Global inclusive design for all, beyond accessible
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Global inclusive design for all, beyond accessible

on

  • 423 views

This was an ATIA 2013 presentation about the collaboration between the Mada Center in Qatar and the University of Southampton (UK) in their development of the open source ATbar and linked ...

This was an ATIA 2013 presentation about the collaboration between the Mada Center in Qatar and the University of Southampton (UK) in their development of the open source ATbar and linked technologies. www.atbar.org

Statistics

Views

Total Views
423
Views on SlideShare
423
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • ACC-05 - Global Inclusive Design for All, Beyond Accessible Design – ATBarJanuary 31, 20134:00 PM - 5:00 PMPrimary SpeakerSession DescriptionLocalisation of an open source browser based toolbar to Arabic led to research resulting in a series of criteria supporting issues around spoken and written language impacting on coding and website development, where localisation is in a language not known to the team. The criteria encompass project management queries regarding community building, technical skills, training requirements and the need for localised guidance materials to aid sustainability and future development.
  • Monument to Multiculturalism by Francesco PerilliinToronto, Canada. Four identical sculptures are located inBuffalo City, South Africa; Changchun, China; Sarajevo,Bosnia and Sydney, Australia
  • Entry level – first step to more advanced solutions Stimulus to more complex solutions Stimulus to innovation
  • Ability and SkillsCompetency in the way someone uses digital information and communication tools – often learnt out of school plays a role in the way they carry out such activity in educational settings (Thorne 2003a) as well as what is actually available in terms of hardware. software and connectivity. So if you are not used to internet-mediated communication there may be issues around a Lack clear visual cuesReduced social contextMisinterpretation and this is when you haven’t even taken their culture into accountLanguage - Internet-mediated global English – Netspeak (Crystal, D. 2001)Informal and friendly may suit individualistic cultures but “may prove disturbing for unprepared members of a collectivist culture” (O’Dowd, 2001) individualistic – relationships with individuals developed during the communication, tends to be direct but collectivist cultures prefer to use their known types of communication preserving the boundaries already defined by the group – high context and indirect speech (Gudykunst and Matsumoto 1996)Arabic written language – 28 letters but each one changes depending on its position in a word – initial, medial and final) No short vowels – these are made by the diacritics but these are often left out on the web – deep orthography as opposed to shallow orthography used in children’s books. So heard, herd, hard and hired become hrd in Arabic – Context is essential But screen readers /TTS mispronounce the words if there are no diacritics and even with them they are not always accurate which makes it hard to understand the text. It is bidirectional – words right to left and numbers left to right! It is highly homographic – same word can carry many different meanings. In written English we tend to say that left justification rather than full justification helps with reading as you avoid different spacing between words and have a jagged righthand side to help follow flow of text – In Arabic full justification can help as this allows for words to be stretched and you may see the diacritics more easily or recognise letters more easily. Use larger script size 16-20 pt range rather than 12pt – Arabic script is usually larger. Adding colour to aid memory –often used in Arabic elementary books – very bright. Arabic has long sentences over several lines compared to English which can be difficult when you are trying to highlight for TTS and you are not sure how long you need to keep going in order to make sense! Word boundaries are an issue – 6 letters in the Arabic alphabet cannot be joined so you end up with spaces within words – it is a cursive script even online! Activity – Task being undertaken – very dependent on culture, age, but is it for home, education, work or leisure.Culture is “essentially elusive, abstract and invisible” (Furstenberg et al., 2001)High Context Cultures Japan Arab Countries Greece Spain Italy England France North America Scandinavian Countries German-speaking Countries Low Context Cultures Source: Hall, E. and M. Hall (1990) Understanding Cultural DifferencesDemographics - “People don’t come preassembled but are glued together by life” (Le Doux, J. 2002) Everyday experiences change the way we interact – level of digital literacy expertise, Age Range of disabilities. Environment – Climate, Geography, Calendar – times for holidays, religious events impact on completion of projects.
  • individualistic – relationships with individuals developed during the communication, tends to be direct but collectivist cultures prefer to use their known types of communication preserving the boundaries already defined by the group – high context and indirect speech (Gudykunst and Matsumoto 1996)
  • “... codebases that are more modular or have more option value increase developers’ incentives to join and to remain involved in an open source development effort; and decrease the amount of free-riding in equilibrium.’The Architecture of Participation:Does Code Architecture Mitigate Free Riding in theOpen Source Development ModelBaldwin and Clark, 2005http://www.people.hbs.edu/cbaldwin/DR2/BaldwinArchPartAll.pdf

Global inclusive design for all, beyond accessible Global inclusive design for all, beyond accessible Presentation Transcript

  • Global Inclusive Design for All?
  • Beyond Accessible Designhttp://www.ginacarson.com/gc/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/UD-Testing-Cartoon.jpg
  • The Journeyhttp://www-edc.eng.cam.ac.uk/betterdesign/process/
  • The Need• Qatar – Mada Center for Assistive Technologies - 83% Arabic speakers - 7,643 disabled (2010)• Wider community 1200 1000Qatar 800 600 400 million speakers 200 0 Chinese English Hindi Spanish Arabic (wikipedia)
  • Discover Unaided Awareness in Qatar : Assistive100 Equipments/Aids 90 81 80 78 70 70 60 50 Visual Aid Hearing Aid 40 32 32 Aid for physical disability 30 Aid for Learning disability 22 19 18 20 14 % figures 10 8 8 10 5 4 4 4 6 5 6 2 0 Overall Visually Disabled Hearing Disabled Physically DisabledLearning DisabledBase: 211 52 49 87 119 Those with learning difficulties appeared to be those who were most unaware of how AT could help.
  • Discover Use of ICT products in the household in Qatar Ebook reader 4 6 Tablet PC (iPad/Galaxy Tab) 23 30 Digital music player / iPod 27 39 Internet (on Mobile phone) 26 48 Desktop Computer 49 74 Laptop 57 79 Radio 43 86Internet (on Laptop/ Computer) 64 86 Fixed line phone 59 96 Television 89 99 Mobile phone 75 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Ever Used by disabled person Present in householdBase: 211 % figures
  • Ecosystem – addressing needs Assessment Training Support Provision Policy Accessible content Awareness Partnership Research NetworksBase: 211 % figures
  • TranslateStarting on the path to more complex assistivetechnology and to provide ideas for innovation
  • Requirements• Free Arabic voice for text to speech and screen reading• Spell checking and word prediction corpus expansion• Accessible Arabic digital content needs to be increased in amount available and quality.• Optical Character Recognition work to be done• Speech Recognition improvements• AAC symbol systems to fit the culture and the language• Community Support for translation• Dissemination of information and resources that come out of research
  • MADA has built Create many links with companies and organisations such as universities – students have ideashttp://thamesvalley.edublogs.org/files/2012/09/student-ideas-photo-1srziz7-1olfmyh.jpg
  • Concepts CultureActivity DemographicsLanguage Environment Ability/Skills
  • Ability and of school – impacts onCompetency in ICT often learnt out Skillsuse in education (Thorne, 2003a) - multiplicity of devicesusing digital multimedia Lack clear visual cues Reduced social context Internet- mediated communication Misinterpretation
  • Demographics“People don’t come preassembled but areglued together by life” (Le Doux, J. 2002)• Everyday experiences change the way we interact – level of digital literacy expertise• Specific to the community• Need skills to negotiate the pitfalls
  • LanguageInternet-mediated global English – Netspeak (Crystal, D.2001)• Informal and friendly may suit individualistic cultures but “prove disturbing for unprepared members of a collectivist culture” (O’Dowd, 2001) o salutations, o assertive rather than questioning, o aggressive but apologetic. (Marcoccia, 2012) but…• “anonymity can play a positive role in intercultural communication.” (Marcoccia, 2012) those who hesitate in F2F may communicate more when online.
  • CultureCulture is “essentially elusive, abstract and invisible”(Furstenberg et al., 2001)• Low-context (text and speech) v. High-context cultures (visual cues and silence) e.g. North European v. Far Eastern and Arab (Würtz, 2005).• Just because you are connected it does not mean you necessarily communicate enough to learn about a culture (Marcoccia, 2012) however…• Cyberspace shares its own cultural practices within a virtual community – use English and follow the rules of netiquette? (Ersoz, 2009) but may mean you reduce cultural understanding.
  • High Context Cultures Use of diverse Japan coiour Arab Countries and Greece imagery Spain Italy EnglandMore text Franceconsistent North America colour Scandinavian Countries and German-speaking Countries layout Low Context Cultures Source: Hall, E. and M. Hall (1990) Understanding Cultural Differences
  • Develop• Open Source – Free but must be licensed appropriately• Main developer and small contributions from others• Make it possible to add small amounts of code to help a project e.g. ATbar plugins• Need to have agreement about the code that will be accepted• Open, online communication
  • ATbarwww.atbar.org
  • Access Tools pendrivePortable Apps distributed on USB flash drives• On-Screen Keyboard Portable• DSpeech Text-to-Speach• NVDA Screenreader• PowerTalk PowerPoint speech• VirtualMagnifyingGlass• WebbIE USB VersionAvailable fromhttps://access.ecs.soton.ac.uk/projects/access-tools/download
  • Documentationwww.arbar.org
  • Distribute Education QatarMinistries Mada Foundation NGO’s Gulf AT Network
  • Solutions• Collaborative working• Good code - it is open source!• Problems shared – bug tracking, issues raised, comments made, new ideas.• Social media – wikis for documentation, tweets and blogs for news• Multiple means of representation, expression and engagement to accommodate individual differences.
  • References• Furstenberg et al., (2001). Giving a virtual voice to the silent language of culture: The CULTURA project http://llt.msu.edu/vol5num1/furstenberg• LeDoux, J. (2002). Synaptic self: How our brains become who we are. New York: Penguin.• Thorne, S.L., (2003a). Artefacts and cultures-of-use in intercultural communication http://llt.msu.edu/vol7num2/thorne• Crystal, D. (2001) Language and the Internet (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)• O’Dowd, R. (2001) In search of a truly global network: hhtp://callej.org/journal/3- 1/o_dowd.html• Marcoccia, M. (2012) The internet, intercultural communication and cultural variation. Language and Intercultural Communication, 12:4, 353-36 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14708477.2012.722101• Ersoz, S. (2009) Cultures in Cyberspace: Interpersonal communication in a computer-mediated environment http://maltepe.academia.edu/SelvaEesoz/Papers/563123/Cultures_in_cyberspace _interpersonal_communication_in_a_computer-mediated_Envrionment• Würtz, E. (2005). A cross-cultural analysis of websites from high-context cultures and low-context cultures. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 11(1), article
  • Thank YouDavid BanesMada Centerhttp://mada.org.qa/en/ECS Accessibility Teamhttp://access.ecs.soton.ac.uk