settlement at the mouth of Taal River. They eventually set up their own settlement in the place and founded the town of Taal in 1572. The towns of Balayan, Lipa, and Batangas were founded later. In 1570, Martin de Goitiand Juan de Salcedo, two Spanish generals explored the coast of Batangas on their way to Manila and came upon a Malay sttlement at the mouth of Taal River. In 1572, the town of Taal was founded and its convent and stone church were constructed later.
Marcela Agoncillo who made the present Philippine flag, and General Miguel Malvarwho was recognized as the last Filipino general to surrender to the Americans. For this, Batangas also came to be known as the "cradle of heroes and nationalists." Batangas was founded in 1581. Originally, it was composed of the present provinces of Batangas, Mindoro, Marinduque, Southeast of Laguna and even far Camarines. After several devastating eruptions of Taal Volcano, the smallest volcano in the world, the old Taal town site was buried. The capital was eventually transferred to Batangas (now a city) in 1754 where it has remained to date. The name "Batangas" was derived from the word "batang," which is a term of the natives for the numerous logs found in the Calumpang River, the body of water that runs through the northeastern portion of the town and assumes the shape of a tuning fork.Batangas was also among the first of the eight Philippine provinces to revolt against Spain and also one of the provinces placed under Martial Law by Spanish Governor General Ramon Blanco on August 30, 1896.During the Spanish-American War, many outstanding Batangueños made names in our history. Most notable of them are ApolinarioMabini, also known as the sublime paralytic and "Brains of the Revolution";
Batangas is the home of sages and the birthplace of the country´s notable nationalists. Historical places have been the legacy of the old eras. Natural resources and picturesque views abound in the area. Numerous fine beaches have been the sought-after -sites. And a few kilometers away from the shore will bring the more adventurous ones to diverse dive sites, from the ones fit for a novice (relatively shallow, constant water current), up to the ones for those who may call themselves experts.The proximity of Batangas to Manila and the good quality of most of the main provincial roads are advantageous for the existing attractions and facilities of the province. The tourism industry has been regarded as a contributor to the economy of the province.Batangas first came to be known as Bonbon. It was named after the mystical and fascinating Taal Lake, which was also originally called Bonbon. Some of the earliest settlements in Batangas were established at the vicinity of Taal Lake.
Rizal Province............................................................................................................................Laguna de Bay in Rizal Province, is the largest lake in Philippines with an area of 365 sq miles where it is fed partly by water from Lake Caliraya, a long, narrow, man-made lake that provides water for a hydro-electric project. South of Laguna the town San Pablo has many attractions. It has seven pictureques crater lakes and the most accessible lakes is Sampaloc. It is full of fish pens and fishes are served in restaurants built on stilts out over the water. Right around Laguna de Bay, there are three towns that have well - developed handicraft industries. Lumban is famous for its fine embroidery, Paete for its wood-craving and papiermache industries and Pakil for its shaved-wood industry. Hidden Valley Springs Resort, is a private very well maintained holiday development in the middle of a 300 ft deep extinct crater, west of San Pablo. Here in the Hidden Valley, close to Alaminos, one can bathe in warm and cold springs or swim beneath a waterfall. All under the dense, humid, primeval jungle foliage.
Villa Escudero, on the border between San Pablo and Tiaong, is a functioning coconut plantation-cum-resort where you may see demostrations of how coconuts are processed and used, enjoy surroundings, have a ride in a cart pulled by a carabo while being serenaded by local folk singaer. The Esudero Museum has a collection of everything from silver altars to spoons. Mount Banahaw which is located next to Villa Escudero is a dormant volcano, which is 2,177 meter high and have been asleep since 1743. On the northeastern side of the mountain , on the border with Quezon Province is Lucban. The best time to visit Lucban is during the Pahiyas festival, in the honor of San Isidro. This agricultural and fruit-growing town is festooned with colourful decorations using vegetable and flowers , with Chinese lanterns and kiping, which are imitation leaves made from rice-starch. Huge papier-mache figures sway amidst the procession to the festival mass held in front of the old colonial church. Pagsanjan, near Santa Cruz, is the provincial capital of Laguna. The very wet but exciting attraction of the place is "Shooting the Rapid". Before the exceedingly fast boat -trip downstream, through a deep jungle ravine, comes a laborious journey upstream over the rapids. Two boatmen paddle and push the narrow boat over rocks and treacherous whirlpools up to the 100 ft high Magdapio falls at the end of the gorge. The scenery is fantastic especially early in the morning.
History of Quezon Originally, what now forms part of Quezon was divided among the provinces of Batangas, Laguna, and Nueva Ecija. The area was first explored by Juan de Salcedo in 1571-1572, during his expedition from Laguna to Camarines provinces. In 1591, the province was created and called Kaliraya or Kalilayan, after the capital town which later became Unisan. In about the middle of the 18th century, the capital was transferred to the town of Tayabas, from which the province got its new name. Depredation and plunder by the Moros were rampant during the Spanish regime, because they opposed the colonizers, especially in their efforts to spread Christianity. The destruction of Kalilayan in 1604 by a big fleet of moro pirates caused the inhabitants to transfer to Palsabangon (Pagbilao). However, even the colonized people grew discontented with the Spaniards over the centuries. The most important event in the history of the province was the Confradia Revolt in 1841, which was led by the famous Lucbano, Apolinariodela Cruz, popularly known as HermanoPule. The province, under Gen. Miguel Malvar, was also among the earliest to join the Philippine Revolution. The Revolutionary Government took control over the province on August 15, 1898.
The Americans then came and annexed the Philippines. A civil government was established in the province on March 2, 1901, with Lucena as its capital. Japanese occupation of the province during World War II began on December 23, 1941, when the Japanese Imperial Army landed in Atimonan. The occupation witnessed the brutal murders of prominent sons of Tayabas. April 4, 1945 was the day the province was liberated as the combined Filipino and American army forces reached Lucena. On 1945, the liberation on the province of Tayabas was the combined U.S. & Philippine Commonwealth ground troops including the local recognized guerrillas was invaded the Japanese forces at the end of World War II. After the war, on September 7, 1946, Republic Act No. 14 changed the name Tayabas to Quezon, in honor of Manuel L. Quezon, the Commonwealth president who hailed from Baler, which was one of the province's towns. In 1951, the northern part of Quezon was made into the sub-province of Aurora (which included Baler). Aurora was the name of the president's wife, Aurora Quezon. In 1979, Aurora was finally separated from Quezon as an independent province.
HISTORY OF MARINDUQUE When Martin de Goiti and Juan de Salcedo, two Spanish conquistadores, returned to the Philippine islands in 1569, and conquered Manila, they stayed on to establish other settlements in the region.Marinduque, together with Mindoro, the southeast part of Laguna and Camarines was made a part of Batangas when the latter was founded in 1581 by the Spaniards. (Balayan was the capital from 1597-1732; Taal, earlier known as Bonbon, in 1732; then Batangas (the present city) in 1754). Early in the 17th century, the island of Marinduque was separated from Batangas and became a part of Mindoro as a corregimiento, town. In 1671 Marinduque functioned as a province but was later reduced as a Mindoro sub-province. On April 28, 1898, with the overthrow of the last Spanish casadores (Tagalog soldiers) after armed conflict and hostilities with the revolutionists during the Philippine-Spanish War, Marinduque declared its separation from Mindoro and from Spanish rule, a move that was ratified by the ruling class from the different towns of the island-province. The local struggle was led by Martin Lardizabal, who was military governor of Marinduque's first revolutionary provincial government.
HISTORY Oriental Mindoro Oriental Mindoro (Filipino: Silangang Mindoro; Spanish: Mindoro Oriental) is a province of the Philippines located in the island of Mindoro under MIMAROPAregion in Luzon, about 140 km southwest of Manila. The province is bordered by the Verde Island Passage and the rest of Batangas to the north, by Marinduque, Maestro del Ocampo Island, Tablas Strait and the rest of Romblon to the east, by Semirara and the rest of Caluya Islands, Antique to the south, and by Occidental Mindoro to the west. Calapan City, the only city in the island, is the provincial capital. Oriental Mindoro is touted as the country's emerging eco-tourism destination. In 2005, the Philippines was found to be the center of marine fish biodiversity and the home of the most diverse marine ecosystem in the world, by American biologists Kent Carpenter and Victor Springer. Most of the endemic species in the Philippines are found in the Verde Island Passage between Mindoro island and the main island of Luzon. The passage houses 2,983 individual species of algae, corals, crustaceans, mollusks, fishes, marine reptiles, and marine mammals, based on a study conducted by scientists Carpenter and Springer in 2005.
History of Occidental Mindoro (Filipino: Kanlurang Mindoro, “Western Mindoro”; Spanish: Mindoro Occidental) is a province of the Philippines located in the MIMAROPAregion in Luzon. "Home of the Indigenous Mangyans". Its capital is Mamburao and occupies the western half of the island of Mindoro, on the west by Apo East Pass, and on the south by the Mindoro Strait; Oriental Mindoro is at the eastern half. The South China Sea is to the west of the province and Palawan is located to the southwest, across Mindoro Strait. Batangas is to the north, separated by the Verde Island Passage.
History Of Romblon The province of Romblon was formerly called Lomlon (an act of a hen nesting to warm her eggs, based on the fact that when a Spanish soldier was ordered to ask the natives the name of the island and accidentally pointed to a place where a hen is nesting, the native answered lomlom, hence the misinterpretation) and later corrupted to the word Domblon.It was organized by the Spanish into a politico-military district in 1853 and made a sub-province of Capiz. In 1917, it was converted into a separate province. In October 1, 1946, Romblon was made into a special province with four municipalities, namely Tablas, Romblon, Sibuyan and Maghali. On January 1, 1947, the regular provincial status of Romblon was restored. Romblon's early inhabitants were the Negritos from Panay and Mangyan tribes from Mindoro. Ancient hanging coffins and aboriginal artwork was discovered in caves of Banton Island signify a rich ancient civilization and culture
* Mt. Guiting-Guiting, Sibuyan Island, RomblonRomblon's highest peak. It is an attraction to mountaineers and is the province's major source of timber and metallic products. It is also abundant with wildlife, plant species, and waterfalls.* Cantingas River, Taclobo, San Fernando, RomblonKnown for its enchanting vistas. In its mountain are found the world's smallest bat, the endangered wild cat or the singalong, and the hardest wood, the mancogo or iron wood. Cantingas River Valley is known to have the second cleanest inland water in the region.* Busay Falls, Panangcalan, San Fernando, RomblonDesciption: One of the last remaining untouched falls in the Philippines.* Isla de Gallo, Azagra, San Fernando, RomblonThe coral reefs around the island, with its white sands, are well known for good diving.* Lagting Falls River, Taclobo, San Fernando, Romblon* Parola, Azagra, San Fernando, Romblon* Little Baguio, Cambijang, Cajidiocan, Romblon * Lambingan Falls, Magdiwang, RomblonThe natural crystal-clear pool is ideal for a dip. A favorite dating place among lovers.
* Guyangan Caves, Banton, RomblonCenturies-old coffins made of hollowed logs were discovered in the caves. Guyangan caves was discovered in 1936 and not after the war.* Lis-Ong Cave, Colong-colong, Corcuera, RomblonA cave with plenty of stalactites and stalagmites.* Grotto, Mangansag, Corcuera, RomblonLocated at the peak of Mount Andradoon is a grotto of the Immaculate Conception where devotees usually go and pray during the Lenten season.* Panorama Point, BarangayTacasan, Corcuera, RomblonA point along the road where passing inter-island vessels can be viewed and serves as shelter during inclement weather. * Cotta Tower, Pob. Corcuera, RomblonThe remains of a Spanish Fort constructed between 1860-1865 by San Agustin de Pedro to ward off Muslim pirates. It is situated on hill overlooking the town.* Manaha Beach, BarangayMahaba, Corcuera, RomblonA stretch of white beaches.* Batom Beach, San Roque, Corcuera, RomblonA wide stretch of white beaches.* Payayasog, Mangansag, Corccuera, RomblonA testis structure hanged along the bank of a sea.
History of Palawan One thousand years ago, Chinese traders named the island Pa Lao Yu, or land of beautiful safe harbor because of its many safe places to land their ships. This is where the relics of earliest settlers were found and have been unearthed and dated 22,000 years ago while its human habitation evidently proved about 50,000 years old. Some of the tribes known to inhabit the islands such as Batak, Palawan and Tagbanuas may be descendants of the early settlers, who came via ice-age land bridges and of later migrants who came on boats. They were followed in the 13th century by the Indonesians of Madjapahit Empire. During the arrival of the Spanish, Palawan was ruled by Borneo from Jolo. The Spanish first took over the northern part of the island and worked south from Cuyo and Taytay. The Spanish invaded Palawan in 18th century forcing the Sultan of Borneo to give up its full autonomy. From Taytay, the capital was moved to Puerto Princesa. Nowadays, Palawan is an island of mixed tribes, who have been pushed to the interior, and of Muslim, Visayan and Tagalog settlers along the borders.
Coron The Coron Reef is another tourist spot in Palawan that should be considered visiting. It has seven captivating lakes engulfed by limestone cliffs. The venue is a popular destination of nature lovers staying in Palawan. One of the top destinations in Palawan, the El Nido Marine Reserve is home to different species of wildlife. With an area of 96,000 hectares, this tourist spot in Palawan is home to a wide range of rainforests, coral reefs, limestone cliffs, mangroves, and white sand beaches. Likewise, guests can look forward to seeing numerous species of fishes like the manta ray. Divers may experience swimming side by side with the sea cow, known by its local name of “dugong,” which is one of the most endangered marine mammal in the world. Tubbataha Reef Recognized as the top diving site in the Philippines is another tourist spot in Palawan, the Tubbataha Reefs National Marine Park. Due to its rich marine life, Tubbataha Reefs National Marine Park has been listed as a World Heritage Site by the World Tourism Association. This body of water is famous for the Tubbataha shark. Not to mention, it likewise boasts of being the home of a good variety of invertebrates and reef fishes. Dubbed as the "Cradle of Philippine Civilization," the Tabon Cave is another tourist spot in Palawan. Here anthropologists found the remains of early man and his tools. In one of its intricate chambers, evidence of early life was dug up resulting to the discovery of the Tabon Man, believed to be 22,000 years old. These are just some of the many tourist spots in Palawan.
MaximoKalaw MaximoMaguiatKalaw is a reknowned writer from Lipa,Batangas. He studied at the Philippine Normal School and the University of the Philippines wherein he became the editor of Collegio Folio, the first school paper in UP. He also obtained a Bachelor of Laws from Georgetown University in 1915 and Ph.D. in Philosophy from the University of Michigan in 1924. He became an associate editor of the Manila Times, a professor of political science at the University of the Philippines,an exchange professor at the University of Michigan, becoming the first Filipino to teach in an American university. He was also a private secretary in the office of Manuel L. Quezon and a representative of the 3rd district of Batangas in the first legislature of the Commonwealth. He died on March 23, 1955. His published works include Usapinngmga Pilipino (1915), The Development of Philippine Politics (1926), The Filipino Rebel: A Romance of the American Occupation of the Philippines (1930), The Philippine Question: An Analysis (1931), An Introduction to Philippine Social Science (1933), and Materials for the Constitution (1934).
N.V.M. Gonzalez was born Nestor Vicente Madali Gonzalez on September 8, 1915, on Romblon, Philippines. He studied at the Kenyon School of English and at Stanford and Columbia universities. He began working for English-language publications in Manila, serving as a writer for Graphic Weekly for many years and as editor of the Manila Evening News Magazine from 1946 to 1948. Although he never obtained a college degree, he taught widely, first at the University of Santo Tomas and Philippine Women's University, both in Manila; and for two decades at the University of the Philippines, Quezon City. He also taught as a visiting professor at the University of Hong Kong and in the United States at Cal State Hayward, the University of Washington, and UCLA. He was the 1997 National Artist for Literature of the Republic of the Philippines. Among his books are: A Grammar of Dreams, Bread of Salt and Other Stories, The Winds of April, Look Stranger, on This Island Now, Mindoro and Beyond, The Novel of Justice, A Season of Grace, and the Bamboo Dancers. He died November 28, 1999, in Manila, after suffering a stroke on November 25. He is survived by his wife of 57 years, Narita, four children, and five grandchildren.