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Carousing with the Ancients: The Archaeology of Wine and Beer in the Fertille Crescent and Mediterranean Region
 

Carousing with the Ancients: The Archaeology of Wine and Beer in the Fertille Crescent and Mediterranean Region

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Around the world and throughout time, humans have demonstrated a nearly universal proclivity for alcoholic beverages. As cultural anthropologist David Mandelbaum of the University of California notes, ...

Around the world and throughout time, humans have demonstrated a nearly universal proclivity for alcoholic beverages. As cultural anthropologist David Mandelbaum of the University of California notes, cultural attitudes towards alcohol vary around the world from adoration to proscription of drink, but there are few cultures that completely ignore alcohol. Distillation of hard spirits is a relatively modern innovation, and for much of human history, wine and beer constituted the entirety of selection at a bar (if a bar or tavern was allowed in a particular culture). Archaeological evidence demonstrates that while ubiquitous during the last 10,000 years, alcohol consumption was determined in unique contexts in each culture. This presentation provides a brief overview of the artifactual and historic evidence of beer and wine production in the Fertile Crescent and Mediterranean region and was given at the 2012 Bay Honors Research Symposium at UC Berkeley in 2012. To view the full paper please visit http://www.eaines.com/archaeology/the-archaeology-of-ancient-alcohol/

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    Carousing with the Ancients: The Archaeology of Wine and Beer in the Fertille Crescent and Mediterranean Region Carousing with the Ancients: The Archaeology of Wine and Beer in the Fertille Crescent and Mediterranean Region Presentation Transcript

    • Carousing  with The  Ancients The  archaeology  of   wine  and  beer  in  the   Fer8le  Crescent  and   Mediterranean  Region Ethan  D.  Aines
    • Ar8factual  and  Historical   Evidence  of  Alcohol:     -­‐  Wine  and  beer  making  equipment     -­‐  Middens     -­‐  Chemical  residue  on  poGery     -­‐  Art     -­‐  Mortuary  items     -­‐  Legal  code     -­‐  Trade  Documenta8on
    • Domes8ca8on  of  Wheat:  9800BCE Earliest  evidence  of  beer:  Godin  Tepe,  modern-­‐day  Iran   4000BCE
    • Clay  tablet  recording alloca8on  of  beer   3000  BCE
    • Diorite  stele  of Hammurabi’s  Code,   1772BCE
    • Mesopotamian   terracoGa  plaque   with  an  ero8c   scene   1800  BCE
    • Copper  drinking  straw  8ps   Emar,  Syria 1300  –  1150  BCE
    • Funerary  model  of  Egyp8an beer  making  2040-­‐1785  BCE
    • Egyp8an  Wine  jars  from  Abydos  3150  BCE
    • Wall  pain8ng  from   the  tomb  of   Nakht,  Theban   Necropolis,  Luxor 1300’s  BCE
    • Detail  of  Greek   wine  krater   470  BCE
    • “Well  gentlemen,  how  can   we  arrange  to  drink  less   tonight?  To  be  honest,  I  s8ll   have  a  a  terrible  hangover   from  yesterday  and  I  could   really  use  a  break.  I  dare  say   most  of  you  could,  too,  since   you  were  also  part  of  the   celebra8on.  So  let’s  try  not   to  overdo  it” -­‐  Plato  (427–347  BCE),   Symposium
    • “Beer  was  invented  to   help  those  who  could   not  afford  wine.” -­‐  Athenaeus,  3rd   Century  CE Wine  shop  preserved   in  Herculeneum  79  CE
    • Microscopy  and Chemical  Analysis brewers  yeast red  wine
    • Works  Cited Allchin,  F.  R.  “India:  The  Ancient  Home  of  Dis8lla8on?”  Man  14.1  (1979):  55-­‐63.  Print. Braidwood,  Robert  J.,  et  al.  “Symposium:  Did  Man  Once  Live  by  Beer  Alone?”  American   Anthropologist  55.4  (1953):  515-­‐526.  Print. Brown,  Mark.  “6000  Year  Old  Winery  Found  in  Armenian  Cave.”  Wired.co.uk.  Jan  2011.  Web.   9  May  2011.  (Regregully,  I  could  not  obtain  the  actual  scholarly  journal). Hayashida,  Frances  M.  “Ancient  beer  and  modern  brewers:  Ethnoarchaeological  observa8ons   of  chicha  produc8on  in  two  regions  of  the  North  Coast  of  Peru.”  Journal  of  Anthropological   Archeaology  27.2  (2008):  161-­‐174.  Print. Hitchcock,  Ed.  “Kitchen  Anthropology:  Home  Brewing  an  Ancient  Beer.”  Brewing  Techniques.   September/October  1994.  N.p.  Web.  5  Apr.  2011. Homan,  Michael  M.  “Beer  and  Its  Drinkers:  An  Ancient  near  Eastern  Love  Story.”  Near  Eastern   Archaeology  67.2  (2004):  84-­‐95.  Print. LaBarre,  Weston.  “Na8ve  American  Beers.”  American  Anthropologist  40.2  (1938):  224-­‐234.   Print. Mandelbuam,  David  G.  “Alcohol  and  Culture.”  Current  Anthropology  6.3  (1965):  281-­‐288.   Print. McGovern,  Patrick  E.  “Wine  of  Egypt’s  Golden  Age:  An  Archaeochemical  Perspec8ve.”  The   Journal  of  Egyp?an  Archaeology  83  (1987):  69-­‐108.  Print. Mor8mer,  Robert  K.  “Evolu8on  and  Varia8on  of  the  Yeast  (Saccharomyces)  Genome.”  Genome   Research  10  (2000):  403-­‐409.  Print.
    • Works  Cited  Con8nued Pendell,  Dale.  Pharmakopoeia.  Berkeley:  North  Atlan8c  Books,  1995.  Print. “Oldest  know  wine-­‐making  facility  found  in  Armenia.”  BBC  News  Europe.  11  Jan  2011.  Web.  9   May  2011. “Pre-­‐Hispanic  Beer  in  Coastal  Peru:  Technology  and  Social  Context  of  Prehistoric  Produc8on.”   American  Anthopologist  91.4  (1989):  682-­‐695.  Print. Purcell,  N.  “Wine  and  Wealth  in  Ancient  Italy.”  The  Journal  of  Roman  Studies  75  (1985):  1-­‐19.   Print. Rice,  Prudence  M.  “The  Archaeology  of  Wine:  The  Wine  and  Brandy  Haciendas  of  Moquegua,   Peru.”  Journal  of  Field  Archaeology  23.2  (1996):  187-­‐204.  Print. Samuel,  Delwen.  “Archaeology  of  Ancient  Egyp8an  Beer.”  Journal  of  American  Society  of   Brewing  Chemists  54.1  (1996):  3-­‐11.  Print. -­‐  -­‐  -­‐.  “Inves8ga8on  of  Ancient  Egyp8an  Baking  and  Brewing  Methods  by  Correla8ve  Microscopy.”   Science  273  (July  1996):  488-­‐490.  Print. Stanislawski,  Dan.  “Dionysus  Westward:  Early  Religion  and  the  Economic  Geography  of  Wine.”   Geographical  Review  65.4  (1975):  427-­‐443.  Print. Van  der  Veen,  Marijke.  “When  is  Food  a  Luxury?”  World  Archaeology  34.3  (2003):  405-­‐427.   Print.
    • Photo  Credits “5,100  Year  Old  Egyp8an  Medicinal  Wine.”  Patrick  McGovern.  Penn  Museum. “Archaeology  of  Godin  Tepe.”  Royal  Ontario  Museum. “A  slave  aGends  to  a  vomi8ng  symposiast.”  The  Na8onal  Museum  of  Denmark. “Clay  tablet  recording  alloca8on  of  beer.”  The  Bri8sh  Museum. “Copper  straw  8ps  from  Emar,  Syria.”  Jennings,  Jus8n,  Et  al. “Drinking  Beer  in  a  Blissful  Mood:  Alcohol  Produc8on,  Opera8onal  Chains,  and  Feas8ng  in   the  Ancient  World.”  Current  Anthropology  46.2  (2005):  275-­‐303.  Print. “Diorite  stele  of  Hamurabi’s  code.”  The  Louvre. “Funerary  model  of  Egyp8an  beer  making.”  The  Rosicrucian  Museum. “Scene  from  the  tomb  of  Nahkt.”  Thomas  Ligo8  Online. “TeracoGa  plaque  with  an  ero8c  scene.”  The  Bri8sh  Museum. “Tri8cum  arara8cum.”  Wikimedia  Armenia. “Wallpaper  of  Karnak  Temple,  Luxor.”  Ethan  D.  Aines. “Wine  amphorae  in  the  Roman  town  of  Herculaneum.”  The  American  Geophysical  Union.
    • The  End