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  • Chapter 9, part A The Central Nervous System
  • About this Chapter
    • Emergent properties of the nervous system
    • Anatomy and functions of the CNS
    • Divisions of the brain and what each controls
    • Integration of complex pathways for behavior
      • Language, memory and others
    • Nerve net – jellyfish
    • Simple brain & nerve cord – flatworm
    • Brain & nerve cord with ganglia – earthworm
    • Increasing forebrain – fish, bird & human
      • Olfactory – fish
      • Complex behavior – birds
      • Reasoning & cognition – humans
    Evolution of the Nervous System
  • Evolution of the Nervous System Figure 9-1: Evolution of the nervous system
    • Neural plate to neural tube
    • Neural crest–PNS
    • Anterior forms brain
      • Forebrain
      • Midbrain
      • Hindbrain
    • Hollow ventricles
    • Spinal cord
    Embryonic Development of Nervous System Figure 9-2: The embryonic nervous system develops into a hollow tube
  • Embryonic Development of Nervous System Figure 9-3 a-c: The neural tube specializes into the six major regions of the nervous system.
    • Brain
    • Spinal cord
    Central Nervous System: Overview Figure 9-4a: ANATOMY SUMMARY: The Central Nervous System
    • Hair, skin, cranium
    • Venous sinus blood
    • Meninges
      • Drua mater
      • Arachnoid membrane
      • Pia mater
    • Cerebrospinal fluid
    Protecting the Brain Figure 9-4b, c: ANATOMY SUMMARY: The Central Nervous System
    • From coracoid plexus
    • Fills ventricles & subarachnoid
    • Fluid pillow floats brain
    • Exchange transport
      • From blood
      • To brain tissue
    Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid Figure 9-5: ANATOMY SUMMARY: Cerebrospinal Fluid
    • Extensive capillaries & sinuses
    • Tight junctions: limit permeability
    • Astrocyte foot processes: secrete paracrines
    • Protects brain: hormones & circulating chemicals
    • Many glucose transporters
    Blood Brain Barrier Figure 9-6: The blood-brain barrier
    • Cervical
    • Thoracic
    • Lumbar
    • Sacral
    Spinal Cord Regions Figure 9-4a: ANATOMY SUMMARY: The Central Nervous System
    • Gray matter: mostly cell bodies
      • Dendrites & terminals
      • Spinal reflex integrating center
    • White matter
      • Bundles of myelinated axons
        • Ascending tracts – sensory
        • Descending tracts – motor
      • Dorsal roots
      • Ventral roots
    Spinal Cord Organization
  • Spinal Cord Organization Figure 9-7: Specialization in the spinal cord
    • Trillion interneurons fill the brain
    • Up to 200,000 synapses each
    • Brain divisions
      • Cerebrum
      • Diencephalons
      • Midbrain
      • Cerebellum
      • Pons
      • Medulla oblongata
    Brain Overview
  • Brain Overview Figure 9-9b, c: ANATOMY SUMMARY: The Brain
    • Many cranial nerves enter
    • Pyramids – nerve tracts crossover
    • Midbrain – eye movement control
    • Pons – breathing, signal relay
    • Medulla – involuntary functions
      • Examples: Blood pressure, vomiting
    • Reticular formation:
      • Network in brain stem
      • Arousal, sleep, pain, & muscle tone
    Brain Stem Overview: Midbrain, Pons & Medulla
  • Brain Stem Overview: Midbrain, Pons & Medulla Figure 9-9d: ANATOMY SUMMARY: The Brain
  • Cranial Nerves Table 9-1: The Cranial Nerves