CO 2 and Global warming Global climate change Increased concentration of CO 2 in the atmosphere since the revolution industry. The temperature rise It represents one of the most important indicators that we are living beyond the capacity of ecosystems to absorb disturbances. Decreased emissions An effort by the productive sectors to reduce emissions and the concentration of CO 2 in the atmosphere is vital to combat climate change in progress.
Consumption of resources Population is growing Since XX century population is growing quickly. Life style is changing In Europe and America expecially, people are living beyond the capacity of ecosystems to absorb disturbances. Resources are scarce To make goods we need to use resources that are not always renewable.
The differences CARBON FOOTPRINT Assessment throughout the life cycle of a product / process related to the impact category "global warming " (in terms of CO 2 eq.) ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT The ecological footprint is a statistical index used to measure request for human nature and its factories. It relates the human consumption of natural resources with the earth's capacity to regenerate them. WATER FOOTPRINT The WF is a geographically explicit indicator showing volumes of water consumption and pollution and the locations
First part: Carbon footprint CARBON FOOTPRINT FIRST PART
Applicable law Screening study Complete study under the rules UNI EN ISO 14040:2006 UNI EN ISO 14044:2006 EPD Environmental Product Declaration Time + internal resources for data retrieval Testing a possible third body on internal methodology Certification of a possible third body in accordance with standard Comunication Comunication / Ecodesign Comunication
The trading of greenhouse gas emissions has been established through the EU Directive 2003/87/EC to fulfill their commitments under the Kyoto Protocol.
Annex I of Directive:
Combustion installations exceeding 20 MW
There are independent verification and validation services to voluntary projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, for the issuance of VERs (Verified Emissions Reductions), or "emission reduction units".
Objective: environmental communication
What happended with CO 2 ? The whole life on earth is based on photosynthesis of chlorophyll: Reactions during which green plants produce organic substances -mainly carbohydrates -from carbon dioxide and water, in the presence of light. This series of chemical reactions within the anabolic processes (synthesis) of carbohydrates and is totally opposed to the reverse process of catabolisi (oxidation). Reaction of the molecules 6 CO 2 (carbon dioxide) + 6 H 2 O (Water) + light -> C 6 H 12 O 6 (glucose) + 6 O 2 (Oxygen)
And then? The “food chain” or “net chain” (better) provides to feed animals and the uman:
Dynamic balance The CO 2 cycle on earth (but also water cycle, nitrogen cycle etc.) are in dynamic balance during the years. Only with other sources not renewable (fossils) this dynamic balance is altered with many pollution problems.
Carbon footprint: measure CF measures the impact that human activities have on the environment in terms of amount of greenhouse gases produced, measured in units of carbon dioxide (CO 2 equivalent). Production Activities kWh energy m3 water Materials / resources Administrative kWh energy m3 methane Transportation Km covered Waste Kg produced Processing tonnes of CO2 equivalent SimaPro 7.3.0. Analyst
Carbon footprint: measure Processing Method of calculation Categories of impact Mid-Point Evaluate the causes of the damage End-Point Evaluate the damage
Thinning of the ozone layer
Decay of natural resources
SimaPro 7.3.0. Analyst
Example of results The results are expressed as: Equivalent units CO 2 eq. kg SO 2 eq. kg CFC-11 eq. "Eco-points" Normalized equivalent units around them, with a percentage of the total European currency. Example with different kind of beverages bottles! Explanation of categories Decay of natural resources Ecosystem quality Human health
Reduce and compensate emissions The calculation of carbon footprint provides tons of CO2 equivalent produced in a year The Company may decide to reduce emissions with a reduction plans (technological improvements, logistics etc.). So they may decide to compensate (offset) for remaining emissions (in part or entirely) . Total CO 2 CO 2 reduced CO 2 offset A number of tonnes of CO 2
Projects Project Choice Purchase of credits corresponding 1 ton = 1 credit Emissions offset Publication on the register Cancellation of debt certificates Environmental Communication Forest managemet Energy saving Biogas from landfills
1 ton = 1 credit
Our experience Calculation of CO2 equivalent Projections of the reduction with improvement initiatives Communication on the company website and 1.000.000 of paper carnet Withdrawal of claims and posting to register eCO2care Calculation of CO2 equivalent to 20 emitters
Second part: Ecological footprint First part: Carbon footprint ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT SECOND PART
Introduction It measures the area of biologically productive land and sea needed to regenerate the resources consumed by a human population. Using the ecological footprint, it is possible to estimate how many virtual "Planet Earth" is needed to support humanity if everybody lived according to a certain lifestyle.
In detail To calculate the ecological footprint of men’s consumption (goods,cereals, meat, fruits, vegetables, roots and tubers, legumes, etc.) you put in report the amount of each good consumed with a constant yield in kg / ha (kilograms per hectare). The result is a surface .
The situation: our world Density of world’s population Effective growth and forecast of world’s population
Why is it important? We need to do green choices Scenarios
Methodology Overview The 2010 National Footprint Accounts use over 5,000 data points for each country, each year, derived from internationally recognized sources to determine the area required to produce the biological resources a country uses and to absorb its wastes, and to compare this with the area available. Biocapacity is measured by calculating the amount of biologically productive land and sea area available to provide the resources a population consumes and to absorb its wastes, given current technology and management practices. Equivalence factors, and the specific land use types included in the Ecological Footprint: cropland, grazing land, fishing ground, forest land, carbon uptake land, and built-up land. DATA REPORT EQUIVALENCE FACTORS
Methodology Overview An example of methodology of calculation
Report Regarding some studies, even with modest projections for population growth, consumption and climate change, by 2030 humanity will need the capacity of two Earths to absorb carbon dioxide waste and keep up with natural resource consumption.
Standard’s path Global Footprint Network has released the Ecological Footprint Standards 2009 and has begun the 2012 Standards update process. The 2009 Standards build on the first set of internationally recognized Ecological Footprint Standards, released in 2006 , and include key updates – such as, for the first time, providing standards and guidelines for product and organizational Footprint assessments. Ecological footprint is still a young method
Problems Both the Carbon Footprint and the Ecological footprint must develop to comply on a global level, so that the results are actually comparable . The drafting of standards goes in this direction, although it is also necessary to standardize the methodology of data collection, processing not only of themselves.
Future Environmental problems need to be measured and possibly solved with effective methods. Carbon footprint and Ecological footprint, using their indicators can direct us to take effective action to minimize impacts and changing lifestyles, and industrial production.
Second part: Ecological footprint First part: Carbon footprint WATER FOOTPRINT THIRD PART
The Water Footprint (WF) is a measure of human appropriation of freshwater resources
Blue WF refers to consumption of blue water resources (surface and ground water).
Green WF is the volume of green water (rainwater) consumed, which is particularly relevant in crop production.
Grey WF is an indicator of the degree of freshwater pollution and is defined as the volume of freshwater that is required to assimilate the load of pollutants based on existing ambient water quality standards.
The WF is a geographically explicit indicator showing volumes of water consumption and pollution and the locations
the total volume of water appropriated for the production of the
goods and services consumed
equal to the sum of the water footprints of
all goods and services consumed
dimensions of a Water Footprint
( Volume, where, when, Type of water use)
Global average Water Footprint: 1385 m3/yr per capita
Countries United Kingdom Italy Cameroon Kenya USA Canada Japan France Germany Average Water Footprint (m3/yr per capita) 1258 2303 1245 1101 2842 2333 1379 1786 1426 Part of footprint falling outside of the country (%) 75,2 60,7 5,4 17,4 20,2 20,7 76,9 46,3 68,8
Water Footprint Rappresentation of virtual water balance per country and direction of gross virtual water flows related to trade in agricultural and industrial products over the period 1996-2005. Only the biggest water savings (> 5 Gm3/yr) are shown.
Water Footprint Rappresentation of global water savings associated with international trade in agricultural products (1996-2005). Only the biggest water savings (> 5 Gm3/yr) are shown.
Grey water footprint < available assimilation capacity
If we consider the Grey WF criterion: Grey Water Footprint < runoff Assimilative capacity non fully used Grey Water Footprint = runoff Fulle assimilative capacity of the river used Grey Water Footprint > runoff Pollution exceed the assimilative capacity of the envorinment
International standard for water footprinting (ISO 14046)
This International Standard specifies requirements and guidelines to assess and report Water Footprint based on LCA
Important stages to consider
Consistency with ISO 14000 series including environmental metrics such as Carbon footprint, LCA (ISO14040), Greenhouse Gases quantification and communication (ISO14064, ISO 14067) and Environmental communication (ISO14020)
It will define how the different types of water sources (for example ground, surface, lake, river…) should be considered, how the different types of water releases should be considered, and how the local environmental conditions (dry areas, wet areas) should be treated.
For products : it will apply the life cycle approach and will be based on the same product system as specified in ISO 14040 and ISO 14044
For organisation : it will consider the guidance given by ISO 14064 for GHG
The standard will also address the communication issues linked to the WF
Publication of « Water Footprint » results of products in the news,…
Increasing demand for standards
E.g., “The company said it was the world’s first food company to add an H2O label to product packaging and that it had developed its own calculation model because no internationally established formula and product label yet exists. […] we need to ensure that there are consistent standards across the board,” - Carbon Footprints to Water Footprints (The New York Times, April 17 2009)
Multitude groups active in water
World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD)
Reduce by avoid: do not undertake water - using activities altogether
Reduce by improved production: replace one technique by another technique that results in a lower or even zero Water Footprint
Compensate the residual water footprint by making a reasonable investment in establishing or supporting projects that aim at a sustainable, equitable and efficient use of water in the catchment where the residual Water Footprint is located
Ultimate perspective Agricolture Industry Green WF Decrease greenwater footprint (m3/ton) by increasing green water productivity (ton/me) in both rain - fed and irrigated agricolture. Increase total production from rain - fed agricolture Not relevant Blue WF Decrease blue water footprint (m3/ton) by increasing blue water productivity (ton/m3) in irrigated agricolture. Decrease ratio blue/green water footprint. Decrease global blue water footprint (e.g. by 50%) Zero blue water footprint: no losses trough evaporation - full recycling - only blue water footprint related to the incorporation of water into a product cannot be avoided Grey WF Reduced use of artificial fertilisers and pesticides; more effective application. Grey water footprint can go to zero through organic farming Zero grey water footprint no pollution - full recycling, recapturing heat from heated effluents and treatment of remaining return flows