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Handout Uts Emotions At Work April 2009


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  • 1. Hochschild: emotional labor emotions at work Een foto van service with a smile: de bakker Is nursing / caring also service work? Gérard Näring Yes, but in a different way Radboud University Nijmegen Yes, but it is also more. Open University emotions at work 1 emotions at work 2 Hochschild: emotional labor Hochschild: emotional labor especially in service jobs employees are often required to show certain emotions in order to Gevolgd door de foto van de satyr please the customer Dan vertellen over verwachtingen op het werk personal costs of emotional labor in terms of feeling emotionally drained or exhausted emotions at work 3 emotions at work 4 Hochschild: emotional labor emotional labor surface acting Hochschild distinguished the display of the characteristics of an emotion Surface acting that are regarded as appropriate, but are not Deep acting actually felt Emotional consonance deep acting the activity that is undertaken to actually feel an emotion that is thought to be required Development of instrument: D-QEL. emotional consonance largely based upon ELS by Céleste the situation where somebody effortlessly feels Brotheridge & Raymond Lee, but we the emotion that is required in a certain added we added: suppression situation emotions at work 5 emotions at work 6 1
  • 2. emotional labor emotional labor Is emotional labor an important concept ? Several studies indicated: Study in teachers. Emotional labour is related to emotional Job Demand Control Support Model exhaustion or burnout Robert Karasek Brotheridge & Grandey, 2002; Brotheridge & Lee, Näring, G., Briët, M., & Brouwers, A. (2006). Beyond demands-control: Emotional 2003; Pugliesi, 1999; Zammuner & Lotto, 2001 Labor and Symptoms of Burnout in Teachers. Work & Stress, 20(4), 303-315 emotions at work 7 emotions at work 8 Job Demand-Control model Job Demand-Control model o a combination of high psychological demands o Participants with low control (autonomy) at work leads to o High School teachers mental and physical illnesses (Karasek, 1979) o Job Demand-Control-Support model; social support was added (Johnson en Hall, 1988) emotions at work 9 emotions at work 10 Variables associated with Personal Accomplishment Variables associated with Emotional exhaustion Predictor Beta F R2(change) Predictor Beta F R2(change) Step 1 Demographic variables .92 (.05) Step 1 Demographic variables 9.99*** (.06) Age .05 Gender .01 Age -.20*** Gender -.10* Step 2 Step 2 Work characteristics DCS 58.51*** (.41) Work characteristics DCS 6.05*** (.06) Quantitative demands .47*** Quantitative demands -.06 Control -.15** Control .11* Social support -.15** Social support .12* Quant-demands x Control -.07 Quant-demands x Control -.04 Step 3 Step 3 Emotional Labor 6.59*** (.04) Emotional Labor 30.60*** (.24) Surface acting .17*** Surface acting .06 Deep acting -.01 Deep acting .02 Suppression .03 Suppression -.08 Emotional consonance -.08 Emotional consonance .50*** emotions at work 11 emotions at work 12 2
  • 3. emotional labor Conclusion The study of emotional labor is relevant for our understanding of emotional exhaustion and of personal efficacy. In health care another aspect of dealing with emotions plays an important role Emotional demand emotions at work 13 emotions at work 14 Carlo Braccesco (1478-1501) Emotional burden en hiding emotions emotional burden Ybema & Smulders (2002) emotional burden hiding Emotional demand (Ybema & Smulders, 2002) Painters -.78 -.26 the emotional impact that inevitably comes Plummers, welders, -.60 -.32 with professions where there is frequent Bricklayers, carpenters -.72 -.43 confrontation with death and suffering as in Loaders, unloaders -.55 -.41 nurses, firemen, or ambulance drivers Police officers, fire fighters .32 .69 Job-focused emotional labor refers to the Doctors, dentists .61 .49 emotional demands of a job (Brotheridge & Grandey, Nurses, orderlies .94 .29 2002) .52 .35 Geriatric helpers, child caretakers Emotional demands (de Jonge, Mulder, Nijhuis, 1999) Teacher elementary school .91 .06 “In my work, death, sickness or human Teacher high school .72 .30 suffering are very demanding” Teacher university .51 .09 emotions at work 15 emotions at work 16 Emotional labor and emotional burden method: subjects in nurses Again three hospitals in the eastern part of the Netherlands Job Demand Control Support Model 860 questionnaires distributed and received 334 + Emotional labor back, response rate of 38.8%. + Emotional burden (Ybema & Smulders, 2002) 88 % women and 12% men with a mean age of 38 Measured with three questions yrs My job is emotionally demanding My work brings me in emotionally difficult situations I become emotionally involved in my job emotions at work 17 emotions at work 18 3
  • 4. Criterion Emotional Exhaustion study: expanding the DCS model Predictor Beta F R2(change) Step 1 Control variables 1.61 .01 Age -.06 assess the contribution of Sexe .04 job demands Step 2 JDCS model 34.23*** (.48***) task characteristics Job Demands Organizational Stress Questionaire (Bergers et al., 1986). Task Characteristics .41*** Respondents are asked to indicate how often they Emotional burden .12** experience difficult job demands. Questions pertain to pace, difficulty of tasks, and amount of work. Surface acting .28** emotional demand Deep acting .12** emotional labor Suppression .00 Emotional consonance -.16** support Control -.03 control Support -.07 to the prediction of Note. Standardized beta-coëfficiënts are given. emotional exhaustion * p < .05; ** p < .01; *** p < .001 emotions at work 19 emotions at work 20 Items from D-QEL study: expanding the DCS model Surface acting Task characteristics are the most important determinant of emotional exhaustion. From I fake a good mood an emotions perspective it is not suppression, I put on a “mask” in order to express the but the faking of emotions that seems to right emotions for my job contribute to emotional exhaustion. Task Characteristics .41*** Deep acting Emotional burden .12** I work hard to feel the emotions that I Deep acting .12** need to show to others Surface acting .28** I make an effort to actually feel the Suppression .00 emotions that I need to display toward Emotional consonance -.16** others emotions at work 21 emotions at work 22 Gross: Emotion Regulation Gross: Emotion Regulation emotion may be regulated at five points in the emotion generative process: Emotional Response Emotional -> Goals and values cues tendencies responses (1) selection of the situation (2) modification of the situation Evaluation Modulation Antecedent-focused Response-focused (3) deployment of attention emotion regulation emotion regulation (e.g. reappraisal) (e.g. suppression) (4) change of cognitions, and (5) modulation of experiential, behavioral, or physiological responses. emotions at work 23 emotions at work 24 4
  • 5. Gross: Emotion Regulation Gross: Emotion Regulation Antecedent-focused emotion regulation (e.g. antecedent-focused reappraisal) (1) selection of the situation (2) modification of the situation, actively strive to invoke thoughts, images, and (3) deployment of attention memories to induce a certain emotion (4) change of cognitions, and (Ashforth & Humphrey, 1993) response-focused metaphor of thinking of a difficult passenger as a child that is not responsible for its behavior (5) modulation of experiential, behavioral, or physiological responses emotions at work 25 emotions at work 26 Buddhism and law enforcement are Emotional Labor unusual bedfellows Lessons from Gross More refined measures of emotion regulation strategies needed Paul Bibby March 12, 2009 Sydney Morning Herald emotions at work 27 emotions at work 28 Emotional dissonance and burnout among cabin attendants Personality? Heuven & Bakker, 2003 Quest for personality characteristics. Persons with a high level of negative affectivity will not easily display positive emotions. Persons with a high level of introversion will not easily display positive emotions Agreeableness Study in Home child protection workers: Answer is NO. Example from cabin attendants. More important: Workers with a high degree of agreeableness are most likely to suffer from emotional exhaustion. Vlerick, P. (2001). Personality correlates of burnout: A cross-validation Study emotions at work 29 emotions at work 30 5
  • 6. Emotional dissonance and burnout among cabin attendants not agreeable Heuven & Bakker, 2003 Paulle (2005) Anxiety and intimidation in the Bronx and the Bijlmer: An ethnographic comparison of two schools successful teachers are capable of managing the emotional climate of their class by showing a whole range of feelings: kindness and empathy, but also, if necessary, anger and a certain harshness superficial satisfied passengers extension D-QEL surface acting of negative emotions deep acting of negative emotions principal components analysis confirmed that surface acting of negative emotions has to be distinguished from surface acting of positive emotions emotions at work 31 emotions at work 32 not agreeable not agreeable: anger Experienced teachers reported more surface acting of The Harvard Anger Report negative emotions then inexperienced teachers M = 5.60 and M = 5.18, t(395) = 2.54, p < .01. the advice isn’t quite Experienced teachers reported more emotional “if you want to get ahead, lose it first” consonance then inexperienced teachers M = 7.61 and M = 7.08, t(396) = 3.87, p < .001. important that anger is channelled constructively There were no significant differences in surface acting, deep acting and suppression Positive relationship between surface acting of negative emotions and personal accomplishment Prof George Vaillant from Harvard Medical School in Canisius, A. & Näring, G. (submitted) Emotional labor in the interview with Julian Baggini in SMH classroom: Teachers’ use of positive and negative emotions emotions at work 33 emotions at work 34 Emotion work (Zapf, 1999) Emotion work (Zapf, 1999) Measures characteristics of the job emotional exhaustion positively correlated with positive emotions display “How often does it occur in your job that you have to express pleasant emotions towards your clients?”. the requirement to display and handle negative emotions/variety factor negative emotions “How often does it occur in your job that you have to express unpleasant emotions towards your clients?” the requirement to be sensitive to the sensitivity requirements emotions of others “How often does it occur in your job that you have to consider negative moods of your clients?”. in five different samples (handicapped emotional dissonance children’s home, call centers, hotel business, ‘A’ can openly display his/her feelings towards clients banking sector, and kindergartens) —‘B’ has to display feelings towards clients which do not match his/her true feelings. What is your job like?”. emotions at work 35 emotions at work 36 6
  • 7. Emotional labour Personality or Job characteristics? Concepts measuring job characteristics or demands seem promising Guest Editorial How often does your work require to … Emotional labour: Just another buzz word? Psychological demands have a strong relationship with emotional exhaustion in International Journal of Nursing Studies 44 (2007) nurses (de Jonge, Mulder, Nijhuis, 1999). 859–861 emotions at work 37 emotions at work 38 “Another buzz word?” Research agenda Confusion about terminology on the emotions side emotional labour Emotions have been marginalised by the current emotional demands emphasis on evidence-based practice, clinical traumatization outcomes and national standards (Freshwater and Various concepts to measure possible effects Stickley, 2005) burnout emotional exhaustion compassion fatigue secondary traumatization posttraumatic stress disorder Value and visibility of emotional labor (Staden,1998) emotions at work 39 emotions at work 40 Another approach “Another buzz word?” Suggestions Qualitative studies may provide themes that are important to discuss in supervision or coaching study interactions on a microscopically level: event sampling methods Themes: ask about specific ways to change emotions, cognitive Appearing caring or otherwise Nurses are human too Giving of yourself explicitly deal with uncomfortable and conflicting emotions Staden (1998). Alertness to the needs of others: Appearing (Kelly, Ross, Gray, & Smith, 2000) caring. A study of the emotional labour of caring measure not only burnout but also compassion fatigue emotions at work 41 emotions at work 42 7
  • 8. “Another buzz word?” Compassion fatigue vicarious trauma Qualitative studies Compassion fatigue CF is based on the idea therapeutic potential of nurses’ interpersonal of a syndrome resulting specifically from involvement feature of ‘new nursing’ empathizing with people who are experiencing pain and suffering (Figley, 1983, all nurses identified emotional labor as a chief part of 1995). the nurse’s role in making patients feel ‘safe’, Vicarious trauma results from exposure to ‘comfortable’, and ‘at home’ clients’ material, empathic engagement with “Clinical and emotional skills come with the experiences of the job and you have to get in contact with your clients and a sense of responsibility for them emotions and how the patient feels” and culminates in not only cognitive, but also affective and relational changes (McCann & Gray (2009). The emotional labor of nursing – Defining and managing emotions in nursing work Pearlman, 1990). emotions at work 43 emotions at work 44 Compassion Compassion fatigue test Contrast to emotional labor as measured with Compassion Satisfaction Fatigue (CSF) test Dutch-QEL or Emotional Labor Scale 1. estimate of compassion not ‘trying to feel’ but most often genuine with 2. risk of burnout and compassion fatigue an inevitable impact 3. degree of satisfaction derived from helping not only while facing the patient but beyond others the workplace: at home (Figley, 1995; Figley & Stamm, 1996) changes the caregiver: meanings, basic beliefs about life and death, schema’s emotions at work 45 emotions at work 46 Professional Quality of Life Scale Compassion fatigue Professional Quality of Life Scale (Pro-QOL) Few studies on the incidence and prevalence 6. I feel invigorated after working with those I [help]. 7. I find it difficult to separate my personal life from my Consequences in cancer care providers life as a [helper]. Empathy may be comprised by compassion fatigue 8. I am losing sleep over traumatic experiences of a Practitioners may not be as emotionally connected to person I [help]. the patients as might be desirable 9. I think that I might have been “infected” by the (Simon et al., 2005) traumatic stress of those I [help] 19. Because of my work as a [helper], I feel exhausted Najjar, Davis, Beck-Coon, Carney Doebbeling (2009). Compassion fatigue: A review of the research to date and the relevance to cancer- care providers. Journal of Health Psychology, 14(2), 267-277 emotions at work 47 emotions at work 48 8
  • 9. Management of Compassion fatigue Management of Compassion fatigue Comparison with other Personal Strategies professions: Professional Strategies Organizational Strategies psychotherapist Soldiers after missions (Pearlman & Saaktvine, 1995) emotions at work 49 emotions at work 50 Management of Compassion fatigue Management of Compassion fatigue Personal Strategies Personal Strategies Identifying and making sense of disrupted schemas Professional Strategies Striking an appropriate work-life balance Undertaking regular professional supervision Undertaking a personal psychotherapy Developing and maintaining professional networks Identifying healing activities Having a realistic tolerance of failure Attending to spiritual needs Being aware of work and personal goals Professional Strategies Organizational Strategies Organizational Strategies (Pearlman & Saaktvine, 1995) (Pearlman & Saaktvine, 1995) emotions at work 51 emotions at work 52 Compassion fatigue Management of Compassion fatigue Personal Strategies Compassion fatigue not only takes a toll on cancer – care providers but also on the workplace Professional Strategies Organizational Strategies Developing a workplace environment that is as comfortable as possible Ensuring a culture of support and respect within the workplace that relates to emplyees as well as patients Najjar, Davis, Beck-Coon, Carney Doebbeling (2009). A review of the research to date and the relevance to cancer-care providers. (Huggard, 2003) Journal of Health Psychology, 14(2), 267-277 emotions at work 53 emotions at work 54 9
  • 10. To keep in mind There is a limit to the amount of emotion work Thank you for your attention that we can require from workers Emotional labor is not only about the display of positive emotions, but also about real emotions and about uncomforting emotions Emotion work often consists of painful changes in cognitions, beliefs, schema’s Agreeableness might be a risk factor / Cognitions beliefs about what caring/nursing comprises emotions at work 55 emotions at work 56 10