ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (EIA)

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The Center for Thematic Environmental Networks (TEN) is a Center for education and research in the fields of environment and sustainable development.
TEN Center promotes the exchange of knowledge and information on the environmental field and offers tools and supplementary approaches in order to solve environmental issues with specific reference to sustainable development.

TEN Center:
 promotes education and advanced training programs on sustainable development and environmental management;
 develops research activities on the main areas of environmental protection, with specific focus on developing countries;
 hosts initiatives which provide a meeting platform for the competent authorities, researchers and those who are involved in environmental and sustainable development issues.

Since 2003, TEN manages and coordinates advanced training programs devised for director generals and managers of public administrations, researchers and private sector experts from the People’s Republic of China and Eastern European countries. The aim is to augment and improve the capabilities of policy-makers and to facilitate knowledge transfer in order to promote sustainable environmental, social and economic policies.

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ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (EIA)

  1. 1. EIA Directive
  2. 2. The EIA Directive <ul><li>The EIA Directive requires projects likely to have significant effects on the environment </li></ul><ul><li>‘ project’ means: </li></ul><ul><li>- the execution of construction works or of other installations or schemes, </li></ul><ul><li>- other interventions in the natural surroundings and landscape including those involving the extraction of mineral resources. </li></ul>See the European Commission’s web pages on environmental assessment at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/eia/home.htm
  3. 3. Projects subject to EIA Project listed in ANNEX I Mandatory EIA Project listed in ANNEX II “ Screening” By competent authoroties to decide if EIA needed or not
  4. 4. <ul><li>Crude-oil refineries gasification and liquefaction </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal power stations installations for the production and conversion of fissionable and fertile materials </li></ul><ul><li>Installations for the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel . </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated works for the initial smelting of cast-iron and steel; </li></ul><ul><li>Installations for the extraction of asbestos </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated chemical installations , </li></ul><ul><li>Construction of lines for long-distance railway traffic and of airports </li></ul><ul><li>Inland waterways and ports for inland-waterway traffic </li></ul><ul><li>Waste disposal installations for the incineration , chemical treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Groundwater abstraction or artificialgroundwater recharge schemes </li></ul><ul><li>Works for the transfer of water resources </li></ul><ul><li>Waste water treatment plants </li></ul><ul><li>Extraction of petroleum and naturalgas for commercial purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Dams and other installations designed for the holding back or permanent storage of water </li></ul><ul><li>Pipelines for the transport of gas,oil or chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Installations for the intensive rearing of poultry or pigs </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial plants for the production of pulp, or paper and board </li></ul><ul><li>Quarries and open-cast mining </li></ul><ul><li>Construction of overhead electrical power lines </li></ul><ul><li>Installations for storage of petroleum, petrochemical, or chemical products </li></ul><ul><li>Any change to or extension of projects listed in this Annex where such a change or extension in itself meets the thresholds, if any, set out in this Annex. </li></ul>Project categories listed in Annex I
  5. 5. <ul><li>Agriculture, silviculture and aquaculture </li></ul><ul><li>Extractive industry </li></ul><ul><li>Energy industry </li></ul><ul><li>Production and processing of metals </li></ul><ul><li>Mineral industry </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical industry (Projects not included in Annex I) </li></ul><ul><li>Food industry </li></ul><ul><li>Textile,leather,wood and paper industries </li></ul><ul><li>Rubber industry </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure projects </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism and leisure </li></ul><ul><li>Any change or extension of projects listed in Annex I or Annex II, already authorized, executed or in the process of being executed, which may have significant adverse effects on the environment </li></ul>Project macro-categories listed in Annex II
  6. 6. For more information on BREFs and updated versions, see http://www.eippcb.jrc.es/pages/FActivities.htm. EIA project categories contained in adopted BREFs
  7. 7. For more information on BREFs and updated versions, see http://www.eippcb.jrc.es/pages/FActivities.htm. EIA project categories contained in adopted BREFs
  8. 8. For more information on BREFs and updated versions, see http://www.eippcb.jrc.es/pages/FActivities.htm. EIA project categories contained in adopted BREFs
  9. 9. For more information on BREFs and updated versions, see http://www.eippcb.jrc.es/pages/FActivities.htm. EIA project categories contained in adopted BREFs
  10. 10. The EIA phases Screening (does the project require EIA?) Baseline studies (establish the environmental baseline) Alternatives (consider the different approaches) Mitigation (what can be done to alleviate negative impacts?) EIS preparation/review (document the EIA findings) Public consultation (consult general public and NGOs) Monitoring (monitor impacts of project) Impact prediction (forecast the environmental impacts) Impact assessment (interpreting the impacts)
  11. 11. EIA approval procedure By interested Public Administrations By anyone interested Private or public project developer Project subject to EIA Submission of EIA application Screening Preliminary phase Publication to inform about submission of EIA application Date of the last publication Presentation to the public Presentation of comments Presentation of opinions Eventual request of integration Within 90 days Within 60 days Within 20 days Within 120 days Within 60 days Within 60 days Within 150 days Decision of the EIA Commission
  12. 12. EIA Commission <ul><li>The EIA Commission is made up of: </li></ul><ul><li>The director of the regional EIA Office </li></ul><ul><li>The general director of the regional Environmental Agency (ARPAV) </li></ul><ul><li>The director of provincial Department of the Environmental Agency </li></ul><ul><li>The director of the provincial Environment Office of the Environmental Agency </li></ul><ul><li>9 experts in the following fields: </li></ul>EXPERTISE IN EIA COMMISSION Environmental analysis Urban, territorial and landscape planning Protection of biological species and of biodiversity Protection of soil Containment of contaminants Risk analysis for industrial accidents Acoustic emissions Cultural heritage Human health Protection of agronomic and forest structure
  13. 13. EIA Methodology Step 0 Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6
  14. 14. Frameworks of the Environment Impact Statement Programmatic framework Verification of coherence between the project being evaluated and the contents of priority plans or programmes Project framework Description of the alternatives and of the final project solution Environmental framework Description of the current conditions of the environment and assessment of no development conditions and of conditions with development
  15. 15. Table of contents of the ES (1) Urban Plan Provincial Territorial Plan (bonds) CHAPTERS <ul><li>Presentation of the project </li></ul>1.1 General characteristics of the project 1.2 Description of the territorial and infrastructural context 1.3 Interdisciplinary working group 2. Programmatic framework <ul><ul><ul><li>2.1 Territorial and urban plans (local, provincial and regional) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.2 Environmental and sectorial plans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.3 Coherence relationship of the project with the plans’ objectives </li></ul></ul>3. Project framework <ul><ul><li>3.1 Current status of the area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.2 Analysis of the alternatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.3 Description of the project solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3.3.1 Construction phase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3.3.2 Operational phase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3.3.3 Closure phase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3.3.4 Benefit-cost analysis </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Table of contents of the ES (2) Average precipitation Rete Natura 2000 4. Environmental framework <ul><ul><li>4.1 Analysis of the current status of the environmental matrixes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4.2 Assessment of potential impacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4.3 Mitigation measures </li></ul></ul>5. Conclusions Technical Annexes Assessment of the effects on Rete Natura 2000 sites Prevision of acoustic emission Prevision of air contaminants emissions Prevision of odour emissions Analysis of the road capacity and calculation of generated traffic Assessment of the impact on the landscape … ..
  17. 17. Content of EIA Analysis <ul><li>The EIA should identify , describe and assess the direct and indirect effects of a project on the following factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>human beings, fauna and flora </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>soil, water, air, climate and the landscape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>material assets and cultural heritage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the interaction between the above factors </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Assessment of potential impacts ANNEX III , pt. 3 - Characteristics of the potential impact The potential significant effects of projects must be considered in relation to criteria […], and having regard in particular to: - the extent of the impact (geographical area and size of the affected population), - the transfrontier nature of the impact, - the magnitude and complexity of the impact, - the probability of the impact, - the duration, frequency and reversibility of the impact. In accordance with the requirements of EIA Directive 85/337/EC as amended by Directive 97/11/EC
  19. 19. EIA Methodology <ul><li>Magnitude criterion (M) [1-5] linked to: </li></ul><ul><li>- extent </li></ul><ul><li>- harmfulness </li></ul><ul><li>- duration </li></ul><ul><li>- economic aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency criterion (F) [1-5] </li></ul><ul><li>Detection criterion (D) [1-5] </li></ul>EF = M x F x D for each process phase Environmental Factor Types of impact 1≤EF≤8 Non significant 9≤EF≤27 Slightly significant EF≥28 Significant
  20. 20. EIA: Case studies
  21. 21. Projects Wind power plant Biomass plant (vegetable oil) Location: Municipality of Buseto Palizzolo (TP) Power : 30 MW Energy : 90.027 MWh/year Net energia : 79.707 MWh/year Procedures :EIA, Assessement on Rete Natura 2000 Location : Municipality of Staranzano (GO) Power : 55 MWe Energy : 438.132 MWh/year Net energy : 419.749 MWh/year Procedures : EIA, IPPC, Assessment on Rete Natura 2000 48.948 t/a CO 2 avoided 257.726 t/a CO 2 avoided
  22. 22. Projects AD plant from waste AD plant from animal manure and agricultural biomass Location: Municipality of Maniago (PN) Power : 2.440 kWe Electric energy : 18.500 MWh/year Procedures : EIA, Assessment on Rete Natura 2000 Location : Municipality of San Benedetto Po (MN) Power : 1.750 kWe Electric energy : 13.400 MWh/year Procedures : Assessment on Rete Natura 2000 11.188 t/a CO 2 avoided
  23. 23. Projects Biomass plant (from wood) Hydroelectric plant Location : Municipality of Castellavazzo (BL) Power : 4,7 MWe Electric energy : 34.000 MWh/year Procedures : Regional authorisation – Assessment for Rete Natura 2000 Location : Municipality of Piancogno (BS) Power: 2147,23 kW Procedures : EIA Screening, Assessment for Rete Natura 2000
  24. 24. Enviromemtal Impact Assessment Traffico Public opinion Waste production Energy and water consumption Endangered species Noise Landscape Air emissions Traffic Land use
  25. 25. Project of an integrated composting - AD plant Total annual capacity 280.000 t/year <ul><li>Treatment of biowaste from separate collection and organic special waste </li></ul><ul><li>25% green waste </li></ul><ul><li>75% biowaste and agro-industrial sludges </li></ul>ENERGY PRODUCTION <ul><li>Electric energy production: 18,5 GWh/year </li></ul><ul><li>10 GWh/year for internal consumption </li></ul><ul><li>8,5 GWh/year sold </li></ul>Project area
  26. 26. Project of an integrated composting - AD plant Composting building Wastewater treatment plant Biodigesters e post-digesters Gasometer Cogeneration plant Biofilter Biocells
  27. 27. PROTECTED AREAS Programmatic framework Areas of priority environmental interest Administrative limits Hydrogeological constraint International Bird Area Rete Natura 2000 - SIC
  28. 28. PROCESS SCHEME FOR COMPOSTING PROCESS SCHEME FOR AD GASOMETER BIODIGESTERS Project framework
  29. 29. ACOUSTIC EMISSIONS RECEPTORS Rc1 : Building (700 m) Rc2 : House (1000 m) Environmental framework
  30. 30. VERIFICATION OF RESPECT OF IMMISSION LIMITS AT THE RECEPTORS ACOUSTIC SOURCES Environmental framework ACUSTIC EMISSIONS Propagazione sonora DIURNO Propagazione sonora NOTTURNO
  31. 31. TRAFFIC Impianto Environmental framework
  32. 32. REPRESENTATION OF TRAFFIC FLUXES GENERATED BY THE PLANT Environmental framework
  33. 33. VEHICLE FLUXES (current+future) ANALYSIS OF THE INTERSECTIONS Environmental framework
  34. 34. ODOUR EMISSIONS Application of a model CALPUFF Respect of the accettable level (3 OU/m 3 ) Sensible receptors < 1 OU/m 3 In urban centres < 0,5 OU/m 3 SOURCE: biofilters Environmental framework
  35. 35. POINT EMISSIONS (COGENERATORS) Application of a model ISC3 Contaminants PM 10 , CO, NO x , SO 2 SOURCE: exhaust chimney of the engines (internal combustion) Introduzione Quadro di riferimento programmatico Quadro di riferimento progettuale Stima degli impatti Misure di mitigazione
  36. 36. Mitigations <ul><li>“ Improvement” according to Best Available Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>International: Best REFerence documents (BREF) </li></ul><ul><li>National guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Technical mitigation measures </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigazione by vegetation </li></ul>
  37. 37. Technical mitigation measures
  38. 38. Mitigation by vegetation Bagolaro Carpino bianco Macchia arborea
  39. 39. Final Assessment Matrix
  40. 40. The recovery of municipal waste to produce energy and heat Gabriella Chiellino – CEO eAmbiente Srl an example of integrated planning made in Italy
  41. 41. Priorities in waste management Directive 2006/12/EC introduced some key concepts such as: minimisation, recovery and disposal WASTE HIERARCHY <ul><li>Directive 2008/98/EC </li></ul><ul><li>A revision of previous Directive 2006/12/EC in order to clarify key concepts and to strengthen the measures that must be taken in regard to waste prevention, to introduce a new approach: </li></ul><ul><li>To take into account the whole life-cycle of products and materials and not only the waste phase </li></ul><ul><li>To focus on reducing the environmental impacts of waste generation and waste management, thereby strengthening the economic value of waste, in order to conserve natural resources. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Who is S.E.S.A.? Since 1995 technological partner of the City of Este (PD) Municipal Solid Waste collection and transportation Non-hazardous municipal solid waste disposal and management system Composting plant management Selection plant management Purification and wastewater treatment Service
  43. 43. The separated waste collection <ul><li>S.E.S.A.’s integrated waste treatment and recovery starts with a separated waste collection </li></ul><ul><li>Through this separated waste collection the population is encouraged to: </li></ul><ul><li>Recycle paper, tin, glass, plastic </li></ul><ul><li>Use compostable garbage bags </li></ul><ul><li>Recover organic matter  Compost </li></ul><ul><li>Produce energy (electric and thermal) from solid waste and from organic waste </li></ul>
  44. 44. S.E.S.A. plant: integrated waste management Landfill Composting plant (organic waste) Selection plant Anaerobic digestion Composting plant (municipal solid and special waste)
  45. 45. Good practices in action <ul><li>Best Available Techniques implemented to improve SESA output </li></ul><ul><li>National Waste management Guidelines, 2007 </li></ul>Adoption of management procedures: Waste management Water management Monitoring program olfactometric Certification
  46. 46. December 2004 ISO 9001 December 2006 OHSAS 18001 November 2002 ISO 14001 July 2009 EMAS July 2006 ISO 17025 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM CERTIFICATION QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM CERTIFICATION INTERNAL LABORATORY ACCREDITATION SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM CERTIFICATION S.E.S.A. certifications
  47. 47. WASTE RECOVERY Organic Fraction of Municipal solid waste (OFMSW) Collection and transport Heat production Biogas burning Composting Compost Biodigestion Electricity production
  48. 48. HEAT PRODUCTION RECOVERY Heat production DISTRICT HEATING NETWORK Hospital Private users Schools USERS
  49. 49. ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS 1 MWyear of electric energy produced equals : CO 2 carbon dioxide : 604,5 ton/year SO 2 sulphur dioxide : 1,35 ton/year NO 2 nitrogen dioxide : 1,82 ton/year Dust: 23,95 kg/year Avoided emissions: Fossil fuel saved: 216,2 TEP/year
  50. 50. Biodigestors with 7.000 m 3 capacity ANAEROBIC DIGESTION
  51. 51. 5 cogeneration engines Total thermal power = 3,79 MWt Total electric power = 3,90 MWe COGENERATION SYSTEM
  52. 52. … heat recovery from exhaust fumes … COGENERATION SYSTEM
  53. 53. … using biogas produced by waste management A network which provides heat to public and private users… DISTRICT HEATING NETWORK
  54. 54. DISTRICT HEATING NETWORK Realization phases of the heating network along existing roads… … without consuming green land
  55. 55. USERS CONNECTED USERS kW Users in the City of Ospedaletto Euganeo City Hall 150 “ Parini” School 400 Sport center 35 “ G.B.Ferrari” School 385 Library 200 Euganea Bank 1 100 Euganea Bank 2 200 “ GARDEN” Restaurant 120 Santinato Tiziano 35 Users in the City of Este Manfredini – Centrale SE 500 Manfredini – Centrale NO 700 Civil Hospital 3.500 TOTAL 6.325
  56. 56. Prof. Gabriella Chiellino Work e-mail : [email_address] Address: Parco Tecnologico e Scientifico VEGA-edificio Auriga Via delle Industrie 9– 30175 Marghera VENEZIA Italy www.eambiente.it Thank you for your kind attention

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