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Carbon footprint and its application to cities

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SEPB Training Program, Low Carbon Economy …

SEPB Training Program, Low Carbon Economy

The Center for Thematic Environmental Networks (TEN) is a Center for education and research in the fields of environment and sustainable development.
TEN Center promotes the exchange of knowledge and information on the environmental field and offers tools and supplementary approaches in order to solve environmental issues with specific reference to sustainable development.

TEN Center:
 promotes education and advanced training programs on sustainable development and environmental management;
 develops research activities on the main areas of environmental protection, with specific focus on developing countries;
 hosts initiatives which provide a meeting platform for the competent authorities, researchers and those who are involved in environmental and sustainable development issues.

Since 2003, TEN manages and coordinates advanced training programs devised for director generals and managers of public administrations, researchers and private sector experts from the People’s Republic of China and Eastern European countries. The aim is to augment and improve the capabilities of policy-makers and to facilitate knowledge transfer in order to promote sustainable environmental, social and economic policies.

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  • The chart shows all the different fields of
  • Energy and city are very connected themes. It’s easy to understand looking at this graphic which shows how worldwide people are progressively moving toward cities and contemporary leaving rural contest. In 2009 for the first time in our history , the 50% of people living on Earth was living in a city. the United Nations estimates that by 2050 this percentage will increase up to 70%.
  • Cities have a fundamental role in our society. They are not only residential places but also administrative, trading and productive places. They concentrate most of human activities and also the resources required to accomplish. The incoming elements of a urban system are energy, natural resources, goods. The outcomings are emissions, wastewaters, urban waste, heat
  • The consequences are easy to predict and everybody here knows them. The most significant are connected with air pollution, which produces human diseases and loss of natural and cultural heritage, water pollution which causes aquatic life toxicity and often the impossibility to use the resources for recreational goals, and a big amount of urban waste which, together with management problems, induces also human diseases and environmetal degradation. The impacts produces by human activities, which in urban contest are magnified because concentrated, have strong consequences on life quality for citizens and high social costs.
  • We can’t live without energy
  • 77% dioddiso di carbonio proveniente da 60% consumo combustibili fossili e 40% deforestazione. Gli altri maggior cas serra responsabili sono metano (CH4) e ossido di diazoto (N2O). Idrofluorocarburi (HFC), perfluorocarburi (PFC), esafluoruro di zolfo (SF6).
  • What are they? Who knows what we are talking about?
  • It set a series of demanding climate and energy targets to be met by 2020, known as the "20-20-20" targets. These are: A reduction in EU greenhouse gas emissions of at least 20% below 1990 levels 20% of EU energy consumption to come from renewable resources A 20% reduction in primary energy use compared with projected levels, to be achieved by improving energy efficiency.
  • The climate and energy package creates pressure to improve energy efficiency but does not address it directly. This is being done through the EU’s energy efficiency action plan. The Commission has adopted an Action Plan for Energy Efficiency (2007-12) aimed at achieving a 20% reduction in energy consumption by 2020. The Action Plan includes measures to improve the energy performance of products, buildings and services, to improve the yield of energy production and distribution, to reduce the impact of transport on energy consumption, to facilitate financing and investments in the sector, to encourage and consolidate rational energy consumption behaviour and to step up international action on energy efficiency. The European Commission has also inaugurated an important and innovative initiatives called Covenant of Mayors which aims to traduces these general measures in concrete actions il Local Authorities’ territory.
  • The Covenant represents the mainstream European movement involving local and regional authorities in the fight against climate change. It is based on a voluntary commitment by signatories to meet and exceed, if possible, the EU 20% CO 2 reduction objective through increased energy efficiency and development of renewable energy sources.
  • Signatories represent cities, with different size from small villages to major metropolitan areas such as London or Paris, that have signed the Covenant of Mayors on a voluntary manner and are committed to implement sustainable energy policies to meet and exceed the EU 20% CO2 reduction objective through increased energy efficiency and development of renewable energy sources.
  • This flowchart represent the growth in number of signatories
  • A European city of 100,000 inhabitants often spends up to 1.5 M€ on energy bills in its public buildings.
  • This flowchart represents the steps a city has to follow to accomplish the commitments deriving from the Covenant. It gives an overview of the procedure the cities commit to follow when signing Covenant. The Covenant signatories commit (among others) to: -Create adequate administrative structures in their municipalities -Prepare baseline CO2 emissions inventory -Prepare the Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP) -Implement the SEAP and regularly monitor and report on the progress made They are also engaged to submit the SEAP 1 year after the signature of the Covenant of Mayors. The implementation report should be submitted 3 years after the signature and then every 2 years.
  • How to do? Where to find a guide? Official guidelines exist. They was elaborated by Joint Research centre , a tecnlical structure which support the European Commission. They are structured in 3 parts.The first one contains a general description of the SEAP process, instead the second and third parts are more technical. The second contains all the rules to fallow to create the Baseline Emission Inventory, I’m going to tell about in next slides, the third contains suggestions about technical measures for energy efficiency and renewable energy to implement to reach goals requested.
  • To begin the political commitment is necessary. City must be interested in the Covenant and must be conscious about tne commitment deriving from it. Signature of the Covenant of Mayors must be decided by the municipal council. Then a proper structure must be built inside the Local Authority. Stakeholders are those whose interests are affected by the issue, whose activities affect the issue, who possess or control information, resources needed for strategy formulation and implementation, whose partecipation is needed for successful implementation.
  • Step 4 is represented by the Baseline Emission Inventory. BEI has the purpose to establish a clear picture of “where we are” a description of the city’s current situation in terms of energy and climate change. It is the starting point of the SEAP from which it is possible to move to relevant objective-setting, elaboration of adequate Action Plan and monitoring. What is it based on in your opinion? What have I to put in? SCHEMA
  • On the basin of the picture about consumptions and emission connected to a defined year, it is possible to start thinking about the objective that city want to reach and make real. So it is necessary to establish a long term vision with clear objectives. It represents the direction in which the local authority wants to head globally and for every single sector.
  • How to reach the goals
  • Give an overview of the procedure the cities commit to follow when signing Covenant. www.sustenergy.org The Covenant signatories commit (among others) to: -Create adequate administrative structures in their municipalities -Prepare baseline CO2 emissions inventory -Prepare the Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP) -Implement the SEAP and regularly monitor and report on the progress made They are also engaged to submit the SEAP 1 year after the signature of the Covenant of Mayors. The implementation report should be submitted 3 years after the signature and then every 2 years. All steps will be described in details in the following slides.
  • Are the signatories alone in this difficult work to neet covenant commitments? No
  • Transcript

    • 1. Gabriella Chiellino Technical-Scientific manager of eAmbiente Srl Federico Balzan Technical-Scientific employee of eAmbiente Srl, natural scientist Venice International University Friday, June 17 Carbon footprint and its application to cities
    • 2.  
    • 3. Gabriella Chiellino is the first woman graduated in Environmental Science in Italy and she founded eAmbiente in the year 2002. The Company is now a consultancy firm for environment and engineering that works in Italy and in Europe.
    • 4.  
    • 5. MILAN Via Tiziano Branch office CONEGLIANO Registered Office VENICE - VEGA Head Office CASTELLAVAZZO (BL) Branch office BRUXELLES - Belgium Branch office NEW
    • 6. Environmental assessments and analysis UNDERSTANDING DESIGN Environmental restoration and remediation Environmental management and control MANAGE
    • 7. CARBON FOOTPRINT FIRST PART
    • 8. Global climate change Increased concentration of CO 2 in the atmosphere since the revolution industry.  The temperature rise It represents one of the most important indicators that we are living beyond the capacity of ecosystems to absorb disturbances. Decreased emissions An effort by the productive sectors to reduce emissions and the concentration of CO 2 in the atmosphere is vital to combat climate change in progress. CO 2 and Global warming
    • 9. The differences CARBON FOOTPRINT Assessment throughout the life cycle of a product / process related to the impact category "global warming " (in terms of CO2 eq.) LCA (Life cycle assessment) Assessment throughout the life cycle of a product / process relating to many categories of impact: acidification, eutrophication, land use etc.. The Carbon Footprint is ​​a part of an LCA LCA Carbon footprint
    • 10. Applicable law Screening study Complete study under the rules UNI EN ISO 14040:2006 UNI EN ISO 14044:2006 EPD Environmental Product Declaration Time + internal resources for data retrieval Testing a possible third body on internal methodology Certification of a possible third body in accordance with standard Comunication Comunication / Ecodesign Comunication
    • 11.
      • Carbon markets
      • BINDING
      • The trading of greenhouse gas emissions has been established through the EU Directive 2003/87/EC to fulfill their commitments under the Kyoto Protocol.
      • Annex I of Directive:
      • Combustion installations exceeding 20 MW
      • Petroleum Refineries
      • Coke ovens
      • Etc.
      • VOLUNTEER
      • There are independent verification and validation services to voluntary projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, for the issuance of VERs (Verified Emissions Reductions), or "emission reduction units".
      Objective: environmental communication
    • 12. What happended with CO 2 ? The whole life on earth is based on photosynthesis of chlorophyll: Reactions during which green plants produce organic substances -mainly carbohydrates - from carbon dioxide and water, in the presence of light. This series of chemical reactions within the anabolic processes (synthesis) of carbohydrates and is totally opposed to the reverse process of catabolisi (oxidation). Reaction of the molecules 6 CO 2  (carbon dioxide) + 6 H 2 O (Water) + light -> C 6 H 12 O 6 (glucose) + 6 O 2  (Oxygen)
    • 13. And then? The “food chain” or “net chain” (better) provides to feed animals and the uman:
    • 14. Dynamic balance The CO 2 cycle on earth (but also water cycle, nitrogen cycle etc.) are in dynamic balance during the years. Only with other sources not renewable (fossils) this dynamic balance is altered with many pollution problems.
    • 15. Carbon footprint It measure the impact that human activities have on the environment in terms of amount of greenhouse gases produced, measured in units of carbon dioxide (CO 2 equivalent). Production Activities kWh energy m3 water Materials / resources Administrative kWh energy m3 methane Transportation Km covered Waste Kg produced Processing tonnes of CO2 equivalent SimaPro 7.3.0. Analyst
    • 16. Processing Method of calculation Categories of impact Mid-Point Evaluate the causes of the damage End-Point Evaluate the damage
      • Acidification
      • Eutrophication
      • Global Warming
      • Thinning of the ozone layer
      • Photochemical oxidation
      • Land use
      • Fossil Fuels
      • Ecotoxicity
      • Ionizing radiation
      • Etc.
      • Human Health
      • Ecosystem quality
      • Decay of natural resources
      SimaPro 7.3.0. Analyst
    • 17. The results are expressed as: Equivalent units CO 2 eq. kg SO 2 eq. kg CFC-11 eq. "Eco-points" Normalized equivalent units around them, with a percentage of the total European currency. Explanation of categories   Decay of natural resources   Ecosystem quality   Human health
    • 18. The calculation of carbon footprint provides tons of CO2 equivalent produced in a year The Company may decide to reduce emissions with a reduction plans (technological improvements, logistics etc.). So they may decide to compensate (offset) for remaining emissions (in part or entirely) . Total CO 2 CO 2 reduced CO 2 offset A number of tonnes of CO 2
    • 19. Project Choice Purchase of credits corresponding 1 ton = 1 credit Emissions offset Publication on the register Cancellation of debt certificates Environmental Communication Forest managemet Energy saving Biogas from landfills
      • 1 ton = 1 credit
      • Public Register
      • Credits Certificates
    • 20. Our experience Calculation of CO2 equivalent Projections of the reduction with improvement initiatives Communication on the company website and 1.000.000 of paper carnet Withdrawal of claims and posting to register eCO2care Calculation of CO2 equivalent to 20 emitters
    • 21. APPLICATION TO CITIES: CONVENANT OF MAYORS SECOND PART
    • 22. Rural and urban populations worldwide , 1950-2050 Year Source: United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects, 2009 2009 Sustainability in urban contest ENERGY ISSUES Urban population Rural population
    • 23. Cities have a fundamental role. They are residential place but also administrative, trading and productive places. ENERGY, NATURAL RESOURCES, GOODS… ATMOSPHERIC EMISSIONS, WASTEWATERS, WASTE, HEAT…. … URBAN SYSTEM ENERGY ISSUES Sustainability in urban contest
    • 24. Air pollution Human diseases Loss of natural and cultural heritage Urban waste Water pollution © Jan Lai Ming Chuen © Roberto Salomone / AFP - Getty Images © Reuters Human diseases Environmental degradation Resource waste B(a)P O 3 NO 2 PM 10 aquatic life toxicity Impossibility to use the resource for recreational goals LOW LIFE QUALITY COSTS ENERGY ISSUES Sustainability in urban contest
    • 25. ENERGY: an essential factor
      • gives personal comfort and mobility to people
      • is essential for the generation of industrial, commercial and social wealth.
      Unfortunatly energy production and consumption place considerable pressures on the environment emission of greenhouse gases and air pollutants BUT ENERGY ISSUES
    • 26. “ The urban world consumes about 75% of global energy and emits about 80% of total greenhouse gas " (Hayden, 2007) Energy 61,4% GHG SOURCES CO 2 : 77% CH 4 : 14% N 2 O: 8% HFC, PFC, SF 6 : 1% Source: UN-HABITAT, State of the World’s Cities, 2009 ENERGY ISSUES
    • 27. ENERGY DEMAND Energy demand is growing Fossil fuels still predominate about 79% of the energy needs of the average European are met by coal, gas and oil around 13% comes from nuclear power the remaining 8% comes from rapidly increasing renewable energy sources (especially wind and solar energy). ENERGY ISSUES Present contest
    • 28. TOWARDS LOW CARBON ECONOMY The 20-20-20 targets What are they? How?
    • 29.
      • In January 2008 the European Commission proposed binding legislation to implement the
      • CLIMATE AND ENERGY PACKAGE
      • It was agreed by the European Parliament and Council in December 2008 and became law in June 2009.
      • It set a series of demanding targets to be met by 2020 , known as the "20-20-20" targets.
      • - 20% EU greenhouse gas emissions below 1990 levels
      • +20% of EU energy consumption from renewable resources
      • - 20% in primary energy use to be achieved by improving energy efficiency
      The 20-20-20 target s TOWARDS LOW CARBON ECONOMY
    • 30. The 20-20-20 targets
      • Action Plan for Energy Efficiency (2007-12)
      • to improve the energy performance of products, buildings, services
      • to improve the yield of energy production and distribution
      • to reduce the impact of transport on energy consumption
      • to facilitate financing and investments in the sector
      • to encourage and consolidate rational energy consumption behaviour
      • to step up international action on energy efficiency
      CLIMATE AND ENERGY PACKAGE MEASURES TOWARDS LOW CARBON ECONOMY
    • 31. 29 January 2008 in the second edition of the European Sustainable Energy Week (EUSEW 2008), the European Commission launched The Covenant of Mayors initiative to actively involve European cities in the path towards sustainability and environmental efficiency. What is it? THE COVENANT OF MAYORS
    • 32. PECULIARITIES DIRECT INVOLVEMENT of local and regional authorities. For the first time the DG ENER ( Directorate-General for Energy ) gets in touch directly with the local level It is a VOLUNTARY COMMITMENT by signatories to meet and exceed the EU 20% CO 2 reduction objective. It goes beyond what is requested by law in matter of urban planning It is based on the adoption of a flexible instrument called SEAP which can be adapted to the progress towards goals THE COVENANT OF MAYORS
    • 33. Mayors commit to… Go beyond the objectives set by the EU for 2020, reducing the CO2 emissions in their respective territories by at least 20%, through the implementation of Sustainable Energy Action Plans SIGNATORIES Cities with different size that have signed the Covenant of Mayors on a voluntary manner during the Covenant of Mayors Annual Ceremony THE COVENANT OF MAYORS
    • 34. 9 February 2009 Hemicycle of the European Parliament, Brussels 370 cities committed to reduce CO 2 emissions on their territories by at least 20% by 2020 THE COVENANT OF MAYORS 1680 cities committed to reduce CO 2 emissions on their territories by at least 20% by 2020 4 May 2010 Hemicycle of the European Parliament, Brussels
    • 35. The unprecedent growth of the Covenant of Mayors Who ? Today 2586 signatories THE COVENANT OF MAYORS
    • 36. 1. Energy is one of the few municipal fields where significant financial savings can be achieved... 3 main reasons why cities get involved Why to get involved? THE COVENANT OF MAYORS 2 . Lower energy bills for citizens, comfortable living conditions, pleasant environment, more jobs… 3 . The battle against climate change has to be fought at local level…
    • 37. Steps Baseline Emission Inventory & SEAP development with stakeholders and citizens Monitoring and reporting Implementation of your SEAP STEP 1: Signature of the Covenant of Mayors STEP 2: Submission of your SEAP STEP 3: Regular submission of implementation reports (every 2 years) Creation of adequate administrative structures 1 st year 3 rd year & beyond 3 steps leading to the Covenant objective THE COVENANT OF MAYORS
    • 38. All the elements to develop a Sustainable Energy Action Plan STRUCTURE: Part 1 The SEAP process, step-by-step towards the -20%target by 2020 Part II Baseline emissions inventory Part III Technical measures for energy efficiency and renewable energy Official Guidelines By Joint Research Centre (JRC) THE COVENANT OF MAYORS
    • 39. Step 1 The political commitment Signature of the Covenant of Mayors must be decided by the municipal council Step 2 Adapting administrative structures Adjustment and optimisation of Local Authority’s internal administrative structures: multidisciplinary approach is needed Step 3 Building support from stakeholders Concertation and partecipation allow to mobilise the civil society to take part in developing the action plan, establishing a common vision for the future THE COVENANT OF MAYORS
      • Stakeholders:
      • Local and regional energy agencies
      • Financial partners such as banks, ESCO
      • Energy suppliers, utilities
      • Transport companies
      • Universities
      • Chambers of commerce
    • 40. Step 4 Baseline emission inventory (BEI) elaboration Assessment of the current framework about energy consumption and CO2 emissions at the local level Building the BEI - Features and contents Geographical boundaries the administrative bounderies of the local authorities. Define Baseline years Is the year against which the achievements of the emission reductions in 2020 shall be collected. Collecting data Quantification of following emissions that occur due to energy consumption in the territory of the local authority: DIRECT EMISSIONS: fuel combustion INDIRECT EMISSIONS: production of electricity, heat or cold consumed in the territory OTHER DIRECT EMISSIONS: depending on the choice of BEI THE COVENANT OF MAYORS
    • 41.
        • SECTORS TO INCLUDE IN BEI
        • BUILDINGS
        • - Municipal buildings
        • - Tertiary buildings
        • - Residential buildings
        • URBAN INFRASTRUCTURES
      • - municipal public lighting
      • - wastewater treatment
      • - solid waste treatment
        • ENERGY PRODUCTION
      • Fuel consumption for electricity production
      • Fuel consumption for heat/cold production
      • TRANSPORTATION
      • Municipal fleet
      • Public transportation
      • Private and commercial transportation
      THE COVENANT OF MAYORS
    • 42. Step 4 Baseline emission inventory elaboration Assessment of the current framework about energy consumption and CO2 emissions at the local level Step 5 Establishment of a long term vision with clear objectives. To point out the direction in which the local authority wants to head. Step 6 SEAP elaboration Translation of the vision into practical actions assigning deadlines and a budget for each of them. THE COVENANT OF MAYORS AT LAST!!
    • 43.
      • How to reach the goals
      • Measures in the short and medium term
      • Long-term strategies
      THE COVENANT OF MAYORS SECTOR POLICIES TECHNICAL MEASURES Buildings plants facilities
      • Regulations for new or renovated private buildings
      • Financial incentives and loan
      • Information and training
      • Increase the rate of refurbishment
      • Urban plannig and regulations
      • Energy taxes
      • Coordinate policies with other levels of authority
      • Public procurement requirement in public building
      • smart systems for energy management
      • more efficient heating /cooling/lighting systems
      • Condensig boilers
      • geothermal heat pumps
      • solar termal and photovoltaic plant on roofs
      • insulating technics (walls, windows, ….)
      Transport
      • Reducing the need for transport through ICT (teleworking)
      • Increasing the attractiveness of alternative transport mode (public transport, cycling, walking)
      • making travel by car less attractive (fees, circulation taxes, pedestiran only zone in the center, more expensive parking or parking costs related to the car model)
      • smart systems for traffic management
      • Smart system for driving management
      • Bike-sharing
      • Car-sharing
      • Electric cars
      Energy generation and distribution
      • local energy generation
      • Intruducing renewable energy installation requirements in new buildings
      • Provide information and support to stakeholders
      Photovoltaic electricity generation on abandoned land and on the roof of public buildings Creation of heating and cooling district (centralised plant to provide thermal energy for external custromers
    • 44. MOSAIC OF ACTIONS & SOLUTIONS … contributing to the achievement of the Covenant objectives THE COVENANT OF MAYORS
    • 45. Communication with local stakeholders and citizens Organisation of Local Energy Days  www.sustenergy.org THE COVENANT OF MAYORS
    • 46. Step 7 Approval of the Plan and its associated budget Formal approval of the SEAP by the municipal council is a mandatory requirement. In addition the local authority should allocate the necessary resources in the annual budget . Step 8 Monitoring and progress description Continuous monitoring is needed to follow SEAP implementation and eventually to maje corrections in a continuous improvement cycle. THE COVENANT OF MAYORS
    • 47. 1.Covenant of Mayors Office (COMO) 2. Covenant Supporting Structures 3. Benchmarks of Excellence 4. Financial support 5. European institutions What support for the Signatories? Who supports? THE COVENANT OF MAYORS
    • 48. Covenant of Mayors Office
      • Promotes the initiative
      • in the EU and beyond
      • Provides administrative and technical support for Signatories
      • Monitors the implementation by Signatories and Supporting Structures
      • Facilitates exchange of experiences and networking
      • Liaises with relevant EU initiatives and actors
      THE COVENANT OF MAYORS
    • 49.
      • Public administrations - national and regional public bodies, counties, provinces, agglomerations, mentor cities etc.
      • They provide:
      • strategic guidance
      • financial support
      • technical support
      • to municipalities lacking the skills and /or resources to fulfil the Covenant commitments, esp. the preparation and implementation of SEAP.
      Covenant Supporting Structures THE COVENANT OF MAYORS
    • 50. Last september during the International Conference on Climate Change on Palmaria Island near La Spezia, 25 Italian Provinces had signed The Province of Venice had signed as Supporting Structures The Province of Venice 44 Municipalities Technical partners THE COVENANT OF MAYORS
    • 51. The Province of Venice Start-up Organization of a plenary event open to all the Municipalities in San Servolo in 18 th of March Meeting with the Municipality interested in the project Application to European Financial Instruments called Intelligent Energy for Europe with an international project involving more or less 35 Municipalities www.202020-provinciavenezia.it THE COVENANT OF MAYORS
    • 52.
      • Monitor emissions of their productive activity and helping to organize a plan to reduce emissions (= savings);
      • It provides an objective assessment of the performance of their products / processes;
      • The compensation provides a significant contribution to combating climate change;
      • It allows you to identify aspects of the process which lends itself more easily to be optimized;
      • Allows a comparison of products with the same functional unit (ie the service provided);
      • Allows the communication environment to new customer groups, particularly effective if done in a standardized and controlled by third party EPD.
      • Battle against climate change that has to be fought at local level…
      Conclusions Carbon footprint and its application to cities: Global problem… … local solution!
    • 53. Thanks for your attention www.eambiente.it Facebook.com/eAmbiente

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