HPA presentation

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This presentation I created with the help of a fellow student for a Rogers Research Fellowship position I was awarded (Summer 2010). With another student and under the supervision of a professor, I carried out a neuroscience research study. At the culmination of the study we gave this presentation to the other researching students and professors at Lewis & Clark that summer, about 60 people.

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  • Alcohol Abuse : 31% of college students met criteria for diagnosis Death : 1,700 college students die each year from alcohol-related unintentional injuries Unsafe Sex : 400,000 students had unprotected sex 100,000 students report having been too intoxicated to know if they consented to having sex Academic Problems : About 25% of college students report academic consequences of their drinking
  • Well rounded view of the problem Looking at how they all interact
  • destroyerbeat.files.wordpress.com/.../brain.jpg frontal lobe minus motor area
  • Damaged and/or underdeveloped Prefrontal lobe damage can increase impulsiveness and susceptibility to alcohol abuse Alcohol can negatively affect prefrontal lobe development and function
  • Glucocorticoid = group of steroid hormones Cortisol is the main one in humans Corticoid releasing hormone/factor Adrenocorticotropic hormone
  • Studies have shown that acute intake causes a stress-like cortisol response. We know that stress and alcohol both activate the HPA axis, which explains some phenomena. In individuals who are trying to quit drinking, stress activates the HPA axis which then can lead to alcohol consumption and even relapse because of the shared system. There is also the idea of self-medication. This system is involved in self-medication in that individuals may drink before a stressful situation to eliminate stress. This works because the alcohol stimulates the system, preparing the body for the stressor in the same way the body would respond to stress. Stress activation can trigger relapse/drinking Alcohol--> prepare ahead of time to deal with stress HPA-Alcohol consumption/alcohol craving Acute intake causes a stress-like cortisol response
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  • K “ Blunted cortisol response to psychological stress has also been observed in individuals without current or prior alcohol use problems but who have a family history of alcoholism”
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  • E Neuropsychological Test of prefrontal lobe Higher scores means lower executive functioning
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  • E Circadian rhythms- Taken in the afternoon Better than blood
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  • E Adapted TSST
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  • E Higher score means more impulsive More sensitive to delay
  • aspect of decision making in which smaller rewards with shorter delays are preferred to larger rewards with longer delays (Cite) BIS can look at personality DD in action/behavior Higher score, higher impulsivity WHY we use it? Most widely used Validity Fits what we are looking for Best Draft
  • If needed, ALSO asked about drug use, cigarette use, caffeine use, exercise and sleeping disorders
  • We debrief our participants
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  • People will have a blunted cortisol response to a stressful situation if: frequently drink large amounts Lower executive functioning correlates to more alcohol use Inhibition subscale of BRIEF-A was significantly correlated with number of drinks and number of days of drinking
  • E “ The evidence now is strong that the brain does not cease to mature until the early 20s in those relevant parts that govern impulsivity, judgment, planning for the future, foresight of consequences, and other characteristics that make people morally culpable.... ” Ruben Gur, MD, PhD Director, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center Interactions of everything Genetic/family influence Gender difference
  • HPA presentation

    1. 1. The Role of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis Activity , Prefrontal Lobe Function , and Impulsivity in Drinking Behavior Emma Alterman Krissy Lyon
    2. 2. Why Look At Drinking Behavior This Way? <ul><li>HPA Axis </li></ul>Prefrontal Lobe Impulsivity Drinking Behavior Personality/ Behavior Biological Brain
    3. 3. Talk Outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prefrontal Lobe Function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impulsivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HPA Axis and Cortisol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Familial Influences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Data Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipated Results </li></ul>
    4. 4. Prefrontal Lobe <ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibition </li></ul><ul><li>Working memory </li></ul><ul><li>Emotion </li></ul>Executive Functioning Introduction Procedure Data Analysis Anticipated Results
    5. 5. Executive Function and Alcohol <ul><li>Impairment of executive functioning can be linked to alcoholism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deficiency in prefrontal lobe function associated with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>susceptibility to alcohol abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol affects prefrontal lobe development and function </li></ul></ul>Introduction Procedure Data Analysis Anticipated Results
    6. 6. Impulsivity <ul><li>Inability to wait </li></ul><ul><li>Act without forethought </li></ul><ul><li>Insensitivity to consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to inhibit inappropriate responses </li></ul>I should really have thought this through… Introduction Procedure Data Analysis Anticipated Results
    7. 7. What is the HPA Axis? <ul><li>H ypothalamic- P ituitary- A drenocortical Axis </li></ul><ul><li>The body’s stress response system </li></ul>Introduction Procedure Data Analysis Anticipated Results
    8. 8. HPA Axis Pathway Stress Alcohol Introduction Procedure Data Analysis Anticipated Results
    9. 9. HPA Axis Pathway <ul><li>Stress and alcohol activate the HPA axis </li></ul><ul><li>Stress associated with alcohol consumption and relapse </li></ul><ul><li>“ Self-medication hypothesis” </li></ul>Stress Alcohol Introduction Procedure Data Analysis Anticipated Results
    10. 10. Cortisol <ul><li>The body’s stress hormone </li></ul><ul><li>Marker of HPA Axis Activity </li></ul>Introduction Procedure Data Analysis Anticipated Results
    11. 11. Cortisol Response to Stress <ul><ul><li>Deficient cortisol response associated with risk for: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol consumption and abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relapse after quitting (Lovallo, 2005) </li></ul></ul>BASELINE RESPONSE Typical Atypical STRESS Introduction Procedure Data Analysis Anticipated Results
    12. 12. Familial Influence <ul><li>Blunted Cortisol response observed in individuals: </li></ul><ul><li>without alcohol use problems </li></ul><ul><li>with a family history of alcoholism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Dai et al ., 2002; Zimmermann et al ., 2004) </li></ul></ul>Introduction Procedure Data Analysis Anticipated Results
    13. 13. How do we measure these factors? <ul><li>Drinking Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Prefrontal Lobe Function </li></ul><ul><li>Impulsivity </li></ul><ul><li>HPA Axis Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Family History of Alcohol Use </li></ul>Introduction Procedure Data Analysis Anticipated Results
    14. 14. Procedure BRIEF-A FHQ BIS-11 SAQ TSST ENTER LEAVE Baseline Saliva Sample DD Hello! Post-Stress Saliva Sample Introduction Procedure Data Analysis Anticipated Results
    15. 15. Procedure BRIEF-A FHQ BIS-11 SAQ TSST ENTER LEAVE Baseline Saliva Sample DD Post-Stress Saliva Sample Introduction Procedure Data Analysis Anticipated Results
    16. 16. Measuring Executive Functioning <ul><li>BRIEF-A </li></ul>Overall Executive Functioning <ul><li>9 subscales : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhibit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shift </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-Monitor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan/Organize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task Monitor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization of Materials </li></ul></ul>Introduction Procedure Data Analysis Anticipated Results
    17. 17. Procedure BRIEF-A FHQ BIS-11 SAQ TSST ENTER LEAVE Baseline Saliva Sample DD Post-Stress Saliva Sample Introduction Procedure Data Analysis Anticipated Results
    18. 18. Why Saliva Samples? <ul><li>Saliva </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Noninvasive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>good measure of HPA Axis activity </li></ul></ul>Cortisol can be measured in saliva Introduction Procedure Data Analysis Anticipated Results
    19. 19. Procedure BRIEF-A FHQ BIS-11 SAQ TSST ENTER LEAVE Baseline Saliva Sample DD Post-Stress Saliva Sample Introduction Procedure Data Analysis Anticipated Results
    20. 20. How to cause a cortisol response in a lab setting? <ul><li>Test Under Pressure </li></ul>Public Speech Introduction Procedure Data Analysis Anticipated Results
    21. 21. Procedure BRIEF-A FHQ BIS-11 SAQ TSST ENTER LEAVE DD Change in Cortisol Post-Stress Saliva Sample Baseline Saliva Sample Introduction Procedure Data Analysis Anticipated Results
    22. 22. Determining Cortisol Level <ul><li>ELISA </li></ul><ul><li>E nzyme L inked I mmuno- s orbent A ssay </li></ul>Introduction Procedure Data Analysis Anticipated Results
    23. 23. Procedure BRIEF-A FHQ BIS-11 SAQ TSST ENTER LEAVE Baseline Saliva Sample DD Post-Stress Saliva Sample Introduction Procedure Data Analysis Anticipated Results
    24. 24. Measuring Impulsivity <ul><li>Delay Discounting Task (DD) </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Vs. NOW LATER More impulsive smaller, immediate rewards larger, delayed rewards Introduction Procedure Data Analysis Anticipated Results
    25. 25. Procedure BRIEF-A FHQ BIS-11 SAQ TSST ENTER LEAVE Baseline Saliva Sample DD Post-Stress Saliva Sample Introduction Procedure Data Analysis Anticipated Results
    26. 26. Measuring Impulsivity Rarely/Never Occasionally Often Almost Always/Always B arratt I mpulsiveness S cale-11 ( BIS -11) <ul><li>Rate the frequency of </li></ul><ul><li>impulsive behaviors </li></ul>Introduction Procedure Data Analysis Anticipated Results 1 I plan tasks carefully. О О О О 2 I do things without thinking. О О О О 3 I make-up my mind quickly. О О О О 4 I am happy-go-lucky. О О О О 5 I don’t “pay attention.” О О О О 6 I have “racing” thoughts. О О О О 7 I plan trips well ahead of time. О О О О 8 I am self controlled. О О О О 9 I concentrate easily. О О О О 10 I save regularly. О О О О 11 I “squirm” at plays or lectures. О О О О 12 I am a careful thinker. О О О О 13 I plan for job security. О О О О 14 I say things without thinking. О О О О 15 I like to think about complex problems. О О О О
    27. 27. Procedure BRIEF-A FHQ BIS-11 SAQ TSST ENTER LEAVE Baseline Saliva Sample DD Post-Stress Saliva Sample Introduction Procedure Data Analysis Anticipated Results
    28. 28. Drinking Behavior <ul><li>Substance Use Self- Assessment Questionnaire (SAQ) </li></ul><ul><li>Quantity of Alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency of Use </li></ul>Introduction Procedure Data Analysis Anticipated Results <ul><li>Consequences of Drinking </li></ul>
    29. 29. Procedure BRIEF-A FHQ BIS-11 SAQ TSST ENTER LEAVE Baseline Saliva Sample DD Post-Stress Saliva Sample Introduction Procedure Data Analysis Anticipated Results
    30. 30. Family History of Alcoholism <ul><li>Family History Questionnaire (FHQ) </li></ul>This looked at: Alcoholism in parents and grandparents Introduction Procedure Data Analysis Anticipated Results
    31. 31. Procedure BRIEF-A FHQ BIS-11 SAQ TSST ENTER LEAVE Baseline Saliva Sample DD Post-Stress Saliva Sample Goodbye! : Introduction Procedure Data Analysis Anticipated Results
    32. 32. How it all relates: Family History of Alcoholism HPA axis & Cortisol BRIEF-A BIS-11 DD Self Assessment Questionnaire Family History Questionnaire Stressful Situation ELISA Impulsivity Drinking Behavior Introduction Procedure Data Analysis Anticipated Results Prefrontal Lobe Function
    33. 33. Data Analysis Introduction Procedure Data Analysis Anticipated Results
    34. 34. What We Expect to Find… Prefrontal Lobe HPA Axis Impulsivity Drinking Behavior Higher impulsivity correlates to more alcohol use <ul><li>People will have a blunted cortisol response to a stressful situation if: </li></ul><ul><li>frequently drink large amounts </li></ul><ul><li>have a family history of alcoholism </li></ul>Lower executive functioning correlates to more alcohol use Lower executive function correlates with higher impulsivity Introduction Procedure Data Analysis Anticipated Results
    35. 35. Implications of Study <ul><li>Identify and assess factors influencing drinking behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Better understand the interactions among those influencing factors by examining them in one study </li></ul><ul><li>Better understand the links between stress and alcohol use </li></ul><ul><li>May lead to better prevention strategies including stress management </li></ul><ul><li>HPA Axis response to stress could help identify individuals at increased risk for alcoholism </li></ul><ul><li>How family history of alcohol use associated with HPA axis function (in turn affects a person’s alcohol use) </li></ul>Introduction Procedure Data Analysis Anticipated Results
    36. 36. Acknowledgements <ul><li>Dr. Yueping Zhang </li></ul><ul><li>Theresa Hennings and other previous researchers in this lab </li></ul><ul><li>Josh Cohn, Louis Moore </li></ul><ul><li>The Rogers Research Program </li></ul><ul><li>Fairchild Foundation </li></ul><ul><li>Our Participants! </li></ul>
    37. 37. Questions?
    38. 38. Saliva vs. Blood <ul><li>Only unbound cortisol elicits glucocorticoid effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only unbound cortisol can enter saliva </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Stress Question <ul><li>Were the participants even stressed? </li></ul>
    40. 40. What does Cortisol do? <ul><li>Regulation of blood pressure and cardiovascular function </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation of the bodies use of proteins carbohydrates and fats. </li></ul>
    41. 41. How does Cortisol Do it? <ul><li>It causes the breakdown of muscle protein, leading to the release of amino acids into the bloodstream; these aa are used by the liver to create glucose for energy </li></ul><ul><li>Releases fatty acids from fats cells as energy for muscles to use </li></ul>
    42. 42. Cortisol Function <ul><li>Raises the blood sugar level so the brain will have more glucose for energy </li></ul><ul><li>This prepares the individual to deal with stressors and ensures that the brain receives adequate energy sources </li></ul><ul><li>(this and the two previously slides info was quotes/taken from www.ibl-america.com2 ) </li></ul>
    43. 45. ELISA <ul><li>Antibodies, linked to color-changing enzymes, bind to cortisol and magnitude of color change indicates the amount of cortisol present </li></ul>
    44. 46. Cortisol Circadian Rhythms
    45. 47. BRIEF-A Subscales <ul><li>Inhibit-Ability to stop one’s own behavior at the appropriate time </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Monitor-the extent to which the adult keeps track of his or her own behavior and the effect of his or her own behavior on others </li></ul>

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