I’m going to talk about the Covenant of Mayors, the European protocol born in the 2008 to give instruments to cities to fight against climate change. City, energy, climate change are topics very close to each other
This graph shows European gross inland consumption and the rate of final energy consumption expressed in millions of tons of oil from 1990 to 2008 before economic crisis. Gross inland consumption is gross inland energy consumption , is the total energy demand of a country or region. It covers: - consumption by the energy sector itself; - distribution and transformation losses; - final energy consumption by end users; Excluding a little decrease of gross inland energy consumption in 2008 more or less about 0,5%, which is due to decreasing energy transformation losses, It’s possible to seethat the final energy consumption was slowly growing.
This grafh shows the final energy consumption by sector in percentage. Transport in the biggest final energy consumer, followed by industry and household.
Fossil fuels are predominant but they are loosing their supremacy
Fossil fuels are predominant but they are loosing their supremacy.
This grafh shows as production of renewable energy recorded an average annual growth rate of 6,8% between 2002 and 2008. This was mainly due to an increase in the production of biomass and waste. Hydro e geothermal energy was relatively stable. In contrast both wind energy e solar energy experienced rapid growth in recent time. In 2008, solar energy production increased by 27,8% exceeding growth in all other renewable energy resources.
In 2008 total greenhouse gas emissions (excluded emissions due to land use and forestry) amounted to 4940 Mt CO2 equivalent. Energy related GHG emissions represented 79% of total GHG.
This grafh shows the GHG emission trends by sector from 1990 to 2008. You can observe that they have a different behaviour in relationship with sector. Please pay attention to 2008: it’s possible to see that the share of energy industries, industries and transport in GHG emissions decreased while the share of households, services increased. Why? First: in the last quarter of 2008 economy was facing the first sings of crisis Second: the increasse in importance of households and services in GHG emissions was mainly due to colder weather conditions. Third: new important EU environmetal and climate policies were in progress.
What are they? Who knows?
It set a series of demanding climate and energy targets to be met by 2020, known as the "20-20-20" targets. These are: A reduction in EU greenhouse gas emissions of at least 20% below 1990 levels 20% of EU energy consumption to come from renewable resources A 20% reduction in primary energy use compared with projected levels, to be achieved by improving energy efficiency.
The climate and energy package creates pressure to improve energy efficiency but does not address it directly. This is being done through the EU’s energy efficiency action plan. The Commission has adopted an Action Plan for Energy Efficiency (2007-12) aimed at achieving a 20% reduction in energy consumption by 2020. The Action Plan includes measures to improve the energy performance of products, buildings and services, to improve the yield of energy production and distribution, to reduce the impact of transport on energy consumption, to facilitate financing and investments in the sector, to encourage and consolidate rational energy consumption behaviour and to step up international action on energy efficiency. The European Commission has also inaugurated an important and innovative initiatives called Covenant of Mayors which aims to traduces these general measures in concrete actions il Local Authorities’ territory.
. A vast majority of the European population lives and works in cities, consuming an estimated 80% of the energy used in the EU. Local administrations, as the closest government level to citizens are ideally placed to address climate issues in a comprehensive manner.
The Covenant represents the mainstream European movement involving local and regional authorities in the fight against climate change. It is based on a voluntary commitment by signatories to meet and exceed, if possible, the EU 20% CO 2 reduction objective through increased energy efficiency and development of renewable energy sources. The fight against climate change will be won or lost in urban areas
Signatories represent cities, with different size from small villages to major metropolitan areas such as London or Paris, that have signed the Covenant of Mayors on a voluntary manner and are committed to implement sustainable energy policies to meet and exceed the EU 20% CO2 reduction objective through increased energy efficiency and development of renewable energy sources.
This flowchart represent the growth in number of signatories
This flowchart represent the growth in number of signatories
A European city of 100,000 inhabitants often spends up to 1.5 M€ on energy bills in its public buildings.
This flowchart represents the steps a city has to follow to accomplish the commitments deriving from the Covenant. It gives an overview of the procedure the cities commit to follow when signing Covenant. The Covenant signatories commit (among others) to: -Create adequate administrative structures in their municipalities -Prepare baseline CO2 emissions inventory -Prepare the Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP) -Implement the SEAP and regularly monitor and report on the progress made They are also engaged to submit the SEAP 1 year after the signature of the Covenant of Mayors. The implementation report should be submitted 3 years after the signature and then every 2 years.
How to do? Where to find a guide? Official guidelines exist. They was elaborated by Joint Research centre , a tecnlical structure which support the European Commission. They are structured in 3 parts.The first one contains a general description of the SEAP process, instead the second and third parts are more technical. The second contains all the rules to fallow to create the Baseline Emission Inventory, I’m going to tell about in next slides, the third contains suggestions about technical measures for energy efficiency and renewable energy to implement to reach goals requested.
To begin the political commitment is necessary. City must be interested in the Covenant and must be conscious about tne commitment deriving from it. Signature of the Covenant of Mayors must be decided by the municipal council. Then a proper structure must be built inside the Local Authority. Stakeholders are those whose interests are affected by the issue, whose activities affect the issue, who possess or control information, resources needed for strategy formulation and implementation, whose partecipation is needed for successful implementation.
Step 4 is represented by the Baseline Emission Inventory. BEI has the purpose to establish a clear picture of “where we are” a description of the city’s current situation in terms of energy and climate change. It is the starting point of the SEAP from which it is possible to move to relevant objective-setting, elaboration of adequate Action Plan and monitoring. What is it based on in your opinion? What have I to put in? SCHEMA
On the basin of the picture about consumptions and emission connected to a defined year, it is possible to start thinking about the objective that city want to reach and make real. So it is necessary to establish a long term vision with clear objectives. It represents the direction in which the local authority wants to head globally and for every single sector.
How to reach the goals
Give an overview of the procedure the cities commit to follow when signing Covenant. www.sustenergy.org The Covenant signatories commit (among others) to: -Create adequate administrative structures in their municipalities -Prepare baseline CO2 emissions inventory -Prepare the Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP) -Implement the SEAP and regularly monitor and report on the progress made They are also engaged to submit the SEAP 1 year after the signature of the Covenant of Mayors. The implementation report should be submitted 3 years after the signature and then every 2 years. All steps will be described in details in the following slides.
Are the signatories alone in this difficult work to neet covenant commitments? No
1. ABOUT USGabriella Chiellino is the firstwoman graduated in EnvironmentalScience in Italy and she foundedeAmbiente in the year 2002.The Company is now a consultancyfirm for environment andengeneering that works in Italy andin Europe.
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7. A commitment towards Europe’senergy and climate policyGabriella Chiellino
8. ENERGY ISSUES The present contest EU-27 ENERGY CONSUMPTION 1799 Mtoe 1799 Mtoe 1168 Mtoe 1168 Mtoe From 2010 Annual Report of the Market Observatory for Energy From 2010 Annual Report of the Market Observatory for Energy
9. ENERGY ISSUES The present contest EU-27 ENERGY CONSUMPTION by sector The biggest final energy consumer is the sector of transport with the 32% , followed by industry (27%) and household (25,4%).
10. ENERGY ISSUES The present contest EU-27 ENERGY CONSUMPTION by fuel Oil products are the largest energy source (41,4%) followed by gas (23%). However their respective shares fell slightly compared to 2007. Also the share of electricity slightly declined while that of RES rose.
11. ENERGY ISSUES The present contest EU-27 ELECTRICITY GENERATION by fuel Oil is a marginal and declining source used for power generation while electricity generation from gas and from RES are increasing.
12. ENERGY ISSUES The present contest EU-27 RES PRODUCTION 148 Mtoe 148 Mtoe RES annual growth rate 6,8% Solar energy in 2008 increased by 27,8% and it is still growing INCENTIVES
13. ENERGY ISSUES The present contest“The urban world consumes about 75% of global energy and emitsabout 80% of total greenhouse gas " (Hayden, 2007)
14. ENERGY ISSUES The present contest EU-27 GHG EMISSION Energy related GHG emissions represented 79% of total GHG and includes: Industry (20,6%), Transport (19,5%), Households (9,3%), Services (3,6%), Other (16,1%)
15. ENERGY ISSUES The present contest EU-27 GHG EMISSION by sector
16. TOWARDS LOW CARBON ECONOMY How? The 20-20-20 targets What are they?
17. TOWARDS LOW CARBON ECONOMY How?The 20-20-20 targets In January 2008 the European Commission proposed binding legislation to implement the CLIMATE AND ENERGY PACKAGE It was agreed by the European Parliament and Council in December 2008 and became law in June 2009. It set a series of demanding targets to be met by 2020, known as the "20-20-20" targets. 1.- 20% EU greenhouse gas emissions below 1990 levels 2.+20% of EU energy consumption from renewable resources 3.- 20% in primary energy use to be achieved by improving energy efficiency
18. TOWARDS LOW CARBON ECONOMY How?The 20-20-20 targets CLIMATE AND ENERGY PACKAGE MEASURES Action Plan for Energy Efficiency (2007-12) •to improve the energy performance of products, buildings, services •to improve the yield of energy production and distribution •to reduce the impact of transport on energy consumption •to facilitate financing and investments in the sector •to encourage and consolidate rational energy consumption behaviour •to step up international action on energy efficiency
19. THE COVENANT OF What is it?MAYORS 29 January 2008 29 January 2008 in the second edition of the European Sustainable Energy Week (EUSEW in the second edition of the European Sustainable Energy Week (EUSEW 2008), the European Commission launched 2008), the European Commission launched The Covenant of Mayors The Covenant of Mayors initiative to actively involve European cities in the path towards initiative to actively involve European cities in the path towards sustainability and environmental efficiency. sustainability and environmental efficiency.
20. THE COVENANT OF What is it?MAYORS a very special initiative a very special initiative DIRECT INVOLVEMENT of local and regional authorities. For the first time the DGENER gets in touch directly with the local It is a VOLUNTARY level COMMITMENT by signatories to meet and It is based on the adoption of exceed the EU 20% CO2 a flexible instrument called reduction objective. It goes SEAP which can be adapted beyond what is requested to the progress towards goals by law in matter of urban planning
21. THE COVENANT OF What is it?MAYORS SIGNATORIES Cities with different size that have signed the Covenant of Mayors on a voluntary manner during the Covenant of Mayors Annual Ceremony Mayors commit to… Go beyond the objectives set by the EU for 2020, Go beyond the objectives set by the EU for 2020, reducing the CO2 emissions in their respective territories reducing the CO2 emissions in their respective territories by at least 20%, through the implementation of by at least 20%, through the implementation of Sustainable Energy Action Plans Sustainable Energy Action Plans
22. THE COVENANT OF Who ?MAYORS The unprecedent growth of the Covenant of Mayors
23. THE COVENANT OF Who ?MAYORS Today 4503 signatories Today 4503 signatories
24. THE COVENANT OF Why to get involved?MAYORS 3 main reasons why cities get involved 1. Energy is one of the few municipal fields where significant financial savings can be achieved...
25. THE COVENANT OF Why to get involved?MAYORS 3 main reasons why cities get involved 2. Lower energy bills for citizens, comfortable living conditions, pleasant environment, more jobs…
26. THE COVENANT OF Why to get involved?MAYORS 3 main reasons why cities get involved 3. The battle against climate change has to be fought at local level…
27. THE COVENANT OF stepsMAYORS STEP 1: Signature of the Covenant of Mayors Creation of adequate administrative structures Baseline Emission Inventory & SEAP development with stakeholders and citizens 1st year STEP 2: Submission of your SEAP Implementation of your SEAP Monitoring and reporting 3rd year & beyond STEP 3: Regular submission of implementation reports (every 2 years) 3 steps leading to the Covenant objective
28. THE COVENANT OF Redazione del PAES StepsMAYORS Official Guidelines Official Guidelines By Joint Research Centre (JRC) By Joint Research Centre (JRC) All the elements to develop a Sustainable Energy Action Plan STRUCTURE: Part 1 The SEAP process, step- by-step towards the -20%target by 2020 Part II Baseline emissions inventory Part III Technical measures for energy efficiency and renewable energy
29. THE COVENANT OF Il PAES steb by step StepsMAYORS Step 1 Step 1 The political commitment The political commitment Signature of the Covenant of Mayors must be decided by the municipal council Step 2 Step 2 Adapting administrative Adapting administrative structures structures Adjustment and optimisation of Local Authority’s internal administrative structures: multidisciplinary approach is needed Step 3 Step 3 Building support from Building support from stakeholders stakeholders Concertation and partecipation Stakeholders: allow to mobilise the civil society to • Local and regional energy agencies take part in developing the action • Financial partners such as banks, ESCO plan, establishing a common vision • Energy suppliers, utilities for the future • Transport companies • Universities • Chambers of commerce
30. THE COVENANT OF Il PAES steb by step StepsMAYORS Step 4 Step 4 Baseline emission Baseline emission inventory (BEI) elaboration inventory (BEI) elaboration Building the BEI - Features and contentsAssessment of the currentframework about energy Geographical boundariesconsumption and CO2 emissions the administrative bounderies of the local authorities.at the local level Define Baseline years Is the year against which the achievements of the emission reductions in 2020 shall be collected. Collecting data Quantification of following emissions that occur due to energy consumption in the territory of the local authority: DIRECT EMISSIONS: fuel combustion INDIRECT EMISSIONS: production of electricity, heat or cold consumed in the territory OTHER DIRECT EMISSIONS: depending on the choice of BEI
31. THE COVENANT OF Il PAES steb by step StepsMAYORS SECTORS TO INCLUDE IN BEI BUILDINGS - Municipal buildings - Tertiary buildings - Residential buildings URBAN INFRASTRUCTURES - municipal public lighting - wastewater treatment - solid waste treatment ENERGY PRODUCTION Fuel consumption for electricity production Fuel consumption for heat/cold production TRANSPORTATION -Municipal fleet -Public transportation -Private and commercial transportation
32. THE COVENANT OF Il PAES steb by step StepsMAYORS Step 4 Step 4 Baseline emission Baseline emission inventory elaboration inventory elaboration Assessment of the current framework about energy consumption and CO2 Step 5 Step 5 emissions at the local level Establishment of aalong Establishment of long term vision with clear term vision with clear objectives. objectives. To point out the direction in which the local authority wants to head. Step 6 Step 6 SEAP elaboration SEAP elaboration Translation of the vision into practical actions assigning deadlines and a budget for each of them.
33. THE COVENANT OF Il PAES steb by step StepsMAYORS How to reach the goals •Measures in the short and medium term •Long-term strategies SECTOR POLICIES TECHNICAL MEASURES Buildings • Regulations for new or renovated private buildings • smart systems for energy management plants • Financial incentives and loan • more efficient heating /cooling/lighting • Information and training systems facilities • Increase the rate of refurbishment •Condensig boilers • Urban plannig and regulations • geothermal heat pumps • Energy taxes • solar termal and photovoltaic plant on roofs • Coordinate policies with other levels of authority •insulating technics (walls, windows, ….) • Public procurement requirement in public building Transport • Reducing the need for transport through ICT •smart systems for traffic management (teleworking) •Smart system for driving management • Increasing the attractiveness of alternative transport •Bike-sharing mode (public transport, cycling, walking) •Car-sharing • making travel by car less attractive (fees, circulation •Electric cars taxes, pedestiran only zone in the center, more expensive parking or parking costs related to the car model) Energy generation • local energy generation Photovoltaic electricity generation on and distribution • Intruducing renewable energy installation requirements abandoned land and on the roof of public in new buildings buildings • Provide information and support to stakeholders Creation of heating and cooling district (centralised plant to provide thermal energy for external custromers
34. THE COVENANT OF Il PAES steb by step StepsMAYORS MOSAIC OF ACTIONS & SOLUTIONS …contributing to the achievement of the Covenant objectives
35. THE COVENANT OF Il PAES steb by step StepsMAYORS Communication with local stakeholders and citizens Organi sation Energy of Local Days www.s ustene rgy.org
36. THE COVENANT OF StepsMAYORS Step 7 Step 7 Approval of the Plan and Approval of the Plan and its associated budget its associated budget Formal approval of the SEAP by the municipal council is a mandatory requirement. In addition the local authority should allocate the Step 8 Step 8 necessary resources in the annual Monitoring and progress Monitoring and progress budget . description description Continuous monitoring is needed to follow SEAP implementation and eventually to maje corrections in a continuous improvement cycle.
37. THE COVENANT OF Who supports?MAYORS What support for the Signatories?
38. THE COVENANT OF Who supports?MAYORS Covenant Coordinators Covenant Coordinators 1. Public administrations - national and regional public bodies, counties, provinces, agglomerations, mentor cities etc. They provide: strategic guidance financial support technical support to municipalities lacking the skills and /or resources to fulfill the Covenant commitments, esp. the preparation and implementation of SEAP.
39. THE COVENANT OF The Province of VeniceMAYORS The Province of Venice had signed CASE STUDY CASE STUDY as Covenant Coordinators In september 2010 during the International Conference on Climate Change on Palmaria Island near La Spezia, 25 Italian Provinces had signed 44 Municipalities Technical partners
40. THE COVENANT OF The Province of VeniceMAYORS STEPS STEPS JANUARY 2011 Creation and structuration of the 11 202020 Office inside the Province of Venice. It’s a transversal office which involves mainly three different Departments 1.Environmental Policy Department 2.Mobility and Trasport Department 3.Traffic Department Creation of official web site www.202020-provinciavenezia.it
41. THE COVENANT OF The Province of VeniceMAYORS STEPS STEPS 18 th of March 2011 Organization of a plenary event open to 22 all the Municipalities in San Servolo on 18th of March. Objective: informative/formative event dedicated to Administrators to explain points of strength and points of weakness of the Covenant of Mayors
42. THE COVENANT OF The Province of VeniceMAYORS STEPS STEPS April-May-June 2011 33 Meetings with 10 Municipalities interested in the project to give more details and answer to all the possible questions that they may have 44 Application to European Financial Instruments called Intelligent Energy for Europe with an international project involving more or less 35 Municipalities 55 Editing of Provincial Guidelines to the adhesion to Covenant of Mayors
43. THE COVENANT OF The Province of VeniceMAYORS 29 th of November 2011 JUS JUSOFFICIAL SIGNATUREOFFICIAL SIGNATURE TA TA YE YEAR AR AG AG 22 Municipalities O O simultaneously with the Official Ceremony of the Covenant of Mayors in Brussels
44. THE COVENANT OF The Province of VeniceMAYORS STEPS STEPS October 2011 Furnishing of a specific tool for data collection and SAEP 66 elaboration to all the Municipalities of the Province of Venice R3 EcoGIS is a web-based instrument for municipalities, to monitor CO2-emissions and energy consumption. Data on buildings, traffic, industry, etc. can be entered through a user-friendly interface, including the position on the ground. Different tools allow to monitor emissions, simulate the effect of different CO2-reduction interventions and test different scenarios. All data can be exported in the format foreseen by the Covenant of Mayors.
45. THE COVENANT OF The Province of VeniceMAYORS STEPS STEPS January – March 2012 Support in the upload of energy consumption data on these sectors: 77 • public building • public lighting system • municipal fleet
46. THE COVENANT OF The Province of VeniceMAYORS STEPS STEPS January – June 2012 Collection and upload of energy consumption data on behalf of all 44 88 Municipalities on these sectors: • residential buildings • private transport • supra-municipal level public transport
47. THE COVENANT OF The Province of VeniceMAYORS STEPS STEPS May– October 2012 99 Preparation and distribution of a public document: “Provincial Guidelines to find and propose action in Municipal SEAP” To help Municipalities to rethink their actions, also those of ordinary administration, in a new “energetical” perspective
48. THE COVENANT OF The Province of VeniceMAYORS STEPS STEPS 5th of November 2012 10 10 Partecipation to a Meeting dedicated to Sicnatories of the Province of Venice in European Parliament – Bruxelles Topics: European financial instruments for actions PRIORITY Adaptative actions to climate change in SEAP
49. THE COVENANT OF The Province of VeniceMAYORS TODAY 29th of November 2012 22 Signatories are completing and submitting their SEAP 1014 Municipal buildings are checked More than 590.000 citizens reached And....Other 8 Municipalities are adding!