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    Test Slide Test Slide Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 9, part A The Central Nervous System
    • About this Chapter
      • Emergent properties of the nervous system
      • Anatomy and functions of the CNS
      • Divisions of the brain and what each controls
      • Integration of complex pathways for behavior
        • Language, memory and others
      • Nerve net – jellyfish
      • Simple brain & nerve cord – flatworm
      • Brain & nerve cord with ganglia – earthworm
      • Increasing forebrain – fish, bird & human
        • Olfactory – fish
        • Complex behavior – birds
        • Reasoning & cognition – humans
      Evolution of the Nervous System
    • Evolution of the Nervous System Figure 9-1: Evolution of the nervous system
      • Neural plate to neural tube
      • Neural crest–PNS
      • Anterior forms brain
        • Forebrain
        • Midbrain
        • Hindbrain
      • Hollow ventricles
      • Spinal cord
      Embryonic Development of Nervous System Figure 9-2: The embryonic nervous system develops into a hollow tube
    • Embryonic Development of Nervous System Figure 9-3 a-c: The neural tube specializes into the six major regions of the nervous system.
      • Brain
      • Spinal cord
      Central Nervous System: Overview Figure 9-4a: ANATOMY SUMMARY: The Central Nervous System
      • Hair, skin, cranium
      • Venous sinus blood
      • Meninges
        • Drua mater
        • Arachnoid membrane
        • Pia mater
      • Cerebrospinal fluid
      Protecting the Brain Figure 9-4b, c: ANATOMY SUMMARY: The Central Nervous System
      • From coracoid plexus
      • Fills ventricles & subarachnoid
      • Fluid pillow floats brain
      • Exchange transport
        • From blood
        • To brain tissue
      Cerebrospinal Fluid
    • Cerebrospinal Fluid Figure 9-5: ANATOMY SUMMARY: Cerebrospinal Fluid
      • Extensive capillaries & sinuses
      • Tight junctions: limit permeability
      • Astrocyte foot processes: secrete paracrines
      • Protects brain: hormones & circulating chemicals
      • Many glucose transporters
      Blood Brain Barrier Figure 9-6: The blood-brain barrier
      • Cervical
      • Thoracic
      • Lumbar
      • Sacral
      Spinal Cord Regions Figure 9-4a: ANATOMY SUMMARY: The Central Nervous System
      • Gray matter: mostly cell bodies
        • Dendrites & terminals
        • Spinal reflex integrating center
      • White matter
        • Bundles of myelinated axons
          • Ascending tracts – sensory
          • Descending tracts – motor
        • Dorsal roots
        • Ventral roots
      Spinal Cord Organization
    • Spinal Cord Organization Figure 9-7: Specialization in the spinal cord
      • Trillion interneurons fill the brain
      • Up to 200,000 synapses each
      • Brain divisions
        • Cerebrum
        • Diencephalons
        • Midbrain
        • Cerebellum
        • Pons
        • Medulla oblongata
      Brain Overview
    • Brain Overview Figure 9-9b, c: ANATOMY SUMMARY: The Brain
      • Many cranial nerves enter
      • Pyramids – nerve tracts crossover
      • Midbrain – eye movement control
      • Pons – breathing, signal relay
      • Medulla – involuntary functions
        • Examples: Blood pressure, vomiting
      • Reticular formation:
        • Network in brain stem
        • Arousal, sleep, pain, & muscle tone
      Brain Stem Overview: Midbrain, Pons & Medulla
    • Brain Stem Overview: Midbrain, Pons & Medulla Figure 9-9d: ANATOMY SUMMARY: The Brain
    • Cranial Nerves Table 9-1: The Cranial Nerves