Water Analysis: Total Solids

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  • Total solids are important to measure in areas where there are discharges from sewage treatment plants, industrial plants, or extensive crop irrigation.
  • Total solids also affect water clarity. Higher solids decrease the passage of light through water, thereby slowing photosynthesis by aquatic plants.
  • Chlorophyll is not a single molecule but a family of related molecules, designated chlorophyll a, b, c, and d.
  • Water Analysis: Total Solids

    1. 1. WATER ANALYSIS FOR TOTAL SOLIDS
    2. 2. Total Solids are the total of all solids in a water sample. They include the total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, and volatile suspended solids. Classification: Fixed solids- basically the ash left over after burning the dried solids. Volatile solids- solids in water or other liquids that are lost on ignition of the dry solids.
    3. 3. In stream water, dissolved solids consist of calcium, chlorides, nitrate, phosphorus, iron, sulfur, and other ions particles that will pass through a filter with pores of around 2 microns (0.002 cm) in size.
    4. 4.  Suspended solids include silt and clay particles, plankton, algae, fine organic debris, and other particulate matter.
    5. 5. Source of Solids SewageIndustrial Discharge
    6. 6. Road Runoff Soil Erosion
    7. 7. Significance Solids in wastewater contribute to sediment formation; volatile solids may be associated with oxygen demand. Solid analyses are important in the control of biological and physical wastewater treatment processes. For assessing compliance with regulatory agency wastewater effluent limitations.
    8. 8. Measuring (TS)  Total solids are measured by weighing the amount of solids present in a known volume of sample. a)weighing a beaker, b) filling it with a volume
    9. 9. e)weighing the beaker with the residue. d) completely drying the residue c)evaporating the water in an oven
    10. 10.  The total solids concentration is equal to the difference between the weight of the beaker with the residue and the weight of the beaker without it. Total Solids (mg/L) : Total solids(TS) = [(TSA – TSB)] X 1000 / sample(mL) TSA = Weight of dried residue + dish in milligrams
    11. 11. Anna Mae A. Cababaros MS EST-1
    12. 12. Chlorophyll- is a green pigment found in most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. Its name is derived from ancient Greek: • chloros = green • phyllon = leaf.
    13. 13. Chlorophyll a- is the molecule found in all plant cells and therefore its concentration is what is reported during chlorophyll analysis. Chlorophyll d- is found only in marine red algae. Chlorophyll b and c- are common in fresh water.
    14. 14. Why measure chlorophyll?  Chlorophyll measurements are also used to directly monitor phytoplankton populations.  With over 70% of the surface of the earth covered in water, phytoplankton and photosynthetic bacteria are responsible for almost ½ of the planets primary  These extraordinarily efficient plants also act as the single largest CO2 sink on earth.
    15. 15.  Since chlorophyll-containing organisms are the first step in most food chains, the health and /or abundance of these primary producers will have cascading effects to all higher organisms.  The determination of chlorophyll concentration is one of the key indices in monitoring the health of any natural system.
    16. 16. Field Techniques Collection of Samples  The researcher must gather a sample of water, using either a hose sampler, some sort of water sampling bottle, or by simply lowering the sample container over the side of the boat.
    17. 17. Sample Filtration A given volume of the sample is filtered using a glass fiber filter. All of the algae and other suspended particles in the water will be collected on the filter paper.
    18. 18. Laboratory Analysis
    19. 19. The filter paper is then processed, ground, and leached to extract the chlorophyll. Once extracted from the protein structure, it will be dissolved into a solvent (such as Acetone or Methanol).
    20. 20. These chlorophyll pigments can be separated in a simple paper chromatography measures or view a spectral analysis using a spectrophotometer.
    21. 21. THE END…

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