Eachtra JournalIssue 11                                                [ISSN 2009-2237]                     Architectural ...
Architectural Survey,N7 Castletown - Nenagh(Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road SchemeContract 1                      March...
N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey           Table of Contents           1.         Introduction .................
N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey           List of Figures               Figure 1: Location of the nine study...
N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey           List of Plates               Plate 1: From WNW. West gable of smit...
N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey               Plate 32: From SE. Detail of square window with wooden frames....
N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey               Plate 65: From NE. Gable-end wall ...............................
N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey               Plate 98: From NNW. Freshly sawn roof timbers and reuse of old...
N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey               Plate 131: From SW. Interior of arch in north-east wall. ........
N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey               Plate 164: From W. Interior of adjoining structure. .............
N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey           i            Summary           Eachtra Archaeological Projects wer...
N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey           1.        Introduction           1.1       General           The f...
N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey           The landscape at the western end of the scheme consists of gently ...
N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey           2.        Methodology           The built heritage study was under...
N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey           2.2       Site-Specific Research           This study determines, ...
N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey           Record of Monuments and Places is a list of archaeological sites w...
N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey           nucleated settlement along these roads, individual estate houses a...
N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey           3.        Architectual Recording           3.1       General      ...
N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey           the existing N7 to south and is just outside the present LMA, wher...
N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey           Condition           The structure seems to have been roofless for ...
N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey           were often known for making wrought iron gates, railings, furnitur...
N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey           According to the OS Name Books, ‘The south side of the townland is...
N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey           (plate 7). The gateway (Wth 5.16m) is defined either side by a squ...
N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey           (ibid). The house dates to the Georgian period and is a five-bay, ...
N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey           gradual sweep from entrance to house.           Summary           ...
N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey           Clash is a complex of both modern and vernacular farm buildings co...
N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey           the door does not survive. The original window shutters on the gro...
N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey           with that on the west set back slightly from the edge. There is a ...
N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey           It was possible to safely access the ground floor room of the addi...
N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey           this barn was used to keep animals, however this would have been c...
N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey           it may have been white-washed, however no evidence of this survive...
N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey           Description of barn           A long, narrow stone barn adjoins th...
N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey           west end contains about eleven acres of bog’ (ibid). The study sit...
N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey           therefore likely to be later in date.           The second edition...
Architectural Survey - N7 Castletown-Nenagh Road Scheme
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Architectural Survey - N7 Castletown-Nenagh Road Scheme
Architectural Survey - N7 Castletown-Nenagh Road Scheme
Architectural Survey - N7 Castletown-Nenagh Road Scheme
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Architectural Survey - N7 Castletown-Nenagh Road Scheme

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The following report details a survey undertaken to record the architectural components and features of importance of nine study areas along the route of the proposed N7 Castletown to Nenagh road scheme (Contract 1, West). The study also sought to ascertain any phasing of construction that may be evident i.e. various extensions, additions or modifications to the various properties which have been carried out over time. Cartographic and documentary research was also carried out in order to provide a date range of the original construction and any subsequent additions.

A total of 15 architectural heritage sites were identified in the EIS over the area covered by Contract 1. Six of these sites were modern and were surveyed by Niall Roycroft, Project Archaeologist. The remaining nine areas of Architectural Heritage (AH) interest form the study.

The study site of Lissanisky House and associated features are listed in the Record of Protected Structures (RPS) of the Tipperary North County Development Plan 2004-2010 (RPS No. S258) and the National Inventory of Architectural Heritage for County Tipperary. Inclusion in the RPS affords the house and the pillared entrance statutory protection under the Planning and Development Acts 2000-2002.

This report has been carried out in advance of construction of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh road scheme (Contract 1, West). At an earlier stage of the design process, the EIS envisaged that either all or part of these study sites would be physically impacted upon during the course of the road construction works. As a result, the nine study sites are the subject of either a Level 1 or Level 2 architectural survey as directed by the NRA Project Archaeologist (Appendix 1).

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Architectural Survey - N7 Castletown-Nenagh Road Scheme

  1. 1. Eachtra JournalIssue 11 [ISSN 2009-2237] Architectural Survey N7 Castletown - Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme
  2. 2. Architectural Survey,N7 Castletown - Nenagh(Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road SchemeContract 1 March 2008Client: Laois County Council, Tipperary County Council, Offaly County Council, National Roads AuthorityDirection Number A038Written by: Alison McQueen Contact details: The Forge Innishannon, Co. Cork Tel.: 021 4701616 Fax: 021 4701628 E-mail: info@eachtra.ie Web Site: www.eachtra.ie
  3. 3. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Table of Contents 1. Introduction ........................................................................................................1 1.1 General ..............................................................................................................1 1.2 Location and Topography ..................................................................................1 1.3 Background to Road Scheme .............................................................................2 2. Methodology .......................................................................................................3 2.1 Field Inspection..................................................................................................3 2.2 Site-Specific Research .........................................................................................4 3. Architectual Recording ........................................................................................8 3.1 General ..............................................................................................................8 3.2 AH65: Derelict Smithy ......................................................................................8 3.3 AH 63: Western entrance, avenue and boundary of Lissanisky Demesne. .........12 3.4 AH 58: Derelict farmhouse and vernacular complex at Clash. ...........................15 3.5 AH 57: Boundary to farm at Clash ..................................................................25 3.6 AH 51: Two-storey house and outbuildings at Park. ..........................................27 3.7 AH 45: Country house (no longer extant), derelict outbuildings, courtyards marked on first edition OS map and some 19th century structures at Greenhills.33 3.8 AH 43: Stone wall associated with a road marked on first edition OS map at Busherstown......................................................................................................51 3.9 Moatquarter: Present road is on a raised causeway and a semi-circular arched bridge. ...............................................................................................................53 3.10 Castleroan: Standing ruin in vegetation along south side of road. ......................56 4. Conclusions & Recommendations ...................................................................... 59 5. Glossary .............................................................................................................. 61 6. References ...........................................................................................................67 7. Acknowledgements .............................................................................................71 8 Figures ................................................................................................................72 9 Plates ................................................................................................................. 101 10 Appendix 1: Table of Cultural Heritage Sites of Architectural Interest .............. 185 11 Appendix 2: NIAH ............................................................................................ 186Eachtra Archaeological Projects iii
  4. 4. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey List of Figures Figure 1: Location of the nine study sites along the proposed route....................................... 72 Figure 2a: Location of the nine study sites along the proposed route. .................................... 73 Figure 2b: Location of the nine study sites along the proposed route..................................... 74 Figure 2c: Location of the nine study sites along the proposed route. .................................... 75 Figure 3: Extract from first edition OS map showing the smithy (AH65). ............................ 76 Figure 4: Extract from second edition OS map showing the smithy (AH65). ........................ 77 Figure 5: Extract from first edition OS map showing Lissanisky entrance (AH63). .............. 78 Figure 6: Extract from second edition OS map showing Lissanisky entrance (AH63). .......... 79 Figure 7: Sketch plan of Lissanisky entrance (AH63). ........................................................... 80 Figure 8: Extract from first edition OS map showing vernacular complex (AH58). ............... 81 Figure 9: Extract from second edition OS map showing vernacular complex (AH58). .......... 82 Figure 10: Detail from 25inch OS map showing vernacular complex (AH58). ...................... 83 Figure 11: Sketch plan of farmhouse (AH58: B1). ................................................................. 84 Figure 12: Sketch plan of shed and barn (AH58: B3). ........................................................... 85 Figure 13: Extract from first edition OS map showing house and complex (AH51)............... 86 Figure 14: Extract from second edition OS map showing house and complex (AH51). ......... 87 Figure 15: Detail from 25inch OS map showing house and complex (AH51). ....................... 88 Figure 16: Sketch plan of cow house/stables (AH 51:B2) ....................................................... 89 Figure 17: Extract from first edition OS map showing house and complex (AH45)............... 90 Figure 18: Extract from second edition OS map showing house and complex (AH45). ......... 91 Figure 19: Detail from first edition OS map showing house and complex (AH45). ............... 92 Figure 20: Detail from 25” OS map showing house and complex (AH45). ........................... 93 Figure 21: Sketch plan of Herdsman’s House (B1). ................................................................ 94 Figure 22: Sketch plan of Engine House (B2). ...................................................................... 95 Figure 23: Photogrammetry of walled garden (B3)................................................................ 96 Figure 24: Aerial Photo of walled garden (AH45). ................................................................ 97 Figure 25: Extract from first edition OS map showing old road (AH 43) and Bridge. ........... 98 Figure 26: Extract from first edition OS map showing ruin. ................................................. 99 Figure 27: Sketch plan of ruin. ............................................................................................. 100 Copyright Notice: Please note that all original information contained within this report, including all original drawings, photographs, text and all other printed matter deemed to be the writer’s, remains the property of the writer and Eachtra Archaeological Projects and so may not be reproduced or used in any form without the written consent of the writer or Eachtra Archaeological Projects.Eachtra Archaeological Projects iv
  5. 5. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey List of Plates Plate 1: From WNW. West gable of smithy ........................................................................ 101 Plate 2: From E. East gable of smithy. .................................................................................. 101 Plate 3: From S. Front of smithy covered by existing N7 (between ranging rod and wall). ... 102 Plate 4: From W. Close-up of uncoursed rubble of west gable wall. ...................................... 102 Plate 5: From N. View of rear of smithy covered in dense overgrowth.................................. 103 Plate 6: From WNW. Entrance to Lissanisky House with avenue in background. ............... 103 Plate 7: From SSW. Outer angle of squared quoins on northern side of entrance. ................ 104 Plate 8: From WNW. Pier at southern side of entrance with avenue in background. ............ 104 Plate 9: From S. Plain capstone on southern pillar of entrance. ............................................ 105 Plate 10: From WNW. Pier at northern side of entrance with disused hanging eye. ............. 105 Plate 11: From NE. Front elevation of vernacular farmhouse. .............................................. 106 Plate 12: From NE. Two-storey extension adjoining east gable of farmhouse. ...................... 106 Plate 13: From S. Surviving window shutters of farmhouse. ................................................. 107 Plate 14: From S. Small one-over-one vertical sliding sash window in rear elevation. .......... 107 Plate 15: From NW. Remnants of farmhouse roof................................................................ 108 Plate 16: From SW. Wide chimney stack of pale yellow brick on west gable of farmhouse. .. 108 Plate 17: From ENE. Eastern gable of two-storey addition. .................................................. 109 Plate 18: From NE. Roof of two-storey addition. ................................................................. 109 Plate 19: : From E. Collapsed first floor level. ....................................................................... 110 Plate 20: From N. Scar in lobby wall indicating location of staircase. ................................. 110 Plate 21: From N. Interior walls rendered, plastered and painted. ...................................... 111 Plate 22: From WNW. Blocked-up, kitchen fireplace in the east gable wall of farmhouse. .. 111 Plate 23: From S. Interior of front ground floor window embrasure of addition. .................. 112 Plate 24: From W. Small brick fireplace in centre of east gable of addition. .......................... 112 Plate 25: From W. Wall press adjacent to north of fireplace in addition................................ 113 Plate 26: From NE. Front elevation of barn and addition. ................................................... 113 Plate 27: From SE. Rear elevation of barn. ........................................................................... 114 Plate 28: From W. Drystone buttress. .................................................................................. 114 Plate 29: From NE. Remains of front of addition................................................................. 115 Plate 30: From NW. Front of barn and addition and also showing buttress and crush. ........ 115 Plate 31: From SE. Front elevation of shed. .......................................................................... 116Eachtra Archaeological Projects v
  6. 6. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 32: From SE. Detail of square window with wooden frames. ...................................... 116 Plate 33: From NW. Rear elevation of shed. ......................................................................... 117 Plate 34: From NE. Gable with loft door opening. .............................................................. 117 Plate 35: From NW. Rear wall of barn. ................................................................................ 118 Plate 36: From SE: Exterior of elliptical opening blocked with mass concrete. ..................... 118 Plate 37: From NW. Interior of elliptical opening blocked on exterior by earthen debris. ..... 119 Plate 38: From W. Interior showing collapsed section of front elevation. .............................. 119 Plate 39: From SW. Remains of a door opening in the south-west gable. ............................. 120 Plate 40: From NE. Modern sawn timbers indicating roof re-fit. ........................................ 120 Plate 41: From SE. Underside of roof slate lain directly on top of modern timbers ............... 121 Plate 42: From S. Poor condition of barn showing roof, walls and build up of debris & ivy. 121 Plate 43: From SW. Modern milking parlour adjacent to north of farmhouse (B1). ............. 122 Plate 44: From SSE. Boundary wall to east of farmyard. ...................................................... 122 Plate 45: From ESE. Stone stile on the exterior of boundary wall. ........................................ 123 Plate 46: From S. Mason’s mark ‘Meagher _ _21’ on cement plaque (broken) on wall.......... 123 Plate 47: From NW. Front elevation. .................................................................................... 124 Plate 48: From NW. Detail of brick quoins.......................................................................... 124 Plate 49: From WSW. South-west gable. .............................................................................. 125 Plate 50: From SE. rear elevation. ........................................................................................ 125 Plate 51: From W. Open concrete water tank abutting south-west gable. ............................. 126 Plate 52: From W. Pillared pedestrian entrance with cast iron gate & wrought detail. ......... 126 Plate 53: From NE. Mass concrete garage/machinery port. .................................................. 127 Plate 54: From ESE. Front elevation. ................................................................................... 127 Plate 55: From WNW. Remains of roof ridge of adjoining building (now demolished). ....... 128 Plate 56: From NNW. Rear of outbuilding showing roof..................................................... 128 Plate 57: From SW. Interior showing dividing wall, slit opening and drinking trough. ........ 129 Plate 58: From SW. Replacement roof structure. .................................................................. 129 Plate 59: From NNW. Front and side elevations of concrete animal housing. ...................... 130 Plate 60: From SW. SW-elevation of rubble stone. ............................................................... 130 Plate 61: From NW. NW-elevation of concrete and later openings....................................... 131 Plate 62: From SE. Rubble stone dividing wall within interior. ............................................ 131 Plate 63: From SSE. Area of former cattle stalls/milking parlour (disused). .......................... 132 Plate 64: From NW. Front elevation. ................................................................................... 132Eachtra Archaeological Projects vi
  7. 7. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 65: From NE. Gable-end wall ..................................................................................... 133 Plate 66: From SE. Rear elevation and engaged round pillar. ............................................... 133 Plate 67: From NE. Interior showing original rubble walls and concrete addition to height. 134 Plate 68: From NW. Adjoining shed of similar construction and modifications. .................. 134 Plate 69: From E. Surviving buildings (B1 and B2) on the former Greenhills estate............. 135 Plate 70: From E. Front and side view of house in 1908 (Photo courtesy of Edward Fanning©). . 135 Plate 71: From WSW. Rear and side view of house c. 2000 (Edward Fanning ©). ............... 136 Plate 72: From SE. SE-elevation of house c. 2000 (Edward Fanning ©). ............................. 136 Plate 73: From SE Area of former house. .............................................................................. 137 Plate 74: From SW. Vista from former house overlooking area of former cricket ground. ..... 137 Plate 75: From W. Old blocks of former house. .................................................................... 138 Plate 76: From NE. Front elevation of dwelling (B1). ........................................................... 138 Plate 77: From NE. Front elevation showing truncated first floor window openings. ........... 139 Plate 78: From NE. Close view of masonry. ......................................................................... 139 Plate 79: From NE. Left window opening reduced in size to facilitate modern frame. ......... 140 Plate 80: From NE. Truncated wall top and windows at first floor level............................... 140 Plate 81: From SSE. SE-gable and openings. ........................................................................ 141 Plate 82: From SE. Door opening in SE-gable. .................................................................... 141 Plate 83: From SE. Cast-iron hanging eye and vertical cast iron pintle with decorative detail.142 Plate 84: From SSW. Red brick chimney flue in rear elevation. ............................................ 142 Plate 85: From NW. NW-gable and features. ....................................................................... 143 Plate 86: From SSW. Rear pitch of roof................................................................................ 143 Plate 87: From SE. Tools house in room on ground floor. .................................................... 144 Plate 88: From NE. Small cast iron tools. ............................................................................ 144 Plate 89: From SSE. Slight projection in centre of rear wall and scar of blocked fireplace..... 145 Plate 90: From SE. Joists and underside of first floor boards. ............................................... 145 Plate 91: From NE. Half-turn, open staircase....................................................................... 146 Plate 92: From NE. Scar of former closed string. ................................................................. 146 Plate 93: From SW. Possible area of former cupboard on first floor landing. ........................ 147 Plate 94: From N. First floor ceiling respecting line of A-frame roof structure. .................... 147 Plate 95: From NW. Scar of former partition wall dividing room. ....................................... 148 Plate 96: From N. Breached ceiling exposing roof structure and modern repairs.................. 148 Plate 97: From SW. Breached ceiling exposing roof structure and modern repairs. .............. 149Eachtra Archaeological Projects vii
  8. 8. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 98: From NNW. Freshly sawn roof timbers and reuse of old timbers as tie beams. ..... 149 Plate 99: From NW. Interior of door opening into north-west room, at top of staircase. ...... 150 Plate 100: From NE. Scar of blocked fireplace in rear wall, first floor. ................................. 150 Plate 101: From ENE. Fireplace surround from main house. ............................................... 151 Plate 102: From NE. Original front door frame of former main house. ............................... 151 Plate 103: From NE. Decayed red brick of front door jamb. ................................................ 152 Plate 104: From NE. Guano on staircase and first floor landing. ......................................... 152 Plate 105: From ESE. Best view of front elevation of engine house (B2). .............................. 153 Plate 106: From SE. Central ground floor window opening with brick arch and jambs. ...... 153 Plate 107: From S. SW-gable and features. ........................................................................... 154 Plate 108: From SSW. Blocked up ground floor doorway in SW-gable. ................................ 154 Plate 109: From SSW. Consolidation work on SW-gable using mass concrete. ..................... 155 Plate 110: From NW. Rear elevation. ................................................................................... 155 Plate 111: From NW. Wrought iron gate on rear elevation (not in-situ). ............................... 156 Plate 112: From E. NE-gable with large quoins evident. ...................................................... 156 Plate 113: From NE. Broken wall at NW-end of NE-gable. ................................................. 157 Plate 114: From N. Low remains of the rear wall of the square courtyard. ........................... 157 Plate 115: From NE. Open plan interior of engine house. .................................................... 158 Plate 116: From NW. Interior of wide door opening in front elevation – note wooden lintel.158 Plate 117: From SW. Truncated stump of former vertical support. ....................................... 159 Plate 118: From NE. Exposed stone and mass concrete repair, first floor level, SW-gable. .... 159 Plate 119: From S. Principal A-frame rafter with a main tie beam holding centre of roof. .... 160 Plate 120: From SW. Lower end of principal rafter set into masonry near wall top. ............. 160 Plate 121: From SE. Series of rafters, purlins and battens forming a lattice pattern. ............. 161 Plate 122: From SE. Breach in first floor timbers. ................................................................ 161 Plate 123: From ESE. Northern area of the walled garden fenced off within the LMA. ....... 162 Plate 124: From SSE. Northern area of walled garden within LMA – note recent breach. ... 162 Plate 125: From NW. Interior of former walled garden, now pasture. .................................. 163 Plate 126: From NE. Portion of exterior showing rubble construction. ................................ 163 Plate 127: From SW. Double-faced limestone wall with exposed rubble core. ...................... 164 Plate 128: From NE. Exterior of wall in area of farmyard area (Z) and blocked ventilation slits... 164 Plate 129: From SW. Concrete stanchion. ............................................................................ 165 Plate 130: From N. Rounded corner at north turning into farmyard area (Z). ..................... 165Eachtra Archaeological Projects viii
  9. 9. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 131: From SW. Interior of arch in north-east wall. ...................................................... 166 Plate 132: From SW. Exterior of arch in south-west wall. ..................................................... 166 Plate 133: From SW. Blocked pedestrian entrance in north-east wall. .................................. 167 Plate 134: From SW. Niche of former hot house. ................................................................. 167 Plate 135: From E. Pedestrian entrance near centre of south-west wall. ............................... 168 Plate 136: From NE. Small cast iron gate at pedestrian entrance in south-west wall. ........... 168 Plate 137: From NE. Blocked window opening. ................................................................... 169 Plate 138: From NE. Blocked door opening ......................................................................... 169 Plate 139: From SE. Interior of low wall enclosing farmyard area (Z). .................................. 170 Plate 140: From NW. Single circular pier indicates a former pillared entrance. .................... 170 Plate 141: From SW. Large breach in south-west wall of former garden. .............................. 171 Plate 142: From NW. Rubble stone buttress reinforcing north-east wall. ............................. 171 Plate 143: From NE. Area of former pond – note engine house to rear. ............................... 172 Plate 144: From N. Remains of old road survive as disused, sunken trackway. ..................... 172 Plate 145: From E. Drystone retaining wall defining sides of trackway. ................................ 173 Plate 146: From S. Eastern side of the trackway within the LMA recently disturbed. .......... 173 Plate 147: From E. Western side of the trackway along disturbed area is in-situ. ................. 174 Plate 148: From E. General view of former cross roads (to rear of parapet wall of bridge)..... 174 Plate 149: From NNW. View of former crossroads from bridge crossing. ............................. 175 Plate 150: From ESE. Area of pasture where former graveyard road extended from crossroads. .... 175 Plate 151: From NW. North side of bridge showing arch, extrados and parapet wall. ........... 176 Plate 152: From S. Semi-circular arch and silhouette............................................................ 176 Plate 153: From N. Skewed semi-circular arch on north side of bridge. ................................ 177 Plate 154: From NE. Intrados of arch. ................................................................................. 177 Plate 155: From NE. The retaining wall of the causeway and the parapet wall above. ......... 178 Plate 156: From W. Modern repair work adjoining stone wall on approach from north route178 Plate 157: From NNE. Parapet wall adjacent arch on N side breached and fallen outwards. 179 Plate 158: From N. Missing stones on intrados of arch. ........................................................ 179 Plate 159: From NW. Masonry missing from springing of arch on E side. ........................... 180 Plate 160: From ESE. Interior of main structure covered in overgrowth. ............................. 180 Plate 161: From NW. Main structure from exterior showing surviving rear wall and quoins.181 Plate 162: From NNE. Rear wall of main structure. ............................................................ 181 Plate 163: From WSW. Oblique view of front elevation of adjoining structure. ................... 182Eachtra Archaeological Projects ix
  10. 10. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 164: From W. Interior of adjoining structure. .............................................................. 182 Plate 165: From NNW. Interior of adjoining structure with mass concrete of door opening. 183 Plate 166: From WNW. Exposed wall top of adjoining structure. ....................................... 183 Plate 167: From NNE. Rear wall of main structure with mortar leached out. ...................... 184Eachtra Archaeological Projects x
  11. 11. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey i Summary Eachtra Archaeological Projects were commissioned by Laois County Council and the Na- tional Roads Authority to undertake archaeological works along 17.1 km (Contact 1) of the 35km N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) national road scheme (EIS approved in November 2005). The scheme runs from the eastern junction of the present N7 Nenagh Bypass, North Tipperary a tie in to the M7/M8 Portlaoise-Castletown scheme to the south of Borris-in-Ossory in County Laois. The scheme is approximately 191 hectares. Contract 1 comprises the western half of the scheme and runs from Clashnevin to Castleroan passing along the Tipperary North and Offaly county border regions. The DoEHLG Direc- tion Number is A038. The nine areas of Architectural Heritage (AH) are as follows: AH 65 Remains of derelict early 19th century Smithy at Derrybane. AH 63 Western entrance, avenue and boundary of Lissanisky Demesne. AH 58 Derelict farmhouse, outbuilding, shed and barn at Clash. AH 67 Boundary to farm at Clash. AH 51 Two-storey house with contemporary outbuildings at Park. AH 45 Country house (no longer extant), derelict outbuildings, courtyards marked on first edition OS map and some 19th century structures at Greenhills. AH 43 Stone wall associated with a road marked on first edition OS map at Busherstown. Bridge Present road on a raised causeway and a semi-circular arched bridge at Moatquarter. Ruin Standing ruin in vegetation along south side of road at Castleroan. All of the sites are of local architectural and historical interest. They were the subject of a Level 1 and/or Level 2 architectural survey. The built heritage study was undertaken in two phases. The first phase involved a field inspection of the nine areas. The second phase comprised of site-specific research of all available archaeological, architectural, historical and cartographic sources of the nine study areas . ii Acknowledgements The architectural survey was undertaken by Alison McQueen. The senior archaeologist was John Tierney and the post-excavation manager was Jacinta Kiely. Illustrations are by Ben Blakeman and compilation by Robin Turk. The project was commissioned by Laois County Council and was funded the National Roads Authority under the National Development Plan (2000-2006). The project archaeologist was Niall Roycroft.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 1
  12. 12. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey 1. Introduction 1.1 General The following report details a survey undertaken to record the architectural components and features of importance of nine study areas along the route of the proposed N7 Castletown to Nenagh road scheme (Contract 1, West) (Figures 1 and 2). The study also sought to ascertain any phasing of construction that may be evident i.e. various extensions, additions or modi- fications to the various properties which have been carried out over time. Cartographic and documentary research was also carried out in order to provide a date range of the original construction and any subsequent additions. A total of 15 architectural heritage sites were identified in the EIS over the area covered by Contract 1. Six of these sites were modern and were surveyed by Niall Roycroft, Project Archaeologist. The remaining nine areas of Architectural Heritage (AH) interest form the study. The study site of Lissanisky House and associated features are listed in the Record of Pro- tected Structures (RPS) of the Tipperary North County Development Plan 2004-2010 (RPS No. S258) and the National Inventory of Architectural Heritage for County Tipperary. In- clusion in the RPS affords the house and the pillared entrance statutory protection under the Planning and Development Acts 2000-2002. This report has been carried out in advance of construction of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh road scheme (Contract 1, West). At an earlier stage of the design process, the EIS envisaged that either all or part of these study sites would be physically impacted upon during the course of the road construction works. As a result, the nine study sites are the subject of either a Level 1 or Level 2 architectural survey as directed by the NRA Project Archaeologist (Ap- pendix 1). 1.2 Location and Topography Contract 1 comprises the western half of the scheme and runs from the townlands of Clash- nevin to Castleroan passing along the Tipperary North and Offaly county border regions.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 2
  13. 13. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey The landscape at the western end of the scheme consists of gently rolling land between 80m OD and 160m OD with glacial drift over solid bedrock. The Ollatrim River forms the boundary between the townlands of Clash and Park 1.3 Background to Road Scheme Eachtra Archaeological Projects were commissioned by Laois County Council and the Na- tional Roads Authority to undertake Advanced Archaeological Works along 17.1km (Con- tact 1) of the 35km N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) national road scheme (EIS approved in November 2005). The scheme runs from the Eastern junction of the present N7 Nenagh Bypass, North Tipperary a tie in to the M7/M8 Portlaoise-Castletown scheme to the south of Borris-in-Ossory in County Laois. The scheme is approximately 191 hectares.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 3
  14. 14. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey 2. Methodology The built heritage study was undertaken in two phases. The first phase involved a field in- spection of the nine areas of architectural interest where all relevant aspects of the individual structures and their close environs were inspected. The field survey was carried out within the bounds of and with due regard to health and safety at all times. The second phase com- prised of site-specific research of all available archaeological, architectural, historical and car- tographic sources of the nine study areas. 2.1 Field Inspection Preliminary site inspections of all nine study areas were carried out in October 2007. The individual field inspections were carried out in November 2007. A third and final field in- spection was carried out in February 2008 at Greenhills, County Tipperary with landowner Edward Fanning. Field inspection is necessary to determine the full architectural nature of each individual building at each of the nine study sites, by recording the architectural components and fea- tures of importance to their construction. The study also sought to ascertain any phasing of construction that may be evident i.e. various extensions, additions or modifications of the structures, if any, since their erection. The extent and nature of any surviving archaeological and/or historical features, where they exist, were also noted. Cartographic and documentary research was also carried out in order to provide a date range of the original construction and any subsequent additions, where possible. In summary, the field inspection involved the following: (i) An architectural account of each structure in order to record the key architectural components of its construction. Phasing of each structure will also be studied closely in order to ascertain any extensions, additions or modifications carried out over time. (ii) The nature, extent and locations of any surviving archaeological fabric within the structures, particularly those proposed for demolition. This is based on an external and internal inspection, (where physically possible), of each structure. (iii) Photographic survey (exterior and interior, where possible), annotated maps, drawings etc. are included in the survey report, where deemed relevant. The results of the architectural survey are detailed in Section 4 of this report.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 4
  15. 15. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey 2.2 Site-Specific Research This study determines, as far as reasonably possible from existing records, the architectural nature of each structure. Any additional archaeological and historical resources deemed rel- evant to the study sites were also consulted. The research aim is to provide an architectural appraisal of each study site, which identifies the likely character, extent, quality and worth in perspective with the wider built heritage resource. The site-specific research is a document search of the following resources which were exam- ined for Counties Offaly and Tipperary North Riding in relation to the respective study areas within each: • County Development Plans • National Inventory of Architectural Heritage • Record of Monuments and Places • Archaeological Inventory Series • Griffith Valuation – ‘Primary Valuation of Tenements’ • Irish Wills Index • Cartographic and written sources County Development Plans of Counties Offaly and Tipperary contain a catalogue of all the protected sites and structures within their county. This was consulted in order to ascer- tain if any of the structures or associated structures are included in the Record of Protected Structures (RPS). National Inventory of Architectural Heritage (NIAH) records a representative sample of buildings and structures of architectural importance on a county by county basis. Inclusion in the NIAH does not automatically afford statutory protection, but does highlight an im- portance of these structures in terms of their architectural and built heritage value. At present there is an NIAH produced for 15 counties in Ireland and one each for Cork and Limerick Cities. The fieldwork for the NIAH for Counties Offaly and Tipperary North Riding was carried out in 2004, producing the subsequent published inventories. In addition to the pub- lications, the NIAH information can also be consulted online.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 5
  16. 16. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Record of Monuments and Places is a list of archaeological sites whose precise location is known by the National Monuments Section of the DEHLG. These archaeological sites can also include items of built heritage, such as medieval and post-medieval structures. The post- medieval period generally applies to sites which are post-1700’s in date and can include items such as bridges, vernacular dwellings and period style country houses etc. Files relating to these known sites are available for consultation in the Sites and Monuments Record, which provides detail of documentary sources and field inspections where these have taken place. Archaeological Inventory Series contains concise descriptions of archaeological sites and monuments. Upstanding monuments of built heritage value of both the medieval and post- medieval period are included in the inventory. This is researched in order to ascertain if any items of archaeological or built heritage were within the study area or if the study site was included. The archaeological inventories for County Offaly and for Tipperary North Riding are published. Cartographic sources are important in tracing land use development as well as providing important topographical information on sites and areas of archaeological potential. Carto- graphic analysis of all relevant maps has been made to identify phasing of the existing bridge and/or the extent of previous structures on the site. The list of maps consulted are as follows: • Taylor and Skinner’s road maps 1783 • Ordnance Survey 1st edition six-inch map 1840-41 • Ordnance Survey 2nd edition six-inch map 1904 • Record of Monuments and Places Map (Reduced OS six-inch 2nd edition) • N7 Castletown-Nenagh Scheme, Archaeological Contract 1, 2006. Taylor and Skinner’s Road maps of Ireland 1783 These were the first set of road maps for Ireland surveyed in 1777, originally published in 1778 and with revisions until 1783. They were Commissioned by the House of Commons in Ireland and surveyed by George Taylor and Andrew Skinner. These maps depict many topographical features of interest to archaeologists, such as the layout and general extent ofEachtra Archaeological Projects 6
  17. 17. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey nucleated settlement along these roads, individual estate houses and associated family names, mills, churches, hills and farmland. These maps were a huge achievement for their day and remain an essential research tool for the late 18th century. Griffith’s Valuation is technically known as the Primary Valuation of Tenements and was completed in Ireland under the direction of Richard Griffith between 1847 and 1864. This nationwide survey was undertaken to assess payment of various local taxes by the people of Ireland. Tax was calculated based on the value of property occupied (Byrne 2004, 140). These records are important as the 19th century census in Ireland is thought to have been destroyed when the Public Records Office was burnt down in 1922. The Griffith Valuation is therefore a census substitute for mid-19th century Ireland in the years between the Great Famine and the beginning of civil registration in 1864. Griffith’s Valuation of Counties Offaly and Tip- perary was completed in 1855 and 1853 respectively (ibid, 142). The Irish Wills Index (1484-1858) is preserved in the National Archives of Ireland. The main records (not the indexes) were sent to the Principal Registry in the Four Courts, Dublin after 1858, where they were destroyed by a fire in 1922 (Byrne 2004, 327). Fortunately, ex- tracts from wills were compiled in the 19th century by Sir William Betham and an extensive collection of wills have also been assembled by the National Archives, courtesy of solicitors’ offices throughout the state (ibid). Documentary Sources were consulted to gain background information on the historical, archaeological and architectural landscape of the study site. Research includes the Ordnance Survey Name Books (OSNB), written in tandem with the survey of the first edition six inch maps of 1841-2 (engraved 1844). They provide information about townland names and other named features of architectural, archaeological and topographical importance, which appear on the first edition maps. The detail given on each subject appears to depend very much upon the recorders interest.. The OS Name books, OS Letters and OS Memoirs are all three separate books that deal with similar subjects with a variation in detail. The OS Letters give information on archaeologi- cal sites, local facts of interest and the weather but they are less detailed for the counties that were surveyed last. The Memoirs are similar to the letters but sometimes have more detailed information. The Memoirs only exist for some counties as the rest were destroyed during the civil war. There are no surviving Memoirs for Counties Offaly or Tipperary. The entries are arranged by parish in all three books and in alphabetical order of each townland therein.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 7
  18. 18. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey 3. Architectual Recording 3.1 General The corridor of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh road scheme (contract 1, west) will have a severe impact upon nine cultural heritage areas of architectural importance which comprise of 20 individual structures (Appendix 1). These were identified in the Environmental Impact Statement (2005) and will be removed during the construction process of the road scheme. In order to preserve the existence of these structures by record, the Environmental Impact Statement requires that architectural recording is carried out for each site, prior to being dis- mantled. The nine cultural heritage areas of Architectural Heritage (AH) interest which form the study are as follows: • AH 65: Remains of derelict early 19th century Smithy at Derrybane. • AH 63: Western entrance, avenue and boundary of Lissanisky Demesne. • AH 58: Derelict farmhouse, outbuilding, shed and barn at Clash. • AH 57: Boundary to farm at Clash. • AH 51: Two-storey house with contemporary outbuildings at Park. • AH 45: Country house (no longer extant), derelict outbuildings, courtyards marked on first edition OS map and some 19th century structures at Greenhills. • AH 43: Stone wall associated with a road marked on first edition OS map at Busherstown. • Moatquarter: Present road on a raised causeway and a semi-circular arched bridge. • Castleroan: Standing ruin in vegetation along south side of road. The following accounts describe the existing layout of the structures which form the study sites, their location and any features noted during the field inspection. 3.2 AH65: Derelict Smithy Location The upstanding remains of a derelict smithy at Derrybane (Ch. 900) are located within a small paddock, which is in the south-west corner of a small field. The smithy abuts the line ofEachtra Archaeological Projects 8
  19. 19. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey the existing N7 to south and is just outside the present LMA, where the existing N7 ties into the Nenagh bypass of the 1990s. A five-bay, single storey dwelling is located within the plot adjacent to west and a modern house is to east. Nenagh town is situated c. 4km to west. Description (Figures 3 and 4) The upstanding remains of the derelict smithy comprise of the partial gable walls and scant remains of the front and rear elevations. The remains are covered in dense overgrowth and most of the surviving wall fabric is choked with ivy. The west gable (H c. 2.8m) is top heavy with ivy and most of the east gable (H c. 1.7m) has fallen (plates 1 and 2). The rear elevation (H c. 0.6m) has completely collapsed and exists as a linear pile of rubble, which is impassable due to dense overgrowth. The front elevation (H c. 0.7m) would have faced the N7 prior to widening during road modifications associated with the construction of the Nenagh bypass. These road modifications involved widening the N7 so that it was abutting the front elevation of the smithy and raising it (H c. 1.0m) above the existing ground level, covering most of the front façade (plate 3). The smithy had probably already been derelict for many decades by this time, given its current state of preservation. At present there is a narrow grass covered margin (Wth 2.6m) between the road metal and the surviving wall top of the front façade of the smithy. A partially covered gateway abutting the roadside boundary to south, adjacent the west gable may have been the original entrance into the small paddock containing the smithy. The wall fabric comprised of a double face of rubble limestone with roughly hewn blocks vis- ible as quoins on the north-west corner. From the small portions of gable wall visible, there is no visible attempt of coursing (plate 4). The core of the wall has been filled with much smaller pieces of rubble limestone, which has been exposed to the elements in places, where there is no ivy cover. The stone is bonded with a medium coarse lime mortar. The interior of the smithy was inaccessible due to the fact that the front façade has been cov- ered by the existing N7 and secondly dense overgrowth and wooden pallets cover the rear wall prohibiting access (plate 5). The internal layout and location of fireplaces was therefore not possible to ascertain.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 9
  20. 20. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Condition The structure seems to have been roofless for many decades allowing rainwater to enter the exposed wall tops and wash out the mortar in the upper courses. This water ingress has caused gaps to form between the stones, which is most evident in the upper courses of the limestone facing and is therefore constantly weakening the remains of the surviving walls over time. Further weakening the wall is the top heavy growth of ivy on the gable walls. Historical Background The townland name of Derrybane derives from the Irish ‘Doire Bán’ meaning ‘White Derry’ or ‘Oak wood’, (O’Flannagan 1930, 241). According to the OS Name Books, the townland was primarily under cultivation during the production of the first edition OS map (ibid). The south side of the townland is bounded by the road leading from Nenagh to Moneygall on which there is a mile stone 72 miles to Dublin, 13 miles to Roscrea and 3 to Nenagh (ibid). Derrybane is depicted on the OS maps as being a relatively small townland on the northern side of the Nenagh to Moneygall road. According to Griffith (1853, 21) the smallest plot with a building recorded in this townland would relate to the area of the Smithy. The Valuation Office House Books (1848, vol. 1796, 14) do not mention a smithy within this townland, however three piggeries are mentioned. The Griffith Valuation Books (1853, 21) state that Patrick Coffey leased a house, office and garden to Richard Hartnett. The total land area was 1 rood and 1 perch and was valued at 4s (ibid). The buildings (house and office) were valued at 16s indicating that something productive may have been carried out on the premises and possibly involving machinery. The total valuation of this small property was £1 which is com- paratively greater than some of the nearby properties of similar size. Given the fact that no smithy is mentioned in either valuation record, the building may have had a different purpose prior to being a smithy in the later 19th century. Smithy’s are essentially relics of an older agrarian order, being the workplace of a smith or blacksmith. They were integrated into rural economic and social life from at least the eight- eenth century and continued in use throughout the nineteenth and earlier part of the twen- tieth centuries. They were scattered around the countryside, normally at roadside locations, but more frequently at crossroads (Aalen et al 2000, 170). The main function of a smithy or forge was the shoeing of horses and production of metal fittings for various items of horse harnessing. A blacksmith who specialises in shoeing horses is known as a farrier. The smithy at Derrybane is quite a small structure and may have been solely a farrier’s workshop. Metal farm implements of small to medium size, were also in demand and blacksmiths in generalEachtra Archaeological Projects 10
  21. 21. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey were often known for making wrought iron gates, railings, furniture, tools, cooking utensils and weapons. The basic smithy contains a forge which is another term for the hearth. A forge heats metals at extremely high temperatures in order that they can be melted into a malleable material. Tongs move the smolten metal from the forge to the anvil for shaping with the hammer. A slack tub cools the final work piece in a large body of water before it is ready to use. In the case of Der- rybane, it is likely that the portable objects within the forge were removed, however, had the interior been accessible, it is likely that the forge would have been easily recognisable. Unfortunately smithy’s have become obsolete as the modernisation of the twentieth century evolved. The turning point may have been the end of World War II, when a decline in metal working ensued and horse power was replaced by motor power. Once disused, these build- ings were primarily demolished to reuse the stone or neglected and fell into irreversible decay. Those that survive and have been reused tend to have been better built and some feature the distinctive horse-shoe shaped entrance which is an attractive feature. Cartographic Analysis A rectangular building is depicted on the northern side of the main Dublin-Limerick road within a small L-shaped paddock, on the first edition OS map. This structure is set back slightly from the road and a second, much smaller building is perpendicular close to south, at the eastern end. The south gable of the smaller building abuts the main road on this early 19th century map so it is likely to have been removed during the widening of the N7 during the 1990s. The second edition [1904] OS map shows two separate buildings at the same location as that depicted on the earlier map. This may indicate that the earlier building had been demolished however it is also possible that it had been modified into two smaller structures. Both struc- tures are orientated with their long-axis east to west and are joined by what appears to have been two walls, which would have enclosed an area between the two buildings. The two buildings are collectively named ‘Smithy’ on this map and are located within a linear plot (0.527 acres) along the roadside. It is equally possible that the OS sappers may have surveyed the structures as one entire building in the 1840s, particularly if they were conjoined by a wall.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 11
  22. 22. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey According to the OS Name Books, ‘The south side of the townland is bounded by the road leading from Nenagh to Moneygall on which there is a mile stone 72 miles to Dublin, 13 miles to Roscrea and 3 to Nenagh,’ (O’Flannagan 1930, 241). The initials ‘M.S.’ are shown on the second edition OS map close to east of the smithy. The modern road maps of the proposed scheme have not realised the presence of the smithy due to vegetation cover. The boundaries of the small paddock are indicated however the area of the smithy is depicted as trees. Summary The derelict remains of the smithy at Derrybane have likely been abandoned and roofless for many decades. Its poor condition is due to collapse caused by natural decay due to exposure to the elements, subsequent overgrowth of ivy and other vegetation and build up of humic material within. There are only small portions of the surviving walls visible and the interior is inaccessible and therefore very little can be concluded from the fieldwork. Cartographic analysis indicates that the smithy dates to at least the early nineteenth century. The smithy will neither be impacted upon by the proposed road nor the associated modifications to the existing N7. In its poor surviving state, this site is of limited architectural significance how- ever it is of general social and cultural interest. 3.3 AH 63: Western entrance, avenue and boundary of Lissanisky De- mesne. Location The western entrance and tree lined avenue of Lissanisky demesne (Ch. 1.800 – 2.100) are located on the eastern side of a tertiary road which links the N7 with Ballymackey. The en- trance and avenue will be severely impacted upon by modifications to facilitate a bridge to carry the tertiary road over the new N7 to north of this point. The entrance and c.15m of the existing tree lined avenue are within the LMA. Description (Figures 5-7) This is a crescent or semi-elliptical style entrance (C. 16.68m) defined by limestone walls (T 0.53m; H 1.05m) of randomly coursed ashlar masonry with vertical coping in the form of creulations (H 0.3m) (plate 6). The quoins on the outward angles are squared and dressedEachtra Archaeological Projects 12
  23. 23. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey (plate 7). The gateway (Wth 5.16m) is defined either side by a square pier (H 2.15m; L 0.75) of limestone blocks which have been dressed similarly to the quoins (plate 8). Each pier is capped with a simply cut square stone (plate 9). The gates do not survive, however a hanging eye on the northern pier indicates that these were once a feature (plate 10). A cattle grid is located between the piers. Mature beech and sycamore trees are planted within the arc of the crescent (C. 9.75m) on either side of the entrance and also mature oak species are to the rear. There are also mature trees along the existing avenue affording a pleasing approach to the striking Georgian period house at Lissanisky. Condition The entrance, gateway and tree lined avenue are in good condition. The curving walls appear to have been conserved in recent times with a mason’s mark ‘M. Ryan’ noted on the rear side of the southern wall. The entrance is still in use as the main entrance to the house and is well kept by the present owner (met). The present owner is concerned about the proposed modi- fications to the entrance and is hopeful that they cause minimum damage to the existing structure and the tree lined avenue. Historical Background The townland name of Lissanisky derives from the Irish ‘Lios an Uisce’ meaning ‘fort of the water,’ (O’Flannagan 1930, 248). Lissanisky is within the parish of Ballymackey which means ‘Baile Mhac Aoidh’ or ‘Mackey’s town,’ (ibid, 234). According to the OS Name Books, ‘the townland is chiefly a Demesne in a high state of cultivation, the south side consists of Lisani- skey House surrounded by plantation and ornamental ground. There is a good piece of bog in the northern end and the southern and western boundary are formed by roads intersecting each other at right angles,’ (ibid, 248). The OS Name Books do not refer to anything else specific about the house or its entrance other than it being a ‘commodious dwelling’ at the south-west angle of the townland (O’Flannagan 1930, 256). The first edition OS map records 272 acres of land within the estate. According to the Valuation Office House Books (1848 vol. 1796, 50) Mr Edward Parker owned the estate including three houses and various associated buildings. Griffith (1850, 25) records the Hon. O.F.G Toler as the main Lessor of three houses and land amounting to 259 acres in Lissanisky. He appears to have lived in one of these and the other he leased to Theobald Pepper Esq. and Brothers. The total valuation for the estate, including some smaller properties was £202, which was in excess of the total valuation of surrounding townlandsEachtra Archaeological Projects 13
  24. 24. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey (ibid). The house dates to the Georgian period and is a five-bay, three-storey over half base- ment house. It is listed in the Record of Protected Structures in the County Development Plan of Tipperary North Riding (North Tipperary Council 2004, 114) as follows: ‘S258 Lissanisky House Five-bay, three-storey over basement house. Return to rear. Hipped natural slate roof. Centre bay protruding on front elevation to form pediment at roof. Dashed. Cut stone sills. Cut stone door case with fanlight and side lights. Cut stone steps to door. Two cut stone pillars and stone wall entrance.’ The educated date range based on its architectural features is thought to be 1750-1790 (Ap- pendix 2: NIAH Ref. 22402114). The house, however, is not depicted on the 1783 Road Map of Ireland, which is unusual due to its close proximity to the main Dublin to Limerick road (Taylor and Skinner 1783, 98). Other houses in the vicinity are depicted and named, so it is likely that Lissanisky dates to just after this period. The cut and dressed limestone entrance and piers which form the focus of this study, are mentioned in both the RPS and the NIAH and are regarded as being part of the demesne. Inclusion in the NIAH does not afford statutory protection, however, listing in the RPS en- sures protection of the house and its associated features under the Planning and Development Acts 2000-2002. Cartographic Analysis The western entrance and avenue is shown on the first edition OS map as the main entrance into the estate leading directly to the front of the house. The entrance is not depicted exactly as semi-circle, however is of similar dimensions, yet more angular. It is difficult to decipher at this scale, if the entrance is markedly different to that which survives today. The avenue is depicted as a double dashed line, however although there are trees shown scattered around the demesne, the avenue itself does not seem to have been aligned with trees at this stage. There is a distinct bend in the avenue near the western end, before it straightens on its long approach to the house. The second edition [1904] OS map depicts the same plan layout and location of the entrance. The avenue is not specifically tree lined although there are some trees planted within its vicin- ity. The distinct bend near the western end of the avenue has been removed to create a moreEachtra Archaeological Projects 14
  25. 25. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey gradual sweep from entrance to house. Summary The entrance and avenue of Lissanisky demesne remains generally unchanged since the pro- duction of the first edition OS map. It is typically Georgian in style being plain, simple and symmetrical. Lissanisky House dates to c.1770 and there is no reason to doubt that the entrance is not contemporary, despite recent conservation works. The entrance is mentioned along with the house in the NIAH and is listed in the RPS of the County Council Develop- ment Plan and is consequently protected under the Planning and Development Acts 2000- 2002. It is not readily understood if the proposed modifications to this entrance are necessary from an engineering point of view. The proposal appears to constrict the approach to the entrance on the southern side, whilst makes little or no change to the northern side. It is recommended that the changes be made to the road layout without having any negative physical impact upon the entrance to the estate. The exact purpose of the widening of the avenue along the initial 15m is unclear. If there is an issue of sight lines, then alternatives should be discussed with the project engineers whilst taking into full consideration the potential age of and im- portance of the entrance and existing trees to this Georgian demesne. If physical impact is unavoidable, the entrance should be preserved by record, carefully dismantled, stored and rebuilt in a similar plan form (using a lime based mortar) once the new road layout has been firmly established. This site is of general architectural significance as an associated feature of Lissanisky House and Estate. 3.4 AH 58: Derelict farmhouse and vernacular complex at Clash. Location Clash farm complex (Ch 7.000) is situated in gently undulating pasture c. 150m to north- west of Clash Crossroads and c. 1.5km to north-west of the existing N7. Description (Figures 8-12)Eachtra Archaeological Projects 15
  26. 26. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Clash is a complex of both modern and vernacular farm buildings comprising of three ver- nacular sub-complexes of architectural interest identified in the EIS: • House with additions (B1) • Outbuilding with additions (B2) • Shed with loft and adjoining barn (B3). Impacts • The vernacular outbuilding (B2) is located within the LMA and will be profoundly impacted upon by the proposed route. • The vernacular house (B1) will abut the northern fence line of the LMA and may be physically impacted upon. • The vernacular shed with loft and adjoining barn (B3) is in close proximity to the northern fence line of the LMA and will be visually impacted upon by the proposed route in the long term and could potentially be physically impacted upon during construction. • Two modern galvanised sheds (B4 and B5) of limited architectural interest are within the complex and presently serve as cattle housing and a milking parlour. Shed (B4) is within the LMA and will be demolished to facilitate the proposed route. B1: Vernacular House with additions Exterior The derelict remains of a three-bay, two-storey, gable-ended farmhouse forms the centre of the vernacular settlement at Clash (plate 11). The house is constructed of random rubble stone and has been rendered with a rough cast harling and finished with a line and rule effect simulating a block construction. A single-bay, two-storey extension adjoins the east gable and a single-storey lean-to shed adjoins the west gable (plate 12). The main house is north-facing with a central door opening and a window opening either side. Three, much smaller window openings at first floor level correspond to the three ground floor openings. Only the partial remains of the vertical sliding sash window frames of the upper windows are visible. These frames have a horned sash to strengthen the meeting rail, indicating that they are post-1840s in date. The rear elevation is essentially two-bay however the openings are not spaced symmetrically. The rear door opening is off-set to the east andEachtra Archaeological Projects 16
  27. 27. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey the door does not survive. The original window shutters on the ground floor window survive and are an interesting feature to find in a simple farmhouse which may indicate the comfort- able wealth of the occupants (plate 13). A very small one-over-one vertical sliding sash window which lights a small cupboard under the stairs is likely a later insertion after space was max- imised within the interior (plate 14). The east gable is covered by the two-storey addition, which is notably higher than the main house. The west gable is only covered at ground floor level, however, there are no first floor features visible on the exterior. The roof is pitched (45°) and is covered in small sized natural slates, where they survive (plate 15). Most of the roof structure along with large areas of slate have collapsed into the interior to front and rear. The remains of the roof are sealed at the eaves by a concrete barge on the western side and along the surviving parts of the ridge by individual tiles. These ridge tiles may either be of badly weathered clay or asbestos. One surviving felt repair possibly coated in a bitumous material is also visible. The eastern eaves are covered by the adjoining two-storey extension. It is likely that the original chimney stack on the east gable was removed when the extension was added. A wide chimney stack constructed of pale yellow brick projects from the west gable (plate 16). There are rainwater gutters along the base of the roof line to front and rear, however no surviving downpipes to carry the water away. The single-bay, two-storey extension adjoining the east gable is in a marginally better condi- tion. The structure is built of uncoursed rubble, with openings of red brick and rendered with a cement based rough cast. The front elevation has two large window openings in the centre, however no frames survive. The east gable is blank and partially covered with ivy (plate 17). The rear elevation is exactly the same as the front however the ground floor window has been breached at the base to allow recent use of the interior. The roof is pitched (50°) and is covered in large rectangular slates. The roofline is notably higher than that of the main house. Although the roof structure was not seen, it may be in a reasonable condition as there is no evidence of sagging along the ridge or elsewhere. Some of the slates have slipped, mostly along the eaves allowing water ingress and generally the roof is in a neglected condition (plate 18). There are no barges to seal the eaves of the roof and this is one of the main reasons that the slates have slipped. The ridge tiles are in-situ and may either be of badly weathered clay or asbestos. A fine red brick chimney is located on either gableEachtra Archaeological Projects 17
  28. 28. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey with that on the west set back slightly from the edge. There is a rainwater gutter along the east gable, however it is not functional as only brackets exist along the eaves and no guttering or downpipes survive. Interior Due to the fact that most of the roof structure has collapsed into the interior, access within was not physically possible. A view into the different areas of the interior was possible through each of the window openings. Prior to collapse of the roof, it is likely that there was a lot of water ingress into the interior, weakening the wall tops and floor joists. As a result, it is likely that the first floor joists became loose from their wall hangers perhaps causing the floor to collapse when large areas of the roof structure broke down (plate 19). The remains of the interior indicate that the main house comprised of a room located either side of a central lobby entrance. A scar in the lobby wall indicates that the staircase was against the west wall and took a quarter turn onto a lower landing and a second quarter turn on its final approach to the first floor hallway (plate 20). The hallway extended along the rear of the house and appears to have accessed one bedroom to west and one to east, correspond- ing with the two rooms at ground floor level. When the two-storey addition was added, the east gable wall of the main house was breached on the north side to access the ground floor level and breached on the south side at first floor level to access a third bedroom. The small ground floor window in the rear of the main house lit a small cupboard, possibly serving as a cloakroom, which was located underneath the stairs. Considering its size, it is possible that this was a later insertion. The interior walls were rendered, plastered and painted (plate 21). The visible door openings are straight and window openings are splayed. The large blocked-up, red brick fireplace in the east gable wall of the original main house indicates that this room probably functioned as the kitchen (plate 22). The fact that it has been blocked up and two circular pipes project from it may indicate that a range was subsequently located here. The remains of a small oven or boiler are located in a niche adjacent to south. There is also a fireplace located in the west gable at ground floor level, however no surround survives. In fact it is likely that the house was gutted after it was abandoned as there is little evidence of any surviving furniture, other fixtures or fittings. The first floor of the main house is essentially gone, although the remnants of two rooms are clearly visible, with a fireplace in each.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 18
  29. 29. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey It was possible to safely access the ground floor room of the addition via the rear window opening which has been breached in relatively recent times to allow housing for cattle. The surrounds of the openings are of red brick and the embrasures are generally straight (plate 23). A small brick fireplace is located in the centre of the east gable and a wall press adjacent to north (plates 24 and 25). It is clearly evident that the original chimney flue of the main dwelling projected from the gable wall which is now only visible from the interior of the ad- dition. This may account for the fact that the stack is set back from the edge of the gable of the addition. The first floor of the addition was accessed via the first floor of the main house and was therefore inaccessible. The interior of the lean-to shed on the west gable of the main house was not accessible. The roof has collapsed inwards and the interior is covered in debris and overgrowth. It is evident that the shed was accessed via a door opening in the south elevation and has a large window opening in the north elevation. It appears that the roof covering was of slate. B2: Vernacular Outbuilding and additions. Location The remains of an outbuilding are adjacent to south of the farmhouse. This outbuilding is enclosed to east by the farm boundary wall (Ref. AH 57). Description This building comprises of the remains of a two-storey barn constructed of rubble stone which has been rendered to the front (plate 26). It has a wide central door opening at ground floor level and a window opening off-set to the west at first floor level. The door opening has been blocked with concrete bricks and the window opening is barely visible due to ivy growth. It appears that the foundation for this barn was cut into the hillslope to south to create a level base. As a result, only the first floor is visible above the ground surface to rear. The remains of only one definite window opening are visible in the rear elevation as the rest is obscured by vegetation (plate 27). The east and west gables are largely obscured, however some general conclusions can be made about both. The west elevation has been reinforced by a drystone buttress due to potential collapse (plate 28). The roof of the barn was probably of A-frame construction, pitched and was clearly covered by slate. Most of the roof has collapsed and the surviving edges are top heavy with ivy growth. The vents in the front elevation indicate thatEachtra Archaeological Projects 19
  30. 30. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey this barn was used to keep animals, however this would have been confined to the winter months. The wide door opening may also suggest a storage function for machinery. The loft above would have provided additional space for storage. The east elevation of the barn is partially covered by the remains of a single-storey structure adjoining it (plate 29). Very little can be deduced from these remains, however, it is likely that they represent one-bay of a slightly larger structure. The poorly preserved remains of one small window with a wooden lintel are the only features. It is likely that the roof was pitched. Condition It is clear that the structural integrity of this building has been under scrutiny in the past. Cast iron trusses visible in the front elevation have attempted to hold the front and rear walls together (possibly by holding the main rafter in place) to prevent collapse. The stone buttress built up on the west gable has also attempted to reinforce the structure. These problems have been caused by movement in the structure, probably at foundation level. Movement in the rear wall may also have been caused by pressure or subsidence on the hillslope to rear. This movement likely caused the initial collapse of the roof structure which has exposed the wall tops and internal fabric of the building to water ingress, further weakening the structure over time. There is also evidence of concrete repair work to the masonry. The wide central door opening was likely blocked up with concrete blocks to facilitate the use of a cattle crush along the front of the barn. A wall of similar construction and age was built perpendicular to the buttress on the west gable to facilitate the entrance to the crush (plate 30). B3: Shed with loft and adjoining barn Location The remains of a shed with a loft and adjoining barn (long-axis SW-NE) are adjacent to west of the farmhouse (B1). These buildings complete the vernacular complex at Clash. Description of shed The shed is a three-bay, single-storey, gable-ended structure with loft over (plate 31). The structure is of random rubble stone which shoes no evidence of any render. It is possible thatEachtra Archaeological Projects 20
  31. 31. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey it may have been white-washed, however no evidence of this survives. The front elevation is SE-facing and has a central door opening flanked by a small square window on either side. The lintel of the door opening is of wood, however the small window openings have stone lintels with wooden frames (plate 32). The rear elevation has three long air vents/slit openings equally spaced apart (plate 33). The north-east gable contains a door opening at loft level, which was probably accessed by a portable wooden ladder as no stone steps, scar or put log holes of any external staircase survive (plate 34). The south-west gable is featureless and is covered by the remains of the adjoining barn. The roof is pitched and covered by slate. The interior is open plan, however, is small, dark and cramped, accentuated by a very low ceiling supported on roughly cut upright wooden logs. The underside of the joists and the loft floor timbers are exposed. The walls appear to have been rendered and possibly show traces of white wash. The embrasure of the air vents/slit openings splay in toward the light. The loft above is also open plan and quite dark as the loft door opening provides the only light source. The A-frame structure of the roof is high in order to achieve maximum space within. The loft contains bedding material at present. The poor light within this building and three air vents to rear may indicate that it functioned as housing for small animals. It has recently been used for animal housing as the floor has been prepared with straw. It is likely that the loft above was originally used for storage, prob- ably of straw bedding for the housing below. Condition Structurally the walls of the shed are weak in places evidenced by a significant crack in the north-east gable wall due to the location of the loft door opening which has reduced the load bearing capacity of this wall. There are no barges sealing the eaves of the roof and some of the slates have slipped or are missing. The ridge of the roof is not visible due to top heavy growth of ivy, however the underlying structure is under strain evidenced by sagging in the middle of the pitch. The roof is not watertight and water ingress is entering the interior and the wall tops in places. Ivy has penetrated the stone fabric of the upper portions of wall further weak- ening the structure.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 21
  32. 32. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Description of barn A long, narrow stone barn adjoins the south-west gable of the shed. This building is of similar stone construction, is not rendered and contains numerous small air vents, particularly in the rear wall (plate 35). The front elevation is pierced by two wide openings each with an ellipti- cal arch of roughly hewn stone voussoirs. The north-eastern opening has been blocked with mass concrete (plate 36) and the base of the south-west opening is obscured by a build up of earthen and other organic debris on the exterior (plate 37). This width of these openings may suggest this building functioned as some form of workshop or storage for machinery. The wall has completely collapsed between the two openings (plate 38). The rear elevation is featureless apart from the small air vents. The remains of a regular door opening are visible in the south-west gable (plate 39). The interior is open plan and is generally featureless. There is no ceiling and the A-frame roof structure is visible and comprises of well preserved sawn timbers indicating that it was replaced in relatively recent decades (plate 40). The roof is covered with slate lain directly on top of these timbers (plate 41). The roof structure has collapsed where the section of front elevation has fallen and ivy has begun to penetrate this weak point and into the interior. The ruinous remains of a wall (long-axis SW-NE) are located to the immediate south-west of the barn (see Cartographic Analysis). Condition The poor condition of the barn is likely due to long term exposure of the structural elements of the building before it was re-roofed with the present A-frame structure. The partial collapse of the front wall may be due to the fact that the weak walls could not fully support the weight of the new roof structure. An attempt was made to reinforce the strength of the front eleva- tion by blocking one of the wide openings with mass concrete. The general condition of the fabric is poor as most of the mortar has been washed out of the masonry through long-term exposure to the elements (plate 42). Historical Background The townland name of Clash derives from the Irish ‘Clais’ meaning ‘a trench or furrow,’ (O’Flannagan 1930, 239-40). According to the OS Name Books, Clash was, ‘a townland principally under wood and furze, there are several scattered houses through it and the south-Eachtra Archaeological Projects 22
  33. 33. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey west end contains about eleven acres of bog’ (ibid). The study site is located near the north- western side of Clash Crossroads, referred to in the OS Name Books as ‘Clash four roads’ (ibid, 256). The complex at Clash is located on the road leading from Ballymacky church to Moneygall which intersects at the crossroads with the road leading from Newport to Cloghjordan. Clash is within the parish of Ballymackey which means ‘Baile Mhac Aoidh’ or ‘Mackey’s town,’ (ibid, 234). The father of the present owner, Stephen Grace, purchased the farm in 1972 from a batch- elor named Dickie Hassett (Mr Grace Snr. Pers. comm.). The buildings and in particular the house (B1) were in a poor state of repair when the property was taken over (ibid). The house was never lived in again and was essentially abandoned in 1972 as the property was subsequently used as an out-farm (ibid). Limited use has been made of the ground floor of the two-storey addition of (B1) and the shed and loft (B3). The outbuilding (B2) has been in a poor condition since the property was purchased and was of no operational use in a modern farmyard. According to the Valuation Office House Books (1848 vol. 1796, 86) John Hasset owned a house, barn, stable and piggery. The annual rateable valuation was charged at 35 shillings per acre. The house described in the valuation books is likely to be that (B1) which exists today, the barn is possibly the outbuilding (B2) and the shed and loft (B3) is likely to be the cow house. The piggery is likely to be the long building adjoining to west-south-west of the cow house, thus accounting for the two low arches in the front elevation. Matt and Arthur Has- sett each have separate holdings within this townland however both record a house only with no associated buildings or land (ibid, 86 and 89). Cartographic Analysis The first edition OS map shows three buildings within the farmyard complex at Clash. The most northerly building is of the same size, orientation and is at the same location as the farmhouse (B1). The building to the immediate south is of the same size, orientation and is at the same location as the outbuilding (B2). The boundary depicted to the immediate east is likely to be much later than the existing boundary (AH 57) as the position of the bound- ary is likely to have changed after the two-storey addition was built in the twentieth century. Depiction of the farmhouse (B1) and outbuilding (B2) on this map edition indicates that they are pre-1840s in date. The building depicted further to south no longer survives, but it is evident that it was one of three original buildings within this vernacular farm complex. The shed with loft and the adjoining barn (B3) are not depicted on this map edition and areEachtra Archaeological Projects 23
  34. 34. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey therefore likely to be later in date. The second edition OS map shows the three buildings shown on the earlier map and indi- cates that an additional four buildings had been constructed since the production of the first edition. Only two of the later buildings survive within today’s farmyard and comprise of the shed with loft and the adjoining barn (B3). These are located to the west of the original farm- yard and are on a different orientation (long-axis NE-SW). The barn adjoining the shed (B3) is shown slightly narrower in width as it exists today. The north-west gable of a small building depicted to south-west on this map edition survives in a very ruinous state today. A boundary extending (long-axis NW-SE) between the shed and barn is shown on this map and a small building abuts its north-east side, however neither survive to the present day. The farmhouse (B1) is shown with a small addition to the west gable, which is likely the lean- to which exists today. The most likely function for this structure was an outside toilet. The two-storey addition to the east side of the farmhouse is not depicted and likely post-dates the second edition map. A water pump indicated by a dot and the letter ’P’ had been constructed close to the NW corner of the outbuilding (B2). This feature is no longer evident and has likely been removed and the well blocked and diverted to the modern milking parlour. Summary There are clearly two main phases of farmyard development at Clash. The first phase com- prised of the three buildings shown on the first edition including the farmhouse (B1) and outbuilding (B2) and a third building adjacent to south-west. The second phase involved the construction of the shed (B3), which pre-dates the adjoining barn, but the difference in age may be small. It is likely that the building to south-west of the barn was constructed around the same time and perhaps fell into decay a number of decades ago with only the north-west gable surviving today. The building to north-west of the shed (B3) was probably removed when the field boundary was levelled during land consolidation. The two-storey addition to the east side of the farmhouse is not depicted and likely post- dates the second edition map and therefore is part of a third phase of farmyard development. A fourth phase of farmyard building was post-1972 when a large barn (B4) with a barrel vaulted roof was constructed to south-west of the vernacular farmyard. A modern creamery also shown on the modern mapping has been constructed adjacent to north of the farmhouse (B1) in recent years (plate 43). Increased stocking rates on consolidated farms required largerEachtra Archaeological Projects 24

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