Architectural Survey - N7 Castletown-Nenagh Road Scheme
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Architectural Survey - N7 Castletown-Nenagh Road Scheme

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The following report details a survey undertaken to record the architectural components and features of importance of nine study areas along the route of the proposed N7 Castletown to Nenagh road......

The following report details a survey undertaken to record the architectural components and features of importance of nine study areas along the route of the proposed N7 Castletown to Nenagh road scheme (Contract 1, West). The study also sought to ascertain any phasing of construction that may be evident i.e. various extensions, additions or modifications to the various properties which have been carried out over time. Cartographic and documentary research was also carried out in order to provide a date range of the original construction and any subsequent additions.

A total of 15 architectural heritage sites were identified in the EIS over the area covered by Contract 1. Six of these sites were modern and were surveyed by Niall Roycroft, Project Archaeologist. The remaining nine areas of Architectural Heritage (AH) interest form the study.

The study site of Lissanisky House and associated features are listed in the Record of Protected Structures (RPS) of the Tipperary North County Development Plan 2004-2010 (RPS No. S258) and the National Inventory of Architectural Heritage for County Tipperary. Inclusion in the RPS affords the house and the pillared entrance statutory protection under the Planning and Development Acts 2000-2002.

This report has been carried out in advance of construction of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh road scheme (Contract 1, West). At an earlier stage of the design process, the EIS envisaged that either all or part of these study sites would be physically impacted upon during the course of the road construction works. As a result, the nine study sites are the subject of either a Level 1 or Level 2 architectural survey as directed by the NRA Project Archaeologist (Appendix 1).

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  • 1. Eachtra JournalIssue 11 [ISSN 2009-2237] Architectural Survey N7 Castletown - Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme
  • 2. Architectural Survey,N7 Castletown - Nenagh(Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road SchemeContract 1 March 2008Client: Laois County Council, Tipperary County Council, Offaly County Council, National Roads AuthorityDirection Number A038Written by: Alison McQueen Contact details: The Forge Innishannon, Co. Cork Tel.: 021 4701616 Fax: 021 4701628 E-mail: info@eachtra.ie Web Site: www.eachtra.ie
  • 3. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Table of Contents 1. Introduction ........................................................................................................1 1.1 General ..............................................................................................................1 1.2 Location and Topography ..................................................................................1 1.3 Background to Road Scheme .............................................................................2 2. Methodology .......................................................................................................3 2.1 Field Inspection..................................................................................................3 2.2 Site-Specific Research .........................................................................................4 3. Architectual Recording ........................................................................................8 3.1 General ..............................................................................................................8 3.2 AH65: Derelict Smithy ......................................................................................8 3.3 AH 63: Western entrance, avenue and boundary of Lissanisky Demesne. .........12 3.4 AH 58: Derelict farmhouse and vernacular complex at Clash. ...........................15 3.5 AH 57: Boundary to farm at Clash ..................................................................25 3.6 AH 51: Two-storey house and outbuildings at Park. ..........................................27 3.7 AH 45: Country house (no longer extant), derelict outbuildings, courtyards marked on first edition OS map and some 19th century structures at Greenhills.33 3.8 AH 43: Stone wall associated with a road marked on first edition OS map at Busherstown......................................................................................................51 3.9 Moatquarter: Present road is on a raised causeway and a semi-circular arched bridge. ...............................................................................................................53 3.10 Castleroan: Standing ruin in vegetation along south side of road. ......................56 4. Conclusions & Recommendations ...................................................................... 59 5. Glossary .............................................................................................................. 61 6. References ...........................................................................................................67 7. Acknowledgements .............................................................................................71 8 Figures ................................................................................................................72 9 Plates ................................................................................................................. 101 10 Appendix 1: Table of Cultural Heritage Sites of Architectural Interest .............. 185 11 Appendix 2: NIAH ............................................................................................ 186Eachtra Archaeological Projects iii
  • 4. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey List of Figures Figure 1: Location of the nine study sites along the proposed route....................................... 72 Figure 2a: Location of the nine study sites along the proposed route. .................................... 73 Figure 2b: Location of the nine study sites along the proposed route..................................... 74 Figure 2c: Location of the nine study sites along the proposed route. .................................... 75 Figure 3: Extract from first edition OS map showing the smithy (AH65). ............................ 76 Figure 4: Extract from second edition OS map showing the smithy (AH65). ........................ 77 Figure 5: Extract from first edition OS map showing Lissanisky entrance (AH63). .............. 78 Figure 6: Extract from second edition OS map showing Lissanisky entrance (AH63). .......... 79 Figure 7: Sketch plan of Lissanisky entrance (AH63). ........................................................... 80 Figure 8: Extract from first edition OS map showing vernacular complex (AH58). ............... 81 Figure 9: Extract from second edition OS map showing vernacular complex (AH58). .......... 82 Figure 10: Detail from 25inch OS map showing vernacular complex (AH58). ...................... 83 Figure 11: Sketch plan of farmhouse (AH58: B1). ................................................................. 84 Figure 12: Sketch plan of shed and barn (AH58: B3). ........................................................... 85 Figure 13: Extract from first edition OS map showing house and complex (AH51)............... 86 Figure 14: Extract from second edition OS map showing house and complex (AH51). ......... 87 Figure 15: Detail from 25inch OS map showing house and complex (AH51). ....................... 88 Figure 16: Sketch plan of cow house/stables (AH 51:B2) ....................................................... 89 Figure 17: Extract from first edition OS map showing house and complex (AH45)............... 90 Figure 18: Extract from second edition OS map showing house and complex (AH45). ......... 91 Figure 19: Detail from first edition OS map showing house and complex (AH45). ............... 92 Figure 20: Detail from 25” OS map showing house and complex (AH45). ........................... 93 Figure 21: Sketch plan of Herdsman’s House (B1). ................................................................ 94 Figure 22: Sketch plan of Engine House (B2). ...................................................................... 95 Figure 23: Photogrammetry of walled garden (B3)................................................................ 96 Figure 24: Aerial Photo of walled garden (AH45). ................................................................ 97 Figure 25: Extract from first edition OS map showing old road (AH 43) and Bridge. ........... 98 Figure 26: Extract from first edition OS map showing ruin. ................................................. 99 Figure 27: Sketch plan of ruin. ............................................................................................. 100 Copyright Notice: Please note that all original information contained within this report, including all original drawings, photographs, text and all other printed matter deemed to be the writer’s, remains the property of the writer and Eachtra Archaeological Projects and so may not be reproduced or used in any form without the written consent of the writer or Eachtra Archaeological Projects.Eachtra Archaeological Projects iv
  • 5. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey List of Plates Plate 1: From WNW. West gable of smithy ........................................................................ 101 Plate 2: From E. East gable of smithy. .................................................................................. 101 Plate 3: From S. Front of smithy covered by existing N7 (between ranging rod and wall). ... 102 Plate 4: From W. Close-up of uncoursed rubble of west gable wall. ...................................... 102 Plate 5: From N. View of rear of smithy covered in dense overgrowth.................................. 103 Plate 6: From WNW. Entrance to Lissanisky House with avenue in background. ............... 103 Plate 7: From SSW. Outer angle of squared quoins on northern side of entrance. ................ 104 Plate 8: From WNW. Pier at southern side of entrance with avenue in background. ............ 104 Plate 9: From S. Plain capstone on southern pillar of entrance. ............................................ 105 Plate 10: From WNW. Pier at northern side of entrance with disused hanging eye. ............. 105 Plate 11: From NE. Front elevation of vernacular farmhouse. .............................................. 106 Plate 12: From NE. Two-storey extension adjoining east gable of farmhouse. ...................... 106 Plate 13: From S. Surviving window shutters of farmhouse. ................................................. 107 Plate 14: From S. Small one-over-one vertical sliding sash window in rear elevation. .......... 107 Plate 15: From NW. Remnants of farmhouse roof................................................................ 108 Plate 16: From SW. Wide chimney stack of pale yellow brick on west gable of farmhouse. .. 108 Plate 17: From ENE. Eastern gable of two-storey addition. .................................................. 109 Plate 18: From NE. Roof of two-storey addition. ................................................................. 109 Plate 19: : From E. Collapsed first floor level. ....................................................................... 110 Plate 20: From N. Scar in lobby wall indicating location of staircase. ................................. 110 Plate 21: From N. Interior walls rendered, plastered and painted. ...................................... 111 Plate 22: From WNW. Blocked-up, kitchen fireplace in the east gable wall of farmhouse. .. 111 Plate 23: From S. Interior of front ground floor window embrasure of addition. .................. 112 Plate 24: From W. Small brick fireplace in centre of east gable of addition. .......................... 112 Plate 25: From W. Wall press adjacent to north of fireplace in addition................................ 113 Plate 26: From NE. Front elevation of barn and addition. ................................................... 113 Plate 27: From SE. Rear elevation of barn. ........................................................................... 114 Plate 28: From W. Drystone buttress. .................................................................................. 114 Plate 29: From NE. Remains of front of addition................................................................. 115 Plate 30: From NW. Front of barn and addition and also showing buttress and crush. ........ 115 Plate 31: From SE. Front elevation of shed. .......................................................................... 116Eachtra Archaeological Projects v
  • 6. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 32: From SE. Detail of square window with wooden frames. ...................................... 116 Plate 33: From NW. Rear elevation of shed. ......................................................................... 117 Plate 34: From NE. Gable with loft door opening. .............................................................. 117 Plate 35: From NW. Rear wall of barn. ................................................................................ 118 Plate 36: From SE: Exterior of elliptical opening blocked with mass concrete. ..................... 118 Plate 37: From NW. Interior of elliptical opening blocked on exterior by earthen debris. ..... 119 Plate 38: From W. Interior showing collapsed section of front elevation. .............................. 119 Plate 39: From SW. Remains of a door opening in the south-west gable. ............................. 120 Plate 40: From NE. Modern sawn timbers indicating roof re-fit. ........................................ 120 Plate 41: From SE. Underside of roof slate lain directly on top of modern timbers ............... 121 Plate 42: From S. Poor condition of barn showing roof, walls and build up of debris & ivy. 121 Plate 43: From SW. Modern milking parlour adjacent to north of farmhouse (B1). ............. 122 Plate 44: From SSE. Boundary wall to east of farmyard. ...................................................... 122 Plate 45: From ESE. Stone stile on the exterior of boundary wall. ........................................ 123 Plate 46: From S. Mason’s mark ‘Meagher _ _21’ on cement plaque (broken) on wall.......... 123 Plate 47: From NW. Front elevation. .................................................................................... 124 Plate 48: From NW. Detail of brick quoins.......................................................................... 124 Plate 49: From WSW. South-west gable. .............................................................................. 125 Plate 50: From SE. rear elevation. ........................................................................................ 125 Plate 51: From W. Open concrete water tank abutting south-west gable. ............................. 126 Plate 52: From W. Pillared pedestrian entrance with cast iron gate & wrought detail. ......... 126 Plate 53: From NE. Mass concrete garage/machinery port. .................................................. 127 Plate 54: From ESE. Front elevation. ................................................................................... 127 Plate 55: From WNW. Remains of roof ridge of adjoining building (now demolished). ....... 128 Plate 56: From NNW. Rear of outbuilding showing roof..................................................... 128 Plate 57: From SW. Interior showing dividing wall, slit opening and drinking trough. ........ 129 Plate 58: From SW. Replacement roof structure. .................................................................. 129 Plate 59: From NNW. Front and side elevations of concrete animal housing. ...................... 130 Plate 60: From SW. SW-elevation of rubble stone. ............................................................... 130 Plate 61: From NW. NW-elevation of concrete and later openings....................................... 131 Plate 62: From SE. Rubble stone dividing wall within interior. ............................................ 131 Plate 63: From SSE. Area of former cattle stalls/milking parlour (disused). .......................... 132 Plate 64: From NW. Front elevation. ................................................................................... 132Eachtra Archaeological Projects vi
  • 7. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 65: From NE. Gable-end wall ..................................................................................... 133 Plate 66: From SE. Rear elevation and engaged round pillar. ............................................... 133 Plate 67: From NE. Interior showing original rubble walls and concrete addition to height. 134 Plate 68: From NW. Adjoining shed of similar construction and modifications. .................. 134 Plate 69: From E. Surviving buildings (B1 and B2) on the former Greenhills estate............. 135 Plate 70: From E. Front and side view of house in 1908 (Photo courtesy of Edward Fanning©). . 135 Plate 71: From WSW. Rear and side view of house c. 2000 (Edward Fanning ©). ............... 136 Plate 72: From SE. SE-elevation of house c. 2000 (Edward Fanning ©). ............................. 136 Plate 73: From SE Area of former house. .............................................................................. 137 Plate 74: From SW. Vista from former house overlooking area of former cricket ground. ..... 137 Plate 75: From W. Old blocks of former house. .................................................................... 138 Plate 76: From NE. Front elevation of dwelling (B1). ........................................................... 138 Plate 77: From NE. Front elevation showing truncated first floor window openings. ........... 139 Plate 78: From NE. Close view of masonry. ......................................................................... 139 Plate 79: From NE. Left window opening reduced in size to facilitate modern frame. ......... 140 Plate 80: From NE. Truncated wall top and windows at first floor level............................... 140 Plate 81: From SSE. SE-gable and openings. ........................................................................ 141 Plate 82: From SE. Door opening in SE-gable. .................................................................... 141 Plate 83: From SE. Cast-iron hanging eye and vertical cast iron pintle with decorative detail.142 Plate 84: From SSW. Red brick chimney flue in rear elevation. ............................................ 142 Plate 85: From NW. NW-gable and features. ....................................................................... 143 Plate 86: From SSW. Rear pitch of roof................................................................................ 143 Plate 87: From SE. Tools house in room on ground floor. .................................................... 144 Plate 88: From NE. Small cast iron tools. ............................................................................ 144 Plate 89: From SSE. Slight projection in centre of rear wall and scar of blocked fireplace..... 145 Plate 90: From SE. Joists and underside of first floor boards. ............................................... 145 Plate 91: From NE. Half-turn, open staircase....................................................................... 146 Plate 92: From NE. Scar of former closed string. ................................................................. 146 Plate 93: From SW. Possible area of former cupboard on first floor landing. ........................ 147 Plate 94: From N. First floor ceiling respecting line of A-frame roof structure. .................... 147 Plate 95: From NW. Scar of former partition wall dividing room. ....................................... 148 Plate 96: From N. Breached ceiling exposing roof structure and modern repairs.................. 148 Plate 97: From SW. Breached ceiling exposing roof structure and modern repairs. .............. 149Eachtra Archaeological Projects vii
  • 8. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 98: From NNW. Freshly sawn roof timbers and reuse of old timbers as tie beams. ..... 149 Plate 99: From NW. Interior of door opening into north-west room, at top of staircase. ...... 150 Plate 100: From NE. Scar of blocked fireplace in rear wall, first floor. ................................. 150 Plate 101: From ENE. Fireplace surround from main house. ............................................... 151 Plate 102: From NE. Original front door frame of former main house. ............................... 151 Plate 103: From NE. Decayed red brick of front door jamb. ................................................ 152 Plate 104: From NE. Guano on staircase and first floor landing. ......................................... 152 Plate 105: From ESE. Best view of front elevation of engine house (B2). .............................. 153 Plate 106: From SE. Central ground floor window opening with brick arch and jambs. ...... 153 Plate 107: From S. SW-gable and features. ........................................................................... 154 Plate 108: From SSW. Blocked up ground floor doorway in SW-gable. ................................ 154 Plate 109: From SSW. Consolidation work on SW-gable using mass concrete. ..................... 155 Plate 110: From NW. Rear elevation. ................................................................................... 155 Plate 111: From NW. Wrought iron gate on rear elevation (not in-situ). ............................... 156 Plate 112: From E. NE-gable with large quoins evident. ...................................................... 156 Plate 113: From NE. Broken wall at NW-end of NE-gable. ................................................. 157 Plate 114: From N. Low remains of the rear wall of the square courtyard. ........................... 157 Plate 115: From NE. Open plan interior of engine house. .................................................... 158 Plate 116: From NW. Interior of wide door opening in front elevation – note wooden lintel.158 Plate 117: From SW. Truncated stump of former vertical support. ....................................... 159 Plate 118: From NE. Exposed stone and mass concrete repair, first floor level, SW-gable. .... 159 Plate 119: From S. Principal A-frame rafter with a main tie beam holding centre of roof. .... 160 Plate 120: From SW. Lower end of principal rafter set into masonry near wall top. ............. 160 Plate 121: From SE. Series of rafters, purlins and battens forming a lattice pattern. ............. 161 Plate 122: From SE. Breach in first floor timbers. ................................................................ 161 Plate 123: From ESE. Northern area of the walled garden fenced off within the LMA. ....... 162 Plate 124: From SSE. Northern area of walled garden within LMA – note recent breach. ... 162 Plate 125: From NW. Interior of former walled garden, now pasture. .................................. 163 Plate 126: From NE. Portion of exterior showing rubble construction. ................................ 163 Plate 127: From SW. Double-faced limestone wall with exposed rubble core. ...................... 164 Plate 128: From NE. Exterior of wall in area of farmyard area (Z) and blocked ventilation slits... 164 Plate 129: From SW. Concrete stanchion. ............................................................................ 165 Plate 130: From N. Rounded corner at north turning into farmyard area (Z). ..................... 165Eachtra Archaeological Projects viii
  • 9. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 131: From SW. Interior of arch in north-east wall. ...................................................... 166 Plate 132: From SW. Exterior of arch in south-west wall. ..................................................... 166 Plate 133: From SW. Blocked pedestrian entrance in north-east wall. .................................. 167 Plate 134: From SW. Niche of former hot house. ................................................................. 167 Plate 135: From E. Pedestrian entrance near centre of south-west wall. ............................... 168 Plate 136: From NE. Small cast iron gate at pedestrian entrance in south-west wall. ........... 168 Plate 137: From NE. Blocked window opening. ................................................................... 169 Plate 138: From NE. Blocked door opening ......................................................................... 169 Plate 139: From SE. Interior of low wall enclosing farmyard area (Z). .................................. 170 Plate 140: From NW. Single circular pier indicates a former pillared entrance. .................... 170 Plate 141: From SW. Large breach in south-west wall of former garden. .............................. 171 Plate 142: From NW. Rubble stone buttress reinforcing north-east wall. ............................. 171 Plate 143: From NE. Area of former pond – note engine house to rear. ............................... 172 Plate 144: From N. Remains of old road survive as disused, sunken trackway. ..................... 172 Plate 145: From E. Drystone retaining wall defining sides of trackway. ................................ 173 Plate 146: From S. Eastern side of the trackway within the LMA recently disturbed. .......... 173 Plate 147: From E. Western side of the trackway along disturbed area is in-situ. ................. 174 Plate 148: From E. General view of former cross roads (to rear of parapet wall of bridge)..... 174 Plate 149: From NNW. View of former crossroads from bridge crossing. ............................. 175 Plate 150: From ESE. Area of pasture where former graveyard road extended from crossroads. .... 175 Plate 151: From NW. North side of bridge showing arch, extrados and parapet wall. ........... 176 Plate 152: From S. Semi-circular arch and silhouette............................................................ 176 Plate 153: From N. Skewed semi-circular arch on north side of bridge. ................................ 177 Plate 154: From NE. Intrados of arch. ................................................................................. 177 Plate 155: From NE. The retaining wall of the causeway and the parapet wall above. ......... 178 Plate 156: From W. Modern repair work adjoining stone wall on approach from north route178 Plate 157: From NNE. Parapet wall adjacent arch on N side breached and fallen outwards. 179 Plate 158: From N. Missing stones on intrados of arch. ........................................................ 179 Plate 159: From NW. Masonry missing from springing of arch on E side. ........................... 180 Plate 160: From ESE. Interior of main structure covered in overgrowth. ............................. 180 Plate 161: From NW. Main structure from exterior showing surviving rear wall and quoins.181 Plate 162: From NNE. Rear wall of main structure. ............................................................ 181 Plate 163: From WSW. Oblique view of front elevation of adjoining structure. ................... 182Eachtra Archaeological Projects ix
  • 10. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 164: From W. Interior of adjoining structure. .............................................................. 182 Plate 165: From NNW. Interior of adjoining structure with mass concrete of door opening. 183 Plate 166: From WNW. Exposed wall top of adjoining structure. ....................................... 183 Plate 167: From NNE. Rear wall of main structure with mortar leached out. ...................... 184Eachtra Archaeological Projects x
  • 11. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey i Summary Eachtra Archaeological Projects were commissioned by Laois County Council and the Na- tional Roads Authority to undertake archaeological works along 17.1 km (Contact 1) of the 35km N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) national road scheme (EIS approved in November 2005). The scheme runs from the eastern junction of the present N7 Nenagh Bypass, North Tipperary a tie in to the M7/M8 Portlaoise-Castletown scheme to the south of Borris-in-Ossory in County Laois. The scheme is approximately 191 hectares. Contract 1 comprises the western half of the scheme and runs from Clashnevin to Castleroan passing along the Tipperary North and Offaly county border regions. The DoEHLG Direc- tion Number is A038. The nine areas of Architectural Heritage (AH) are as follows: AH 65 Remains of derelict early 19th century Smithy at Derrybane. AH 63 Western entrance, avenue and boundary of Lissanisky Demesne. AH 58 Derelict farmhouse, outbuilding, shed and barn at Clash. AH 67 Boundary to farm at Clash. AH 51 Two-storey house with contemporary outbuildings at Park. AH 45 Country house (no longer extant), derelict outbuildings, courtyards marked on first edition OS map and some 19th century structures at Greenhills. AH 43 Stone wall associated with a road marked on first edition OS map at Busherstown. Bridge Present road on a raised causeway and a semi-circular arched bridge at Moatquarter. Ruin Standing ruin in vegetation along south side of road at Castleroan. All of the sites are of local architectural and historical interest. They were the subject of a Level 1 and/or Level 2 architectural survey. The built heritage study was undertaken in two phases. The first phase involved a field inspection of the nine areas. The second phase comprised of site-specific research of all available archaeological, architectural, historical and cartographic sources of the nine study areas . ii Acknowledgements The architectural survey was undertaken by Alison McQueen. The senior archaeologist was John Tierney and the post-excavation manager was Jacinta Kiely. Illustrations are by Ben Blakeman and compilation by Robin Turk. The project was commissioned by Laois County Council and was funded the National Roads Authority under the National Development Plan (2000-2006). The project archaeologist was Niall Roycroft.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 1
  • 12. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey 1. Introduction 1.1 General The following report details a survey undertaken to record the architectural components and features of importance of nine study areas along the route of the proposed N7 Castletown to Nenagh road scheme (Contract 1, West) (Figures 1 and 2). The study also sought to ascertain any phasing of construction that may be evident i.e. various extensions, additions or modi- fications to the various properties which have been carried out over time. Cartographic and documentary research was also carried out in order to provide a date range of the original construction and any subsequent additions. A total of 15 architectural heritage sites were identified in the EIS over the area covered by Contract 1. Six of these sites were modern and were surveyed by Niall Roycroft, Project Archaeologist. The remaining nine areas of Architectural Heritage (AH) interest form the study. The study site of Lissanisky House and associated features are listed in the Record of Pro- tected Structures (RPS) of the Tipperary North County Development Plan 2004-2010 (RPS No. S258) and the National Inventory of Architectural Heritage for County Tipperary. In- clusion in the RPS affords the house and the pillared entrance statutory protection under the Planning and Development Acts 2000-2002. This report has been carried out in advance of construction of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh road scheme (Contract 1, West). At an earlier stage of the design process, the EIS envisaged that either all or part of these study sites would be physically impacted upon during the course of the road construction works. As a result, the nine study sites are the subject of either a Level 1 or Level 2 architectural survey as directed by the NRA Project Archaeologist (Ap- pendix 1). 1.2 Location and Topography Contract 1 comprises the western half of the scheme and runs from the townlands of Clash- nevin to Castleroan passing along the Tipperary North and Offaly county border regions.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 2
  • 13. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey The landscape at the western end of the scheme consists of gently rolling land between 80m OD and 160m OD with glacial drift over solid bedrock. The Ollatrim River forms the boundary between the townlands of Clash and Park 1.3 Background to Road Scheme Eachtra Archaeological Projects were commissioned by Laois County Council and the Na- tional Roads Authority to undertake Advanced Archaeological Works along 17.1km (Con- tact 1) of the 35km N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) national road scheme (EIS approved in November 2005). The scheme runs from the Eastern junction of the present N7 Nenagh Bypass, North Tipperary a tie in to the M7/M8 Portlaoise-Castletown scheme to the south of Borris-in-Ossory in County Laois. The scheme is approximately 191 hectares.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 3
  • 14. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey 2. Methodology The built heritage study was undertaken in two phases. The first phase involved a field in- spection of the nine areas of architectural interest where all relevant aspects of the individual structures and their close environs were inspected. The field survey was carried out within the bounds of and with due regard to health and safety at all times. The second phase com- prised of site-specific research of all available archaeological, architectural, historical and car- tographic sources of the nine study areas. 2.1 Field Inspection Preliminary site inspections of all nine study areas were carried out in October 2007. The individual field inspections were carried out in November 2007. A third and final field in- spection was carried out in February 2008 at Greenhills, County Tipperary with landowner Edward Fanning. Field inspection is necessary to determine the full architectural nature of each individual building at each of the nine study sites, by recording the architectural components and fea- tures of importance to their construction. The study also sought to ascertain any phasing of construction that may be evident i.e. various extensions, additions or modifications of the structures, if any, since their erection. The extent and nature of any surviving archaeological and/or historical features, where they exist, were also noted. Cartographic and documentary research was also carried out in order to provide a date range of the original construction and any subsequent additions, where possible. In summary, the field inspection involved the following: (i) An architectural account of each structure in order to record the key architectural components of its construction. Phasing of each structure will also be studied closely in order to ascertain any extensions, additions or modifications carried out over time. (ii) The nature, extent and locations of any surviving archaeological fabric within the structures, particularly those proposed for demolition. This is based on an external and internal inspection, (where physically possible), of each structure. (iii) Photographic survey (exterior and interior, where possible), annotated maps, drawings etc. are included in the survey report, where deemed relevant. The results of the architectural survey are detailed in Section 4 of this report.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 4
  • 15. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey 2.2 Site-Specific Research This study determines, as far as reasonably possible from existing records, the architectural nature of each structure. Any additional archaeological and historical resources deemed rel- evant to the study sites were also consulted. The research aim is to provide an architectural appraisal of each study site, which identifies the likely character, extent, quality and worth in perspective with the wider built heritage resource. The site-specific research is a document search of the following resources which were exam- ined for Counties Offaly and Tipperary North Riding in relation to the respective study areas within each: • County Development Plans • National Inventory of Architectural Heritage • Record of Monuments and Places • Archaeological Inventory Series • Griffith Valuation – ‘Primary Valuation of Tenements’ • Irish Wills Index • Cartographic and written sources County Development Plans of Counties Offaly and Tipperary contain a catalogue of all the protected sites and structures within their county. This was consulted in order to ascer- tain if any of the structures or associated structures are included in the Record of Protected Structures (RPS). National Inventory of Architectural Heritage (NIAH) records a representative sample of buildings and structures of architectural importance on a county by county basis. Inclusion in the NIAH does not automatically afford statutory protection, but does highlight an im- portance of these structures in terms of their architectural and built heritage value. At present there is an NIAH produced for 15 counties in Ireland and one each for Cork and Limerick Cities. The fieldwork for the NIAH for Counties Offaly and Tipperary North Riding was carried out in 2004, producing the subsequent published inventories. In addition to the pub- lications, the NIAH information can also be consulted online.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 5
  • 16. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Record of Monuments and Places is a list of archaeological sites whose precise location is known by the National Monuments Section of the DEHLG. These archaeological sites can also include items of built heritage, such as medieval and post-medieval structures. The post- medieval period generally applies to sites which are post-1700’s in date and can include items such as bridges, vernacular dwellings and period style country houses etc. Files relating to these known sites are available for consultation in the Sites and Monuments Record, which provides detail of documentary sources and field inspections where these have taken place. Archaeological Inventory Series contains concise descriptions of archaeological sites and monuments. Upstanding monuments of built heritage value of both the medieval and post- medieval period are included in the inventory. This is researched in order to ascertain if any items of archaeological or built heritage were within the study area or if the study site was included. The archaeological inventories for County Offaly and for Tipperary North Riding are published. Cartographic sources are important in tracing land use development as well as providing important topographical information on sites and areas of archaeological potential. Carto- graphic analysis of all relevant maps has been made to identify phasing of the existing bridge and/or the extent of previous structures on the site. The list of maps consulted are as follows: • Taylor and Skinner’s road maps 1783 • Ordnance Survey 1st edition six-inch map 1840-41 • Ordnance Survey 2nd edition six-inch map 1904 • Record of Monuments and Places Map (Reduced OS six-inch 2nd edition) • N7 Castletown-Nenagh Scheme, Archaeological Contract 1, 2006. Taylor and Skinner’s Road maps of Ireland 1783 These were the first set of road maps for Ireland surveyed in 1777, originally published in 1778 and with revisions until 1783. They were Commissioned by the House of Commons in Ireland and surveyed by George Taylor and Andrew Skinner. These maps depict many topographical features of interest to archaeologists, such as the layout and general extent ofEachtra Archaeological Projects 6
  • 17. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey nucleated settlement along these roads, individual estate houses and associated family names, mills, churches, hills and farmland. These maps were a huge achievement for their day and remain an essential research tool for the late 18th century. Griffith’s Valuation is technically known as the Primary Valuation of Tenements and was completed in Ireland under the direction of Richard Griffith between 1847 and 1864. This nationwide survey was undertaken to assess payment of various local taxes by the people of Ireland. Tax was calculated based on the value of property occupied (Byrne 2004, 140). These records are important as the 19th century census in Ireland is thought to have been destroyed when the Public Records Office was burnt down in 1922. The Griffith Valuation is therefore a census substitute for mid-19th century Ireland in the years between the Great Famine and the beginning of civil registration in 1864. Griffith’s Valuation of Counties Offaly and Tip- perary was completed in 1855 and 1853 respectively (ibid, 142). The Irish Wills Index (1484-1858) is preserved in the National Archives of Ireland. The main records (not the indexes) were sent to the Principal Registry in the Four Courts, Dublin after 1858, where they were destroyed by a fire in 1922 (Byrne 2004, 327). Fortunately, ex- tracts from wills were compiled in the 19th century by Sir William Betham and an extensive collection of wills have also been assembled by the National Archives, courtesy of solicitors’ offices throughout the state (ibid). Documentary Sources were consulted to gain background information on the historical, archaeological and architectural landscape of the study site. Research includes the Ordnance Survey Name Books (OSNB), written in tandem with the survey of the first edition six inch maps of 1841-2 (engraved 1844). They provide information about townland names and other named features of architectural, archaeological and topographical importance, which appear on the first edition maps. The detail given on each subject appears to depend very much upon the recorders interest.. The OS Name books, OS Letters and OS Memoirs are all three separate books that deal with similar subjects with a variation in detail. The OS Letters give information on archaeologi- cal sites, local facts of interest and the weather but they are less detailed for the counties that were surveyed last. The Memoirs are similar to the letters but sometimes have more detailed information. The Memoirs only exist for some counties as the rest were destroyed during the civil war. There are no surviving Memoirs for Counties Offaly or Tipperary. The entries are arranged by parish in all three books and in alphabetical order of each townland therein.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 7
  • 18. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey 3. Architectual Recording 3.1 General The corridor of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh road scheme (contract 1, west) will have a severe impact upon nine cultural heritage areas of architectural importance which comprise of 20 individual structures (Appendix 1). These were identified in the Environmental Impact Statement (2005) and will be removed during the construction process of the road scheme. In order to preserve the existence of these structures by record, the Environmental Impact Statement requires that architectural recording is carried out for each site, prior to being dis- mantled. The nine cultural heritage areas of Architectural Heritage (AH) interest which form the study are as follows: • AH 65: Remains of derelict early 19th century Smithy at Derrybane. • AH 63: Western entrance, avenue and boundary of Lissanisky Demesne. • AH 58: Derelict farmhouse, outbuilding, shed and barn at Clash. • AH 57: Boundary to farm at Clash. • AH 51: Two-storey house with contemporary outbuildings at Park. • AH 45: Country house (no longer extant), derelict outbuildings, courtyards marked on first edition OS map and some 19th century structures at Greenhills. • AH 43: Stone wall associated with a road marked on first edition OS map at Busherstown. • Moatquarter: Present road on a raised causeway and a semi-circular arched bridge. • Castleroan: Standing ruin in vegetation along south side of road. The following accounts describe the existing layout of the structures which form the study sites, their location and any features noted during the field inspection. 3.2 AH65: Derelict Smithy Location The upstanding remains of a derelict smithy at Derrybane (Ch. 900) are located within a small paddock, which is in the south-west corner of a small field. The smithy abuts the line ofEachtra Archaeological Projects 8
  • 19. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey the existing N7 to south and is just outside the present LMA, where the existing N7 ties into the Nenagh bypass of the 1990s. A five-bay, single storey dwelling is located within the plot adjacent to west and a modern house is to east. Nenagh town is situated c. 4km to west. Description (Figures 3 and 4) The upstanding remains of the derelict smithy comprise of the partial gable walls and scant remains of the front and rear elevations. The remains are covered in dense overgrowth and most of the surviving wall fabric is choked with ivy. The west gable (H c. 2.8m) is top heavy with ivy and most of the east gable (H c. 1.7m) has fallen (plates 1 and 2). The rear elevation (H c. 0.6m) has completely collapsed and exists as a linear pile of rubble, which is impassable due to dense overgrowth. The front elevation (H c. 0.7m) would have faced the N7 prior to widening during road modifications associated with the construction of the Nenagh bypass. These road modifications involved widening the N7 so that it was abutting the front elevation of the smithy and raising it (H c. 1.0m) above the existing ground level, covering most of the front façade (plate 3). The smithy had probably already been derelict for many decades by this time, given its current state of preservation. At present there is a narrow grass covered margin (Wth 2.6m) between the road metal and the surviving wall top of the front façade of the smithy. A partially covered gateway abutting the roadside boundary to south, adjacent the west gable may have been the original entrance into the small paddock containing the smithy. The wall fabric comprised of a double face of rubble limestone with roughly hewn blocks vis- ible as quoins on the north-west corner. From the small portions of gable wall visible, there is no visible attempt of coursing (plate 4). The core of the wall has been filled with much smaller pieces of rubble limestone, which has been exposed to the elements in places, where there is no ivy cover. The stone is bonded with a medium coarse lime mortar. The interior of the smithy was inaccessible due to the fact that the front façade has been cov- ered by the existing N7 and secondly dense overgrowth and wooden pallets cover the rear wall prohibiting access (plate 5). The internal layout and location of fireplaces was therefore not possible to ascertain.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 9
  • 20. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Condition The structure seems to have been roofless for many decades allowing rainwater to enter the exposed wall tops and wash out the mortar in the upper courses. This water ingress has caused gaps to form between the stones, which is most evident in the upper courses of the limestone facing and is therefore constantly weakening the remains of the surviving walls over time. Further weakening the wall is the top heavy growth of ivy on the gable walls. Historical Background The townland name of Derrybane derives from the Irish ‘Doire Bán’ meaning ‘White Derry’ or ‘Oak wood’, (O’Flannagan 1930, 241). According to the OS Name Books, the townland was primarily under cultivation during the production of the first edition OS map (ibid). The south side of the townland is bounded by the road leading from Nenagh to Moneygall on which there is a mile stone 72 miles to Dublin, 13 miles to Roscrea and 3 to Nenagh (ibid). Derrybane is depicted on the OS maps as being a relatively small townland on the northern side of the Nenagh to Moneygall road. According to Griffith (1853, 21) the smallest plot with a building recorded in this townland would relate to the area of the Smithy. The Valuation Office House Books (1848, vol. 1796, 14) do not mention a smithy within this townland, however three piggeries are mentioned. The Griffith Valuation Books (1853, 21) state that Patrick Coffey leased a house, office and garden to Richard Hartnett. The total land area was 1 rood and 1 perch and was valued at 4s (ibid). The buildings (house and office) were valued at 16s indicating that something productive may have been carried out on the premises and possibly involving machinery. The total valuation of this small property was £1 which is com- paratively greater than some of the nearby properties of similar size. Given the fact that no smithy is mentioned in either valuation record, the building may have had a different purpose prior to being a smithy in the later 19th century. Smithy’s are essentially relics of an older agrarian order, being the workplace of a smith or blacksmith. They were integrated into rural economic and social life from at least the eight- eenth century and continued in use throughout the nineteenth and earlier part of the twen- tieth centuries. They were scattered around the countryside, normally at roadside locations, but more frequently at crossroads (Aalen et al 2000, 170). The main function of a smithy or forge was the shoeing of horses and production of metal fittings for various items of horse harnessing. A blacksmith who specialises in shoeing horses is known as a farrier. The smithy at Derrybane is quite a small structure and may have been solely a farrier’s workshop. Metal farm implements of small to medium size, were also in demand and blacksmiths in generalEachtra Archaeological Projects 10
  • 21. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey were often known for making wrought iron gates, railings, furniture, tools, cooking utensils and weapons. The basic smithy contains a forge which is another term for the hearth. A forge heats metals at extremely high temperatures in order that they can be melted into a malleable material. Tongs move the smolten metal from the forge to the anvil for shaping with the hammer. A slack tub cools the final work piece in a large body of water before it is ready to use. In the case of Der- rybane, it is likely that the portable objects within the forge were removed, however, had the interior been accessible, it is likely that the forge would have been easily recognisable. Unfortunately smithy’s have become obsolete as the modernisation of the twentieth century evolved. The turning point may have been the end of World War II, when a decline in metal working ensued and horse power was replaced by motor power. Once disused, these build- ings were primarily demolished to reuse the stone or neglected and fell into irreversible decay. Those that survive and have been reused tend to have been better built and some feature the distinctive horse-shoe shaped entrance which is an attractive feature. Cartographic Analysis A rectangular building is depicted on the northern side of the main Dublin-Limerick road within a small L-shaped paddock, on the first edition OS map. This structure is set back slightly from the road and a second, much smaller building is perpendicular close to south, at the eastern end. The south gable of the smaller building abuts the main road on this early 19th century map so it is likely to have been removed during the widening of the N7 during the 1990s. The second edition [1904] OS map shows two separate buildings at the same location as that depicted on the earlier map. This may indicate that the earlier building had been demolished however it is also possible that it had been modified into two smaller structures. Both struc- tures are orientated with their long-axis east to west and are joined by what appears to have been two walls, which would have enclosed an area between the two buildings. The two buildings are collectively named ‘Smithy’ on this map and are located within a linear plot (0.527 acres) along the roadside. It is equally possible that the OS sappers may have surveyed the structures as one entire building in the 1840s, particularly if they were conjoined by a wall.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 11
  • 22. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey According to the OS Name Books, ‘The south side of the townland is bounded by the road leading from Nenagh to Moneygall on which there is a mile stone 72 miles to Dublin, 13 miles to Roscrea and 3 to Nenagh,’ (O’Flannagan 1930, 241). The initials ‘M.S.’ are shown on the second edition OS map close to east of the smithy. The modern road maps of the proposed scheme have not realised the presence of the smithy due to vegetation cover. The boundaries of the small paddock are indicated however the area of the smithy is depicted as trees. Summary The derelict remains of the smithy at Derrybane have likely been abandoned and roofless for many decades. Its poor condition is due to collapse caused by natural decay due to exposure to the elements, subsequent overgrowth of ivy and other vegetation and build up of humic material within. There are only small portions of the surviving walls visible and the interior is inaccessible and therefore very little can be concluded from the fieldwork. Cartographic analysis indicates that the smithy dates to at least the early nineteenth century. The smithy will neither be impacted upon by the proposed road nor the associated modifications to the existing N7. In its poor surviving state, this site is of limited architectural significance how- ever it is of general social and cultural interest. 3.3 AH 63: Western entrance, avenue and boundary of Lissanisky De- mesne. Location The western entrance and tree lined avenue of Lissanisky demesne (Ch. 1.800 – 2.100) are located on the eastern side of a tertiary road which links the N7 with Ballymackey. The en- trance and avenue will be severely impacted upon by modifications to facilitate a bridge to carry the tertiary road over the new N7 to north of this point. The entrance and c.15m of the existing tree lined avenue are within the LMA. Description (Figures 5-7) This is a crescent or semi-elliptical style entrance (C. 16.68m) defined by limestone walls (T 0.53m; H 1.05m) of randomly coursed ashlar masonry with vertical coping in the form of creulations (H 0.3m) (plate 6). The quoins on the outward angles are squared and dressedEachtra Archaeological Projects 12
  • 23. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey (plate 7). The gateway (Wth 5.16m) is defined either side by a square pier (H 2.15m; L 0.75) of limestone blocks which have been dressed similarly to the quoins (plate 8). Each pier is capped with a simply cut square stone (plate 9). The gates do not survive, however a hanging eye on the northern pier indicates that these were once a feature (plate 10). A cattle grid is located between the piers. Mature beech and sycamore trees are planted within the arc of the crescent (C. 9.75m) on either side of the entrance and also mature oak species are to the rear. There are also mature trees along the existing avenue affording a pleasing approach to the striking Georgian period house at Lissanisky. Condition The entrance, gateway and tree lined avenue are in good condition. The curving walls appear to have been conserved in recent times with a mason’s mark ‘M. Ryan’ noted on the rear side of the southern wall. The entrance is still in use as the main entrance to the house and is well kept by the present owner (met). The present owner is concerned about the proposed modi- fications to the entrance and is hopeful that they cause minimum damage to the existing structure and the tree lined avenue. Historical Background The townland name of Lissanisky derives from the Irish ‘Lios an Uisce’ meaning ‘fort of the water,’ (O’Flannagan 1930, 248). Lissanisky is within the parish of Ballymackey which means ‘Baile Mhac Aoidh’ or ‘Mackey’s town,’ (ibid, 234). According to the OS Name Books, ‘the townland is chiefly a Demesne in a high state of cultivation, the south side consists of Lisani- skey House surrounded by plantation and ornamental ground. There is a good piece of bog in the northern end and the southern and western boundary are formed by roads intersecting each other at right angles,’ (ibid, 248). The OS Name Books do not refer to anything else specific about the house or its entrance other than it being a ‘commodious dwelling’ at the south-west angle of the townland (O’Flannagan 1930, 256). The first edition OS map records 272 acres of land within the estate. According to the Valuation Office House Books (1848 vol. 1796, 50) Mr Edward Parker owned the estate including three houses and various associated buildings. Griffith (1850, 25) records the Hon. O.F.G Toler as the main Lessor of three houses and land amounting to 259 acres in Lissanisky. He appears to have lived in one of these and the other he leased to Theobald Pepper Esq. and Brothers. The total valuation for the estate, including some smaller properties was £202, which was in excess of the total valuation of surrounding townlandsEachtra Archaeological Projects 13
  • 24. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey (ibid). The house dates to the Georgian period and is a five-bay, three-storey over half base- ment house. It is listed in the Record of Protected Structures in the County Development Plan of Tipperary North Riding (North Tipperary Council 2004, 114) as follows: ‘S258 Lissanisky House Five-bay, three-storey over basement house. Return to rear. Hipped natural slate roof. Centre bay protruding on front elevation to form pediment at roof. Dashed. Cut stone sills. Cut stone door case with fanlight and side lights. Cut stone steps to door. Two cut stone pillars and stone wall entrance.’ The educated date range based on its architectural features is thought to be 1750-1790 (Ap- pendix 2: NIAH Ref. 22402114). The house, however, is not depicted on the 1783 Road Map of Ireland, which is unusual due to its close proximity to the main Dublin to Limerick road (Taylor and Skinner 1783, 98). Other houses in the vicinity are depicted and named, so it is likely that Lissanisky dates to just after this period. The cut and dressed limestone entrance and piers which form the focus of this study, are mentioned in both the RPS and the NIAH and are regarded as being part of the demesne. Inclusion in the NIAH does not afford statutory protection, however, listing in the RPS en- sures protection of the house and its associated features under the Planning and Development Acts 2000-2002. Cartographic Analysis The western entrance and avenue is shown on the first edition OS map as the main entrance into the estate leading directly to the front of the house. The entrance is not depicted exactly as semi-circle, however is of similar dimensions, yet more angular. It is difficult to decipher at this scale, if the entrance is markedly different to that which survives today. The avenue is depicted as a double dashed line, however although there are trees shown scattered around the demesne, the avenue itself does not seem to have been aligned with trees at this stage. There is a distinct bend in the avenue near the western end, before it straightens on its long approach to the house. The second edition [1904] OS map depicts the same plan layout and location of the entrance. The avenue is not specifically tree lined although there are some trees planted within its vicin- ity. The distinct bend near the western end of the avenue has been removed to create a moreEachtra Archaeological Projects 14
  • 25. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey gradual sweep from entrance to house. Summary The entrance and avenue of Lissanisky demesne remains generally unchanged since the pro- duction of the first edition OS map. It is typically Georgian in style being plain, simple and symmetrical. Lissanisky House dates to c.1770 and there is no reason to doubt that the entrance is not contemporary, despite recent conservation works. The entrance is mentioned along with the house in the NIAH and is listed in the RPS of the County Council Develop- ment Plan and is consequently protected under the Planning and Development Acts 2000- 2002. It is not readily understood if the proposed modifications to this entrance are necessary from an engineering point of view. The proposal appears to constrict the approach to the entrance on the southern side, whilst makes little or no change to the northern side. It is recommended that the changes be made to the road layout without having any negative physical impact upon the entrance to the estate. The exact purpose of the widening of the avenue along the initial 15m is unclear. If there is an issue of sight lines, then alternatives should be discussed with the project engineers whilst taking into full consideration the potential age of and im- portance of the entrance and existing trees to this Georgian demesne. If physical impact is unavoidable, the entrance should be preserved by record, carefully dismantled, stored and rebuilt in a similar plan form (using a lime based mortar) once the new road layout has been firmly established. This site is of general architectural significance as an associated feature of Lissanisky House and Estate. 3.4 AH 58: Derelict farmhouse and vernacular complex at Clash. Location Clash farm complex (Ch 7.000) is situated in gently undulating pasture c. 150m to north- west of Clash Crossroads and c. 1.5km to north-west of the existing N7. Description (Figures 8-12)Eachtra Archaeological Projects 15
  • 26. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Clash is a complex of both modern and vernacular farm buildings comprising of three ver- nacular sub-complexes of architectural interest identified in the EIS: • House with additions (B1) • Outbuilding with additions (B2) • Shed with loft and adjoining barn (B3). Impacts • The vernacular outbuilding (B2) is located within the LMA and will be profoundly impacted upon by the proposed route. • The vernacular house (B1) will abut the northern fence line of the LMA and may be physically impacted upon. • The vernacular shed with loft and adjoining barn (B3) is in close proximity to the northern fence line of the LMA and will be visually impacted upon by the proposed route in the long term and could potentially be physically impacted upon during construction. • Two modern galvanised sheds (B4 and B5) of limited architectural interest are within the complex and presently serve as cattle housing and a milking parlour. Shed (B4) is within the LMA and will be demolished to facilitate the proposed route. B1: Vernacular House with additions Exterior The derelict remains of a three-bay, two-storey, gable-ended farmhouse forms the centre of the vernacular settlement at Clash (plate 11). The house is constructed of random rubble stone and has been rendered with a rough cast harling and finished with a line and rule effect simulating a block construction. A single-bay, two-storey extension adjoins the east gable and a single-storey lean-to shed adjoins the west gable (plate 12). The main house is north-facing with a central door opening and a window opening either side. Three, much smaller window openings at first floor level correspond to the three ground floor openings. Only the partial remains of the vertical sliding sash window frames of the upper windows are visible. These frames have a horned sash to strengthen the meeting rail, indicating that they are post-1840s in date. The rear elevation is essentially two-bay however the openings are not spaced symmetrically. The rear door opening is off-set to the east andEachtra Archaeological Projects 16
  • 27. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey the door does not survive. The original window shutters on the ground floor window survive and are an interesting feature to find in a simple farmhouse which may indicate the comfort- able wealth of the occupants (plate 13). A very small one-over-one vertical sliding sash window which lights a small cupboard under the stairs is likely a later insertion after space was max- imised within the interior (plate 14). The east gable is covered by the two-storey addition, which is notably higher than the main house. The west gable is only covered at ground floor level, however, there are no first floor features visible on the exterior. The roof is pitched (45°) and is covered in small sized natural slates, where they survive (plate 15). Most of the roof structure along with large areas of slate have collapsed into the interior to front and rear. The remains of the roof are sealed at the eaves by a concrete barge on the western side and along the surviving parts of the ridge by individual tiles. These ridge tiles may either be of badly weathered clay or asbestos. One surviving felt repair possibly coated in a bitumous material is also visible. The eastern eaves are covered by the adjoining two-storey extension. It is likely that the original chimney stack on the east gable was removed when the extension was added. A wide chimney stack constructed of pale yellow brick projects from the west gable (plate 16). There are rainwater gutters along the base of the roof line to front and rear, however no surviving downpipes to carry the water away. The single-bay, two-storey extension adjoining the east gable is in a marginally better condi- tion. The structure is built of uncoursed rubble, with openings of red brick and rendered with a cement based rough cast. The front elevation has two large window openings in the centre, however no frames survive. The east gable is blank and partially covered with ivy (plate 17). The rear elevation is exactly the same as the front however the ground floor window has been breached at the base to allow recent use of the interior. The roof is pitched (50°) and is covered in large rectangular slates. The roofline is notably higher than that of the main house. Although the roof structure was not seen, it may be in a reasonable condition as there is no evidence of sagging along the ridge or elsewhere. Some of the slates have slipped, mostly along the eaves allowing water ingress and generally the roof is in a neglected condition (plate 18). There are no barges to seal the eaves of the roof and this is one of the main reasons that the slates have slipped. The ridge tiles are in-situ and may either be of badly weathered clay or asbestos. A fine red brick chimney is located on either gableEachtra Archaeological Projects 17
  • 28. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey with that on the west set back slightly from the edge. There is a rainwater gutter along the east gable, however it is not functional as only brackets exist along the eaves and no guttering or downpipes survive. Interior Due to the fact that most of the roof structure has collapsed into the interior, access within was not physically possible. A view into the different areas of the interior was possible through each of the window openings. Prior to collapse of the roof, it is likely that there was a lot of water ingress into the interior, weakening the wall tops and floor joists. As a result, it is likely that the first floor joists became loose from their wall hangers perhaps causing the floor to collapse when large areas of the roof structure broke down (plate 19). The remains of the interior indicate that the main house comprised of a room located either side of a central lobby entrance. A scar in the lobby wall indicates that the staircase was against the west wall and took a quarter turn onto a lower landing and a second quarter turn on its final approach to the first floor hallway (plate 20). The hallway extended along the rear of the house and appears to have accessed one bedroom to west and one to east, correspond- ing with the two rooms at ground floor level. When the two-storey addition was added, the east gable wall of the main house was breached on the north side to access the ground floor level and breached on the south side at first floor level to access a third bedroom. The small ground floor window in the rear of the main house lit a small cupboard, possibly serving as a cloakroom, which was located underneath the stairs. Considering its size, it is possible that this was a later insertion. The interior walls were rendered, plastered and painted (plate 21). The visible door openings are straight and window openings are splayed. The large blocked-up, red brick fireplace in the east gable wall of the original main house indicates that this room probably functioned as the kitchen (plate 22). The fact that it has been blocked up and two circular pipes project from it may indicate that a range was subsequently located here. The remains of a small oven or boiler are located in a niche adjacent to south. There is also a fireplace located in the west gable at ground floor level, however no surround survives. In fact it is likely that the house was gutted after it was abandoned as there is little evidence of any surviving furniture, other fixtures or fittings. The first floor of the main house is essentially gone, although the remnants of two rooms are clearly visible, with a fireplace in each.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 18
  • 29. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey It was possible to safely access the ground floor room of the addition via the rear window opening which has been breached in relatively recent times to allow housing for cattle. The surrounds of the openings are of red brick and the embrasures are generally straight (plate 23). A small brick fireplace is located in the centre of the east gable and a wall press adjacent to north (plates 24 and 25). It is clearly evident that the original chimney flue of the main dwelling projected from the gable wall which is now only visible from the interior of the ad- dition. This may account for the fact that the stack is set back from the edge of the gable of the addition. The first floor of the addition was accessed via the first floor of the main house and was therefore inaccessible. The interior of the lean-to shed on the west gable of the main house was not accessible. The roof has collapsed inwards and the interior is covered in debris and overgrowth. It is evident that the shed was accessed via a door opening in the south elevation and has a large window opening in the north elevation. It appears that the roof covering was of slate. B2: Vernacular Outbuilding and additions. Location The remains of an outbuilding are adjacent to south of the farmhouse. This outbuilding is enclosed to east by the farm boundary wall (Ref. AH 57). Description This building comprises of the remains of a two-storey barn constructed of rubble stone which has been rendered to the front (plate 26). It has a wide central door opening at ground floor level and a window opening off-set to the west at first floor level. The door opening has been blocked with concrete bricks and the window opening is barely visible due to ivy growth. It appears that the foundation for this barn was cut into the hillslope to south to create a level base. As a result, only the first floor is visible above the ground surface to rear. The remains of only one definite window opening are visible in the rear elevation as the rest is obscured by vegetation (plate 27). The east and west gables are largely obscured, however some general conclusions can be made about both. The west elevation has been reinforced by a drystone buttress due to potential collapse (plate 28). The roof of the barn was probably of A-frame construction, pitched and was clearly covered by slate. Most of the roof has collapsed and the surviving edges are top heavy with ivy growth. The vents in the front elevation indicate thatEachtra Archaeological Projects 19
  • 30. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey this barn was used to keep animals, however this would have been confined to the winter months. The wide door opening may also suggest a storage function for machinery. The loft above would have provided additional space for storage. The east elevation of the barn is partially covered by the remains of a single-storey structure adjoining it (plate 29). Very little can be deduced from these remains, however, it is likely that they represent one-bay of a slightly larger structure. The poorly preserved remains of one small window with a wooden lintel are the only features. It is likely that the roof was pitched. Condition It is clear that the structural integrity of this building has been under scrutiny in the past. Cast iron trusses visible in the front elevation have attempted to hold the front and rear walls together (possibly by holding the main rafter in place) to prevent collapse. The stone buttress built up on the west gable has also attempted to reinforce the structure. These problems have been caused by movement in the structure, probably at foundation level. Movement in the rear wall may also have been caused by pressure or subsidence on the hillslope to rear. This movement likely caused the initial collapse of the roof structure which has exposed the wall tops and internal fabric of the building to water ingress, further weakening the structure over time. There is also evidence of concrete repair work to the masonry. The wide central door opening was likely blocked up with concrete blocks to facilitate the use of a cattle crush along the front of the barn. A wall of similar construction and age was built perpendicular to the buttress on the west gable to facilitate the entrance to the crush (plate 30). B3: Shed with loft and adjoining barn Location The remains of a shed with a loft and adjoining barn (long-axis SW-NE) are adjacent to west of the farmhouse (B1). These buildings complete the vernacular complex at Clash. Description of shed The shed is a three-bay, single-storey, gable-ended structure with loft over (plate 31). The structure is of random rubble stone which shoes no evidence of any render. It is possible thatEachtra Archaeological Projects 20
  • 31. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey it may have been white-washed, however no evidence of this survives. The front elevation is SE-facing and has a central door opening flanked by a small square window on either side. The lintel of the door opening is of wood, however the small window openings have stone lintels with wooden frames (plate 32). The rear elevation has three long air vents/slit openings equally spaced apart (plate 33). The north-east gable contains a door opening at loft level, which was probably accessed by a portable wooden ladder as no stone steps, scar or put log holes of any external staircase survive (plate 34). The south-west gable is featureless and is covered by the remains of the adjoining barn. The roof is pitched and covered by slate. The interior is open plan, however, is small, dark and cramped, accentuated by a very low ceiling supported on roughly cut upright wooden logs. The underside of the joists and the loft floor timbers are exposed. The walls appear to have been rendered and possibly show traces of white wash. The embrasure of the air vents/slit openings splay in toward the light. The loft above is also open plan and quite dark as the loft door opening provides the only light source. The A-frame structure of the roof is high in order to achieve maximum space within. The loft contains bedding material at present. The poor light within this building and three air vents to rear may indicate that it functioned as housing for small animals. It has recently been used for animal housing as the floor has been prepared with straw. It is likely that the loft above was originally used for storage, prob- ably of straw bedding for the housing below. Condition Structurally the walls of the shed are weak in places evidenced by a significant crack in the north-east gable wall due to the location of the loft door opening which has reduced the load bearing capacity of this wall. There are no barges sealing the eaves of the roof and some of the slates have slipped or are missing. The ridge of the roof is not visible due to top heavy growth of ivy, however the underlying structure is under strain evidenced by sagging in the middle of the pitch. The roof is not watertight and water ingress is entering the interior and the wall tops in places. Ivy has penetrated the stone fabric of the upper portions of wall further weak- ening the structure.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 21
  • 32. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Description of barn A long, narrow stone barn adjoins the south-west gable of the shed. This building is of similar stone construction, is not rendered and contains numerous small air vents, particularly in the rear wall (plate 35). The front elevation is pierced by two wide openings each with an ellipti- cal arch of roughly hewn stone voussoirs. The north-eastern opening has been blocked with mass concrete (plate 36) and the base of the south-west opening is obscured by a build up of earthen and other organic debris on the exterior (plate 37). This width of these openings may suggest this building functioned as some form of workshop or storage for machinery. The wall has completely collapsed between the two openings (plate 38). The rear elevation is featureless apart from the small air vents. The remains of a regular door opening are visible in the south-west gable (plate 39). The interior is open plan and is generally featureless. There is no ceiling and the A-frame roof structure is visible and comprises of well preserved sawn timbers indicating that it was replaced in relatively recent decades (plate 40). The roof is covered with slate lain directly on top of these timbers (plate 41). The roof structure has collapsed where the section of front elevation has fallen and ivy has begun to penetrate this weak point and into the interior. The ruinous remains of a wall (long-axis SW-NE) are located to the immediate south-west of the barn (see Cartographic Analysis). Condition The poor condition of the barn is likely due to long term exposure of the structural elements of the building before it was re-roofed with the present A-frame structure. The partial collapse of the front wall may be due to the fact that the weak walls could not fully support the weight of the new roof structure. An attempt was made to reinforce the strength of the front eleva- tion by blocking one of the wide openings with mass concrete. The general condition of the fabric is poor as most of the mortar has been washed out of the masonry through long-term exposure to the elements (plate 42). Historical Background The townland name of Clash derives from the Irish ‘Clais’ meaning ‘a trench or furrow,’ (O’Flannagan 1930, 239-40). According to the OS Name Books, Clash was, ‘a townland principally under wood and furze, there are several scattered houses through it and the south-Eachtra Archaeological Projects 22
  • 33. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey west end contains about eleven acres of bog’ (ibid). The study site is located near the north- western side of Clash Crossroads, referred to in the OS Name Books as ‘Clash four roads’ (ibid, 256). The complex at Clash is located on the road leading from Ballymacky church to Moneygall which intersects at the crossroads with the road leading from Newport to Cloghjordan. Clash is within the parish of Ballymackey which means ‘Baile Mhac Aoidh’ or ‘Mackey’s town,’ (ibid, 234). The father of the present owner, Stephen Grace, purchased the farm in 1972 from a batch- elor named Dickie Hassett (Mr Grace Snr. Pers. comm.). The buildings and in particular the house (B1) were in a poor state of repair when the property was taken over (ibid). The house was never lived in again and was essentially abandoned in 1972 as the property was subsequently used as an out-farm (ibid). Limited use has been made of the ground floor of the two-storey addition of (B1) and the shed and loft (B3). The outbuilding (B2) has been in a poor condition since the property was purchased and was of no operational use in a modern farmyard. According to the Valuation Office House Books (1848 vol. 1796, 86) John Hasset owned a house, barn, stable and piggery. The annual rateable valuation was charged at 35 shillings per acre. The house described in the valuation books is likely to be that (B1) which exists today, the barn is possibly the outbuilding (B2) and the shed and loft (B3) is likely to be the cow house. The piggery is likely to be the long building adjoining to west-south-west of the cow house, thus accounting for the two low arches in the front elevation. Matt and Arthur Has- sett each have separate holdings within this townland however both record a house only with no associated buildings or land (ibid, 86 and 89). Cartographic Analysis The first edition OS map shows three buildings within the farmyard complex at Clash. The most northerly building is of the same size, orientation and is at the same location as the farmhouse (B1). The building to the immediate south is of the same size, orientation and is at the same location as the outbuilding (B2). The boundary depicted to the immediate east is likely to be much later than the existing boundary (AH 57) as the position of the bound- ary is likely to have changed after the two-storey addition was built in the twentieth century. Depiction of the farmhouse (B1) and outbuilding (B2) on this map edition indicates that they are pre-1840s in date. The building depicted further to south no longer survives, but it is evident that it was one of three original buildings within this vernacular farm complex. The shed with loft and the adjoining barn (B3) are not depicted on this map edition and areEachtra Archaeological Projects 23
  • 34. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey therefore likely to be later in date. The second edition OS map shows the three buildings shown on the earlier map and indi- cates that an additional four buildings had been constructed since the production of the first edition. Only two of the later buildings survive within today’s farmyard and comprise of the shed with loft and the adjoining barn (B3). These are located to the west of the original farm- yard and are on a different orientation (long-axis NE-SW). The barn adjoining the shed (B3) is shown slightly narrower in width as it exists today. The north-west gable of a small building depicted to south-west on this map edition survives in a very ruinous state today. A boundary extending (long-axis NW-SE) between the shed and barn is shown on this map and a small building abuts its north-east side, however neither survive to the present day. The farmhouse (B1) is shown with a small addition to the west gable, which is likely the lean- to which exists today. The most likely function for this structure was an outside toilet. The two-storey addition to the east side of the farmhouse is not depicted and likely post-dates the second edition map. A water pump indicated by a dot and the letter ’P’ had been constructed close to the NW corner of the outbuilding (B2). This feature is no longer evident and has likely been removed and the well blocked and diverted to the modern milking parlour. Summary There are clearly two main phases of farmyard development at Clash. The first phase com- prised of the three buildings shown on the first edition including the farmhouse (B1) and outbuilding (B2) and a third building adjacent to south-west. The second phase involved the construction of the shed (B3), which pre-dates the adjoining barn, but the difference in age may be small. It is likely that the building to south-west of the barn was constructed around the same time and perhaps fell into decay a number of decades ago with only the north-west gable surviving today. The building to north-west of the shed (B3) was probably removed when the field boundary was levelled during land consolidation. The two-storey addition to the east side of the farmhouse is not depicted and likely post- dates the second edition map and therefore is part of a third phase of farmyard development. A fourth phase of farmyard building was post-1972 when a large barn (B4) with a barrel vaulted roof was constructed to south-west of the vernacular farmyard. A modern creamery also shown on the modern mapping has been constructed adjacent to north of the farmhouse (B1) in recent years (plate 43). Increased stocking rates on consolidated farms required largerEachtra Archaeological Projects 24
  • 35. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey animal housing and milking facilities from at least the 1970s onwards. Neither of the two modern structures is of architectural interest, however, the farmhouse and outbuildings are of local architectural, historical and social interest. 3.5 AH 57: Boundary to farm at Clash Location The existing stone wall boundary (Ch. 7.050) to the farm encloses the farmhouse (B1) and vernacular barn (B2) to their immediate east. The southern part of the boundary is within the LMA and the remainder is to the immediate north of the fence line. The southern part of the wall will therefore be profoundly impacted upon by the proposed road. The remainder of the wall will be negatively impacted upon visually in the long-term and there may be a potential physical impact during construction. Description This is a wall of rubble stone bonded with a concrete based mortar and relatively coarse concrete coping (plate 44). There is an attempt at coursing as the wall has been constructed in three distinct bands. There is a three step stone stile on the exterior of the wall which is a nice feature (plate 45). The wall (long-axis NNE-SSW) respects the outbuilding (B2) and the twentieth century two-storey addition of the two-storey farmhouse (B1). A modern pedes- trian entrance is located adjacent the gable of the two-storey addition of the farmhouse and likely replaced the earlier stile in terms of use. The wall is broken beyond this and does not survive. A mason’s mark has been etched into a broken cement plaque on the exterior of the southern return of the wall, ‘Meagher _ _21’ (plate 46). Condition The upper course and concrete coping are missing from the southern half of the wall and its short return. The wall is broken at its northern end and does not survive beyond the north- eastern corner of the two-storey farmhouse addition. Historical Background The wall is constructed of stone bonded with a cement based mortar and a coarse concrete coping. The use of concrete in its construction indicates that the wall is likely of early twenti-Eachtra Archaeological Projects 25
  • 36. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey eth century in date. Concrete is essentially a mixture of water, sand, aggregate and hydraulic cement (e.g. a Portland cement) to form a stone-like mass (Blockley 2005, 96). The birth of modern concrete can be attributed to a stonemason from Leeds called Joseph Aspdin (ICS 2003, online). He made a new and improved cement in 1824 by heating chalk and clay together then grinding it down to fine powder. He called it Portland Cement due to its resemblance to Portland stone in the hardened state. It was the most superior cement of the time, producing greater strengths than were previously possible. The mass production of this cement began in 1828 and the concrete explosion began in England (ibid). The use of concrete in Ireland did not become widespread until the late 19th/early 20th cen- tury. It was initially used to solve large or complex engineering problems and can be traced as far back as 1850, in the foundations of a bridge crossing the River Glyde, in Dundalk. As the benefits of this material were realised, concrete was increasingly used as a solution to construction problems. Other examples of milestones in Irish concrete use are- the Dublin Port extension built from 1871-75 under the supervision of engineer Bindon Stoney, widely regarded as the father of concrete in Ireland, Mizen Head Footbridge, a reinforced concrete arch built in 1909 and Ardnacrusha Dam, opened in 1929, the first structure to use water- tight concrete (ICS 2003, online). It is clear that concrete was not in use in Ireland until the turn of the 20th century and even at that, it may have been restricted to public buildings and structures. It is more likely that it was used in smaller structures as a cheaper and quicker alternative to rubble stone after it was mass produced in factories in Ireland from around the 1920s/30s onwards. Early production efforts in Ireland began at the turn of the century in Co. Wexford and Ringsend in Dublin but did not survive beyond 1925. The Irish Government’s Cement Act of 1933 facilitated the building of two cement factories in Drogheda and Limerick. The full-scale manufacture of cement in this country from 1938 paved the way for a cheaper, more consistent and readily available material and the usage of concrete increased rapidly. Cartographic Analysis A linear boundary (long-axis N-S) is shown to east of the farmhouse (B1) and outbuilding (B3) on the first and second edition OS maps. None of the map editions appear to depict the two-storey addition on the east side of the farmhouse and therefore it is likely that the wall had to be dismantled and rebuilt in order to respect this later addition. The modern maps clearly show that the wall has changed to a different orientation (long-axis NNE-SSW) to respect the two-storey addition. The wall remains on this alignment today.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 26
  • 37. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Summary It is likely that the wall was rebuilt on a slightly different alignment to respect the two-storey addition of the farmhouse, which appears to have been added in the early twentieth century. The wall was likely covered in the concrete coping around this time and the broken masons mark was probably dated 1921. Furthermore concrete was not widely used for domestic build- ing purposes until the 1920s. This structure is of general architectural significance forming part of the vernacular complex at Clash. 3.6 AH 51: Two-storey house and outbuildings at Park. Location The two-storey house and complex of outbuildings (Ch. 8050) are located in generally level pasture c. 100m to east of the Ollatrim River, in the townland of Park. The complex is lo- cated c. 10m to east of an old course of the river. The buildings (B1-B7) at Park are located at the end of a farm road which will be cut off once the proposed road is constructed. The existing N7 is located c. 1.2km to SE of the study site. Description (Figures 13-16) Clash is a complex of both modern and vernacular buildings comprising of seven structures identified in the EIS of which five are of architectural interest: • Two-storey house (B1) • Vernacular outbuilding (B2) • Stone and concrete lean-to garage/machinery port (B4) • Stone and concrete animal housing with barrel vaulted roof (B5) • Vernacular stone sheds (B6) The modern farm structures (B3 and B7) are of no architectural interest. Impacts • The two-storey house (B1) is located within the LMA and will be profoundly im- pacted upon by the proposed route. The house will be demolished to facilitate theEachtra Archaeological Projects 27
  • 38. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey construction of the proposed route. • The remainder of the buildings (B2-B7) are located outside the southern fence line of the LMA and will not be physically impacted upon by the proposed route. Description of two-storey house This dwelling is located perpendicular to the north-east side of a farm road which terminates in the farmyard adjacent to south-east. This is a two-storey, three-bay farmhouse probably dating to around the early/mid 20th century (plate 47). It is likely to be constructed of rubble stone, however it has been rendered and a line and rule effect applied simulating block work construction. The quoins are of large manufactured brick and alternate one long brick and two small square bricks which have been painted in brown and white paintwork to enhance them (plate 48). This arrangement of quoins are on both sides of all four corners, although are only enhanced by the alternate colours on the front corners. The front elevation is north-west facing and has a symmetrical arrangement of six rectangular openings, which copies a formal style of architecture. The outer window openings are off-set a greater distance from the corners than they are from the central openings. This is a design feature to strengthen structural stability of the wall as it would be weaker if the openings were closer to the corner. This was a common feature in houses from the late eighteenth/early nine- teenth century onwards. The central front door opening is covered by a modern porch with a pitched roof. The rectangular window openings are of the same size and the lintels of those on the first floor are very close to the eaves indicating that the ceilings may be low within. The openings in the front elevation have been boarded up and no frames are visible. The south-west gable is pierced by one first floor window opening which has a modern frame (plate 49). An open concrete water holding tank abuts the base of the south-west wall. The rear elevation has four window openings which are not arranged symmetrically (plate 50). A flat roofed porch adjoins the north-east end and therefore it is likely that it covers a doorway. There is a single-storey lean-to adjoining the north-east gable. The roof is hipped and covered by slate with clay ridge tiles. It is pierced by a chimney stack slightly off-centre to south-west. The facia boards below the eaves are of wood and the rain- water goods are of a modern style of cast iron. The rainwater exits the guttering via a cast iron downpipe on the south-west gable and collects in the open concrete water tank below (plateEachtra Archaeological Projects 28
  • 39. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey 51). A pillared pedestrian entrance closed by a cast iron gate with wrought iron detail, is locat- ed in the boundary wall to south-west of the house (plate 52). The farmhouse has been lived in until recently and was connected to running water, electricity, telephone and television. The interior of the house was not accessible on either of the two field visits. A modern garage was noted to south-east of the house and appears to be filled with unwanted items from the house, indicating that the house has been gutted. Condition The general condition of the exterior of the house appears to be is reasonably good on the sur- face, however it has been freshly painted and the window openings are boarded up, obscuring the frames. There may be a structural weakness masked in the centre of the rear elevation at its base. This may indicate that the foundations are starting to spread at this point. Visually, the roof appears to be in a sound condition with no evidence of slipped tiles or defective flash- ings visible from ground level. There is evidence that several slates have been replaced in the rear roof pitch. There is a very slight sag in the ridge either side of the chimney stack which may be early signs of weakness in the underlying roof structure. The guttering has become loose from its facia bracket at the south corner and is therefore not functional. Over a long period of time, this may cause water ingress resulting in damp walls in this area. Description of vernacular complex (B2 & B4-B6) A general description and synopsis of this complex has been carried out as these buildings will not be impacted upon physically by the proposed road scheme. There are three main structures within this complex of buildings which form part of an ear- lier vernacular complex: • Vernacular outbuilding (B2) • Stone and concrete animal housing with barrel style roof (B5) • Vernacular stone sheds (B6) The vernacular outbuilding (B2) and the vernacular stone sheds (B6) have essentiallyEachtra Archaeological Projects 29
  • 40. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey been preserved, however, the stone animal housing (B5) has been greatly modified with ce- ment and concrete. It is the only structure in the earlier complex to contain window open- ings, which may indicate that it was a dwelling. The garage/machinery port (B4) abuts the north-western side of an earlier stone boundary wall, however the rest of the structure is poorly made of mass concrete with large rubble stone inclusions and is of no architectural interest (plate 53). The vernacular outbuilding (B2) is located c. 25m to south-east of the two-storey farmhouse and encloses the farmyard to its south-east side. It is a single-storey, two-bay, gable ended building constructed of rubble stone with evidence of concrete repairs (plate 54). Its front el- evation is south-east-facing and is pierced by two door openings (H 1.75m; Wth 1.12m; Dth 0.44m) each containing a short wooden door with a V-insert indicating that it may have been stables. There are two slit openings (H 0.5m; int. Wth 0.40m; ext. Wth 0.05m; Dth 0.43m) in the front and two in the rear for ventilation. The gable-ends are blank with the exception of that to the south-west on which are the remains of a ridge of an adjoining building (plate 55). The roof is pitched (c. 60°) and covered by slate with evidence of repairs using a bitumen based substance (plate 56). The interior is divided by a central dividing wall, which has no gable (plate 57). Apart from two small water troughs and some wall presses in the north-east gable, there are no other features within. The stone floor is bedded indicating recent use. The roof structure is a high A-frame of modern sawn wood indicating that the roof may have been replaced in the relatively recent past (plate 58). There is no loft above allowing greater headroom further indicating that it may have been a stable. This building is in a neglected condition with various structural cracks and defects in the roof. The adjoining building to south-west has been demolished in the latter quarter of the 20th century to make way for a modern barn. The stone and concrete animal housing (B5) is located in the centre of the farmyard and has been heavily modified with a roughly mixed concrete (plate 59). The south-west elevation is of rubble stone (plate 60) and the other elevations have been rebuilt using mass concrete. There are two blocked windows (int. Wth 0.88m; H 1.0m) in the front elevation and two blocked windows (int. Wth 0.93m; H 0.85m) in the rear elevation indicating that this may have been a workshop, dairy or potentially even a dwelling. There is no additional evidence to support the latter due to the extreme modifications that have been carried out upon this building. The surround of the window openings in the later north-east concrete elevation are of red brick. There is a wide door opening in the south-east gable and two regular door openings at ground floor level and a small window at first floor level in the north-west elevation (plate 61). TheEachtra Archaeological Projects 30
  • 41. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey interior is divided into two main areas by a rubble stone wall (plate 62) and the main part is accessed via the wide doorway in the south-east elevation. This area may have functioned as cattle stalls, although this is difficult to confirm as it has been gutted (plate 63). A second small area is located in the north-west gable and has been subdivided by a modern wall into two small animal cubicles each accessed via a separate door. A storage area above this can be accessed via portable ladder through an opening in the main area of the barn. This is lit by a small window with brick surround in the north-east gable. It is likely that the original building was gable ended with a pitched roof as the wall top of the internal dividing wall has clearly been truncated to facilitate the barrel style roof (also plate 62). There is no evidence of this on the exterior as both gable walls have been rebuilt with concrete. Only the south-west elevation of the building remains intact, albeit with blocked window openings. A modified version of the internal dividing wall survives, being truncated to facilitate the barrel style roof and pierced to allow and opening for access into a small stor- age loft above the north-west end. The mass concrete of the other three main walls has been unevenly poured and structural weaknesses in this construction are prevalent in the form of obvious cracks in all elevations. The vernacular stone sheds (B6) consist of one main storage shed and a smaller shed adjoining to south-west. The main shed is a single-storey, gable ended structure of random rubble (plate 64). The front elevation has been rendered with cement and is pierced by a door opening (Wth 1.18m; H 1.85m; Dth 0.32m) off-centre to north-east. The north-east gable is blank and its rubble construction and gritty lime-based mortar are exposed (plate 65). The natural stone construction of the rear elevation is also exposed and has a wide opening (Wth 2.17m; H 1.92m) and closed by a double wooden door (plate 66). There is a single round pillar en- gaged to the rear wall at the north-east end, however no corresponding pillar survives. The roof is pitched (c. 60°) and covered by natural slate. The interior is open plan with concrete floor and the walls have been rendered with cement (plate 67). It is clear that the wall tops have been raised (H 0.5m) and consolidated with concrete when the A-frame roof structure was replaced. The slates have been re-laid carefully and are in good condition. The adjoining shed is also built of stone and has a similar roof (plate 68). There is evidence too that the walls have been raised and reinforced with concrete as per large shed. This structure has a central door opening (Wth 0.93m; H 1.8m; Dth 0.45m) leading into a small bedded area indicating that it laterally served as a small animal cubicle. There is a blocked window opening in the rear wall indicating that the earlier function may have been different. Corrugated lean-to structures adjoin to south-west. The condition of these buildings is reasonably good consider-Eachtra Archaeological Projects 31
  • 42. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey ing that they are likely to be pre-1840s in date. The replacement roof structure in both and other careful modifications have contributed to their overall preservation. Historical Background The townland name of Park suggests an enclosed piece of land, generally large in area, which is used for the cultivation of trees, for grazing sheep and cattle or for recreation. The town- land name is also recorded in the OS Name Books as Garryclogher which derives from the Irish ‘garraidh clothar’ meaning garden of the stone or ‘garraidh gluthair’ sheltered garden (O’Flannagan 1930, 250). The reference to stone may refer to its abundance of limestone in this area which was easily quarried for burning and was subsequently use as agricultural lime. There is a limekiln shown within the farmyard complex on the first edition OS map and a quarry depicted in the field adjacent to north-east. According to the OS name Books, the townland is in two detached parts which are under cultivation and there is a cluster of houses toward the west side (ibid). The Valuation Office House Books (1848, vol. 1796, 95) indicate that Dan Troy owned a house, barn, piggery, two cow houses and stables in the townland of Park. The annual rate- able valuation of the farm was 23 shillings per acre. This indicates that one of the buildings within the old farmyard complex (possibly since demolished or greatly modified) may have functioned as a dwelling. There is very little known about the later two-storey farmhouse as it does not appear on the first or second edition OS maps and there are no valuation records. This indicates that it is post-1911 in date. Its formal box style and symmetrical arrangement of large rectangular windows openings are borrowed from the Georgian period. The materials used, the single chimney stack and the general condition of the house would indicate a date to around the 1930s-1950s. The farmhouse has been lived in until recently and was connected to running water, electricity, telephone and television. It is likely to have been a later farmhouse associ- ated with the vernacular complex adjacent to south-east. Cartographic Analysis The two-storey house is not depicted on the first or second edition OS map and is therefore post-1911 in date. There are three buildings of the same size and orientation depicted on the 1840s and 1911 OS map at the same location as the three core buildings of the vernacular farm complex (B2, B5 and B6). The outbuilding (B2) is depicted with a greater length, withEachtra Archaeological Projects 32
  • 43. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey only the north-eastern half surviving today. This confirms that the portion of ridge noted hanging from the south-west gable was part of an adjoining building of equal length. No other buildings are depicted on this map edition, except a limekiln close to south-east of the stone sheds (B6). The limekiln is not shown on the 1911 OS map indicating that it may have gone out of use by this date. A large quarry is depicted to north-east which may indicate the source of the limestone. Two smaller quarries are depicted adjacent a building to south-east. A cluster of buildings are located along the same road to north-west and may be a settlement. A well is indicated to south-west of building (B2) on the 1911 OS map. Summary There is no indication from the cartographic analysis, research or fieldwork as to the location of a dwelling house associated with the vernacular complex. It is possible that it may have been the south-western portion of vernacular outbuilding (B2), although this has been de- molished. The location of a well to south-west of the outbuilding (B2) may indicate human habitation. The stone and concrete barn could have been a converted and much modified dwelling as it is the only building in the farm complex with regular window openings, albeit blocked. It is also possible that these were farm buildings associated with the settlement clus- ter to north-west. It is clear that the two-storey house built post-1911 subsequently became the farmhouse associated with the early 19th century vernacular farmyard. The 20th century farmhouse is of limited architectural interest however the vernacular outbuildings are of local architectural, historical and social interest. 3.7 AH 45: Country house (no longer extant), derelict outbuildings, courtyards marked on first edition OS map and some 19th century struc- tures at Greenhills. Numbers B1-B3 assigned as there were no ref numbers in the EIS information supplied. Location The remaining buildings and structures (Ch. 12150) of the former Greenhills estate, Mon- eygall, County Tipperary are located within an existing farmyard. The existing buildings (B1 and B2) are the only two surviving buildings of the estate and are located just outside the LMA, with B2 abutting the southern fence line (plate 69). The upstanding enclosure of the former walled garden (B3) is partially located within the LMA and will therefore be truncated by the proposed road. The existing N7 is c. 200m to south and passes through theEachtra Archaeological Projects 33
  • 44. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey village of Moneygall c. 1km to south-west. Historical Background The townland of Greenhills is located within the parish of Cullenwain. The first family name known to be connected with the townland of Greenhills was Minchin. According to O’Rian (1988, 65) the Minchin’s came from Gloucestershire in England where they were landown- ers during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603). Three brothers, John, William and Daniel came to Ireland toward the end of the 16th century, buying land in County Tipperary (ibid). Their descendant, Charles Minchin (1628-1681) was an officer in Cromwell’s army and was granted land in Busherstown under King Charles II (1660-1685). Charles Minchin’s son, Thomas and later his younger son Humphrey, owned the property at Busherstown. Ac- cording to O’Rian (1988, 67), it was Humphrey Minchin who reconstructed the house in Busherstown and built an ornamental round tower on the hill overlooking the house. Hum- phrey Minchin, who died in 1732, was succeeded by his son, also Humphrey, from whom the Greenhill Minchin family originated. William Minchin of the Busherstown family purchased the Greenhills estate in 1703. Wil- liam built the mansion house at Greenhills, which was also known by the name of Derry- callahan. According to the timescale mentioned by Burke (1976, 27) a relative of William Minchin would have been Charles Minchin of Greenhills who was father to Charles and William Minchin. Charles Minchin (Jnr) married Elizabeth Massy, daughter of William Massy and Anne Bentley, in 1740 (ibid, 690). William Minchin married Dorothy Grove, daughter of John Grove and Anabella Blennerhassett, in December 1749 (ibid, 27). It is also recorded that William Minchin and Dorothy Grove were parents and that William Minchin died after (d. a.) 1766. A house is depicted on a late 18th century map and is identified with the owner’s name of ‘Minchin Esq,’ (Taylor and Skinner 1783, 98). According to the OS Name Books, the estate is a moderate size, part of which is a Demesne containing a Gentleman’s seat and several ornamented plantations (O’Flanagan 1930, 69). In 1853, Greenhills House and Demesne was the rectory (in fee) of the Rev. William Minch- in (Griffith 1853, 33). The Irish Wills Index (1484-1858) states that the Reverend William Minchin and Mary Anne Wright received a marriage licence grant in 1816. Therefore, taking these dates into consideration, it is quite possible that William Minchin (d. a. 1766) was the grandfather of the Reverend William Minchin. Reverend Minchin also registered his own will in 1829 and was the executor of a will in 1832. The latter may indicate his inheritance ofEachtra Archaeological Projects 34
  • 45. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey the Greenhills estate in 1832. Greenhills Demesne covered a total area of 204 acres in the 19th century, which is generally small in comparison to Moorpark in Cork, for example, which was 800 acres in size. In modern day terms this would be the size of a medium to large farm. The estate extended on the north-west side of the Limerick to Roscrea road with the county boundary between Of- faly and Tipperary curving around the south-western, north-western and part of the north- eastern sides. The estate house itself was a 3-storey over basement early 18th century Georgian structure with a pedimented and fanlighted doorway (Bence-Jones 1978, 149). Old photographs of the house show that it was NE-facing and had three bays to front with a central doorway and was two-bays deep on either gable (O’ Rian 1988, 66). The rear of the house had four bays. Lewis (1837, Vol. 2, 387) states that Greenhills is the residence of the proprietor and describes it as a modern and elegant mansion in a highly ornamented demesne. The Reverend William Minchin is likely to have been in his late 50s or early 60s when the valuations were carried out in the mid-19th century. According to the Valuation Office House books (1848, vol. 1592) the Greenhills estate comprised of the main dwelling house (£25. 2s 1d) with a basement dwelling (£9. 10s. 9d) and the following associated buildings: one stone house (herdsman), one garden house (gardener), one coach house, one car house (smaller carriages), three work- houses, three piggeries, three stables, two forges, four cow houses, two sheds, one workshop and one store house. According to the Valuation Office House Books (1848 vol. 1592) the total rateable valuation of the buildings on the estate were £60.19s.11d. Griffith (1853, 33) later valued the house and courtyard buildings at £34.15s and the land at £81.5s giving a total valuation of the estate as £116. The Minchin family maintained possession of the Greenhills estate until 1852 when the Rev. William Minchin was forced to sell the estate under the Encumbered Estates Act, following the hardship of the famine years (O’ Rian 1988, 67 and 147). Montague Blackett bought the 334 acre estate for £4,425 and subsequently sold it on to Richard Craddock of Yorkshire (ibid, 147). Although O’Rian (1988, 147) does not state the year in which the transaction took place between Blackett and Craddock, Bence-Jones (1978, 149) states that the estate became the seat of Major R.W. Cradock in 1914. A photograph of the house dating to 1908 shows the front and side elevations of the house with some of the residents in the drivewayEachtra Archaeological Projects 35
  • 46. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey (plate 70). The photograph also shows the steep hipped roof and part of the large chimney stack. Note the long stone sills of the first and second floor central window openings of the front elevation. These may have been a structural feature to support the centre of the wall over the ground floor opening or may have supported earlier windows. It could not be ascertained what became of this branch of the Minchin family during the aftermath of the Great Famine. It is possible that they returned to their original seat at Bush- erstown which had been mentioned by Lewis (1837, vol.2, 387). Surviving members of the Minchin family, now living in Australia, visited Greenhills c. 5 years ago (Edward Fanning pers. comm.). According to local information, the last resident of Greenhills house was a Miss Brown, who lived there immediately after the Craddock’s (Edward Fanning pers. comm.). The estate was divided amongst the local landowners, by the Land Commission, on 8th March 1935 (ibid). All the small land holders of Moneygall village were allotted land and the Fanning family received 12 acres (Edward Fanning pers. comm.). Miss Brown appears to have lived in the house itself until 1954 after which time it gradually fell into ruin (ibid). The Fanning family never lived in Greenhills House and built the present bungalow to south-east, in 1959 (ibid). The Fannings increased their holding of the old Greenhills estate when they purchased 80 acres in 1982 and a further 15 acres in 1990 (ibid). Bence-Jones (1978, 149) states that ‘Greenhills house is now a ruin’. The remains survived until eight years ago when they were demolished due to danger of collapse (Edward Fanning pers. comm.) (plates 71 and 72, Edward Fanning ©). The house was located on a slightly higher area of ground than the outbuildings (plate 73) and overlooked a natural depression to east which was used as a cricket ground (ibid) (plate 74). The stone from the house was pur- chased by Tony Ryan (founder of Ryanair) and used on his property at Killboy House, Dolla, near Nenagh (ibid). Mr Fanning has kept a small number of stones to mark the location of the former mansion house (plate 75). The demesne is clearly defined by woodland on the 1841-2 and 1906 edition Ordnance Survey maps, and may have been enclosed by a wall. The Limerick to Dublin mail coach road originally ran to south-east of the demesne walls as it appears on the 1841-2 and 1906 Ordnance Survey maps. The existing N7 is a slightly modified version of the original mail coach road. The original S-shaped entrance avenue no longer survives and most of the fieldsEachtra Archaeological Projects 36
  • 47. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey have been consolidated into larger areas. Surviving features of the estate include the trackway from the side of the main house to the associated outbuildings and yards, the poor remains of some of the walls of the courtyards, Herdsman’s House, Engine House, walled garden and remains of the Garden House. These are only a small proportion of the buildings which would have been here when the main house was fully operational in the 18th-20th centuries. The cartographic evidence suggests that there was a coach yard, L-shaped courtyard, square courtyard, rectangular farmyard and walled garden. General Cartographic Analysis & Local Information The first edition OS map depicts and names Greenhills House (B10). The house is shown as a rectangular building (long-axis NW-SE) located half-way between the main road and the associated courtyard buildings. We know from photographic and local information that the house was north-east facing, which would concur with the cartographic orientation. It is not known whether there was an earlier house on this complex, however the latest house is believed to have dated to the early 18th century. The main entrance avenue curves round toward the front of the house, from the main road to north-east. A service entrance affords access from the main roadside entrance from where it takes a sharp turn south-west along the eastern estate boundary, linking to a network of service routes in the background of the house. A short route leads directly from the house to a nearby building (long-axis NE-SW) which is probably the main coach house. A similar sized, long rectangular building on the same orientation is adjacent to south-west. These buildings are separated by a short pathway (long-axis NW-SE) extending to south-east, which leads to a small, square building, which is possibly footman’s accommodation. They have a large area to north-west which is probably for turning the carriages. An L-shaped courtyard (X) is adjacent to north-west and is most likely to have been occupied by the stables and the forges. A large structure of unknown function defines the north-east side of this courtyard. The symbol for a water-pump is depicted to the rear of this large structure. The present owner has confirmed that there was a water pump at this location and that the source is currently obscured by long grasses and silage bales (Edward Fanning pers. comm.). The square courtyard (Y) is adjoining to north-west. It is entered via a narrow opening in the north-east side and is defined by buildings on all four sides. According to the current owner, these buildings were a mixture of animal houses and associated buildings such as aEachtra Archaeological Projects 37
  • 48. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey herdsman’s house (B1) and a herdsman’s house (B2). The engine house on the north-west side of the courtyard was used to thresh corn and prepare hay. The herdsman’s dwelling formed the outer north-east corner of this courtyard and housed the herdsman and his family. These two buildings are the only two which survive to the present day. The buildings abutting the walled garden to south-west were apparently of lean-to construction, however, these and those to south-east were demolished during the 1950s in advance of construction of the exist- ing corrugated shed. The walled garden (B3) is depicted as a large rectangular area to south-west of the courtyards. The interior contains a pathway around the perimeter with two pathways crossing the width of the garden creating three separate areas. It is known that the walled garden functioned as an orchard and a kitchen garden and was linked directly to the main house via a pathway de- picted on the map. It is also possible that the north-west area could have been used to nurture saplings for planting on the estate. A building depicted adjoining the walled garden to south- west is known to be the garden house (B 7) and likely housed the gardener and his family. An elliptical shaped pond (B9) is also depicted on the first edition map with a canal or drain feature extending from its north-east corner. The second edition OS map depicts a square building at the same location of the house on the first edition. This may indicate that the house was modified in the 19th century or that there is an error in the mapping. The house is named ‘Derryc’ which stands for Derrycallahan (O’Riain 1988, 67). The earlier entrance avenue is gone and instead an S-shaped avenue with a short service avenue links the house with the main road to south-east. A long, straight trackway extends from the north-west side of the house to the outbuildings. A second, partially roofed, curvi- linear trackway leads from the west corner of the house and connects with an existing passage shown on the earlier map. This is likely to afford a direct access route for the carriages from the main house to their coach house. The courtyards (X and Y) are depicted in a similar plan form with a few notable changes. A long rectangular building at the south-east side of the L-shaped courtyard (X) is no longer depicted. A small building adjoins the herdsman’s house (B1) to south-east and the previously depicted pump is indicated as ‘P’.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 38
  • 49. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey The square courtyard (Y) now has two large buildings depicted either side the entrance. The present landowner describes their function as ‘bull houses’ or large cattle sheds (Edward Fan- ning pers. comm.). Two small, roofless pens are depicted in the south and western corners of this courtyard. The exact location of both the herdsman’s house (B1) and the engine house (B2) is clearer on this map edition. The farmyard area (Z) is depicted for the first time, to north-west of the square courtyard (Y). It is defined by the rear of courtyard (Y) to south-east, buildings along the exterior of the walled garden to south-west and a plot boundary to north-west and north-east (Wall B5). The plan form of the walled garden (B3) is depicted as per earlier map edition, although no detail is shown within the interior. The garden structure (B6) is no longer depicted on this edition, however the garden house (B7) is shown. The building known to be the hot house (B8) is shown on this map version with a lattice pattern confirming that it had a glass roof. The elliptical shaped pond (B9) is also shown on the second edition map, however the drain/ canal feature is not depicted indicating that it may have been modified into a culvert. Summary The estate house was an early 18th century house constructed by the Minchin’s of nearby Busherstown. It was essentially a mansion house with three storeys over a basement level and three bays on the front and rear elevations and two on either gable end. The house appears to have been constructed during the origins of the Georgian period of architecture and is a typi- cal box-style structure with symmetrical facades with openings that decrease in size toward the upper floors. Photographic evidence is the main source of information that remains of the upstanding dwelling. The associated outbuildings were likely built in phases focusing around two main courtyard areas. The herdsman’s house appears to be an early 19th century vernacular building with recent modifications and modern repairs. A blocked fireplace in each of the four rooms indi- cates that this structure served as some form of dwelling. The lack of surviving fixtures and fittings prevents the of a narrow date range. With no evidence of electricity, running water or interior w.c., it is unlikely that this building has been lived in for a considerable amount of time. This site is of local architectural, historical and social interest as it forms part of theEachtra Archaeological Projects 39
  • 50. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey former Greenhills estate. Descriptions (Figures 17-24) This dwelling (B1) is front-facing onto a farm trackway on the northern corner of the former L-shaped courtyard (X) to west-north-west of the former Greenhills House. The rear wall (B4) defining the north-west side of the L-shaped courtyard extends from the south-west corner of the dwelling (B1) and appears to abut the area of the former square courtyard (Y) perhaps hinting that the dwelling (B1) and the L-shaped courtyard are earlier. This wall (B4) and the building (B1) appear to be the only surviving structures of the L-shaped courtyard (X). The engine house (B2) on the north-west side of the square courtyard (Y) survives as does the substantial structure of the walled garden (B3). The latter forms the south-western limits of both courtyards as the buildings would have either abutted or adjoined it. Herdsman’s House This is a one-and-a-half-storey, three-bay dwelling probably dating to around the early 19th century (plate 76). It appears to have originally been a two-storey dwelling prior to the wall tops being truncated and upper window openings being blocked (plate 77). The dwelling is constructed of rubble limestone with some small pieces of sandstone and slate used to even out the attempted coursing. The masonry is bonded with a gritty lime-based mortar (plate 78) which has been used liberally covering some of the stone work in places. It is also possible that these traces of mortar are the remains of an earlier render. The building has remnants of an outer skin of a relatively fine, sandy, lime-based render with grit and small stones. There may also be a small element of cement in its composition. The render has peeled off in many places exposing the stone work. The quoins are sizable blocks of squared limestone. The front elevation is north-east facing and is pierced by a central door opening flanked by a rectangular window opening either side. The flat arches and jambs of the door and window openings are constructed of red brick and the frames are later 20th century replacements. The door opening is closed by a re-used door, possibly from an outbuilding. The left window opening has been reduced in size in order to facilitate insertion of a modern frame (plate 79). The frame has a cast-iron latch with a coil detail. The right window has been covered by wooden slats. The four window sills survive and are of cut and tooled limestone, however only the lower portions of the corresponding first floor windows survive and have been in-Eachtra Archaeological Projects 40
  • 51. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey filled with concrete (plate 80). This indicates that the wall tops have been truncated and the roof replaced. The truncated wall tops have been consolidated with concrete and the beams of the replacement roof have been set into it. The rectangular window openings on the first floor were likely to be of a similar size to those at ground floor level. According to the present owner, these windows were originally dormer style (Edward Fanning pers. comm.). The south-east gable is pierced by a door opening at the right-end and a small window open- ing at the left-end (plate 81). The door opening has evenly coursed stone jambs and a camber arch of red brick (plate 82). The door is a replacement formed by a patchwork of wooden slats. A cast iron hanging eye between the doorway and the east corner of the building holds a vertical cast iron pintle with decorative detail (plate 83). This may indicate that a gateway was situated here and may have served the L-shaped courtyard, containing a water-pump. The small opening to left may have been a later insertion to allow additional light into an otherwise dark, north-east-facing building. It has a stone lintel and jambs. A slightly larger first floor opening containing a modern frame, is likely to be original to the dwelling as its flat arch of red brick abuts the eaves of the pitched roof and it is unlikely that it would have been constructed this close. As this is the only light source of one of the upstairs rooms, it appears to have been retained for this reason, despite its proximity to the lowered eaves. The rear elevation is south-west facing and contains no openings or immediately apparent features. On closer inspection, the masonry incorporates a slightly sinuous pattern of red brick indicating the presence of a chimney flue (plate 84). The ivy covering most of the north- west end of this wall may obscure other features i.e. a second flue. The north-west elevation contains a regular sized rectangular window opening at ground and first floor levels, both defined by red brick jambs and a flat arch and containing modern frames (plate 85). The lower half of the ground floor opening is blocked with concrete. A wall (long-axis NE-SW) extends from the west corner of the building and appears to form the outer wall of the L-shaped courtyard (X) and is abutting the square courtyard (Y) to north- west. The replacement roof is pitched (c. 45°) and is covered by slate (probably re-used) and relative- ly modern tiles for repair work (plate 86). The ridge tiles are probably of weathered clay with two recent replacements. The beams of the roof structure are set in the concrete of the modi- fied wall tops of the structure and the eaves are sealed by concrete barges. The replacementEachtra Archaeological Projects 41
  • 52. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey roof has no chimney stacks indicating that the building went out of use as a dwelling prior to being re-roofed and used for general storage. According to the present owner, the chimney stacks may have been in the centre (Edward Fanning pers. comm.). There are no rainwater goods affixed to the house to throw excess water off the walls however the roof slates slightly overhang the eaves to front and rear. There is no evidence as to when the dwelling was last lived in and no evidence of a connection to running water, kitchen, w.c., electricity or tel- ephone. It is therefore likely that this building has served a storage function for a significant period of time. The interior of the building was accessible during all three field visits. The front entrance leads into a central hallway with a half-turn staircase straight ahead and a doorway (H 1.95m; Wth 1.0m; Dth 0.28m) into a room to left and right. According to the present owner, the room to the left was the kitchen and to the right was the sitting room (Edward Fanning pers. comm.). Both rooms have been gutted and are currently used for storage of old pieces of machinery and tools etc (plates 87 and 88). The main feature visible within both of the ground floor rooms is a slight projection in the centre of the rear wall and the scar of a blocked fireplace (plate 89). The window embrasures (H 1.45m; Wth 1.95m; Dth 0.3m) to front have a wide splay inwards toward the light. The floor is of stone and the walls have been plastered and painted. There is no ceiling per se and instead, the joists of the first floor are exposed as are the underside of the floor boards (plate 90). It is evident that the underside of the floor boards were plastered, however it appears that the joists were still left exposed. The half-turn staircase comprises of an open staircase (no risers) from the ground floor to the lower landing (plate 91). This lower staircase is not engaged to the wall and the underside of the upper staircase appears to have replacement treads and risers boards. The scar of the closed string is evident against the wall on the underside indicating that the present staircase has become loose from the wall (plate 92). The newel post is not in-situ and is of re-used, sawn timber. The first floor landing is open to the staircase as the hand rail has been removed. It is possible that the north-east side of the landing was used as a cupboard evident by scars on the wall here (plate 93). The landing is also open to a room over the south-east side of the property as the partition wall here has been demolished. The walls have been plastered and painted and the ceilings respect the line of the A-frame roof structure (plate 94). This room was sub- divided into two equally sized areas evidenced by a scar on the wall and ceiling (long-axis NW-SE) (plate 95). The room to south-west is lit by a window in the gable. This room has aEachtra Archaeological Projects 42
  • 53. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey blocked fireplace in the rear wall. Parts of the roof structure are visible in various places due to relatively recent repairs with modern tiles (plates 96 and 97). The replacement roof structure is primarily constructed of freshly sawn timbers with some of the older timbers being reused as the main tie-beams (plate 98). The room over the north-west side of the building is entered by a door opening on the im- mediate left at the top of the staircase (plate 99). There is a window embrasure with splayed in-goings in the north-west gable. The scar of a blocked fireplace in the rear wall appears to be of similar size to those seen in the other three rooms (plate 100). According to the present owner, this was the herdsman’s house where the person in charge of the day-to-day handling and welfare of the cattle would have lived (Edward Fanning pers. comm.). The last known herdsman was a man by the name of James Ryan who was of the same family as those who lived in the garden house (ibid). Due to the fact that this is the only surviving dwelling of the estate, it houses some of the original features of the main house (plate 101). A small cast iron fireplace kept under the staircase is confirmed by the owner as being indigenous to the main house (Edward Fanning pers. comm.). The remains of the original front door of the main house are also kept here (plate 102), however the original door knocker has been removed and conserved and is now kept by Mr Fannings daughter, in Galway (ibid). Condition The basic structure of the building is in a much neglected condition with major cracks evi- dent at the base of all the windows. The structural cracks are most evident below and above the window openings in the north-west gable indicating a number of weaknesses in this wall. There is a slight lateral movement in this side of the building for this reason. The render is non-existent in places allowing water to penetrate the masonry and further weakening the existing cracks. Some of the red brick of the window and door surrounds have been exposed over the long-term and are either decaying or have fallen out (plate 103). The window frames are modern replacements. The wall top of the south-east gable has not been consolidated ef- fectively with the same concrete capping evident elsewhere. As a result the stone facing has fallen out allowing water ingress into the roof structure and first floor level. Although the roof structure is a replacement roof, there is evidence of sagging on both sides of the pitch. The sagging appears to correspond with areas which have been investigated from within the property and have been repaired with modern tiles.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 43
  • 54. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey The interior contains few features that would indicate an original function other than that of a dwelling. The interior has been gutted of any fixtures and fittings it may have had. Each of the four rooms contains a blocked fireplace of which one corresponding cast-iron surround survives, although not in-situ. The staircase is in poor condition and its short-term survival is questionable. The first floor handrail has been removed from the landing overlooking the stairwell. There is evidence of birds nesting on both the ground and first floor levels and the rear of the ground floor lobby, staircase and first floor landing are covered in guano (plate 104). The partition wall between the landing and south-east room has also been removed. There are major structural cracks evident in the interior of the south-east gable wall and rear ceiling adjacent the window. This corresponds with the unsealed wall top on the exterior of the gable which has weakened the wall and allowed water ingress into the wall and roof structure at this point. Many areas of the plaster ceiling have been removed, exposing the roof structure. Modern roof tiles are evident in places where repairs have been carried out. According to the landowner he and his father carried out the main modifications to this building in the 1950s (Edward Fanning pers. comm.). Specific Cartographic Analysis & Local Information It is clear from both the first and second map editions that there is a building of similar size and plan form at this location. It appears to be abutting the north-east side of the L-shaped courtyard and may have been a later addition to this courtyard complex. The doorway in the south-east gable may have been a later insertion to access the adjoining building which is not shown until the second edition map. Prior to the insertion of the adjoining building, this gap was probably used to access the L-shaped courtyard and water pump depicted on the first edi- tion. The rear wall (B4) defining the north-west side of the L-shaped courtyard (X) survives and extends from the south-west corner of the Herdsman’s House. Engine House The former engine house (B2) is a three-bay, two-storey structure defining part of the north- west side of the square courtyard (Y) and probably dates to around the early 19th century (plate 105). The building currently functions as an animal house at ground floor level and storage at first floor level. It is constructed of rubble limestone with some small pieces of sandstone used to even out the attempted coursing. The masonry is bonded with a well setEachtra Archaeological Projects 44
  • 55. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey lime-based mortar which may have been re-pointed with a similar mortar containing a small element of cement. The natural stone work is exposed with little evidence of any render. The quoins are sizable blocks of squared limestone. The front elevation is south-east-facing and contains a wide door opening toward the north- east end. The opening is defined by a flat arch of brick voussoirs and jambs of same and is closed by a modern galvanised door. Adjacent is a large, central window opening defined by a camber arch of red brick and jambs of same to the north-east side only (plate 106). The frame is generally gone however a wooden lintel is set in concrete which appears to have formed part of a makeshift window frame with evenly spaced vertical slats. This window opening and the immediate rubble stone and red brick jamb appear to be a later insert into a larger door opening. It is likely however that the brick camber arch supported the original door open- ing. Above this opening on either side are two cast iron trusses which have probably been inserted into the wall to improve the structural stability of the building. A small rectangular window opening with a modern frame is located toward the south-west end of the wall and again is part of a later insert into a wider opening. The rest of the opening has been in-filled with concrete. The first floor level contains one surviving opening which has a stone lintel and jambs, how- ever contains no frame. A large rectangular window opening located in the centre has been in-filled with mass concrete. Thick ivy cover at the south-west end obscures a small rectan- gular opening. The south-west gable contains one door opening at first floor level and a distinctive projecting stone to one side indicating that there was an adjoining building to south-west (plate 107). The low remains of the rear wall of this adjoining building extend between the gable and the outside of the walled garden enclosure. The gable is a patchwork of repairs evidenced by blocked openings and consolidation work using mass concrete (plates 108 and 109). The rear elevation is north-west-facing and appears to have traces of a render (plate 110). This elevation is pierced by a ground floor door opening at the north-east-end which has a lintel and jamb, both modified by mass concrete. This opening is closed by a wrought iron gate which is not in-situ (plate 111). A large rectangular door opening is located at first floor level at the north-east-end.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 45
  • 56. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey The north-east gable is blank with the only apparent feature being the substantial quoins on the outer corner (plate 112). A close view of the north-west-end shows that there are no quoins at this location as this gable wall appears to abut the broken corner of the rear elevation with few stones from either wall being interlinked (plate 113). This may indicate that the north- west wall of the square courtyard was built as one long wall and the buildings within were constructed up against it. A concrete ramp is adjacent the base of this gable. The low remains of the rear wall of the square courtyard continue to north-east (plate 114). The interior is open plan and the blocked openings noted on the exterior were easily recog- nisable (plate 115). In particular this confirmed that there was a blocked door and window opening at ground floor level in the south-west elevation. The wide door opening in the front elevation was seen and a large wooden lintel was noted (plate 116). The flooring appears to be of stone however it was obscured by a thick layer of dried out dung. The substantial first floor joists are set very low so there is very little headroom at ground floor level. Both the joists and the underside of the first floor boards are exposed. The joists are supported in places around the edges by vertical logs. At least two of these near the centre have been sawn, leaving a trun- cated stump hanging from the underside (plate 117). A wooden dowel is also visible in the first floor boards adjacent one of these stumps, although its exact purpose is unknown. The first floor loft level was not physically accessed however it was possible to obtain a limited view via an opening in the floor timbers. This level appears to be open plan also with rendered and painted walls except the south-west gable (plate 118). The interior of some of the open- ings were seen and a door opening in the south-west gable would have afforded access into an adjacent building (now demolished). The loft is open and there is a clear view of the roof structure. This is supported by the gable-ends and one principal A-frame rafter with a main tie-beam holding the centre (plate 119). The lower end of the principal rafter is set into the masonry near the wall top and this supports the ridge beam and two equally spaced purlins on either side of the pitch (plate 120). A further series of rafters are placed along the purlins, on top of which are a row of battens on which a lining has been placed beneath the roof slate (plate 121). The resultant view of the underside is a lattice pattern formed by the crossing of the various elements of the roof structure. Condition This building is in a neglected condition with various structural cracks repaired with a ce-Eachtra Archaeological Projects 46
  • 57. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey ment based mortar. Mass concrete has been used to infill some of the openings and also to re- build the upper portions of the south-west gable. A large hole in the roof is allowing water to freely penetrate into the interior, rotting the roof structure and floor timbers below. A breach observed in the first floor timbers reinforces this theory (plate 122). The vertical logs on the ground floor which would have functioned as support for the first floor joists have been trun- cated in places. This has undoubtedly weakened the structure and may have necessitated the need for the cast iron trusses visible on the exterior of the front and rear elevations. This building functioned as the engine house where hay would have been cut up into smaller sizes for storing in the loft above (Edward Fanning pers. comm.). It no longer contains any machinery and the ground floor has recently been used as cow house evidenced by the layers of dry manure covering the floor. An old draw well (artesian) was located close to the north- west of this building (ibid). Specific Cartographic Analysis & local Information It is clear from both the first and second map editions that there is a building of similar size and plan form at this location. It appears to be forming part of the north-west side of the square courtyard (Y) with a building adjoining to north-east and to south-west. The first floor doorway in the south-west gable afforded access into the adjoining building (now de- molished). The rear wall of this building continues beyond the gable on either side indicating that it was constructed first. The buildings within appear to have been adjoined separately, but could still be contemporary. The map evidence affords no insight into the precise func- tion of the building, but it is known to have been the engine house where the corn was threshed and hay prepared (Edward Fanning pers. comm..). The loft above would likely have been a storage space. It has been used laterally to house cattle evidenced by a wooden crib at the south-west end and layers of dried out animal dung on the floor. Summary This is an early 19th century vernacular building with recent modifications and modern re- pairs. The wide ground floor opening and numerous windows on both levels, confirms that this structure had some form of workshop function. The plain interior and lack of any surviv- ing fixtures and fittings prevents any further elaboration on its exact purpose, although it is known to have been an engine house for threshing corn and producing hay. It contains no fireplace or associated features and is unlikely to have been lived in at any point, however, itEachtra Archaeological Projects 47
  • 58. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey was not uncommon for farm workers to sleep in loft areas at certain times of the year, obtain- ing rising heat from cattle or machinery below. There is no evidence of electricity or running water. This site is of local architectural, historical and social interest as it forms part of the former Greenhills estate. Description Walled Garden The northern area of the walled garden (B3) is within the LMA and therefore will necessitate truncating the wall at this point (plate 123). There was a breach in the wall prior to the com- mencement of archaeological work (plate 124). The walled garden is a long, rectangular area (1.253 ha) of pasture (plate 125). It is defined by a substantial double-faced wall (H c. 3.2m; T 0.45m) of rubble limestone (plate 126) with a core comprising of rubble chippings (plate 127). The exterior of the wall has a rounded corner at north as it turns into a rectangular farmyard area (Z) (0.465 ha) to north-west of the courtyard areas (X and Y) (plate 130).The garden wall (B3) contains many features including blocked slit openings indicating previous build- ings (now demolished) that were adjoining the exterior of the wall. This is evident in the north-west end of the north-east elevation of the walled garden (plate 128). According to local information, unenclosed hay sheds with a pitched roof existed along this wall and were supported on vertical wooden posts, the base of which were held in concrete stanchions (Ed- ward Fanning pers. comm.). A small cluster of these disused concrete plinths still exist in this area (plate 129). According to the present owner, a machinery entrance in the south-east wall (now barely vis- ible) led to a trackway which flanked the interior if the walled garden along the north-eastern side. This trackway accessed the farmyard area (Z), mentioned above, via a wide elliptical arch (now blocked) in the north-east wall (plate 131). A second blocked archway is visible at the north-west end of the south-west wall (plate 132). The machinery entrance in the south- east wall also allowed access between the house and the kitchen garden. A nearby pedestrian entrance located in the north-east wall toward the south-east end would have afforded access from the L-shaped courtyard (Y) into the walled garden (plate 133). The interior of the former garden area is presently in pasture, however, the present owner describes part of it as an orchard and remembers a distinct row of apple trees to south-westEachtra Archaeological Projects 48
  • 59. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey of the machinery trackway (Edward Fanning pers. comm.). Potatoes and turnips were grown between the track and the north-east wall (ibid). Two aged plum trees still exist within the north-west area. A small niche in the south-east corner of the walled garden highlights the location of a former hot house (B8) (plate 134). This is depicted with a lattice pattern on the second edition OS map confirming that a building at this location was constructed of glass. Garden House An existing pedestrian entrance is located near the centre of the south-west wall of the walled garden, however the wall on either side is off-set and not on the same alignment (plate 135). The resultant gap is closed by a small cast-iron gate at this point (plate 136). According to the present owner, a building known as the Garden House (B7) adjoined the exterior of the walled garden at this location. Remains of the blocked openings of this building are still vis- ible in the surviving garden wall (plates 137 and 138). This was previously known as the Ry- an’s house, who were of the same family as the Ryan’s who lived in the Herdsman’s house. Low Enclosing Wall The intermittent remains of a low wall (B5) (H 1.15m; T 0.35m) enclose a rectangular area to north-west of the courtyard areas (plate 139). It is constructed of rubble limestone with vertical coping. A single circular pier (diam. 0.8m; H 0.8m) survives on the north-east wall and indicates a former pillared entrance (plate 140). This wall, where it survives, is covered in ivy growth. Condition The walls of the walled garden are in a neglected condition for the most part with exposed wall tops allowing water ingress into the masonry. There are large breaches in the wall on the south-west and south-east sides where large expanses have fallen and stone cleared (plate 141). The latter fell in relatively recent years during a storm (Edward Fanning pers. comm.). The walls along these sides are poorly preserved, not only due to long-term neglect, but also poor construction. The south-western wall in particular follows the contour of the slope into a slight depression. A lack of a good foundation has let to structural instability in this wall. A rubble stone buttress reinforces the north-east wall near the blocked pedestrian entrance (plate 142).Eachtra Archaeological Projects 49
  • 60. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Cartographic Analysis & local Information It is clear from both the first and second edition OS maps that the walled garden is clearly depicted as a similar size, plan form and location as it exists today. It is located directly to the south-west of the courtyard areas. Three distinctive areas are depicted within the walled gar- den on the first edition map perhaps indicating three different horticultural functions. An en- trance is clearly shown in the eastern corner and a footpath leading directly to the main house further to east. A small rectangular building depicted on the first edition projects from the interior of the north-east wall and may have been a gardener’s storage shed (B6). This is not depicted on the second edition map. A second small building appears to abut the exterior of the south-west wall and functioned as the gardener’s house (B7). This building is also shown on the second edition map, however neither this nor the other small building exist today. Summary This is an early 19th century walled garden which probably served as a kitchen garden, or- chard and nursery for the estate. Logically, the kitchen garden may have been at the south- east end in close proximity to the main house, the orchard in the centre obtaining maximum sunlight and perhaps a nursery of saplings toward the north-western end. This may also account for the wide access points through the walls at the north-west end. The walls are in a neglected condition with some areas in a poor and ruinous state. It is likely that the small pedestrian entrance leading into the L-shaped courtyard (X) gave direct access to the water supply within. This site is of local architectural, historical and social interest as it forms part of the former Greenhills estate. Pond The pond (B9) is located to north of the main courtyard outbuildings (X, Y and Z) associated with the house. It is referred to as the ‘Lake’ and was used as a temporary holding pond for the waste water derived from the main house and outbuildings (Edward Fanning pers.comm.). The waste water flowed through sub-surface earthenware pipes extending from the house to the pond (ibid). A wide drain allowed the outflow of water from the pond into a wider drain- age system to north-east. The pond is depicted on the 1841 OS map as an elliptical shaped area of water. It was in-filled during the mid-1950s after the house went out of use and there is no longer any visible surface trace (plate 143).Eachtra Archaeological Projects 50
  • 61. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey 3.8 AH 43: Stone wall associated with a road marked on first edition OS map at Busherstown. Location The remains of a disused roadway defined by a stone wall at Busherstown (Ch. 14.550) are located in pasture on a north-east-facing slope. The portion of the old road which is located within the LMA has been partially disturbed during recent fencing works, however close at- tention was paid to the surviving portion on either side for the purpose of the record. Description (Figure 25) The old road essentially survives as a disused trackway (Wth 2.3m) which is largely covered in overgrowth (plate 144). It is cut (Dth c. 0.4-1.0m) into the hillslope for the duration of its length and is defined on either side of this cutting by a drystone retaining wall (int. H 0.4- 1.0m) (plate 145). The base of the cutting is defined by loose pebbles and the upper edge by bushes and trees. Condition The eastern side of the trackway within the LMA has been disturbed during recent fencing works associated with the proposed road (plate 146). The western side of the trackway along this portion is in-situ and is defined by a drystone wall (plate 147). The surviving portion either side of the LMA is well preserved, albeit narrow and partially covered in overgrowth. The trackway is still navigable when growth is low. Historical Background Busherstown is located in the parish of Castletownley. According to Lewis (1837, vol.2, 387), the townland was originally called ‘Bouchardstown’ indicating that it is probably an Anglo- Norman name. According to Riain (1988, 67) ‘Bouchardstown’ was named after Bouchard de Marisco one of the early Normans. The townland was repossessed in the 14th century by the O’Carrolls, but it was forfeited by Teige O’Carroll under the Cromwellian settlement (ibid). A medieval church and graveyard (RMP OF047-009) and a well preserved medieval motte (RMP TI016-003) are located in the vicinity of the study site reflecting the strength of the anglo-norman connection in the area. According to the OS Name Books, Busherstown ‘contains a portion of road leading fromEachtra Archaeological Projects 51
  • 62. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Limerick to Roscrea and a number of bye roads, a few farm houses and others scattered through the townland,’ (O’Flannagan 1930, 164). The study site is located off one of these by-roads to south of the existing Limerick to Roscrea road (N7) where it forms the townland boundary between Busherstown and Moatquarter and the county boundary between Offaly and Tipperary. According to O’Flannagan (1930, 164), the townland contained, ‘five Danish forts, one pump, one gravel pit, one spring well, one triangulation station [and a] gentleman’s seat [with] garden, orchards [and] a curious obelisk. It is described as having some bog and the remainder of land is under arable cultivation (ibid). Cartographic Analysis The first edition OS map shows that the old road (AH 43) forms the south side of a four crossroads which are depicted within the LMA (plate 148). The existing by-road from the Limerick to Roscrea road forms the north and east routes of the crossroads. This road is depicted traversing a small stream to the immediate east of the cross (plate 149). The former roadway to the medieval graveyard is shown on this map edition and forms the west side of the cross. This road no longer survives and the field is currently in pasture at this location (plate 150). There are several buildings depicted on the cross with three flanking the open- ing to the old road. A fourth building is a large rectangular structure on the east side of the stream. It would appear that this area was highly populated during the 1840s and was prob- ably a hub of activity being located at the four crossroads and at a crossing point over a small stream (see bridge at Moatquarter). There are no traces of these buildings above the present ground surface today. A quarry symbol is depicted on the first edition OS map on either side of a bend in the road, which is located within the LMA of the proposed road. These symbols may represent a gravel pit, but it is unknown if this would be the same referred to in the OS Name Books. Summary This road is shown on the 1840s edition OS map and is therefore at least early 19th century in date. Taylor and Skinner’s road maps of the late 18th century cover the main Limerick to Roscrea mail coach road but not the smaller by-roads. It is clear that this road intersects with a four crossroads with a water crossing to east, on the first edition map, indicating that it would have been a popular route in the early 19th century. This site is of limited architectural significance, however, is of general historical and social interest.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 52
  • 63. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey 3.9 Moatquarter: Present road is on a raised causeway and a semi- circular arched bridge. Location A bridge (Ch. 14.680) carrying an existing by-road over a stream in the townland of Moat- quarter will be removed in its entirety as it is located within the LMA of the proposed road (plate 151). The existing structure is located at the base of a valley in undulating pasture. Description (also Figure 25) This is a single-span (L 8.0m), stone arch bridge of rubble limestone, carrying a tertiary road over a small stream. The supporting structure of the bridge is comprised of a semi-circular arch (Wth 2.04m; H 1.2m) with arch ring of roughly hewn limestone voussoirs (plate 152). These purposely shaped arch stones are in contrast with the un-coursed rubble construction of the spandrels and parapet wall. Although the arch is semi-circular, it is slightly skewed, indicating that it is likely to be 19th century in date (plate 153). There are no separately con- structed abutments from which the arch springs on either side. The arch rises directly from the river bed, which has left its base unprotected. The abutments are normally supported on piers which are protected by skirts that prevent the springing from being undermined by river scour (Cox and Gould 2003, 48). In this case, water action has loosened the stones from the base of the arch and has carried them away from this location, probably during high flood waters. The intrados/soffit of the arch is constructed of random rubble stone (plate 154). The un-coursed construction appears to have been bonded with a natural lime mortar which has calcified over time and supports a habitat of smooth, green algae. The base of the random rubble spandrel walls and extrados respect the low river bank to east and west. The parapet walls (T 0.45m) extend from the spandrels and extrados of the arch ring and rise (int. H 0.8-0.9m above the road metal. The same un-coursed construction is continued in the parapet wall and the top is covered by roughly hewn coping stones lying in a random arrangement along the wall top (plate 155). The approach road from north and south is raised on a causeway (H 1.2m) above the poorly drained valley floor. The causeway is defined by retaining walls (H 2.0m) which tie neatly into the parapet walls. The approach wall from north is long and turns sharply at an acute angle in advance of the river crossing. This road approach is typical of older style river crossings before the skewed arch was devel- oped during the construction of the countries railway system in the early 19th century. For this reason, it is probable that the current skewed bridge has replaced an earlier semi-circular arched bridge.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 53
  • 64. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Condition The bridge is covered in dense overgrowth on the south side, however has lighter growth on the north side. Some repair work using modern concrete blocks is evident on approach from the north route (plate 156). The parapet wall has also been breached adjacent the arch on the north side and has fallen outwards (plate 157). The intrados of the arch has loose and missing stones (plate 158) similarly masonry is missing from the springing on the east side (plate 159). The top of parapet wall are not consolidated and the coping is in poor condition. There is no evidence of any modifications to the arch of the bridge, however the bridge is in a neglected condition and is in need of some minor, yet necessary repair and consolidation works. Historical Background Moatquarter is located in the parish of Rathnaveoge. The parish name derives from the Irish ‘Rath’ meaning earthen fort and ‘na veoge’ possibly translating as ‘of the fresh wind’ indi- cating that it may be referring to a ringfort in a prominent position in the landscape. The townland name most likely refers to the location of a conspicuous medieval motte (RMP TI016-003) within the close vicinity of the study site. These placenames indicate that stone or earthen enclosures such as ringforts and a medieval mounds known as a motte, were present in the area. According to the OS Name Books, ‘this is a middle sized townland all arable. It contains a moat and three Danish forts, nothing else remarkable,‘ (O’Flanagan 1930, 214). A medieval church and graveyard (RMP OF047-009) is also located in close proximity due west of the study site. The presence of these monuments indicates that there was medieval settlement activity in the area. The use of the word ‘Danish’ was often used by antiquarians to assign an origin to these mon- uments, however proper excavation has revealed that these monuments were not constructed by the Danes and can date to much earlier in the medieval period. Ringforts are roughly circular or oval in plan form enclosed by a stone wall or walls. The earthen forts are normally referred to as raths and are normally of similar plan form, however the enclosing elements are formed by an earthen bank with an external fosse. Some examples have two (bivallate) or three (trivallate) banks and fosses, but these are less common and have been equated with higher status sites belonging to upper grades of society. Ringforts functioned as residences and/or farmsteads and broadly date from 500 to 1000 AD.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 54
  • 65. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Mottes are high defensive mounds often with an outer fosse and earthworks and a fortifica- tion on top. According to Sweetman (2005, 27) the vast majority of earthwork castles were built in the initial stages of the [Norman] conquest and De Lacy for example had constructed most of his fortifications by 1181. They were essentially constructed during the high medieval period and some may have continued in use until the beginning of the sixteenth century (Sweetman 2005, 28). Many medieval castles had a church within the close vicinity as in this case. The presence of these monument types indicate an organised element of human settle- ment activity within the study area since at least the early and high medieval periods. The stream in which the bridge at moatquarter crosses, forms the townland boundary between Busherstown and Moatquarter and the county boundary between Offaly and Tipperary. Cartographic Analysis The church is depicted within a D-shaped enclosure on the 1835 OS map to west of the bridge at Moatquarter. In reality it is located on a low prominence above the valley floor of the stream. The tertiary road which crosses the bridge at Moatquarter skirts the base of this slope. The first edition OS map shows a four crossroads depicted due west of the water crossing. The existing by-road from the Limerick to Roscrea forms the north and east routes of the cross- roads. The former roadway to the medieval graveyard is shown on this map edition and forms the west side of the cross. This road no longer survives and the field is currently in pasture at this location. The ‘old road’ (AH43) (disused) forms the south side of he crossroads. There are several buildings depicted on the cross with three flanking the opening to the old road (AH 43). A fourth building is a large rectangular structure on the east side of the stream, adjacent the arch of the bridge. It would appear that this area was highly populated during the 1840s and was probably a hub of activity being located at the four crossroads and at a crossing point over a small stream. There are no traces of these buildings above the present ground surface today. Summary This is an early 19th century bridge of rubble stone approached by a causeway at either end and carrying a by-road over a small stream. The arch of the bridge is small and essentially acts as an oversized culvert to carry the road over the stream. A road crosses the stream at the same location on the 1840s OS map, but the bridging structure is not named. The skewed formEachtra Archaeological Projects 55
  • 66. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey of the arch indicates that this is not an early style of bridge. This site is of local architectural significance and interest. 3.10 Castleroan: Standing ruin in vegetation along south side of road. Location The remains of a dwelling (Ch. 16.250) are located c. 6m to the east side of a tertiary road in the townland of Castleroan, County Offaly, c. 1.3km to south-east of the existing N7. The dwelling is located within an area of the existing tertiary road which is to undergo widening as part of the road scheme proposal. The dwelling will be removed in its entirety during these works. The existing structure is located in an area of dense overgrowth, on a gentle north- facing slope. Description (Figures 26-27) These are the remains of an early 19th century dwelling, which are SW-facing onto an existing tertiary road. The building appears to comprise of two parts, with that to ESE being an ad- joining structure and therefore likely to be later. The main structure is a roofless ruin which is so heavily overgrown with vegetation and filled with earthen and stone debris, that the foun- dations of three of the walls can barely be traced (plate 160). Dumping of stone and other debris along the margin between the road and the ruin also made access to the site difficult. The ruin comprises of a rectangular area (dims. 5.2m WNW-ESE; 3.55m SSW-NNE) defined by a low wall (H 0.5m) to ESE, SSW and WNW sides and a well preserved wall (H 1.9m) to NNE (plate 161). The walls are constructed of rubble stone in which the mortar has been leached out. No openings are visible due to the poor state of preservation of the walls. The best preserved wall is to the rear and may not necessarily have had any openings (plate 162). A single-storey, two-bay, roofless ruin constructed of rubble stone walls (T 0.5m) is adjoin- ing to ESE (plate 163). This building defines a rectangular area (dims. 3.45m WNW-ESE; 2.58m SSW-NNE) which has been in-filled with scrap metal and earthen debris (plate 164). The front wall is higher (H 1.85m) than the rear wall (H 1.0m) and the wall to ESE is angled to support a mono-pitch roof). A door opening (H 1.3m; Wth 0.67m; Dth 0.5m) is locatedEachtra Archaeological Projects 56
  • 67. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey at the ESE end of the front elevation (plate 165). The lintel and the WNW jamb have been consolidated using mass concrete. The remains of a possible window opening are located to WNW. Condition These ruins are in a very poor condition, primarily due to the fact that they appear to have been roofless for decades. The surviving wall tops are therefore exposed to the elements (plate 166), causing collapse of most of the structure to WNW. It is possible that the structure ad- joining to ESE may have been roofed until more recently owing to its slightly better state of preservation. The mortar has been leached out of the surviving masonry over a long period of time, a process which probably began with the absence of the roof (plate 167). The consolida- tion and re-pointing of some of the walls using mass concrete is evident and likely represents the last phase of use of this building. Historical Background The townland of Castleroan is located within the parish of Dunkerrin, County Offaly. Ac- cording to the OS Name Books the townland name derives from the Irish ‘Caiseal Ruadhain’ meaning ‘Rowans Cashel’ or stone fort (O’Flanagan 1930, 381). The Parish name of Dunker- rin is an anglicised version of the Irish ‘Dún Cairín’ meaning ‘Kerrin’s fort’ (ibid, 326). These placenames indicate that stone or earthen enclosures such as ringforts or cashels were present in the area. According to O’Flanagan (1930, 381), the townland of Castleroan contains ‘three Danish forts,’ referring to ringforts or cashels. The use of the word ‘Danish’ was often used by antiquarians to assign an origin to these monuments, however proper excavation has revealed that these monuments were not constructed by the Danes and can date to much earlier in the medieval period. Such monuments are roughly circular or oval in plan form enclosed by a stone wall or walls. The earthen forts are normally referred to as raths and are normally of similar plan form, however the enclosing elements are formed by an earthen bank with an external fosse. Some examples have two (bivallate) or three (trivallate) banks and fosses, but these are less common and have been equated with higher status sites belonging to upper grades of society. Cashels and raths both functioned as residences and/or farmsteads and broadly date from 500 to 1000 AD. The presence of these monuments indicates an organised element of human settle- ment activity within the study area since at least the early and high medieval periods.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 57
  • 68. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey The townland of Castleroan comprises mainly of arable land containing, ‘a school, five springs, wells, four limekilns, some farm houses, one sand pit, one gravel pit, one pool and a few scattered trees. The road on which the study site is located links to a main route from Dunkerrin to Templemore. According to the present landowner, this house was last lived in by a family named Talbot, during the 1940s (Mr. Fanning pers. comm.). The last member of this family who left the dwelling in the 1940s, stayed locally until their death c. 4-5 years ago (ibid). The Griffith Valuation map reference to this property is number 10, however the cor- responding Valuation record has been damaged and it is not known precisely who occupied this house in the mid/late 19th century. There are however, two potential owners, both by the name of Talbot. James Talbot occupied a house and garden valued at 6s and land of 1 rood and 36 perches valued at 7s (Griffith 1855, 18). A second building recorded as an office was valued at 5s and was also occupied by a James Talbot (ibid). These buildings were both leased by Lady Carden Smith who was a large landowner related to the well known Carden family of Templemore. Cartographic Analysis The study site appears to be depicted on 1840 edition OS map, on the eastern side of the tertiary road. It is likely that this building dates to at least the early 19th century based on the map evidence. Other small houses are scattered along this road on both sides and a school is located to NW. The 19th century road on which the study site is located, linked the Limerick to Roscrea mail coach road with Templemore. Summary This is an early 19th century structure with later addition and is believed to be the remains of a house or office. A building of similar size and plan form is depicted on the 1840s OS map at this approximate location. The building is known to have been abandoned in the 1940s since which it has probably fallen into disrepair. It may have undergone a subsequent use as a storage shed when parts of the walls were rebuilt with mass concrete. The poor state of preservation of this building and adjoining structure render it of very little architectural significance or interest.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 58
  • 69. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey 4. Conclusions & Recommendations Comments on architectural interest of buildings/structures. The examination of the nine study areas was carried out with a clear understanding of the ar- chitectural nature of each structure within. All of the study sites are of local architectural and historical interest. The following recommendations are given with respect to those buildings and structures which will be physically impacted upon by the proposed development: AH 63: Entrance to Lissanisky House • Justificaiton for modification/demolition of entrance and portion of avenue to Lis- sanisky Demesne from an engineering view point as this entrance forms part of the curtilage of Lissanisky House which is a Protected Structure and is itemised in the RPS as a surviving estate feature. • If proposed works are deemed necessary from an engineering view point and are sanctioned by the County Council, a full measured survey and record should be car- ried out of the entrance in advance of any demolition. • If sanctioned by the County Council, it is recommended that the cut stone of the en- trance piers should be carefully dismantled and used in the rebuilding of the entrance after the tertiary road has been modified. • It is recommended that the rubble stone of the crescent shaped wall should be re-used where possible during the rebuild of the entrance. AH 45: Country house (no longer extant), derelict outbuildings, courtyards marked on first edition OS map and some 19th century structures at Greenhills. • The engine house (B2) may be physically impacted upon during the proposed works as it abuts the southern edge of the LMA. Please provide information as to how this building will be protected during the construction process. • The north corner of the walled garden (B3) will be profoundly impacted upon by the proposed development. A programme of rectified photography should be carried out for the portion of wall within the LMA in order that it may be preserved by record. Moatquarter: Present road is on a raised causeway and a semi-circular arched bridge.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 59
  • 70. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey • The bridge and causeway will be profoundly impacted upon by the proposed develop- ment as they are within the LMA and scheduled for demolition. A measured survey should be carried out using rectified photography in order that these structures may be preserved by record.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 60
  • 71. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey 5. Glossary The following list explains the architectural and historical terminology used throughout this report, after Blockley 2005 (engineering), Cox and Gould 2003 (bridges), Fleming (et al) 1999 (architecture and landscape architecture), McAfee 1997 (stone walls) and O’Reilly 2004 (vernacular): Abutment generally the body which provides the resistance of a bridge, usually of a single arch i.e. the resistance for that arch at the ends of a bridge. Anglo-Norman commonly applied to a period from the Anglo-Norman invasion of period 1169 to the end of the 14th century. Arch a structural element with a curved soffit, capable of spanning a horizontal gap and of carrying its own weight and other loads. Arch ring the assembly of voussoirs in a masonry arch between the extrados and the intrados (also arch rib). Ahslar finely cut stone laid with very fine joints. (Clocha cóirithe in Irish). Barge (board) projecting boards placed against the incline of the gable of a building, hiding the ends of the horizontal roof timbers; sometimes decorated. Barrel roof a simple form of vault on a roof with a continuous semi-circular profile. Bay a ‘bay’ corresponds to an opening in the front wall of a building. A house with a door and three windows is said to be a ‘four-bay house’. Bitumen a black sticky complex mixture of hydrocarbons obtained from natural deposits or distilled from petroleum. Its uses include road surfaces and roofing. Buttress a mass of masonry projecting from or built up against a wall to give it additional strength and support. Brackets a small supporting piece of metal, stone or other material to carry a projecting weight. Camber arch a horizontal member with a slight convexity. Cast iron a brittle alloy of iron and carbon often referred to as ‘grey iron’ as it has a higher percentage of carbon in the alloy than wrought iron (up to 5% whereas wrought iron has less than 0.5%). Of low ductility, it is shaped or cast in moulds, usually of compressed sand. Cattle crush a narrow holding stall to keep cattle stationery i.e. for dosing. Chimney flue a duct in a chimney for smoke and waste gasses.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 61
  • 72. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Chimney stack a vertical pipe or chimney that projects above the surface of a roof and contains one or more flues. Coping the covering atop a wall or parapet designed to repel water, which may otherwise react with lime mortar and weaken fabric of masonry. May be stones replaced length ways along a wall top, vertically on end or vertically on edge i.e. as per through stones. Courtyard a court or enclosed ground associated with a house. Crenellation The toothed upper portion of a defensive parapet consisting of crenels (gaps) between merlons. Crescent a semi-ellipse of a circle. Dowell a headless peg without a thread normally used for holding together components e.g. a joint in a timber truss. Downpipe the vertical member of rainwater goods on a building or structure to carry roof water from a system of guttering below the eaves to a drain at ground level. Demesne the manorial home farm, land usually retained by the lord for his own use, on which tenants were expected to work in part-return for their tenancies. Dressing the product of finely scoring or tooling a pattern onto the surface of a cut stone to produce an even surface. Drystone Masonry constructed without mortar or other bonding agent. Eaves The lower part of a sloping roof overhanging a wall. Elevation any face of a building. Elliptical arch an ellipse or segment of a circle drawn from a centre below the springing line. Also referred to as a segmental arch. Embrasure The recesses for doorways and windows. Extrados the convex surface of an arch. Façade the face of a building – especially the front – or the cladding. Facia board board running along the eaves of a building covering the ends of rafters. Flashings a strip used to seal a junction, e.g. lead or bitumen felt on a roof between two surfaces to exclude rainwater. Flat arch a horizontal member with no convexity i.e. lintelled. Fosse a ditch or moat surrounding a defended or enclosed area. Galvanize process of coating iron or steel with zinc, essentially by hot dipping, to giveEachtra Archaeological Projects 62
  • 73. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey protection against corrosion by rust. Georgian period of time (1714-1830) spanning the reign of the four Georges (I period to IV) of England. Guano distinct phrase used to describe bird excrement, particularly sea fowl. Gable the vertical end elevation of a building or structure. Gutter a channel which leads rainwater away. Hanging-eye projecting stone with socket accommodating the upper pintle of a door hinge. Harling the process of covering outside walls with plaster mixed with coarse aggregate such as gravel. See wet dashing. Hipped roof a pitched roof with sloping ends rather than vertical gables. Horn an extension of a sliding-sash stile that strengthens the joint between it and the meeting rail. Ingoings the sides of an embrasure. In-situ retaining in its place i.e. as is. Jamb the vertical side member of a doorframe, casement window frame, fireplace etc. Joists the timbers supporting floor boards. Intrados the concave surface of an arch. Key stone the voussoir placed last at the crown (top) of an arch. Kitchen garden a garden where vegetables are cultivated for the kitchen. Lean-to a shed or other structure propped against another building or wall. Limekiln A structure in which lime is made by calcining limestone. These date from the medieval period (5th-16th centuries AD) onwards. Lime-plaster a wall rendering formed from lime, sand and water. Lime-wash a light wall rendering made from lime and water. A pigment may be added to produce a colour wash. Line and rule a pattern created on wet render to simulate a block-like construction. Lintel a beam supporting the masonry above a door or window opening. Load the forces applied to a structure. Mason’s mark unique symbol scored into a stone of a building or structure by the mason. This stone signature allows others to identify his work.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 63
  • 74. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Medieval commonly applied to a broad period from 5th century AD to the end of period the 17th century AD. Merlon The solid portion of a crenellated feature between the crenels. Mortar agent used to bond stone, traditionally comprising of lime and sand. Modern elements include cement and concrete mixtures. Newel post the central post in a winding staircase, or principal at the end of a straight fight of stairs. Outbuilding a building separate from, but used in connection with, a main house or building. Parapet wall the wall rising above the road metal or road plates at either side of a bridge and defining the edges for the load to pass between. Pier an intermediate support between two elements of the superstructure of a bridge. Pintle Shaft or rod on which a door or shutter turns. Sometimes referred to as a hanging stile. Attached to a hanging-eye at the top and a spudstone at the base. Purlin in roof construction, a horizontal timber resting on the principal rafters and forming an intermediate support for the common rafters. Quoin a masonry reinforcement at the corner of a wall. (Cloch choirnéil chúinne in Irish). Rafter one of a set of parallel sloping beams that form the main structural element of a roof. Rendering the plastering of an outer wall. Retaining wall a wall built to prevent the movement of loose material or fill. Ridge the outer apex of a roof. Ridge beam the roof timber running along the ridge of a roof. It is often of quite slight dimensions. The upper end of the blades of a couple truss or the rafters of a ‘modern’ truss connect to it. Riser board the vertical face of a step. Road metal the upper surface of a road. Sash a glazed frame forming part of a window, sometimes fixed but more often made to slide or to pivot on hinges. Semi-circular an arch which has a semi-circular intrados by having its centre on the arch springing line. Also referred to as a round arch.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 64
  • 75. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Skewed arch oblique arch which is not symmetrical. Skirt a protective surround to a bridge pier to counter the scouring action of a river. Slit opening long, narrow opening to allow fresh air to enter a building and circulate without creating a draft. Normally seen in outbuildings such as cow houses or stables. They are also referred to as air vents. Soffit the underside of an arch or beam. Span the distance between the supports of an arch or beam. Spandrel the space between the extrados of an arch, or two adjacent arches, and the bottom of the road metal or road plates. Splay the oblique face of the jamb of an opening: an angle of reveal. Springing the lowest point on an arch at which it ‘springs’ from an abutment or pier. Stone stile a step or set of steps for climbing over a wall or fence. String course horizontal courses (sometimes projecting or moulded) built into the faces of walls to acts as a tie, or to emphasise the structure. Storey all that part of a building on the same floor. Through stone a stone placed with its long-axis across the width of a wall during construction. Placed at intervals during building in order to provide increased structural support. Tie-beam the horizontal supporting member of a roof structure connecting two rafters. Tread board the horizontal surface of a step. Tree-lined a designed approach to a large country residence delineated by avenue parallel lines of trees. These date from the 17th to the 19th century. Truss A framed structure for supporting a weight, i.e. in a roof. Vernacular The term applied to the vast bulk of the world’s architecture. Vernacular buildings are the work of ‘ordinary’ people as distinct from professional builders or architects and are the result of long-standing tradition rather than the drawing-board. Voussoir one of the wedge-shaped stones forming an arch. Walled garden sizeable garden area enclosed by a wall often associated with a large demesne and containing a kitchen garden. Wall hangers Rectangular opening in the interior of a wall to accommodate a joist.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 65
  • 76. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Wet dashing Traditional Irish method of ‘throwing on’ a lime and aggregate wet mix to a wall in one or more coats. In Scotland it is called harling and, in parts of England, roughcast. Wrought iron a tough very malleable form of iron with low carbon content suitable for forg- ing or rolling rather than casting. Manufactured from pig iron melted with mill scale in a special furnace. Any iron not cast and which dates from before 1860-70 is almost certainly wrought iron and not steel.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 66
  • 77. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey 6. References Abbreviations Ch. Chainage LMA Lands Made Available NIAH National Inventory of Architectural Heritage OSNB Ordnance Survey Name Books RMP Record of Monuments and Places Bibliography Aalen, F et al. (2000) Atlas of the Irish Rural Landscape. Cork University Press. Bence-Jones, M. 1978. Burke’s Guide to County Houses, vol. 1 Ireland. London: Burke’s Peerage Ltd. Blockley, D. 2005 New Dictionary of Civil Engineering. Dublin: Penguin Ireland. Byrne, J. 2004 Byrne’s dictionary of Irish Local History. Cork: Mercier Press. Cox, R and Gould, M. Drs. 2003 Ireland’s Bridges. Dublin: Wolfhound Press. Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government. 2004 Architectural Heritage Protection: Guidelines for Planning Authorities. Dublin: Stationery Office. Department of Arts, Heritage, Gaeltacht and the Islands. 1999a Framework and Principles for the Protection of the Archaeological Heritage. Dublin: Government Publications Office. Fleming, J. et al 1999 Dictionary of Architecture & Lanscape. London: Penguin. Griffith, R. 1853 Primary Valuation of Tenements: County Tipperary, Parish of Ballymackey. Dublin. Griffith, R. 1853 Primary Valuation of Tenements: County Tipperary, Parish of Cullenwaine. Dublin.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 67
  • 78. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Griffith, R. 1855 Primary Valuation of Tenements: County Offaly, Parish of Dunkerrin. Dublin. McAfee, P. 1997 Irish Stone Walls. Dublin: O’Brien Press. Montgomery-Massingbred, H. (ed.) 1976. Burke’s Irish Family Records. London: Burke’s Peerage Ltd. North Tipperary Council. 2004 County Development Plan 2004-2010. Appendix 3, Record of Protected Structures. Nenagh: North Tipperary County Council. O’Flannagan, Rev.M (Typescript) (1930). Ordnance Survey Name Books for Kings County. (Aghanoon to Durrow). Bray. O’Flanagan, Rev. M. (compiler) (1930) Letter containing information relative to the antiquity of the County Tipperry, collected during progress of Ordnance Survey in 1840. Typescript in 3 vols. Bray. O’Flannagan, Rev.M (Typescript) (1930). Ordnance Survey Name Books for Co. Tipperary. (Abington to Barrets Grange). Bray O’Flannagan, Rev.M (Typescript) (1930). Ordnance Survey Name Books for Co. Tipperary. (Corbally to Finoe) Bray. O’Flannagan, Rev.M (Typescript) (1930). Ordnance Survey Name Books for Co. Tipperary. (Monsea to Redcity & Colman). Bray. O’Reilly, B. 2004 Living Under Thatch. Cork: Mercier Press. Lewis, S. 1837 A Topographical Dictionary of Ireland, Vol. II. London. O’Rian, S. 1988 Dunkerrin: A Parish in Ely O’Carroll: A history of Dunkerrin Parish from 1200AD to the present time. Dunkerrin History Committee. Unknown. Irish Wills Index (1484-1858). Dublin. Valuation Office. 1848 Valuation Office House Books, vol. 1796, Parish of Ballymackey. Public Records Office.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 68
  • 79. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Valuation Office. 1848 Valuation Office House Books, vol. 1592, Parish of Cullenivane. Public Records Office. Cartographic Sources Dúchas – the Heritage Service. 1997 Record of Monuments and Places Map of County Offaly. Dublin. Dúchas – the Heritage Service. 1997 Record of Monuments and Places Map of County Tipperary. Dublin. Ordnance Survey. 1840-1 First edition six-inch map. Dublin. Ordnance Survey. 1904 Second edition six-inch map. Dublin. Ordnance Survey. 2001 Discovery Series second edition 1:50,000. Dublin. Taylor and Skinner. 1783 Road Maps of Ireland: Road from Dublin to Limerick. Second edition. Online Sources www.buildingsofIreland.ie Database of the National Inventory of Architectural Heritage (NIAH). Accessed 11/01/08. www.tipperarynorth.ie/docs/Planning/County_Development_Plan2004-2010/Appendix3. pdf www.concrete.ie 2003 Irish Concrete Society. Accessed 12/12/07. Measurement Abbreviations c. circa diam. diameter dims. dimensions Dth: Depth ext. externalEachtra Archaeological Projects 69
  • 80. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey H: Height int. internal L: Length Wth: Width T: Thickness Personal Communication Mr. Fanning, landowner of ruinous house, Castleroan, Dunkerrin, County Offaly. Met 26/11/07. Landowner of old road (AH 43) at Busherstown adjacent to bridge at Moatquarter. Met 25/10/07. Mr. Edward Fanning, landowner of the former Greenhills Estate (AH 45), (near Moneygall), County Tipperary. Met 15/02/08. Landowner of Lissanisky House (AH63), Lissanisky, Toomyvara, County Tipperary. Met 25/10/07. Mr. Grace Snr. and Stephen Grace (Jnr), landowner of two-storey farmhouse and vernacular outbuildings at Clash, near Toomyvara, County Tipperary. Met 27/10/07.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 70
  • 81. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey 7. Acknowledgements Many thanks to the landowners who gave up their time to discuss the buildings in question, particularly Edward Fanning of Greenhills who gave a guided tour of the estate buildings and provided significant photographic material of the former house.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 71
  • 82. 8Eachtra Archaeological Projects Figures Castleroan Ruin N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Busherstown AH43 Greenhills AH45 Moatquarter Bridge Park AH51 Clash AH58 Clash AH67 Lissanisky AH63 Derrybane AH65 P ro je ct: D escription: N otes : Architectural study of built heritage on the N7 N 7 CASTLETOWN TO NENAGH SCHEME D o no t sc ale DERR IN SALLAGH to B AL LINTOTTY Drg n o: C li en t: L ice nce No: L a ois County Council Scale: NTS D a te: D ra wn By: 10:02:08 E .OM Figure 1: Location of the nine study sites along the proposed route.72
  • 83. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey 6200 6100 6000 5900 0 580 5700 0 560 0 550 5400 5300 5200 0 510 5000 00 49 0 480 4700 4600 4500 4400 00 43 4200 4100 4000 3900 3800 3700 3600 3500 3400 3300 3200 00 31 00 30 00 29 00 28 00 27 2600 Figure 2a: Location of the nine study sites along the proposed route. 2500 2400 2300 2200 2100 2000 1900 1800 AH63 1700 1600 1500 0 140 00 13 0 120 00 11 00 10 0 90 AH65 800 700 1 Km 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 00 -1 0 -20 -300 -400 0Eachtra Archaeological Projects 73
  • 84. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey 12800 12700 12600 12500 12400 12300 12200 12100 AH45 12000 11900 0 1180 11700 0 1160 0 1150 0 1140 11300 11200 0 1110 0 1100 0 1090 10800 10700 10600 10500 10400 10300 10200 10100 10000 9900 9800 9700 9600 9500 9400 Figure 2b: Location of the nine study sites along the proposed route. 9300 9200 9100 00 90 00 89 00 88 00 87 00 86 00 85 00 84 00 83 00 82 00 81 00 80 00 AH51 79 00 78 7700 00 76 0 750 7400 1 Km 7300 AH57 7200 7100 7000 6900 AH58 6800 6700 6600 6500 6400 6300 0 6200Eachtra Archaeological Projects 74
  • 85. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey 19800 19700 19600 19500 19400 1930019200 19100 19000 18900 18800 18700 18600 18500 18400 18300 18200 18100 18000 0 1790 0 1780 0 1770 0 1760 0 50 17 0 40 17 0 30 17 0 20 17 0 10 17 0 00 17 0 90 16 0 80 16 0 70 16 0 60 16 0 50 16 0 40 16 0 30 16 0 20 16 0 10 Ruin 16 0 00 16 Figure 2c: Location of the nine study sites along the proposed route. 0 90 15 0 80 15 0 70 15 0 60 15 0 50 15 0 1540 0 1530 0 1520 0 1510 0 00 15 0 90 Bridge 14 0 80 14 0 70 14 0 60 14 0 50 14 AH43 0 40 14 14300 14200 14100 14000 13900 13800 13700 13600 1 Km 13500 13400 13300 13200 13100 13000 12900 12800 12700 12600 12500 0 12400Eachtra Archaeological Projects 75
  • 86. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey 200 m 0 0 13 0 120 0 00 11 0 0 AH65 10 Figure 3: Extract from first edition OS map showing the smithy (AH65). 0 90 800 700 600 NEachtra Archaeological Projects 76
  • 87. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey 200 m 0 0 13 0 120 0 00 11 0 0 AH65 10 Figure 4: Extract from second edition OS map showing the smithy (AH65). 0 90 800 700 600 NEachtra Archaeological Projects 77
  • 88. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey 200 m 2200 2100 0 2000 1900 Figure 5: Extract from first edition OS map showing Lissanisky entrance (AH63). AH63 1800 1700 1600 0 150 NEachtra Archaeological Projects 78
  • 89. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey 200 m 2200 2100 0 2000 Figure 6: Extract from second edition OS map showing Lissanisky entrance (AH63). 1900 AH63 1800 1700 1600 0 150 NEachtra Archaeological Projects 79
  • 90. N Public tertiary roadEachtra Archaeological Projects N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Sycamore Grass Sycamore verge Beech Wall Wall Pier Cattle grid Oak Entrance Avenue Oak .5 m 0 5m Figure 7: Sketch plan of Lissanisky entrance (AH63).80
  • 91. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey 200 m 7400 7300 0 7200 Figure 8: Extract from first edition OS map showing vernacular complex (AH58). 7100 7000 6900 AH58 6800 6700 NEachtra Archaeological Projects 81
  • 92. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey 200 m 7400 7300 0 7200 Figure 9: Extract from second edition OS map showing vernacular complex (AH58). 7100 7000 6900 AH58 6800 6700 NEachtra Archaeological Projects 82
  • 93. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey B1 B2 Figure 10: Detail from 25inch OS map showing vernacular complex (AH58). B3Eachtra Archaeological Projects 83
  • 94. NEachtra Archaeological Projects Front Front door ope N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Cupboard Adjoining lean to: Parlour Stairs possible out-house (gone) Rear Kitchen/Living projection Adjoining two Fireplace Fireplace Fireplace of kitchen storey addition fireplace Cupboard/ Cloaks Oven Rear Figure 11: Sketch plan of farmhouse (AH58: B1).84
  • 95. NEachtra Archaeological Projects N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Slit opes/ Air vents Slit ope/ air vent Slit ope/ air vent Farm Trackway Vertical support logs Door opening Barn (jams and lintal missing) Shed/Calf house Wall of ruin covered in Preserved Possible Door Window open arch Arch blocked with vegetation doorway ope ope mass concrete Figure 12: Sketch plan of shed and barn (AH58: B3).85
  • 96. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey 200 m 0 8 20 AH51 1 00 8 0 0 0 80 0 0 79 Figure 13: Extract from first edition OS map showing house and complex (AH51). 00 78 0 770 6 00 7 7 500 NEachtra Archaeological Projects 86
  • 97. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey 200 m 2 00 8 0 0 81 0 AH 51 0 0 80 0 0 79 Figure 14: Extract from second edition OS map showing house and complex (AH51). 00 78 0 770 6 00 7 0 750 NEachtra Archaeological Projects 87
  • 98. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey B6 B5 B4 B2 Figure 15: Detail from 25inch OS map showing house and complex (AH51).Eachtra Archaeological Projects 88
  • 99. N DoorwayEachtra Archaeological Projects Doorway Adjoining building demolished N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Water Water Pressure Wall presses trough trough Gauge Farm Trackway Slit ope/Air vent Slit ope/Air vent Modern wall Fig:14 Plan of cow house note it is NTS Figure 16: Sketch plan of cow house/stables (AH 51:B2)89
  • 100. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey 200 m 12600 12500 0 12400 12300 Figure 17: Extract from first edition OS map showing house and complex (AH45). 12200 AH 51 12100 12000 11900 NEachtra Archaeological Projects 90
  • 101. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey 200 m 12600 12500 0 12400 Figure 18: Extract from second edition OS map showing house and complex (AH45). 12300 12200 AH 51 12100 12000 11900 NEachtra Archaeological Projects 91
  • 102. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey B9 B2 B1 B3 B7 B6 B10 Figure 19: Detail from first edition OS map showing house and complex (AH45).Eachtra Archaeological Projects 92
  • 103. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey B9 B2 B1 B3 B7 B6 B10 Figure 20: Detail from 25” OS map showing house and complex (AH45).Eachtra Archaeological Projects 93
  • 104. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Rear F.P. F.P. Bedroom Main Partition (gone) Bedroom First Floor Level Bedroom Blocked and Front truncated window ope Exterioor Wall of L-shaped Courtyard Rear F.P. F.P. Living Ground Floor Kitchen Room Level Front Figure 21: Sketch plan of Herdsman’s House (B1).Eachtra Archaeological Projects 94
  • 105. Eachtra Archaeological Projects Narrow door ope Vertical Supporting Log N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Logs Tuncated & Removed Blocked ope Ramp Up Cattle Crib Blocked door ope Projecting stone Door ope with Wide door ope at first floor level later window insert with later window insert Wide door for machinery Figure 22: Sketch plan of Engine House (B2).95
  • 106. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Figure 23: Photogrammetry of walled garden (B3).Eachtra Archaeological Projects 96
  • 107. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Figure 24: Aerial Photo of walled garden (AH45).Eachtra Archaeological Projects 97
  • 108. N 14 90 0 KeelogEachtra Archaeological Projects e Stre 14 am 80 0 N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey 14 70 0 146 0 0 145 00 AH43 14 4 00 200 m 1430 0 0 142 0 Figure 25: Extract from first edition OS map showing old road (AH 43) and Moatquarter Bridge.98
  • 109. N 16 6 00 16Eachtra Archaeological Projects 5 00 16 4 N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey 00 16 30 0 16 20 0 16 10 0 16 00 0 15 90 0 200 m 0 Figure 26: Extract from first edition OS map showing ruin at Castleroan.99
  • 110. N FenceEachtra Archaeological Projects Overgrown with trees N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Main Structure Ajoining Wall not visible Structure Pasture Breaches (undiagnostic) Door Window ope ope Dump of stone/debris Public tertiary road Figure 27: Sketch plan of ruin. Castleroan Fig 22100
  • 111. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey 9 Plates Plate 1: From WNW. West gable of smithy Plate 2: From E. East gable of smithy.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 101
  • 112. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 3: From S. Front of smithy covered by existing N7 (between ranging rod and wall). Plate 4: From W. Close-up of uncoursed rubble of west gable wall.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 102
  • 113. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 5: From N. View of rear of smithy covered in dense overgrowth. Plate 6: From WNW. Entrance to Lissanisky House with avenue in background.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 103
  • 114. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 7: From SSW. Outer angle of squared quoins on northern side of entrance. Plate 8: From WNW. Pier at southern side of entrance with avenue in background.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 104
  • 115. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 9: From S. Plain capstone on southern pillar of entrance. Plate 10: From WNW. Pier at northern side of entrance with disused hanging eye.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 105
  • 116. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 11: From NE. Front elevation of vernacular farmhouse. Plate 12: From NE. Two-storey extension adjoining east gable of farmhouse.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 106
  • 117. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 13: From S. Surviving window shutters of farmhouse. Plate 14: From S. Small one-over-one vertical sliding sash window in rear elevation.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 107
  • 118. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 15: From NW. Remnants of farmhouse roof. Plate 16: From SW. Wide chimney stack of pale yellow brick on west gable of farmhouse.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 108
  • 119. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 17: From ENE. Eastern gable of two-storey addition. Plate 18: From NE. Roof of two-storey addition.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 109
  • 120. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 19: : From E. Collapsed first floor level. Plate 20: From N. Scar in lobby wall indicating location of staircase.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 110
  • 121. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 21: From N. Interior walls rendered, plastered and painted. Plate 22: From WNW. Blocked-up, kitchen fireplace in the east gable wall of farmhouse.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 111
  • 122. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 23: From S. Interior of front ground floor window embrasure of addition. Plate 24: From W. Small brick fireplace in centre of east gable of addition.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 112
  • 123. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 25: From W. Wall press adjacent to north of fireplace in addition. Plate 26: From NE. Front elevation of barn and addition.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 113
  • 124. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 27: From SE. Rear elevation of barn. Plate 28: From W. Drystone buttress.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 114
  • 125. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 29: From NE. Remains of front of addition. Plate 30: From NW. Front of barn and addition and also showing buttress and crush.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 115
  • 126. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 31: From SE. Front elevation of shed. Plate 32: From SE. Detail of square window with wooden frames.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 116
  • 127. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 33: From NW. Rear elevation of shed. Plate 34: From NE. Gable with loft door opening.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 117
  • 128. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 35: From NW. Rear wall of barn. Plate 36: From SE: Exterior of elliptical opening blocked with mass concrete.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 118
  • 129. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 37: From NW. Interior of elliptical opening blocked on exterior by earthen debris. Plate 38: From W. Interior showing collapsed section of front elevation.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 119
  • 130. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 39: From SW. Remains of a door opening in the south-west gable. Plate 40: From NE. Modern sawn timbers indicating roof re-fit.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 120
  • 131. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 41: From SE. Underside of roof slate lain directly on top of modern timbers Plate 42: From S. Poor condition of barn showing roof, walls and build up of debris & ivy.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 121
  • 132. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 43: From SW. Modern milking parlour adjacent to north of farmhouse (B1). Plate 44: From SSE. Boundary wall to east of farmyard.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 122
  • 133. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 45: From ESE. Stone stile on the exterior of boundary wall. Plate 46: From S. Mason’s mark ‘Meagher _ _21’ on cement plaque (broken) on wall.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 123
  • 134. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 47: From NW. Front elevation. Plate 48: From NW. Detail of brick quoins.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 124
  • 135. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 49: From WSW. South-west gable. Plate 50: From SE. rear elevation.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 125
  • 136. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 51: From W. Open concrete water tank abutting south-west gable. Plate 52: From W. Pillared pedestrian entrance with cast iron gate & wrought detail.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 126
  • 137. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 53: From NE. Mass concrete garage/machinery port. Plate 54: From ESE. Front elevation.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 127
  • 138. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 55: From WNW. Remains of roof ridge of adjoining building (now demolished). Plate 56: From NNW. Rear of outbuilding showing roof.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 128
  • 139. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 57: From SW. Interior showing dividing wall, slit opening and drinking trough. Plate 58: From SW. Replacement roof structure.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 129
  • 140. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 59: From NNW. Front and side elevations of concrete animal housing. Plate 60: From SW. SW-elevation of rubble stone.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 130
  • 141. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 61: From NW. NW-elevation of concrete and later openings. Plate 62: From SE. Rubble stone dividing wall within interior.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 131
  • 142. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 63: From SSE. Area of former cattle stalls/milking parlour (disused). Plate 64: From NW. Front elevation.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 132
  • 143. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 65: From NE. Gable-end wall Plate 66: From SE. Rear elevation and engaged round pillar.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 133
  • 144. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 67: From NE. Interior showing original rubble walls and concrete addition to height. Plate 68: From NW. Adjoining shed of similar construction and modifications.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 134
  • 145. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 69: From E. Surviving buildings (B1 and B2) on the former Greenhills estate. Plate 70: From E. Front and side view of house in 1908 (Photo courtesy of Edward Fanning©).Eachtra Archaeological Projects 135
  • 146. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 71: From WSW. Rear and side view of house c. 2000 (Edward Fanning ©). Plate 72: From SE. SE-elevation of house c. 2000 (Edward Fanning ©).Eachtra Archaeological Projects 136
  • 147. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 73: From SE Area of former house. Plate 74: From SW. Vista from former house overlooking area of former cricket ground.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 137
  • 148. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 75: From W. Old blocks of former house. Plate 76: From NE. Front elevation of dwelling (B1).Eachtra Archaeological Projects 138
  • 149. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 77: From NE. Front elevation showing truncated first floor window openings. Plate 78: From NE. Close view of masonry.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 139
  • 150. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 79: From NE. Left window opening reduced in size to facilitate modern frame. Plate 80: From NE. Truncated wall top and windows at first floor level.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 140
  • 151. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 81: From SSE. SE-gable and openings. Plate 82: From SE. Door opening in SE- gable.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 141
  • 152. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 83: From SE. Cast-iron hanging eye and vertical cast iron pintle with decorative detail. Plate 84: From SSW. Red brick chimney flue in rear elevation.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 142
  • 153. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 85: From NW. NW-gable and features. Plate 86: From SSW. Rear pitch of roof.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 143
  • 154. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 87: From SE. Tools house in room on ground floor. Plate 88: From NE. Small cast iron tools.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 144
  • 155. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 89: From SSE. Slight projection in centre of rear wall and scar of blocked fireplace. Plate 90: From SE. Joists and underside of first floor boards.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 145
  • 156. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 91: From NE. Half-turn, open staircase. Plate 92: From NE. Scar of former closed string.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 146
  • 157. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 93: From SW. Possible area of former cupboard on first floor landing. Plate 94: From N. First floor ceiling respecting line of A-frame roof structure.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 147
  • 158. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 95: From NW. Scar of former partition wall dividing room. Plate 96: From N. Breached ceiling exposing roof structure and modern repairs.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 148
  • 159. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 97: From SW. Breached ceiling exposing roof structure and modern repairs. Plate 98: From NNW. Freshly sawn roof timbers and reuse of old timbers as tie beams.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 149
  • 160. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 99: From NW. Interior of door opening into north-west room, at top of staircase. Plate 100: From NE. Scar of blocked fireplace in rear wall, first floor.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 150
  • 161. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 101: From ENE. Fireplace surround from main house. Plate 102: From NE. Original front door frame of former main house.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 151
  • 162. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 103: From NE. Decayed red brick of front door jamb. Plate 104: From NE. Guano on staircase and first floor landing.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 152
  • 163. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 105: From ESE. Best view of front elevation of engine house (B2). Plate 106: From SE. Central ground floor window opening with brick arch and jambs.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 153
  • 164. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 107: From S. SW-gable and features. Plate 108: From SSW. Blocked up ground floor doorway in SW-gable.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 154
  • 165. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 109: From SSW. Consolidation work on SW-gable using mass concrete. Plate 110: From NW. Rear elevation.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 155
  • 166. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 111: From NW. Wrought iron gate on rear elevation (not in-situ). Plate 112: From E. NE-gable with large quoins evident.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 156
  • 167. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 113: From NE. Broken wall at NW- end of NE-gable. Plate 114: From N. Low remains of the rear wall of the square courtyard.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 157
  • 168. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 115: From NE. Open plan interior of engine house. Plate 116: From NW. Interior of wide door opening in front elevation – note wooden lintel.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 158
  • 169. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 117: From SW. Truncated stump of former vertical support. Plate 118: From NE. Exposed stone and mass concrete repair, first floor level, SW-gable.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 159
  • 170. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 119: From S. Principal A-frame rafter with a main tie beam holding centre of roof. Plate 120: From SW. Lower end of principal rafter set into masonry near wall top.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 160
  • 171. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 121: From SE. Series of rafters, purlins and battens forming a lattice pattern. Plate 122: From SE. Breach in first floor timbers.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 161
  • 172. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 123: From ESE. Northern area of the walled garden fenced off within the LMA. Plate 124: From SSE. Northern area of walled garden within LMA – note recent breach.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 162
  • 173. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 125: From NW. Interior of former walled garden, now pasture. Plate 126: From NE. Portion of exterior showing rubble construction.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 163
  • 174. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 127: From SW. Double-faced limestone wall with exposed rubble core. Plate 128: From NE. Exterior of wall in area of farmyard area (Z) and blocked ventilation slits.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 164
  • 175. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 129: From SW. Concrete stanchion. Plate 130: From N. Rounded corner at north turning into farmyard area (Z).Eachtra Archaeological Projects 165
  • 176. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 131: From SW. Interior of arch in north-east wall. Plate 132: From SW. Exterior of arch in south-west wall.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 166
  • 177. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 133: From SW. Blocked pedestrian entrance in north-east wall. Plate 134: From SW. Niche of former hot house.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 167
  • 178. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 135: From E. Pedestrian entrance near centre of south-west wall. Plate 136: From NE. Small cast iron gate at pedestrian entrance in south-west wall.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 168
  • 179. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 137: From NE. Blocked window opening. Plate 138: From NE. Blocked door openingEachtra Archaeological Projects 169
  • 180. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 139: From SE. Interior of low wall enclosing farmyard area (Z). Plate 140: From NW. Single circular pier indicates a former pillared entrance.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 170
  • 181. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 141: From SW. Large breach in south-west wall of former garden. Plate 142: From NW. Rubble stone buttress reinforcing north-east wall.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 171
  • 182. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 143: From NE. Area of former pond – note engine house to rear. Plate 144: From N. Remains of old road survive as disused, sunken trackway.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 172
  • 183. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 145: From E. Drystone retaining wall defining sides of trackway. Plate 146: From S. Eastern side of the trackway within the LMA recently disturbed.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 173
  • 184. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 147: From E. Western side of the trackway along disturbed area is in-situ. Plate 148: From E. General view of former cross roads (to rear of parapet wall of bridge).Eachtra Archaeological Projects 174
  • 185. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 149: From NNW. View of former crossroads from bridge crossing. Plate 150: From ESE. Area of pasture where former graveyard road extended from crossroads.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 175
  • 186. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 151: From NW. North side of bridge showing arch, extrados and parapet wall. Plate 152: From S. Semi-circular arch and silhouette.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 176
  • 187. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 153: From N. Skewed semi-circular arch on north side of bridge. Plate 154: From NE. Intrados of arch.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 177
  • 188. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 155: From NE. The retaining wall of the causeway and the parapet wall above. Plate 156: From W. Modern repair work adjoining stone wall on approach from north routeEachtra Archaeological Projects 178
  • 189. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 157: From NNE. Parapet wall adjacent arch on N side breached and fallen outwards. Plate 158: From N. Missing stones on intrados of arch.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 179
  • 190. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 159: From NW. Masonry missing from springing of arch on E side. Plate 160: From ESE. Interior of main structure covered in overgrowth.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 180
  • 191. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 161: From NW. Main structure from exterior showing surviving rear wall and quoins. Plate 162: From NNE. Rear wall of main structure.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 181
  • 192. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 163: From WSW. Oblique view of front elevation of adjoining structure. Plate 164: From W. Interior of adjoining structure.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 182
  • 193. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 165: From NNW. Interior of adjoining structure with mass concrete of door opening. Plate 166: From WNW. Exposed wall top of adjoining structure.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 183
  • 194. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey Plate 167: From NNE. Rear wall of main structure with mortar leached out.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 184
  • 195. 10 Appendix 1: Table of Cultural Heritage Sites of Architectural Interest ARCHAEOLOGICAL CONTRACT 1 (WEST) Chainage EIS Ref. NGR Townland Description of sites LEVEL 1 LEVEL 2 record AssessmentEachtra Archaeological Projects record (as per NRA scope). 900 AH65 192687/ Derrybane Remains of derelict early 19th century Level 2 record Adjacent hard shoulder of existing 178854 Smithy required N7. Covered in vegetation. 1.800 AH63 193571/ Lissanisky Western entrance, avenue and bound- Level 2 record – 2.100 179054 ary of Lissanisky Demesne. required N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey 7.000 AH58 198462/ Clash Derelict farmhouse and additions, out- Level 2 record Some buildings partially covered 180437 building, shed with loft and adjoining required in vegetation and build up of soil cow house. around base of walls. 7.200 AH57 ??? Clash Boundary to farm Level 1 record Located adjacent side of main required house. 8.050 AH51 199501/ Park Two-storey mid-20th century house and Level 2 record House is boarded up. 180752 early 19th century vernacular farmyard required complex. 11.900 AH45 203378/ Greenhills Country house (no longer extant), der- Level 2 record Parts of walls of former walled gar- – 12.700 181568 elict outbuildings, yard marked on 1st required. den require vegetation clearance in edition OS Map and some 19th century advance of photogrammetry. structures (+ modern barns) 14.550 AH43 Bushers- Stone wall associated with a road Level 2 record Partially disturbed during recent town marked on 1st edition OS Map required clearance. 14680 No ref. 205759/ Moatquar- Present road is on a raised causeway Level 2 record Vegetation removal required to 181966 ter and a semi-circular arched bridge. required S-side of bridge and causeway. 16250 No ref Castleroan Standing ruin in vegetation along south Level 2 record car- Located at side of road; has two side of road ried out. distinct rooms.185
  • 196. N7 Castletown to Nenagh, Architectural Survey 11 Appendix 2: NIAH Lissanisky House, Tipperary North 22402114 Date 1750 - 1790 Townland LISSANISKY County Tipperary North Coordinates 193805, 179024 Categories of Special Interest ARCHITECTURAL ARTISTIC Rating Regional Original Use country house In Use As house Description Detached five-bay three-storey over half basement house, built c. 1770, with pedimented breakfront and with lower three-bay three-storey rear return. Hipped slate roofs with rendered chimneystacks and with carved eaves course and pediment. Roughcast rendered walls. Square-headed openings with three-over-three pane timber sash windows to second floor, basement and some of rear, replacement uPVC elsewhere, all with cut limestone sills. Round-headed carved limestone doorcase having timber panelled door with sidelights, fluted lintel and ornate cobweb fanlight. Flight of steps leading to door. Outbuildings to site. Dressed limestone piers to site entrance. Appraisal A conspicuous feature north of the main road, this house adds interest to the landscape. The diminishing windows and elaborate doorcase are typical of Georgian architecture. The elaborate leaded fanlight is evidence of the quality craftsmanship of the eighteenth century.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 186