Emma Alterman  LinneaWier
Clownfish immune  to stinging cellsAnemones provide   protection
Introductio               Hypothesis/Question      Methodology      Expected Outcomes       Conclusion     n              ...
Introductio               Hypothesis/Question   Methodology   Expected Outcomes   Conclusion     n                        ...
Introductio              Hypothesis/Question   Methodology   Expected Outcomes   Conclusion     n                         ...
Introductio              Hypothesis/Question   Methodology   Expected Outcomes   Conclusion     n                         ...
Introductio              Hypothesis/Question   Methodology    Expected Outcomes   Conclusion     n                        ...
Introductio              Hypothesis/Question   Methodology    Expected Outcomes   Conclusion     n                        ...
Introductio                 Hypothesis/Question   Methodology   Expected Outcomes   Conclusion     n      New             ...
Introductio                 Hypothesis/Question   Methodology   Expected Outcomes   Conclusion     n      New             ...
Introductio              Hypothesis/Question   Methodology    Expected Outcomes   Conclusion     n                        ...
Introductio              Hypothesis/Question     Methodology   Expected Outcomes   Conclusion     n  Size of female not un...
Introductio              Hypothesis/Question   Methodology   Expected Outcomes   Conclusion     n   Q1: Absolute Size vs. ...
Introductio              Hypothesis/Question   Methodology   Expected Outcomes   Conclusion     n     Hypothesis: Clownfis...
Introductio                  Hypothesis/Question   Methodology   Expected Outcomes       Conclusion     n                 ...
Introductio                  Hypothesis/Question   Methodology   Expected Outcomes       Conclusion     n                 ...
Introductio                  Hypothesis/Question   Methodology   Expected Outcomes       Conclusion     n                 ...
Introductio                  Hypothesis/Question    Methodology   Expected Outcomes       Conclusion     n                ...
Introductio                    Hypothesis/Question    Methodology        Expected Outcomes       Conclusion       n      W...
Introductio                Hypothesis/Question   Methodology    Expected Outcomes   Conclusion     n              Recap:  ...
Introductio                     Hypothesis/Question             Methodology           Expected Outcomes             Conclu...
Questions?
•   http://www.google.com/imgres?q=green+sea+anemone&um=1&hl=en&client=safari&sa=X&rls=en&biw=812&bih=664&tbs=isz:l&tbm=is...
Introductio              Hypothesis/Question   Methodology   Expected Outcomes   Conclusion     n         Must grow to a m...
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Clownfish

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This presentation was altered when it was uploaded to slideshare, apologies for the misplaced "n" in "introduction" on the outline at the top of the slides.

This presentation I created during a semester at Lewis & Clark College (Fall 2011) for a course called "Marine Biology". I created all the images for this presentation using powerpoint.

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  • Immune to the stinging tentacles of the anemones
  • Why evicted?-competition with larger breeders
  • Why the size hierarchy? Smaller fish are tolerated because they have a mostly neutral effect and are there to take over if something happened to the breeding pair
  • Mechanisms of regulating growth: possibly regulated by the dominant individuals, but also regulated by them selves-behavioral, hormonal, neuronal mechanisms -articles suggest energy allocation (stress/fleeing) or cortisol, food resources?
  • Why stay in size class? If they stay in their size class---protection and potential for reproductionWhy sex change? Size-advantage model….Large females much for fecund than smaller femalesMechanism of sex change:Functional males have oocytes in early stagesDegeneration of testicular tissueDevelopment of ovarian tissueOnestudy:Amphiprionpolymnus, general age at which sex change and reproduction happen, however, variation within this (sex change could happen earlier upon removal of female or adult status)….Development, not specifically size related but general relation
  • Function of resource availabilitySome research-general sizes reached, but also variation observed -55mm minimum length at which oocytes developed-But variation in female size observed between anemones.
  • Is the size at which clownfish change gender absolute (meaning is there a specific size they need to be before they can change) or is the size and which the sex change occurs only relative to the other fish in the anemone?If it is absolute, what is the minimum size a fish has to be to change into a female?
  • Is the size at which clownfish change gender absolute (meaning is there a specific size they need to be before they can change) or is the size and which the sex change occurs only relative to the other fish in the anenome?If it is absolute, what is the minimum size a fish has to be to change into a female?
  • Anemone and predators to make more realistic system. Predators because there needs to be motivation not to grow to large and get kicked out of the anemone.
  • Duration of sex change is a minimum of 45 days. So we would not have to check that often. Groups 2 and 3: assuming that size dependency is not an issue: already large enough if that is even a factor in determining when sex change can occur.
  • Suppressing growth have a direct effect on development of the oocytes
  • Clownfish

    1. 1. Emma Alterman LinneaWier
    2. 2. Clownfish immune to stinging cellsAnemones provide protection
    3. 3. Introductio Hypothesis/Question Methodology Expected Outcomes Conclusion n Breeding Pair Maximum of 6 clownfish per anemone Size hierarchy observed: No fish is more than 80% the size of the one above it
    4. 4. Introductio Hypothesis/Question Methodology Expected Outcomes Conclusion n Breeding Pair Too large! Evicted Why? Prevent juveniles from challenging breeding pair
    5. 5. Introductio Hypothesis/Question Methodology Expected Outcomes Conclusion n Breeding Pair
    6. 6. Introductio Hypothesis/Question Methodology Expected Outcomes Conclusion n Breeding Pair
    7. 7. Introductio Hypothesis/Question Methodology Expected Outcomes Conclusion n Breeding Pair Move up a size class
    8. 8. Introductio Hypothesis/Question Methodology Expected Outcomes Conclusion n Breeding Pair Move up a size class
    9. 9. Introductio Hypothesis/Question Methodology Expected Outcomes Conclusion n New Breeding Pair juvenile enters
    10. 10. Introductio Hypothesis/Question Methodology Expected Outcomes Conclusion n New Breeding Pair juvenile enters
    11. 11. Introductio Hypothesis/Question Methodology Expected Outcomes Conclusion n 14 months /time Breeding Pair
    12. 12. Introductio Hypothesis/Question Methodology Expected Outcomes Conclusion n Size of female not universal Anemone 1 Anemone 2
    13. 13. Introductio Hypothesis/Question Methodology Expected Outcomes Conclusion n Q1: Absolute Size vs. Relative Size? Q2: Minimum size for sex change?
    14. 14. Introductio Hypothesis/Question Methodology Expected Outcomes Conclusion n Hypothesis: Clownfish can begin the sex change process at any size, given the opportunity.
    15. 15. Introductio Hypothesis/Question Methodology Expected Outcomes Conclusion n Aquariums - Different size groups 1 2 3
    16. 16. Introductio Hypothesis/Question Methodology Expected Outcomes Conclusion n Aquariums - Different size groups 1 2 3
    17. 17. Introductio Hypothesis/Question Methodology Expected Outcomes Conclusion n Aquariums - Different size groups 1 2 3
    18. 18. Introductio Hypothesis/Question Methodology Expected Outcomes Conclusion n Realistic environment 1 2 3 • Predators • Equal amounts of food • Anemones
    19. 19. Introductio Hypothesis/Question Methodology Expected Outcomes Conclusion n Will sex change occur immediately or will growth happen first? 1 2 3Size independent: See it turning into a female in time with the Probably sex change with Sex change with current size larger groups current size OrSize dependent: Growth first. Delayed sex change
    20. 20. Introductio Hypothesis/Question Methodology Expected Outcomes Conclusion n Recap: •Clownfish have a strict size class and sex hierarchy • Is sex change based more on absolute size or relative size? What size? •Clownfish can begin the sex change process at any size, given the opportunity Take home message: Fish sex change is complicated - there is much we still do not know
    21. 21. Introductio Hypothesis/Question Methodology Expected Outcomes Conclusion n References Abol-Munafi, A.B., N.H. Norazmi-Lokman, N.A. Asma, S. Sarmiza, and M.Y. Abduh. 2011. Histological study on the gonad of the protandrousanemonefish (Amphiprionocellaris). Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 10(22): 3031-3036. Buston, Peter. 2004. Does the presence of non-breeders enhance the fitness of breeders? An experimental analysis in the clown anemonefishAmphiprionpercula. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 57(1): 23-31. Buston, Peter M., and M. A. Cant. 2006. A new perspective on size hierarchies in nature: Patterns, causes, and consequences. Oecologia, 149(2): 362-372. Carwardine, M. 2005. Extreme Nature – The weirdest animals and plants on the planet. HarperCollins Publishers, Hammersmith, London. Casadevall, Margarida, E. Delgado, O. Colleye, S. BerMonserrat, and E. Parmentier. 2009. Histological study of the sex-change in the skunk clownfish Amphiprionakallopisos. The Open Fish Science Journal, 2: 55-58. Moyer, Jack T, and A. Nakazono. 1978. Protandroushermaphroditism in six species of the anemonefish genus Amphiprion in Japan. Japanese Journal of Ichthyology, 25(2): 101-106. Rattanayuvakorn, Sukjai, P. Mungkornkarn, A. Thongpan, and K. Chatchavalvanich. 2006. Gonadal development and sex inversion in saddleback anemonefishAmphiprionpolymnusLinnaeus (1758). Natural Science, 40: 196-203. Ross, Robert M. 1978. Reproductive behavior of the anemonefishAmphiprionmelanopus on Guam. Copeia, 1978(1): 103-107. Shapiro, Douglas Y. 1987. Differentiation and evolution of sex change in fishes. BioScience, 37(7): 490-497.Acknowledgements: Thank you to all anemonefish researchers. Thank you for your attention!
    22. 22. Questions?
    23. 23. • http://www.google.com/imgres?q=green+sea+anemone&um=1&hl=en&client=safari&sa=X&rls=en&biw=812&bih=664&tbs=isz:l&tbm=isch&tbnid=9TF- fhA089lpoM:&imgrefurl=http://www.pulsarwallpapers.com/r_life_in_ocean_%2526_sea_wallpapers_1_clown_fish_in_green_anemone_polyps_ocean_life_1280x1024_deluxe_wallpaper_754.html&docid=SEhbD5 6ixBZI8M&imgurl=http://www.pulsarwallpapers.com/data/media/1/Clown-Fish_in_Green_Anemone_Polyps.jpg&w=1280&h=1024&ei=JT7MTvznI-KiiQKD4- HjCw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=528&vpy=201&dur=353&hovh=179&hovw=231&tx=147&ty=108&sig=100280290295033989059&page=9&tbnh=135&tbnw=192&start=95&ndsp=12&ved=1t:429,r:7,s:95• http://www.google.com/imgres?q=clownfish&start=265&um=1&hl=en&client=safari&sa=N&rls=en&biw=812&bih=686&tbm=isch&tbnid=BQIkImpVoB3qaM:&imgrefurl=http://www.orafarm.com/products/fish/cl owns/ocellaris.html&docid=aXWAU3pTpjg0TM&imgurl=http://www.orafarm.com/images/products/fish/clowns/ocellaris_lg.jpg&w=650&h=460&ei=lEHMTqTwD6iciQK0vIm8Cw&zoom=1&chk=sbg&iact=hc&vpx=9 5&vpy=278&dur=2660&hovh=189&hovw=267&tx=171&ty=124&sig=100280290295033989059&page=29&tbnh=134&tbnw=176&ndsp=10&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:265• http://www.google.com/imgres?q=clownfish+in+open+ocean&um=1&hl=en&client=safari&sa=N&rls=en&biw=812&bih=686&tbm=isch&tbnid=hw0YV_TDXCI2uM:&imgrefurl=http://tomclarkblog.blogspot.com/20 11/06/very-lost-fish.html&docid=Na1WJde1qr4fgM&imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/29/Clown_Fish_Swimming.jpg&w=2005&h=1333&ei=- 0_MTralM42GiQLjgMWLDA&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=374&sig=100280290295033989059&page=3&tbnh=112&tbnw=168&start=22&ndsp=11&ved=1t:429,r:9,s:22&tx=75&ty=65• http://timurban.blogspot.com/2010/12/animals-volume-2.html• http://www.google.com/imgres?q=sea+anemone&um=1&hl=en&client=safari&sa=N&rls=en&biw=812&bih=664&tbm=isch&tbnid=V6j9G8V4uxzV1M:&imgrefurl=http://www.dormivigilia.com/%3Fp%3D1936&doc id=4_V50Q-NB-qTQM&imgurl=http://www.dormivigilia.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/Sea- Anemone.jpg&w=640&h=480&ei=EFjMTv_2IajmiALarIjlCw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=117&vpy=343&dur=736&hovh=194&hovw=259&tx=63&ty=97&sig=100280290295033989059&page=2&tbnh=134&tbnw=213&sta rt=10&ndsp=10&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:10• http://www.google.com/imgres?q=blue+sea+anemone&um=1&hl=en&client=safari&rls=en&biw=812&bih=664&tbm=isch&tbnid=2rh2WpivVLhh9M:&imgrefurl=http://www.zazzle.com/sea_life_sea_anemone_ca rd-137708047441381761&docid=CXyVaxaEPO-3fM&imgurl=http://rlv.zcache.com/sea_life_sea_anemone_card-p137708047441381761z857a_400.jpg&w=400&h=400&ei=81jMTvfDHKXiiAL- uNjMCw&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=1025&sig=100280290295033989059&page=3&tbnh=131&tbnw=131&start=22&ndsp=11&ved=1t:429,r:7,s:22&tx=80&ty=38• http://www.ojdo.de/wp/wp-content/gallery/wallpaper/clownfish.jpg• http://www.google.com/imgres?q=moray+eel+white+background&um=1&hl=en&client=safari&sa=X&rls=en&biw=1028&bih=642&tbs=isz:l&tbm=isch&tbnid=B_xNtqJWssFb3M:&imgrefurl=http://www.123rf.com /photo_5532205_head-of-moray-eel-on-white-background.html&docid=UdviBlo0-u4SBM&imgurl=http://us.123rf.com/400wm/400/400/nataliyatarat/nataliyatarat0909/nataliyatarat090900088/5532205-head-of- moray-eel-on-white- background.jpg&w=1200&h=900&ei=sr7VTvTrMoOliQLF99WgCg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=90&vpy=176&dur=1710&hovh=194&hovw=259&tx=151&ty=98&sig=100280290295033989059&page=1&tbnh=119&tbnw= 159&start=0&ndsp=16&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0• http://www.google.com/imgres?q=clownfish&start=257&um=1&hl=en&client=safari&sa=X&rls=en&biw=1028&bih=642&tbs=isz:l&tbm=isch&tbnid=3BQ86cni_FnURM:&imgrefurl=http://www.fijiguide.com/photo /pink-clownfish-in-hiding&docid=p2TGkA62EGt-KM&imgurl=http://api.ning.com/files/55AdWwJUaG2GGNYulJjtAYu*QMCvJW-LjeXWcw1oQ- s_/P6120290.jpg&w=3648&h=2736&ei=Wa3WTty2CqfhiALT56HHCQ&zoom=1&chk=sbg&iact=hc&vpx=583&vpy=307&dur=2370&hovh=194&hovw=259&tx=96&ty=92&sig=100280290295033989059&page=18&tbn h=111&tbnw=152&ndsp=16&ved=1t:429,r:14,s:257• http://www.google.com/imgres?q=clownfish&um=1&hl=en&client=safari&sa=X&rls=en&biw=1028&bih=642&tbs=isz:l&tbm=isch&tbnid=La7joWypxtNldM:&imgrefurl=http://www.wallpaper4me.com/wallpaper/ Clown-Fish-In-An-Anemone/&docid=u5uQYS425aPhbM&imgurl=http://www.wallpaper4me.com/images/wallpapers/511454380_c03c755098_o- 268864.jpeg&w=1280&h=1024&ei=Kq3WTtQOsv2JApvFzIwK&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=281&vpy=241&dur=1421&hovh=201&hovw=251&tx=132&ty=101&sig=100280290295033989059&page=2&tbnh=123&tbnw=18 0&start=15&ndsp=15&ved=1t:429,r:6,s:15• http://www.google.com/imgres?q=funny+clown+fish&um=1&hl=en&client=safari&sa=N&rls=en&biw=1028&bih=642&tbm=isch&tbnid=7MQ6riWyFSzn9M:&imgrefurl=http://www.2flashgames.com/f/f-Funny- Clown-Fish-Joke-9423.htm&docid=ojZvLaTTIHJIuM&imgurl=http://www.2flashgames.com/2fgkjn134kjlh1cfn81vc34/flash/f-Funny-Clown-Fish-Joke- 9423.jpg&w=465&h=311&ei=ca_WTpCQMeqUiALBiMC7CQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=83&vpy=160&dur=48&hovh=184&hovw=275&tx=102&ty=93&sig=100280290295033989059&page=1&tbnh=108&tbnw=161&sta rt=0&ndsp=17&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0
    24. 24. Introductio Hypothesis/Question Methodology Expected Outcomes Conclusion n Must grow to a minimum size before sex change because… •Young fish have both male and female gonads • The female gonads need time to develop • Time needed for testicular degeneration • In this time fish will grow

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