Total solids are important to measure in areas where there are discharges from sewage treatment plants, industrial plants, or extensive crop irrigation.
Total solids also affect water clarity. Higher solids decrease the passage of light through water, thereby slowing photosynthesis by aquatic plants.
Chlorophyll is not a single molecule but a family of related molecules, designated chlorophyll a, b, c, and d.
Water Analysis: Total Solids
WATER ANALYSIS FOR
are the total of all solids in a water sample.
They include the total suspended solids, total
dissolved solids, and volatile suspended solids.
Fixed solids- basically the ash left over after
burning the dried solids.
Volatile solids- solids in water or other liquids that
are lost on ignition of the dry solids.
In stream water,
consist of calcium,
sulfur, and other
ions particles that
will pass through a
filter with pores of
around 2 microns
(0.002 cm) in size.
Suspended solids include silt and clay
particles, plankton, algae, fine organic
debris, and other particulate matter.
Solids in wastewater contribute to
sediment formation; volatile solids may be
associated with oxygen demand.
Solid analyses are important in the control
of biological and physical wastewater
For assessing compliance with regulatory
agency wastewater effluent limitations.
Total solids are measured by weighing
the amount of solids present in a known
volume of sample.
a)weighing a beaker, b) filling it with a
e)weighing the beaker
with the residue.
d) completely drying the
c)evaporating the water in
The total solids concentration is equal
to the difference between the weight of
the beaker with the residue and the
weight of the beaker without it.
Total Solids (mg/L) :
Total solids(TS) = [(TSA – TSB)] X 1000 /
TSA = Weight of dried residue + dish in
Chlorophyll- is a
green pigment found in
most plants, algae, and
Its name is derived
from ancient Greek:
• chloros = green
• phyllon = leaf.
Chlorophyll a- is the molecule found in all
plant cells and therefore its concentration is
what is reported during chlorophyll analysis.
Chlorophyll d- is found only in marine red algae.
Chlorophyll b and c- are common in fresh water.
Why measure chlorophyll?
measurements are also
used to directly
With over 70% of
the surface of the
earth covered in
almost ½ of the
efficient plants also act
as the single largest
CO2 sink on earth.
Since chlorophyll-containing organisms
are the first step in most food chains, the
health and /or abundance of these primary
producers will have cascading effects to all
The determination of chlorophyll
concentration is one of the key indices in
monitoring the health of any natural
The researcher must
gather a sample of
water, using either a
hose sampler, some
sort of water sampling
bottle, or by simply
lowering the sample
container over the
side of the boat.
A given volume of
the sample is filtered
using a glass fiber
All of the algae and
particles in the
water will be
collected on the