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Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
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Archaeological Report - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)

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A group of over a hundred pits, postholes and stakeholes were located on the hilltop at Stagpark. The features dated from the Early Bronze Age to the Middle Iron Age which would suggest that the …

A group of over a hundred pits, postholes and stakeholes were located on the hilltop at Stagpark. The features dated from the Early Bronze Age to the Middle Iron Age which would suggest that the hilltop was occupied over a long period of time. Four pits containing burnt fills were recorded in Area A and Area C. The pits were similar in terms of morphology, size and date. The two sets of pits were located within 1m of each other and c. 40m apart. Almost identical Early Bronze Age dates were returned for two of the pits. The pits may have functioned as cremation pits, although minute traces of burnt bone was recorded in only one of the fills. They may also have been utilised for a domestic purpose. One of the two large pits (C.1001) in Area B was dated to the Early Bronze Age. It is difficult to interpret the function of these pits as they are exceptionally large. Stakeholes recorded on the upper sides of pit C.1001, these may have formed a frame or covering for the pit.
The recovery of two sherds of Late Bronze Age coarse ware from a pit, in the vicinity of the hearth-pit C.22, in the northwest section of Area A, would indicate that this area was utilised during the Late Bronze Age. A cluster of three pits and eight stakeholes were located to the southeast of the hearth.
Four of the stakeholes in particular could have formed a shelter around the hearth open to the west.
Although no dating evidence was obtained from the features in the vicinity of the large pits C.66 and C.90 it is possible that they are associated with the Late Bronze Age activity surrounding the hearth C.22.
A Middle Iron Age date was returned from the later re-cut of the large pit C.110. An L-shaped alignment, consisting of three pits, 13 stakeholes and three postholes, extended to the north and east of the pit. The alignment measured c. 6m north-south by 13m east-west. It could be associated with the Middle Iron Age pit C.110, the Early Bronze Age cremation pits or the Late Bronze Age features.
A number of fulachta fiadh were recorded downslope to the north and south of the site. Three burnt mounds were recorded (CO019-019, -020 and -021) within 500m of the site, while four other burnt mounds were excavated as part of this road project; Stagpark 1 (04E1119) was 600m to the south, Stagpark 2 (04E1121) was 200m away to the north and Mitchelstown 2 (04E1071) was 1.5km to the north. The fulachta fiadh are located on heavier clay subsoil. Radiocarbon dates obtained from some of the burnt mounds would suggest that these sites were utilized during the Early Bronze Age.
The site, possibly located on the margins of prehistoric settlement, forms an interesting contrast to a Middle Bronze Age settlement site excavated at Mitchelstown 1 (04E1072). The remains of at least three circular houses were excavated at Mitchelstown 1. The site was located on a limestone ridge on the northern bank of the Gradoge River. The opposing site on the southern bank of the Gradoge River was subsequently occupied by the Anglo Normans in the thirteenth century. The material evidence recorded on site was scant. No associated pits and stakeholes were associated with the structures. It is possible that these features were located outside the route corridor.

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  • 1. Eachtra JournalIssue 10 [ISSN 2009-2237] Archaeological Excavation Report 04E1120 - Stagpark 1, Co. Cork Bronze Age and Iron Age features
  • 2. Final Excavation Report of Bronze Age and Iron Agefeatures at Stagpark,N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road,Co. CorkJuly 2006Client: Cork County Council, National Roads Office, Richmond, Glanmire, Co. Cork.Licence No.: 04E1120Licensee: Bruce Sutton Contact details: The Forge, Innishannon, Co. Cork. Tel.: 021 470 16 16 Fax: 021 470 16 28 E-mail: info@eachtra.ie Web Site: www.eachtra.ie
  • 3. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Table of Contents i Acknowledgements ............................................................................................ iv ii Project details .....................................................................................................v iii Non-Technical Summary ................................................................................... vi 1 Introduction .......................................................................................................1 1.1 Site location ..................................................................................................1 1.2 Scope of the Project ......................................................................................1 1.3 Circumstances of discovery ..........................................................................1 1.4 Date and duration of excavation works .........................................................2 1.5 Size and composition of the excavation team ................................................2 2 Receiving Environment ......................................................................................3 2.1 The Natural Landscape ................................................................................3 2.2 The Human Landscape ................................................................................4 3 Original Research Framework ............................................................................8 4 Excavation Results ..............................................................................................9 4.1 Excavation Methodology ..............................................................................9 4.2 Full Stratigraphic Report ..............................................................................9 5 Conclusion ......................................................................................................... 15 6 Bibliography ...................................................................................................... 16 6.1 Other Sources .............................................................................................17 7 Figures ............................................................................................................... 18 8 Plates .................................................................................................................28 9 Appendices ........................................................................................................ 34 9.1 Appendix 1: Matrices .................................................................................34 9.2 Appendix 2: Context Register .....................................................................44 9.3 Appendix 3: Finds Register.........................................................................71 9.4 Appendix 4: Plant Remains Report for 04E1120 ........................................72 9.5 Appendix 5: Pottery Report ........................................................................74 9.6 Appendix 6: Lithics Finds Report for 04E1020 – Mitchelstown .................76 9.7 Appendix 7: Bone Report ...........................................................................77 9.8 Appendix 8: Summary account of site archive .............................................78 9.9 Appendix 9: Dissemination Strategy............................................................78Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ iii
  • 4. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 List of Figures Figure 1: Portion of discovery map showing route of N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road. ...........................18 Figure 2: Portion of RMP sheets CO019 & CO010 showing route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road. .. ..............................................................................................................................................19 Figure 3: Portion of 1st edition maps sheets 10 & 19 showing Mitchelstown Demesne and the route of the N8 Mitchelstown Road. ................................................................................................................. 20 Figure 4: Route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road showing location of all archaeological sites. .......21 Figure 5 Portion of route of N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road showing location of Excavation Areas A, B and C. ..............................................................................................................................................22 Figure 6: Post-excavation plan Area A. .................................................................................................23 Figure 7: Post-excavation plan and section of hearth C.22 Area A. ..................................................... 24 Figure 8: Sections of C.66 and C.110 Area A. ......................................................................................25 Figure 9: Post-excavation plan and sections Area B. .............................................................................26 Figure 10: Post-excavation plan Area C. ...............................................................................................27 List of Plates Plate 1: Area A post-excavation from east. .............................................................................................28 Plate 2: Area A post-excavation from west. ............................................................................................28 Plate 3: View of hearth C.22 mid-excavation Area A. ...........................................................................29 Plate 4: View of hearth C.22 post-excavation Area A. ...........................................................................29 Plate 5: View of pit C.110 mid-excavation Area A. ................................................................................30 Plate 6: View of pit C.66 mid-excavation Area A. .................................................................................30 Plate 7: View of pit C.83 pre-excavation Area A. ...................................................................................31 Plate 8: View of pit C.83 mid-excavation Area A. .................................................................................31 Plate 9: View of pits C.1014 and C.1001 mid-excavation Area B. ..........................................................32 Plate 10: View of eastern section pit C.1001 Area B. .............................................................................32 Plate 11: View of pit C.2002 Area C. ....................................................................................................33 Plate 12: View of pit C.2004 Area C. ....................................................................................................33Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ iv
  • 5. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 i Acknowledgements Eachtra Archaeological Projects would like to acknowledge the following organisations and people for their contributions to this project. Cork County Council Ken Hanley Project Archaeologist for Cork County Council David Herbert Plant Hire Ltd The Site Excavation team Karen Buckley, Helen Doyle, Ian Magee, Vera Manning, Ciaran O’Seaghdha and Bruce Sutton. The Post-Excavation team Karen Buckley, Sara Camplese, Anluan Dunne, Enda O’Mahoney, Bruce Sutton and Robin Turk. Archaeological Specialists Plant remains report by Abigail Brewer and Penny Johnston, Burnt bone report by Linda Fibiger, Pot- tery report by Helen Roche and Eoin Grogan and Lithics report by Farina Sternke.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ v
  • 6. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Project details Project N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road Site Name Stagpark 1 Site Type Bronze Age and Iron Age features Licence No. 04E1120 Licensee Bruce Sutton Townland Stagpark Nat. Grid Ref. 180057 111912 – 180042 112007 Report Type Excavation Report Report Status Final Report Date of Submission July 2006 Distribution Ken Hanley, Project Archaeologist Cork County Council, Dept. of the En- vironment, Heritage and Local Government, National Museum of Ireland and Cork Archaeological Survey Office.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ vi
  • 7. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Non-Technical Summary This report details the results of an archaeological excavation undertaken by Eachtra Archaeological Projects of a site on the route of the proposed N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road, on behalf of Cork County Council. The proposed bypass involves the construction of 4.5km of the N8 from Cloonlough, south of Mitchelstown, to the junction of the R513 and the N8, north of Mitchelstown. Phase 1 of the project (archaeological testing of the route) was carried out in June, July and Septem- ber 2004 under licences 04E0889-04E0892 issued by Department of the Environment Heritage and Local Government (DoEHLG). The principal aim of this phase of the project was to test sites of ar- chaeological potential identified in the EIS and geophysical surveying and to test for any previously unknown sites by a programme of centreline and offset testing. Phase 2 of the project (resolution) involved the resolution of all archaeological sites identified within the proposed road corridor prior to commencement of the construction of the bypass in order to avoid delays and costs during construction works. This phase of the project was carried out from September- December 2004 and excavations were conducted by two licensed directors under the management of a Senior Archaeologist. In total five sites were excavated during this phase of works and all excavations were carried out initially under separate licences issued by DoEHLG and subsequently under Ministe- rial Order. One of these sites, Stagpark 1 is the subject of this report. It was identified in the testing in the town- land of Stagpark, between chainages 1400-1500 of the proposed road scheme and excavated under Licence Number 04E1120. The site comprised a complex of features dating to the Early Bronze Age, Late Bronze Age and Iron Age.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ vii
  • 8. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 1 Introduction 1.1 Site location This report details the results of the archaeological excavation of a site on N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road (MRR), County Cork (National Grid Co-ordinates 180057 111912 – 180042 112007). The site is located c.1.5 km to the west of Mitchelstown, 700m south of the N73 Mitchelstown to Mallow road (Figure 1). It is located in the townland of Stagpark, the Parish of Brigown and barony of Condons and Clangibbon. 1.2 Scope of the Project This Archaeological Services Project was carried out on behalf of Cork County Council, National Roads Design Office, Richmond, Glanmire, Co. Cork. This project was funded by the Irish Govern- ment under the National Development Plan, 2000-2006. The purpose of the Project was to conduct Archaeological Site Investigations within the lands made available for the scheme and to assess the nature and extent of any new or potential archaeological sites uncovered. Phase 1 of the project (archaeological testing of the route) was carried out in June, July and Septem- ber 2004 under licences 04E0889-04E0892 issued by Department of the Environment Heritage and Local Government (DoEHLG). The principal aim of this phase of the project was to test sites of ar- chaeological potential identified in the EIS and geophysical surveying and to test for any previously unknown sites by a programme of centreline and offset testing. Phase 2 of the project (resolution) involved the resolution of all archaeological sites identified within the proposed road corridor prior to commencement of the construction of the bypass in order to avoid delays and costs during construction works. This phase of the project was carried out from September- December 2004 and excavations were conducted by two licensed directors under the management of a Senior Archaeologist. In total five sites were excavated during this phase of works and all excavations were carried out initially under separate licences issued by DoEHLG and subsequently under Ministe- rial Order. Following completion of fieldwork a dissemination strategy was undertaken and submitted to the project archaeologist. A programme of post-excavation analysis was agreed and commenced. It is pro- posed that all final reports will be submitted to the relevant authorities by December 2005 and that publication and public lectures/seminars will follow thereafter. A lecture on the preliminary findings was given to Mitchelstown Historical Society in May 2005 by the project and senior archaeologists. It is envisaged that a second lecture will be given to Mitchelstown Historical Society during their au- tumn/winter programme 2006-07. 1.3 Circumstances of discovery Prehistoric archaeological material was discovered at Stagpark 1 during archaeological test trenching undertaken in June 2004 under licence 04E0890. Topsoil in the vicinity of the sites was subsequently stripped by tracked machine using a flat bucket under the direction of the licensed director. When the limits of the site had been determined, full excavation of the site commenced under license 04E1120.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 1
  • 9. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 1.4 Date and duration of excavation works The excavation commenced on 11th August 2004 under licence 04E1120 and was completed on the 3rd September 2004. 1.5 Size and composition of the excavation team The archaeological excavation team consisted of the license holder, one supervisor, three site assistants and one general operative.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 2
  • 10. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 2 Receiving Environment 2.1 The Natural Landscape 2.1.1 Geology The topography of East Cork and Waterford consists of east-west orientated valleys separated by in- tervening ridges. The ridges consist of sandstones and mudstones of the Devonian Period (Old Red Sandstone) laid down 355-410 million years ago and the valleys of Carboniferous limestones laid down 290-355 million years ago. The sediments covering many of the rocks are mainly of glacial origin deposited by glacial ice or meltwater (Sleeman et al. 1995, 1). Major earth movements have resulted in the uplifting and folding of the rock units. Anticlines occur when local uplift results in a convex upward fold. Synclines occur when local uplift results in a concave upward fold (ibid. 3). The Mitchelstown Syncline is composed of a variety of Carboniferous Formations. Three of these for- mations are located in the area of the route of the N8 MRR. The Croane Formation is composed of a mixture of mudstones and cherts and is estimated to be about 300m thick (ibid. 31). The Rathronan Formation is composed of micrites, wackestones and cherts (ibid. 32). The O’Mahony’s Rock Forma- tion consists of micrites, packstones, wackestones and grainstones and is estimated to be about 100m thick. The type area is between Mitchestown Castle and Killee House to the west (ibid.). 2.1.2 Soils and their uses The soils to the north of the Gradoge River to the west of Mitchelstown are characterised by a mix of acid brown earths, gleys and grey brown podzolics, which are derived from mixed sandstone and limestone glacial till while the underlying rock is Carboniferous limestone. The acid brown earths and gleys occur in the gently rolling valleys of Cork and Waterford mainly at altitudes of 0-75m (Gardiner 1980, 61). The soils have a wide use range and are suitable for tillage and grass production. The soils to the south of the Gradoge River are characterized by a mix of gleys and peaty gleys which are derived from glacial till of mixed sandstone-shale composition with a small admixture of limestone in places. They occur mostly at altitudes of 76m to 152m. The soils have a limited use range as they are poorly drained even on good slopes. They are best suited to grassland (ibid. 77-79) 2.1.3 Topography The route of the N8 Mitchelstown relief road (MRR) traverses the townlands of Cloonlough, Stag Park and Mitchelstown on the western side of the town of Mitchelstown. The route extends from the N8 c. 1km south of Mitchelstown, crosses the N73 Mitchelstown/Mallow road, the Gradoge River Valley and traverses the ridge on the northern side of the river valley to the junction of the R513 Mitch- elstown/Ballylanders road and rejoins the N8. The northern half of the route traverses Mitchelstown Demesne, breaching the estate wall at the junction with the N73 and the R513. The southern half of the route climbs from c. 120m OD to 130m OD before descending to the banks of the Gradoge River, 80m OD and climbing northwards to the apex of the limestone ridge 110m OD.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 3
  • 11. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 The land is for the most part under pasture and is located at an altitude of between 80-130m OD. The landscape of the Mitchelstown area is dominated by the Galtee Mountains to the north, the Bal- lyhoura Mountains to the west and the Kilworth Mountains (the foothills of the Knockmealdown Mountains) to the south. The Gradoge River is a tributary of the Funshion River. It rises south of Mitchelstown on the southern slopes of the Kilworth Mountains and drains into the Funshion to the immediate west of the route of the N8 MRR. The River Funshion drains into the River Blackwater south of Kilworth. The site of Stagpark 1 was located at the top of a hill in an area of pastoral grassland. The ground sloped away at a gentle gradient on all sides. The area commands extensive views in all directions, par- ticularly to the north and south. The drainage within the field was poor and there was a large active field drain that extended across the southwest corner of the site. The field to the south, which lay down slope, was also extremely waterlogged and an area of rushes could be traced around a depression in the field, possibly delineating the extent of an old pond. 2.2 The Human Landscape 2.2.1 Archaeological Background There is a paucity of known archaeological sites within a 2 km radius of the route of the N8 MRR. Three prehistoric sites, fulachta fiadh (CO019-019, -020, -021) are recorded in Stagpark and Bal- lykearney between 100-500m of the route corridor. The site of Mitchelstown Castle (CO019-026), the associated demesne and the historic town of Mitchelstown (CO019-149) are the principle medieval and post-medieval sites in the vicinity of the route corridor (Figures 2 and 3). 2.2.2 Mesolithic 7000 BC - 4000 BC The earliest known human settlement in Ireland dates from the Mesolithic period (c. 7000 BC - 4000 BC). In Munster, the majority of the evidence (flint scatters) for Mesolithic occupation has ‘come from the Blackwater valley in Co. Cork’ (Woodman 1989, 116). Flint scatters were recorded in the townlands of Ballynamona (CO018-099) and Wallstown (CO018-100) on the northern and southern sides of the Awbeg river respectively c. 15km to the west of the route of the N8 MRR (Power et. al. 2000, 2). 2.2.3 Neolithic 4000 BC -2500 BC The Neolithic Period is characterised by the introduction of agriculture and the beginnings of the clearance of the woodlands. The population increased and became more sedentary in nature. Sub- stantial Neolithic settlement sites have been recorded at Lough Gur, Co. Limerick and Cloghers, Co. Kerry. The material culture includes the manufacture of pottery, flint and stone arrowheads, scrapers, axes etc. The range of monuments types includes Megalithic tombs (court tombs, portal tombs, pas- sage tombs and wedge tombs), single burial graves and stone circles.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 4
  • 12. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 There is a paucity of evidence for Neolithic settlement sites in the south-west of Ireland. Recent in- frastructural development has increased the amount of Neolithic sites in County Cork. The nearest known Neolithic house was excavated on the N8 Rathcormac-Fermoy in the townland of Gortore. The structure was dated to the Early Neolithic cal BC 3928-3655 (UB 6769). Further evidence of the Neolithic was recorded at Fermoy and Curraghprevin. 2.2.4 Bronze Age 2000 BC -500 BC The Bronze Age is characterised by the introduction of metallurgy, the mining of copper ores and manufacture of copper, bronze and gold items. The range of burial site types includes, cist graves, pit and urn burials, cremation cemeteries, barrows, ring-ditches and wedge tombs. Stone circles and standing stones also date to the Bronze Age. Both enclosed and unenclosed settlement sites are known. The most prolific Bronze Age site type is the fulacht fiadh, over 2,000 examples have been recorded in County Cork alone. These monuments survive as low mounds of charcoal rich black silt packed with heat-shattered stones and are generally situated close to a water source. In many cases, however, all that survives to the present day are black spreads with fragments of shattered stones visible in ploughed fields. Fulachta fiadh are generally classified as ‘cooking places’, whereby stones were heated in a hearth and subsequently placed in a trough of water, the water continued to boil with the addition of hot stones and wrapped food was cooked within the hot water. The trough eventually filled with small stones, ash and charcoal that were removed and formed the basis of the familiar mound. The absence of animal remains and the scarcity of associated hearths have fuelled the debate in relation to the func- tion of the sites. Other theories on their interpretation include bathing and dyeing textiles together with the production of hot water and steam for curative purposes and sweat houses (Kelly 1989, 225). Waddell (1998, 177) suggests the semi-industrial purpose of using the boiling water for dipping hides as part of the preparation of the leather, while Dunne (pers. comm.) suggests a relationship between burnt mounds and Bronze Age funerary rites and burial practices. There are few wedge tombs or stone circles known from north or east Cork. Two of the exceptions are wedge tombs located at Labbacallee (CO027-086) and at Manning (CO027-091) both located c. 8 km south of the N8 MRR. Labbacallee is one of the largest wedge tombs in the country. The cemetery of Mitchelstowndown West contains 53 small barrows. Four of this group were selected for excavation by the Discovery Programme (Daly et. al. 1992, 44). The site of the cemetery is located 16 km to the north of the N8 MRR. Until recently Bronze Age settlement sites were a rarity in North Cork. A Bronze Age occupation site was recorded underlying the medieval ringfort Lisleagh I (CO027-158) c.3.5km to the south of the N8 MRR (Power et. al. 2000, 210). A house site was excavated at Killydonoghoe on the route of the N8 Glanmire-Watergrasshill Bypass (Sherlock, 2003). A large Bronze Age settlement site consisting of four enclosures and three circular houses was excavated in 2003 at Ballybrowney on the route of thePermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 5
  • 13. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 N8 Rathcormac-Fermoy (Cotter 2004, 38). A Middle Bronze Age settlement site was excavated in Mitchelstown (04E1072), a complex of Early and Late Bronze Age pits were excavated in Stagpark (04E1120) and three fulachta fiadh were exca- vated in Stagpark (04E1121 & 04E1119) on the route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road. In addition a rare and important hoard of Early Bronze Age pottery was excavated on the banks of the Gradoge River (04E1071). 2.2.5 Iron Age 500 BC – 400 AD At present, there is little evidence of a significant Iron Age presence in the Cork region. Settlement sites are few and far between as well as being difficult to identify (Woodman, 2000) while the material cul- ture of this period is limited. Linear earthworks, which are believed to have marked tribal boundaries are one of the most visible monuments of the period. Three separate stretches of one such boundary, the Claidh Dubh, have been recorded in County Cork. The longest stretch, c. 24 km extends from the Nagle Mountains, across the Blackwater valley and into the Ballyhoura Hills. The Claidh Dubh crosses the N73 c. 12km west of the N8 MRR. Radiocarbon dating following excavation of a section of it revealed it dated to some time before 100AD (Doody 1995, 23). Three of the five hillfort sites in Cork are located in North Cork (Power et al, 2000, 205). Caherdrinny is located at the western end of the Kilworth Mountains, c. 3 km to the south of the N8 MRR and Corrin is located at the eastern end of the Nagle Mountains c. 15 km to the south of the N8 MRR. A complex of monuments in Conva townland (c. 15 km to the southwest of the N8 MRR) was identi- fied by aerial photography in the Blackwater Valley. Crop marks indicated three enclosures (CO034- 7201, -7202, -7203) and a number of large pits (CO034-7204) possibly comprising a rectangular enclosure. The site was investigated in 1992 by Martin Doody of the Discovery Programme which involved geophysical prospection, topographic survey and trial excavation. Sections were dug through the three enclosures and through four of the large pits. Metal debris was discovered and radiocarbon dates indicated that the complex dated to the Iron Age/Early Medieval period. A complex of pits, dating to the Iron Age, cal BC 346-45 (UB6719) was excavated in Stagpark (04E1120) on the route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road. 2.2.6 Early Medieval 400 AD – 1000 AD The Early Medieval Period/Early Christian Period is characterised by the arrival of Christianiaty to Ireland. Early ecclesiastical sites are located at Brigown (CO019-030) on the southeastern side of Mitchelstown and to the west of the N8 MRR at Aghacross (CO019-002), Leabba Molagga and Mar- shalstown. The monastery of Brigown founded in the 7th century gives its name to the modern parish (Power 1996, 3).Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 6
  • 14. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 The characteristic monument type of the period was the ringfort. Ringforts are the most numerous archaeological monument dating to the Early Christian Period, found in Ireland, with estimates of between 30 and 50,000 illustrated on the first edition of the Ordnance Survey 6” maps of the 1840’s (Barry, 1987). As a result of continued research these monuments have a narrow date range during the Early Christian period between the 7th and 9th centuries AD. Although there are some very elaborate examples of ringforts they often take the form of a simple earth or stone enclosure and functioned as settlements for all classes of secular society (Stout, 1997). A major research excavation of two ringfort was undertaken at Lisleagh c. 3.5km to the south of the route of the N8 MRR. Structural, domestic and industrial evidence was recorded at both sites. A number of stake and wattle round houses, and iron working were recorded in Lisleagh I. Two phases of occupation were recorded at Lisleagh I. The Lisleagh I was constructed in the early seventh century and was occupied into the ninth century AD (Monk 1995, 105-116). 2.2.7 Medieval 1000 AD – 1300 AD & Late Medieval 1300 AD -1500 AD The period is characterized by the arrival of the Anglo-Normans. Mitchelstown was formerly known as Brigown / Mitchelstown (CO019-149). It was listed as a market town in 1299 and was located on the southern bank of the Gradoge River, to the east of Mitchelstown Castle (Power, D. et al. 2000, 595). The town developed under the patronage of the House of Desmond. It passed into the hands of the Earls of Kingston in the 17th century (Power 1996, 23). Mitchelstown Castle was located on a limestone ridge on the southern bank of the Gradoge River. The first settlers, the Anglo-Norman FitzGibbons, held the title of White Knights. Their territory extended from Mitchelstown to Kilmallock (Power 2000, 1) and they built a tower house on the ridge. The White Knight lineage ended in the 17th century and the estate passed through marriage into the hands of the Fenton family (ibid. 3) and ultimately to the Kingstons. The earlier castle was destroyed in the wars of 1641. A corn-drying kiln dating to the Later Medieval Period cal AD 1310-1434 (UB 6833) was excavated in Stagpark 2 (04E1121). 2.2.8 Post-Medieval 1500 AD – 1800 AD In 1776 Lord Kingsborough, the 2nd earl of Kingston, created the new town of Mitchelstown. He demolished the old town between Kingston College and the Castle. Kingston College developed into a Georgian square. The new town was centred between the two parallel main streets of George Street and Cork Street. King Square and New Market Square became the focal points of the town (ibid.). St George’s Church, built in 1801, was located at the southern end of George Street and King Square at the northern end. New Market Square was located midway and on the western side of Cork Street. The new town was built on 138 acres. Lord Kingsborough, the second earl of Kingston, built a new mansion on the site of the White Knights castle and a demesne around the mansion in the 18th century. A demesne wall was constructed aroundPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 7
  • 15. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 the parkland of some 1240 acres. The wall was ‘six-and-a-quarter-mile long…between eight and ten feet in height’ (Power 1996, 24). All public roads that were located within the area of the demesne were closed and rerouted on the periphery of the wall. Entry to the demesne was gained through Mallow Gate also known as White Gate, Limerick Gate and the main entrance was at King Square. Extensive works were undertaken within the area of the demesne which resulted in ‘a quadrangle of buildings, a garden of five English acres surrounded by a wall, large conservatories and lavishly arranged gardens became part of the scene. Two artificial lakes were developed beneath the rockface on which the castle stood ’ (ibid., 24). Several hundred acres of woodland comprising of oak, ash, larch, beech and alder were planted within the demesne. In 1823 the third earl of Kingston demolished the Georgian house and built a new castle on the same site. The architects James and George Pain designed and built this neo-Gothic castellated mansion. The limestone buildings formed three sides of a courtyard (Power 1996, 42). Mitchelstown Castle was burnt by Republican forces in 1922. The stone was bought by the Cistercian Monks of Mount Melleray and reused to build a church. Few traces of the castle are visible today. At present, Dairygold occupies the site of the former castle. The 1240 acres of parkland was divided into farms, the town park and a golf course. 3 Original Research Framework The following issues will be addressed in this excavation report.  The construction date or date of initial site activity and the date of abandonment.  The absolute / relative chronology of site use in terms of phases and events.  The location of known contemporaneous and comparable sites.  The extent of the viable economic catchment area in terms of sources of water, food, raw materials, transportation routes etcPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 8
  • 16. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 4 Excavation Results 4.1 Excavation Methodology Three areas were excavated under license 04E1120 at Stagpark 1 (Figure 5). The site was divided into three areas of activity, A, B and C. Area A was located on the summit of the hill, it measured 25m N-S by 38m E-W. Area B was located 15m to the north with an area of excavation that measured 15m N-S by 10m E-W. Area C was located 25m downslope to the north. The area of excavation measured 8m N-S by 15m E-W. A grid was established in each area of excavation of Stagpark 1 and the ground within it was cleaned by hand to locate and identify all archaeological features. Each identified feature was excavated, planned, photographed and recorded, with every fill and cut being assigned a context number. Charcoal and soil samples were taken from appropriate fills where necessary. All artefacts were retrieved, registered, bagged and labelled. 4.2 Full Stratigraphic Report See Appendix 1 for the full stratagraphic matrix 4.2.1 Stratigraphic sequencing 4.2.1.1 Area A A total of 95 features were excavated across Area A at Stagpark 1 (Figure 6). This included 59 stake- holes, 10 postholes and 27 pits of various sizes. An Early Bronze Age date and a Middle Iron Age date were returned for two of the features. A single fragment of flint (04E1120:213:4) was recovered from the topsoil in Area A; it was identified as a small core, un-diagnostic in nature. Many of the features can be roughly grouped in to clusters of pits, postholes and stakeholes, with some isolated features scattered across the site. Unless otherwise stated the features contained single fill. Early Bronze Age Two small pits (C.83 and C.84) were located in the southern central portion of the site, 1.2m apart. Pit C.83 contained a single silt fill which included frequent charcoal. The charcoal was identified as ash and returned a radiocarbon date of cal BC 1885-1690 (UB-6721). Pit C.84 contained two fills (C.92 and C.93). The upper silt fill included charcoal and minute flecks of burnt bone. The burnt bone was too small and degraded to be extracted and identified but the charcoal from this pit was also identi- fied as ash. While the pits contained burnt fills the material had not been burnt in situ. The pits were similar in terms of size and fill to two pits (C.2002 and C.2004) located c.100m to the north in Area C and they were interpreted as possible cremation pits.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 9
  • 17. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 A single pit (C.143) and stakehole (C.136) were located c. 2m to the northeast of the possible cremation pits and another single pit (C.119), stakehole (C.124) and posthole (C.129) were located c. 5m to the south of the possible cremation pits. Late Bronze Age A large steep sided hearth-pit C.22 was located in the northwestern area of the site. The three fills (C.21, C.26 and C.27) included a large quantity of burnt clay and charcoal. The base of the hearth was heat-scorched. It was the only feature on site that displayed definite evidence of in situ burning. A single stakehole cut the base of the hearth and two stakeholes were located to the south and north of the hearth respectively. A cluster of three pits (C.13, C.20 and C.29) were located to the southeast of the hearth. The fill of pit C.20 included two sherds of Late Bronze Age pottery (04E1120:19:1 and 2). Another pit C.9 was located to the northwest. Eight stakeholes (C.6, C.15, C.18, C.24, C.31, C.33, C.35 and C.39) were located within 2.5m of the hearth. Although the stakeholes appeared to form no obvious pattern or structure, it is possible that some (C.6, C.39, C.43, and C.45 in particular) may have formed a wind- break, spit or fire-side furniture associated with the hearth. A shallow pit C.2, 0.05m in depth, was located 9m to the north of the hearth C.22. The base of the pit was cut by two stakeholes (C.4 and C.5). The features located in the south-western and northern central portion of the site are tentively dated to the Late Bronze Age on the basis of similarity with the Late Bronze Age features already described. A large pit C.66 was located in the south-western portion of the site. Two stakeholes (C.75 and C.77) were located to the north and south of the pit respectively, in a pattern similar to those located on the periphery of the hearth C.22. A further two stakeholes (C.51 and C.57) were located to the northwest. Eight stakeholes, two postholes and a pit were located in isolation or in small clusters c. 4m to the east and west of the pit C.66. 16 stakeholes (C.87, C.94, C.95, C.96, C.98, C.99, C.100, C.101, C.103, C.104, C.106, C.107, C.108, C.112 and C.113), two postholes (C.91 and C.97) and a pit C.90 were located in the northern central portion of the site. Four of the stakeholes cut the base of the pit (C.98, C.99, C.100 and C.101) and the remaining stakeholes, many of which were intercut, were located to the north of the pit. The two postholes were located at the western end of the pit. Four pits (C.162, C.165 C.168 and C.210) and a single stakehole (C.166) were located to the west of the pit C.90 and associated stakeholes. Middle Iron Age A large pit C.110 was located in the southern central portion of the site. It had been re-cut twice, initially by pit C.159 and laterally by pit C.109. A radiocarbon date of cal BC 346-45 (UB 6719) wasPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 10
  • 18. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 returned from charcoal retrieved from the fill of pit C.109. A shallow pit (C.139) and an alignment of six irregularly spaced stakeholes (C.117, C.122, C.126, C.131, C.133 and C.138) were located to the north of pit C.110. The stakeholes extended north-south for a distance of c. 3.5m. A further alignment of two pits (C.147 and C201) seven stakeholes (C.158, C.161, C.170, C.172, C.173, C.185 and C.207) and three postholes (C.183, C.204 and C.212) were located in the central eastern section of the site. The alignment extended c.13 m from east-west and formed a right angle with the alignment of six stakeholes to the west. An alignment of four pits ((C.176, C.191, C.185 and C.197). three postholes (C.175, C.178 and C.187) and two small stakeholes (C.181 and C.189) was located to the east of pit C.110. The alignment was orientated northeast-southwest. 4.2.1.2 Area B Early Bronze Age Three pits (C.1001, C.1016 and C.1014) and a single posthole (C.1012) were excavated in Area B (Fig- ure 2, plate 1). Two of the pits (C.1001 and C.1014) were extremely large. C.1001 measured 6.25m by 3.25m by 2.18m deep and contained clay fills. The lower two fills included charcoal and burnt clay. Very occasional small fragments of burnt bone were retrieved from the lower fills of the pit and they were examined by L. Fibiger. The majority of the bone could not be identified as animal or human, though at least one animal bone fragment was present in the sample. A radiocarbon date of cal BC 2130-1887 (UB 6745) was returned from charcoal retrieved from the basal fill C.1011. 11 stakeholes were located around the upper southern half of the pit and five stakeholes around the upper northern and eastern half. Pit C.1014 was located c. 1.5m southwest of pit C.1001. It measured 4.3m by 3.64m, by more than 2.05m in depth and had been re-cut. The full depth of the pit could not be realised due to health and safety reasons. The re-cut C.1025 measured 3.64 in diameter by 1.33m in depth. The third pit C.1016 was located c. 4m to the north-west. It was irregular in plan and measured 0.64m by 0.34m by 0.12m deep. The posthole C.1012 (0.31m by 0.39m by 0.31m in depth) was located c. 3m south of the pit. 4.2.1.3 Area C Early Bronze Age Three pits (C.2002, C.2004 and C.2007) were recorded in Area C. The silt fill of pits C.2002 and C.2004 included frequent charcoal. Some of the charcoal was identified as hazel/alder. A radiocarbon date of cal BC 1885-1689 (UB-6720) was returned from charcoal from pit C.2002. The pits were simi- lar in terms of size and fill to two pits (C.83 and C.84) excavated in Area A. Pit C.2007 was locatedPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 11
  • 19. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 1m to the north. It contained two clay fills (C.2005 and C.2006) which included occasional flecks of charcoal. 4.2.2 Stratigraphic discussion A total of 103 features were excavated at Stagpark 1 these included 58 stakeholes, 12 postholes and 33 pits of various sizes, in an area that measured in total c. 48m N-S by 62m E-W. All of the features cut the sub-soil and no occupation horizons or discernible structures were recorded. The features can be grouped on the basis of radiocarbon dates and morphology to the Early Bronze Age, Late Bronze Age and Middle Iron Age. A group of four pits containing burnt fills and two very large pits were dated to the Early Bronze Age, at least three large pits with associated smaller pits, stakeholes and postholes were tentively dated to the Later Bronze Age and a large pit and associated L-shaped alignment of stakeholes and pits are dated to the Middle Iron Age. 4.2.2.1 Radiocarbon dates Radiocarbon dates were returned from the Radiocarbon Laboratory at Queens University Belfast. The four dates returned were accelerator dates obtained from samples of charcoal. Three of the dates are Early Bronze Age, the fourth is Middle Iron Age. Table 1 Lab. Code Sample Ma- Context No. Yrs BP Calibrated Dates terial 2 sigma UB-6719 Charcoal 109 2114 +/- 34 cal BC 346-45 UB-6720 Charcoal 2001 3461 +/- 38 cal BC 1885-1689 UB-6721 Charcoal 88 3463 +/- 38 cal BC 1885-1690 UB-6745 Charcoal 1011 3621 +/- 38 cal BC 2130-1887 4.2.2.2 Plant Remains The plant remains were examined by A. Brewer and P. Johnston (Appendix 4). No plant remains other than charcoal were recorded from any of the samples taken from 04E1120. 4.2.2.3 Pottery The pottery was examined by H. Roche and E. Grogan (Appendix 5). A base-angle sherd and a body sherd were uncovered in pit C.20 and represent a single Late Bronze Age flat-based coarse vessel. Traces of carbonised matter are present on the interior surface of the fabric, a probable indication that it had been used at some stage in a domestic context. This type of pottery is consistent with other coarse, flat-based Late Bronze Age vessels found in domestic and funerary contexts throughout the country, for example, at Mondaniel 1, on the N8 Rathcormac-Fermoy Bypass (Roche and Grogan 2005). 4.2.2.4 Lithics The lithics were examined by Farina Sternke (Appendix 6). A single flint core was recovered from thePermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 12
  • 20. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 topsoil. It is undiagnostic in nature but is likely to be associated with the Bronze Age features. 4.2.2.5 Cremated bone The cremated bone assemblage was examined by L. Fibiger (Appendix 7). 17 fragments were retrieved from a fill of pit C.1001 in Area B. Surface preservation was poor and none of the fragments were diag- nostic. The majority of remains could therefore not be positively identified as either animal or human bone. At least one animal bone fragment appeared to be present, identified through its very smooth and almost polished cortical surface. 4.2.2.6 Discussion & Interpretation A group of over a hundred pits, postholes and stakeholes were located on the hilltop at Stagpark. The features dated from the Early Bronze Age to the Middle Iron Age which would suggest that the hilltop was occupied over a long period of time. Four pits containing burnt fills were recorded in Area A and Area C. The pits were similar in terms of morphology, size and date. The two sets of pits were located within 1m of each other and c. 40m apart. Almost identical Early Bronze Age dates were returned for two of the pits. The pits may have functioned as cremation pits, although minute traces of burnt bone was recorded in only one of the fills. They may also have been utilised for a domestic purpose. One of the two large pits (C.1001) in Area B was dated to the Early Bronze Age. It is difficult to interpret the function of these pits as they are exceptionally large. Stakeholes recorded on the upper sides of pit C.1001, these may have formed a frame or covering for the pit. The recovery of two sherds of Late Bronze Age coarse ware from a pit, in the vicinity of the hearth-pit C.22, in the northwest section of Area A, would indicate that this area was utilised during the Late Bronze Age. A cluster of three pits and eight stakeholes were located to the southeast of the hearth. Four of the stakeholes in particular could have formed a shelter around the hearth open to the west. Although no dating evidence was obtained from the features in the vicinity of the large pits C.66 and C.90 it is possible that they are associated with the Late Bronze Age activity surrounding the hearth C.22. A Middle Iron Age date was returned from the later re-cut of the large pit C.110. An L-shaped align- ment, consisting of three pits, 13 stakeholes and three postholes, extended to the north and east of the pit. The alignment measured c. 6m north-south by 13m east-west. It could be associated with the Middle Iron Age pit C.110, the Early Bronze Age cremation pits or the Late Bronze Age features. A number of fulachta fiadh were recorded downslope to the north and south of the site. Three burnt mounds were recorded (CO019-019, -020 and -021) within 500m of the site, while four other burnt mounds were excavated as part of this road project; Stagpark 1 (04E1119) was 600m to the south, Stagpark 2 (04E1121) was 200m away to the north and Mitchelstown 2 (04E1071) was 1.5km to the north. The fulachta fiadh are located on heavier clay subsoil. Radiocarbon dates obtained from some of the burnt mounds would suggest that these sites were utilized during the Early Bronze Age.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 13
  • 21. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 The site, possibly located on the margins of prehistoric settlement, forms an interesting contrast to a Middle Bronze Age settlement site excavated at Mitchelstown 1 (04E1072). The remains of at least three circular houses were excavated at Mitchelstown 1. The site was located on a limestone ridge on the northern bank of the Gradoge River. The opposing site on the southern bank of the Gradoge River was subsequently occupied by the Anglo Normans in the thirteenth century. The material evidence recorded on site was scant. No associated pits and stakeholes were associated with the structures. It is possible that these features were located outside the route corridor.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 14
  • 22. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 5 Conclusion The archaeological evidence, including the range of dating evidence, from Stagpark 1 would suggest that the hilltop was occupied on a long-term intermittent basis. It was not possible to discern between all features that related to Bronze Age activity as opposed to Iron Age activity and it is possible that later phases of activity could have destroyed the earlier evidence. The majority of the material evidence would suggest that the occupation was domestic in nature, through the size of the assemblages was scanty. No coherent domestic structure was recorded at Stagpark but the scatter of pits, postholes and stakeholes would suggest that the features were peripheral to the core of the settlement, which may have been located outside the road corridor.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 15
  • 23. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 6 Bibliography Barry, T.B. 1987 The Archaeology of Medieval Ireland, Routledge, London and New York. Buckley, V. 1990, ‘Experiments using a reconstructed fulacht with a variety of rock types: implications for the petro-morphology of fulachta fiadh’ in Buckley, V. (Ed.) Burnt Offerings: international contributions to Burnt Mound Archaeology, pp.170-172. Dublin. Cotter, E. (2005) Bronze Age Ballybrowney County Cork in Recent Archaeological Discoveries on National Road Schemes 2004 NRA. Daly, A., Grogan, E. (1992) Excavation of Four Barrows in Mitchelstowndown West, Knocklong, County Limerick. Discovery Programme Reports 1 pp44-60. Royal Irish Academy. Doody, M. (1995), ‘Ballyhoura Hills project’, Discovery Programme Reports 2, 12-44. Royal Irish Academy. Dublin. Doody, M. (1999), ‘Ballyhoura Hills project’, Discovery Programme Reports 5, 97-110. Royal Irish Academy. Dublin. Kelly, M.J. (1989) Early Ireland An Introduction to Irish Prehistory. Cambridge University Press. Monk, M. 1995 A Tale of Two Ringforts Lisleagh I and II in Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society Vol.100 p105-116. NRA Archaeological Discoveries N8 Watergrasshill Bypass. NRA Archaeological Discoveries N8 Rathcormac Fermoy. Power, D., Lane, S., and Byrne, E., Egan, U., Sleeman, M., with Cotter, E., Monk, J. (2000), Archaeological Inventory of County Cork, Volume 4: North Cork Parts I & II. Dublin. Roche, H. and Grogan, E. 2005 The N8 Rathcormac-Fermoy Bypass. The Prehistoric Pottery. Unpublished Report for ACS Ltd. Sleeman A. G. and McConnell, B (1995) Geology of East Cork-~Waterford, Geological Survey of Ireland. Waddell, J. (1998) The Prehistoric Archaeology of Ireland. GUP. Galway. Woodman, P.C. (1989) ‘The mesolithic in Munster: a preliminary assessment’, in Bonsall, C (ed), The Mesolithic in Europe, 116-24. John Donald. Edinburgh. Woodman, P.C. (2000) ‘Hammers and Shoeboxes: New Agendas for Prehistory’ in New Agendas in Irish Prehistory. Papers in commemoration of Liz Anderson. Wordwell, 1-10.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 16
  • 24. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 6.1 Other Sources Record of Monuments and Places (RMP), Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, 7 Ely Place Upper, Dublin 2. Topographical Files of the National Museum of Ireland, Kildare Street, Dublin 2.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 17
  • 25. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 7 Figures Figure 1: Portion of discovery map showing route of N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 18
  • 26. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Legend Bronze Age Medieval Post-medieval 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1 04E1071 Mitchelstown 2 04E1121 Stagpark 2 04E1120 Stagpark 1 04E1119 Spagpark 3 Figure 2: Portion of RMP sheets CO019 & CO010 showing route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 19
  • 27. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 ell W ay nd Su Well Field Yeomens Field A Ballyarthur Field Parkanimrish Clyroe Field B Glen Field C Limekiln Field Donnellys Field D Laknock Field Sandpit Field Deer Park Garrane Warren Field New Orchard Park G ond Fishp High Field Mitchelstown Castle I Brick Field E H Milk Field Turnpike Field F J Reference Extent of Mitchelstown Demense Line of N8, Mitchelstown Relief Road A Barretts Grove B Old Pheasantry C Farm Yard D Kiltaunave Old Grave Yard E Carriganoura Wood F Whitegate Grove G Orchard Grove H Troopers Lough I Site of Church & Graveyard J Parkaphuca Figure 3: Portion of 1st edition maps sheets 10 & 19 showing Mitchelstown Demesne and the route of the N8 Mitchelstown Road.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 20
  • 28. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Area A Area B Figure 4: Route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road showing location of all archaeological sites.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 21
  • 29. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Figure 5 Portion of route of N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road showing location of Excavation Areas A, B and C.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 22
  • 30. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Figure 6: Post-excavation plan Area A.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 23
  • 31. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 A 22 A1 A A1 21 25 26 27 22 50 cm 0 50 cm Figure 7: Post-excavation plan and section of hearth C.22 Area A.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 24
  • 32. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 A A1 # # 52 # # # 53 # 70 # # # # 71 # 73 72 # 66 B 155 120 B1 109 154 148 151 149 180 152 110 153 50 cm 0 50 cm Figure 8: Sections of C.66 and C.110 Area A.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 25
  • 33. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Figure 9: Post-excavation plan and sections Area B.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 26
  • 34. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Figure 10: Post-excavation plan Area C.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 27
  • 35. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 8 Plates Plate 1: Area A post-excavation from east. Plate 2: Area A post-excavation from west.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 28
  • 36. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Plate 3: View of hearth C.22 mid-excavation Area A. Plate 4: View of hearth C.22 post-excavation Area A.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 29
  • 37. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Plate 5: View of pit C.110 mid-excavation Area A. Plate 6: View of pit C.66 mid-excavation Area A.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 30
  • 38. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Plate 7: View of pit C.83 pre-excavation Area A. Plate 8: View of pit C.83 mid-excavation Area A.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 31
  • 39. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Plate 9: View of pits C.1014 and C.1001 mid-excavation Area B. Plate 10: View of eastern section pit C.1001 Area B.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 32
  • 40. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Plate 11: View of pit C.2002 Area C. Plate 12: View of pit C.2004 Area C.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 33
  • 41. 9 Appendices 04E1120 9.1 Appendix 1: Matrices C.213 Area B Matrix C.1002 C.1013 C.1017 C.1015 C.1003 C.1012 C.1018 C.1016 C.1004 C.1019 C.1005 C.1020 KeyPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road Period 1 Phase 1: C.1006 C.1021 Formation of natural subsoil C.1007 C.1025 Period 2 Phase 1: Bronze Age Occupation C.1008 C.1022 Period 2 Phase 2: Infilling after site C.1009 C.1014 abandonment. Period 3 Phase 1: C.1010 Modern activity C.1011 C.1023 C.1001 C.1024 C.21434 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 42. 04E1120 C.213 Area C Matrix C.2001 C.2003 C.2005 C.2002 C.2004 C.2006 Key Period 1 Phase 1: C.2007 Formation of naturalPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ subsoil Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road Period 2 Phase 1: Bronze Age Occupation C.214 Period 2 Phase 2: Infilling after site abandonment. Period 3 Phase 1: Modern activity35 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 43. C.213 Area A Matrix 04E1120 Key C.1 C.7 C.8 C.16 C.14 C.17 C.25 Period 1 Phase 1: Formation of natural C.2 C.4 C.5 C.6 C.9 C.13 C.15 C.18 C.215 subsoil Period 2 Phase 1: Bronze Age Occupation C.19 C.21 Period 2 Phase 2: C.20 C.26 Infilling after site abandonment.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road Period 3 Phase 1: C.27 Modern activity C.22 C.21436 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 44. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 C.76 C.77 C.52 C.53 C.70 C.71 C.72 C.73 C.66 C.50 C.51 C.48 C.49 C.46 C.47 C.44 C.45 C.42 C.43 C.213 C.214 C.38 C.39 C.34 C.35 C.32 C.33 C.30 C.31 C.28 C.29 C.23 C.24Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 37
  • 45. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 C.92 C.93 C.84 C.88 C.83 C.80 C.81 C.82 C.79 C.78 C.74 C.75 C.69 C.68 C.67 C.213 C.214 C.64 C.65 C.62 C.63 C.60 C.61 C.58 C.59 C.56 C.57 C.54 C.55Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 38
  • 46. C.213 04E1120 C.85 C.89 C.92 C.116 C.86 C.90 C.91 C.99 C.100 C.97 C.101 C.98 C.93 C.117 C.87 C.94 C.95 C.96Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ C.214 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road Key Period 1 Phase 1: Formation of natural subsoil Period 2 Phase 1: Bronze Age Occupation Period 2 Phase 2: Infilling after site abandonment. Period 3 Phase 1: Modern activity39 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 47. 04E1120 C.213 C.102 C.105 C.114 C.111 C.118 C.121 C.123 C.125 C.115 C.103 C.104 C.106 C.107 C.108 C.112 C.113 C.119 C.122 C.124 C.126 C.109 C.148 C.149Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ C.150 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road C.120 C.155 C.159 C.151 C.152 C.154 C.153 C.110 C.21440 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 48. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 C.167 C.168 C.166 C.164 C.165 C.163 C.162 C.160 C.161 C.146 C.147 C.157 C.158 C.142 C.143 C.213 C.214 C.145 C.144 C.139 C.137 C.138 C.134 C.135 C.136 C.132 C.133 C.130 C.131 C.127 C.128 C.129Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 41
  • 49. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 C.190 C.191 C.188 C.189 C.186 C.187 C.184 C.185 C.182 C.183 C.180 C.181 C.213 C.214 C.179 C.178 C.177 C.176 C.174 C.175 C.169 C.170 C.173 C.171 C.172Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 42
  • 50. 04E1120 C.213 C.194 C.196 C.198 C.200 C.205 C.206 C.208 C.211 C.195 C.197 C.199 C.201 C.204 C.207 C.209 C.212 C.202 C.210Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road C.203 Key Period 1 Phase 1: Formation of natural subsoil C.214 Period 2 Phase 1: Bronze Age Occupation Period 2 Phase 2: Infilling after site abandonment. Period 3 Phase 1: Modern activity43 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 51. 04E1120 9.2 Appendix 2: Context Register Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Period Phase Basic description Artefacts AREA A * * * * * * * * * * 1 OE20N 2,5 2,4,5 213 Fill of shallow domestic pit 2 2 Mid Yellowish brown clay with 2 stakeholes in the base with moderate charcoal 2 OE20N 1 214 1 Cut of shallow pit. Con- 2 1 Roughly circular cut 0.5m tains 2 stakeholes in the x 0.45m x 0.05m deep. base Flat bottomed 3 Cancelled context 4 OE20N 1 214 1 Driven stakehole within 2 1 Cut of circular stakehole shallow pit C.2 0.23m x 0.19m x 0.16m deep with rounded basePermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ and vertical inclination Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road 5 OE20N 1 214 1 Driven stakehole within 2 1 D - shaped stakehole shallow pit C.2 0.19m x 0.15m x 0.13m deep with rounded base and vertical inclination 6 OE10N 7 214 7 Driven stakehole in proxim- 2 1 Cut of oval stakehole ity of hearth C.22 0.08m x 0.05m x 0.08m with V-shaped base and NW-SE inclination (Top - Base) 7 OE10N 6 6 213 Natural infilling of stake- 2 2 Soft brownish grey silty hole after removal of stake clay with frequent char- coal 8 OE10N 9 9 213 Natural infilling of small 2 2 Light greyish brown soft pit of unknown use close to silty clay with occasional hearth C.22 charcoal inclusions 9 OE10N 8 214 8 Cut of possible domestic pit 2 1 Sub-circular pit cut 0.48m close to hearth C.22 x 0.46m x 0.17m deep 10 OE10N Cancelled context 11 OE10N Cancelled context 12 OE10N Cancelled context44 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 52. 04E1120 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Period Phase Basic description Artefacts 13 OE10N 16 214 16 Shallow cut for possible 2 1 Sub-circular cut 0.4m x domestic pit close to C.22 0.38m x 0.09m deep with concave base and shallow sides 14 OE10N 15 15 213 Infilling of stakehole after 2 2 Soft dark grey silty clay stake was removed with moderate charcoal flecks 15 0E10N 14 214 14 Driven stakehole located to 2 1 Oval stakehole cut 0.2m x the south of hearth C.22 0.14m x 0.17m deep with rounded base and NW-SE inclination (Top - Base) 16 0E10N 13 13 213 Infilling of shallow pit after 2 2 Soft mid brown sandy clay abandonment with occasional roots and charcoalPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 17 0E10N 18 18 213 Infilling of stakehole after 2 2 Soft dark grey silty clay. Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road removal of stake Moderate charcoal flecks 18 0E10N 17 214 17 Driven stakehole cut. Cuts 2 1 Circular stakehole cut pit C.20 0.22m diam x 0.21m deep with rounded base and vertical inclination. Cuts pit C.20 19 0E10N 20 20 213 Fill of extremely shallow 2 1 Firm dark grey clayey silt 2 sherds of pit. Unable to determine Bronze Age pot- function tery 20 0E10N 19 214 19 Domestic pit containing 2 1 Sub-circular pit cut 0.46m 2 sherds of Bronze Age diam x 0.09m deep with pottery. Located just to the flat base. Cut by stakehole south of hearth C.22 C.18 21 0E10N 22 26 215 Upper fill of possible hearth. 2 1 Firm greyish brown sandy Backfilled. clay with occasional flecks of charcoal and lumps of burnt clay. Cut by stake- hole C.21545 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 53. 04E1120 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Period Phase Basic description Artefacts 22 0E10N 21,26,27 214 27 Cut of hearth pit containing 2 1 Steep sided oblong pit large amounts of charcoal cut with rounded corners and burnt clay. Small stone 1.4m x 1.1m x 0.58m hearth in the basal fill and deep. Had uneven base heat affected fill and natural with occasional stone indicate in-situ burning. sockets and burnt natural Little evidence for pit use. 23 0E10N 24 24 213 Natural infilling of stake- 2 2 Mid pinkish grey soft hole after removal sandy clay. Occasional charcoal 24 0E10N 23 214 23 Cut of stakehole just to 2 1 Sub-circular pit cut 0.26m south of hearth C.22 x 0.23m x 0.32m deep with vertical sides and rounded basePermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 25 0E10N 215 215 213 Natural infilling of stake- 2 2 Mid greyish brown loose Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road hole after removal of stake silty clay 26 0E10N 22 27 21 Backfill of hearth 2 1 Dark blackish brown loose sandy silt with occasional pieces of charcoal and large pieces of hard bright orange burnt clay 27 0E10N 22 22 26 Backfill of hearth. Con- 2 1 Mid reddish brown loose tains small stone hearth in sandy silt. Large amount northern end. Stones lie on of charcoal and burnt clay fill and fill in middle has pieces. been burnt orange. Appears that the hearth was put in after initial deposition then abandoned after infilling built up over the level of the hearth as this fill also lay above the hearth. 28 0E10N 29 29 213 Natural infilling of small 2 2 Soft mid brown sandy clay pit of unknown use close to with occasional charcoal hearth C.2246 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 54. 04E1120 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Period Phase Basic description Artefacts 29 0E10N 28 214 28 Cut of small oval pit 2 1 Oval pit cut 0.3m x 0.26m x 0.2m with concave sides and base 30 0E10N 31 31 213 Natural infilling of stake- 2 2 Dark brownish grey sandy hole clay with moderate char- coal inclusions 31 0E10N 30 214 30 Cut of small driven stake. 2 1 Circular cut 0.05m x One of a group to the SE of 0.04m x 0.08m deep. V- pit C.22 shaped with N-S inclina- tion (Top-Base) 32 0E10N 33 33 213 Infilling of stakehole after 2 2 Dark brownish grey sandy removal of stake clay with occasional charcoal 33 0E10N 32 214 32 Small stakehole cut just to 2 1 Oval stakehole cut 0.11mPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ SE of hearth C.22 x 0.07m x 0.1m deep. Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road V-shaped with vertical inclination 34 0E10N 35 35 213 Infilling of stakehole after 2 2 Dark brownish grey sandy removal of stake clay with occasional charcoal 35 0E10N 34 214 34 Small cut of driven stake 2 1 Cut of oval stakehole just to SE of pit C.22 0.09m x 0.06m x 0.09m deep. V-shaped with verti- cal inclination 36 Cancelled context 37 Cancelled context 38 0E10N 39 39 213 Infilling of stakehole after 2 2 Mid brownish grey sandy removal of stake clay with moderate char- coal 39 0E10N 38 214 38 Cut of driven stake just to 2 1 Circular stakehole cut the SE of pit C.22 0.08m x 0.07m x 0.09m deep. V-shaped with verti- cal inclination 40 Cancelled context 41 Cancelled context47 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 55. 04E1120 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Period Phase Basic description Artefacts 42 0E10N 43 43 214 Fill of small posthole at SE 2 2 Loose reddish brown end of pit C.22 sandy clay with charcoal flecks and possible pack- ing stones on southern side 43 0E10N 42 214 42 Cut of small stakehole at SE 2 1 Oblong cut 0.08m x end of pit C.22. Flat base 0.05m x 0.05m deep with indicates insertion of post vertical sides and flat base after excavation of hole. At opposite end of C.22 to C.45 44 0E10N 45 45 213 Infilling of stakehole after 2 2 Mid blackish brown sandy removal of stake. At NW silt with charcoal flecks end of pit C.22Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 45 0E10N 44 214 44 Driven stake cut at NW end 2 1 Circular stakehole cut Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road of hearth C.22. On opposite 0.06m x 0.05m x 0.08m side to posthole C.43 deep 46 0E0N 47 47 213 Infilling of driven posthole 2 2 Soft mid grey clayey sand after removal of post with occasional charcoal inclusions 47 0E0N 46 214 46 Cut of isolated driven post 2 1 Circular posthole 0.26m x 0.24m x 0.49m deep. S to N inclination (Top-Base) 48 0E0N 49 49 213 Infilling of stakehole after 2 2 Loose yellowish brown removal of stake sandy clay 49 0E0N 48 214 48 Cut of driven stake just to 2 1 Circular cut 0.1m x the SE of pit C.22 0.09m x 0.09m deep with v-shaped base and vertical inclination 50 0E0N 51 51 213 Infilling of stakehole after 2 2 Soft mid brown sandy clay removal of stake with occasional charcoal inclusions 51 0E0N 51 214 51 Cut of driven stake 2 1 Oval cut of stakehole 0.15m x 0.1m x 0.12m deep. V-shaped with verti- cal inclination48 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 56. 04E1120 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Period Phase Basic description Artefacts 52 0E0N 53 213 Spread of material to the 2 1 Soft dark grey sandy clay to the side of and cut by pit spread C.66 53 0E0N 66 70 52 Upper fill of pit C.66. Rede- 2 1 Firm orange yellow sandy posited natural clay with moderate char- coal flecks 54 0E0N 55 55 213 Infilling of stakehole after 2 2 Hard yellowish brown removal of stake sandy clay 55 0E0N 54 214 54 Cut of squared driven stake 2 1 Square stakehole cut with rounded corners 0.11m x 0.1m x 0.16m deep. V- shaped base and NE-SW inclination (Top-Base) 56 0E0N 57 57 213 Infilling of stakehole after 2 2 Soft mid brown sandy clayPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ removal of stake Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road 57 0E0N 56 214 56 Cut of driven stake 2 1 Circular stakehole cut 0.13m x 0.11m x 0.2m deep V-shaped base and vertical inclination 58 0E0N 59 59 213 Infilling of stakehole after 2 2 Mid brown silty clay with removal of stake occasional charcoal flecks 59 0E0N 58 214 58 Cut of driven stake 2 1 Circular stakehole cut 0.1m diam x 0.22m deep with V-shaped base and vertical inclination 60 0E0N 61 61 213 Infilling of stakehole after 2 2 Mid brown silty clay with removal of stake occasional charcoal flecks 61 0E0N 60 214 60 Stakehole cut. Cut has been 2 1 Oblong stakehole cut widened, probably as stake 0.17m x 0.07m x 0.09m was removed deep with rounded base and vertical inclination 62 10E0N 63 63 213 Infilling of flat bottomed 2 2 Yellowish brown sandy posthole after removal of clay with frequent stones. post Packing stones along southern side49 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 57. 04E1120 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Period Phase Basic description Artefacts 63 10E0N 62 214 62 Posthole cut. Appears to 2 1 Cut of square posthole have been cut prior to inser- with rounded corners tion of post 0.1m diam x 0.2m deep with steep sides , flat base and vertical inclination 64 0E0N 65 65 213 Infilling of stakehole after 2 2 Soft mid brown sandy clay removal of stake with occasional charcoal flecks 65 0E0N 64 214 64 Cut of driven stake. Stake- 2 1 D-shaped stakehole cut hole has been widened, pos- 0.1m x 0.06m x 0.1m sibly on removal of stake deep. V-shaped with verti- cal inclination 66 0E0N 53, 70, 71, 214 73 Cut of pit associated with 2 1 Sub-rectangular cut of pit 72, 73 surrounding stakeholes. Pos- 1.26m x 0.92m x 0.46mPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ sibly domestic pit but func- deep with steep sides and Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road tion is largely unknown. concave base Appears to have been purposefully backfilled 67 0E0N 68 214 68 Part of double stakehole, 2 1 Cut of circular stakehole both with the same fill 0.14m x 0.1m x 0.19m deep V-shaped with verti- cal inclination 68 0E0N 67,69 67,69 213 Fill of double stakehole, fills 2 2 Mid brown sandy clay both so they are considered roughly contemporary 69 0E0N 68 214 68 Part of double stakehole, 2 1 Stakehole cut 0.12m x both with the same fill 0.1m x 0.19m deep with V-shaped profile and vertical inclination 70 0E0N 66 71 53 Fill of possible domestic 2 1 Soft dark brownish grey pit. Appears to have been silty clay with moderate purposefully backfilled charcoal pieces 71 0E0N 66 72 70 Fill of possible domestic 2 1 Soft mottled brown/light pit. Appears to have been grey sandy silt with mod- purposefully backfilled erate charcoal flecks50 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 58. 04E1120 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Period Phase Basic description Artefacts 72 0E0N 66 73 71 Fill of possible domestic 2 1 Soft light brownish yellow pit. Appears to have been sandy clay with occasional purposefully backfilled charcoal flecks 73 0E0N 66 66 72 Fill of possible domestic 2 1 Soft light grey silty clay pit. Appears to have been with moderate charcoal purposefully backfilled flecks 74 0E0N 75 75 213 Infilling of stakehole after 2 2 Firm dark brownish grey removal of stake silty clay with occasional charcoal flecks 75 0E0N 74 214 74 Stakehole cut associated 2 1 Circular stakehole cut with backfilled pit C.66. At 0.085m x 0.09m x 0.11m opposite end to stakehole deep with rounded base C.77 and vertical inclination 76 0E0N 77 77 213 Infilling of stakehole after 2 1 Soft dark grey clayey siltPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ removal of stake. Similar to with moderate charcoal Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road upper fill of nearby pit C.66 flecking 77 0E0N 76 214 76 Stakehole cut next to back- 2 1 Circular stakehole cut filled pit C.66. At opposite 0.125m x 0.11m x 0.095m end to stakehole C.75 deep with rounded base and vertical inclination 78 0E0N 79 214 79 Driven stake cut. Driven on 2 1 Cut of circular stakehole. to stone at base 0.08m diam x 0.11m deep with flat base due to being driven on to a stone. 79 0E0N 78 78 213 Infilling of stakehole after 2 2 Mid brown sandy clay removal of stake 80 0E0N 82 82 80 Upper fill of small shallow 2 1 Soft mid brown clayey possible domestic pit. Ap- sand with occasional pears to have been back- charcoal filled 81 0E0N 82 82 80 Lower fill of small shallow 2 1 Soft mid brown clayey possible domestic pit. Ap- sand with occasional pears to have been back- charcoal filled51 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 59. 04E1120 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Period Phase Basic description Artefacts 82 0E0N 80,81 214 81 Shallow pit, upper fill 2 1 Oval pit cut 0.45m x contained a large amount 0.25m x 0.11 deep with of charcoal but there were rounded base no signs of in-situ burning, suggesting it was backfilled 83 10E0N 88 214 88 Cut of small pit. Appeared 2 1 Sub-circular pit cut 0.4m to be a cremation due to x 0.38m x 0.07m deep the fill but no burnt bone with flat uneven base evident. Close to cremation burial C.84 84 10E0N 93,92 214 93 Cut of possible cremation 2 1 Sub-circular cremation burial. Close to similar pit cut 0.36m x 0.26m x feature C.83 0.15m deep with rounded basePermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 85 10E0N 87,94,95,96 86 213 Upper fill of stakehole 2 2 Soft brownish black Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road group. Originally thought clayey sand with frequent to be a small pit . Fills all 4 charcoal stakeholes 86 10E0N 87,94,95,96 87, 94, 85 Lower fill of stakehole 2 2 Soft mid brown clayey 95, 96 group, infilling after re- sand with occasional moval of stakes charcoal 87 10E10N 85, 86 214 86 Driven stakehole cut, part 2 1 Triangular stakehole cut of a group of 4 originally 0.15m x 0.1m x 0.2m thought to be a small pit deep. V-shaped with SW- NE inclination (Top-Base) 88 10E10N 83 83 213 Fill of pit, thought to be 2 1 Firm black mix of char- possible cremation burial. coal and silt. Black charcoal rich material similar to typical cremations but contained no evident burnt bone 89 10E10N 90, 91, 97, 90, 91, 97, 213 Natural infilling of pit 2 2 Light reddish brown 98, 99, 100, 98, 99, and stakeholes after use sandy clay with occasional 101 100, 101 and abandonment. Stakes charcoal flecks removed prior to infilling52 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 60. 04E1120 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Period Phase Basic description Artefacts 90 10E10N 89 214 89 Pit of unknown function 2 1 Cut of oblong pit 1.1m x containing 4 stakeholes and 0.6m x 0.15m 2 postholes 91 10E10N 89 214 89 Posthole within pit C.90 2 1 Circular posthole cut 0.3m diam x 0.15m deep with concave sides and rounded base 92 10E10N 84 93 213 Upper fill of possible crema- 2 1 Soft black clayey silt with tion pit moderate fragments of burnt bone and frequent charcoal 93 10E10N 84 84 92 Lower fill of possible crema- 2 1 Mottled yellowish brown tion pit sandy silt with occasional charcoal flecksPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 94 10E10N 85,86 214 86 Stakehole cut. Part of a 2 1 Cut of oval stakehole Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road group of 4 which were 0.09m x 0.05m x 0.1m originally thought to be a deep. V-shaped small pit 95 10E10N 85,86 214 86 Stakehole cut. Part of a 2 1 Circular cut with concave group of 4 which were all sides and V-shaped base. together and originally 0.05m diam x 0.1m deep thought to be a small pit 96 10E10N 85,86 214 86 Stakehole cut. One of 4 2 1 Oval stakehole cut with stakeholes which were all V-shaped base. 0.09m x grouped together 0.08m x 0.15m deep 97 10E10N 89 214 89 Cut of posthole within shal- 2 1 Oblong posthole cut with low pit C.90 rounded corners. 0.35m x 0.2m x 0.2m deep with stepped sides and flat base 98 10E10N 89 214 89 Stakehole cut within pit 2 1 Oval cut 0.1m x 0.07m x C.90 0.18m deep with rounded base 99 10E10N 89 214 89 Stakehole cut. One of a 2 1 D-shaped cut with vertical number cut into the base of sides and flat base 0.1m pit C.90 diam x 0.1m deep53 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 61. 04E1120 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Period Phase Basic description Artefacts 100 10E10N 89 214 89 Stakehole cut in the base of 2 1 Oval cut 0.15m x 0.07m x shallow pit C.90 0.15m deep with V-shaped base and W-E inclination (Top-Base) 101 10E10N 89 214 89 Stakehole cut in the base of 2 1 Circular stakehole cut shallow pit C.90 0.1m x 0.08m x 0.12m with vertical sides and V- shaped base 102 10E10N 103 103 213 Fill of double stakehole, fills 2 2 Soft mid greyish brown both so they are considered sandy clay with occasional roughly contemporary charcoal flecks 103 10E10N 102 214 102 Cut of stakehole, part of 2 1 Oval stakehole cut 0.1m x double stakehole with C.104 0.05m x 0.15m deep with vertical sides and v-shapedPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ base Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road 104 10E10N 102 214 104 Cut of stakehole, part of 2 1 Oval cut 0.13m x 0.08m x double stakehole with C.103 0.25m deep with vertical sides and V-shaped base 105 10E10N 106 106 213 Fill of triple stakehole after 2 2 Soft mid brown sandy clay removal of stakes, all are with occasional charcoal filled with the same material flecks 106 10E10N 105 214 105 Stakehole cut, part of triple 2 1 Sub-circular cut 0.1m stakehole along with C.107 x 0.08m x 0.23m deep and C.108 with vertical sides and V- shaped base 107 10E10N 105 214 105 Stakehole cut, part of triple 2 1 Oval cut measuring stakehole with C.106 and 0.07m x 0.05m x 0.13m C.108 deep with concave sides and V-shaped base 108 10E10N 105 214 105 Cut of stakehole, one of 2 1 Circular stakehole cut three which form a triple 0.06m diam x 0.12m deep stakehole. All are filled with with V-shaped base the same material 109 10E0N 114,115 115 214 Cut of pit containing mate- 2 1 Circular cut 0.45m x 0.3m rial typical of a cremation. x 0.09m with concave Cut into larger pit C.110 sides and base54 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 62. 04E1120 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Period Phase Basic description Artefacts 110 10E0N 151,152,153, 214 153 Cut of large irregular pit of 2 1 Irregular D-shaped cut 154 unknown function. It has 2.3m x 1.4m x 0.67m with been re-cut twice, once by irregular sides and base. an ash filled pit, and later by a possible cremation. Ap- pears to have been purpose- fully backfilled 111 10E10N 112 112 213 Natural infilling of double 2 2 Mid brown sandy clay stakehole after removal of with occasional charcoal stakes, fills both so they are flecks considered roughly contem- porary 112 10E10N 111 214 111 Cut of driven stakehole, 2 1 Oval stakehole cut 0.3m part of double stakehole x 0.07m x 0.25m withPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ V-shaped base and vertical Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road inclination of axis 113 10E10N 111 214 113 Cut of driven stakehole, one 2 1 Triangular stakehole cut. half of double stakehole, 0.18m x 0.12m x 0.2m both are filled with the with vertical sides and V- same material shaped base 114 10E0N Fill of pit. The material is 2 1 Firm black silt with fre- typical of cremation burials quent charcoal pieces and in general but contained no occasional stones evident burnt bone 115 10E0N 109 109 114 Basal fill of pit 2 1 Mid grey sandy clay with occasional medium sized stones 116 10E0N 117 117 213 Natural infilling of stake- 2 2 soft mid brown sandy hole after removal of stake clay with occasional small stones 117 10E0N 116 214 116 Cut of driven stake 2 1 Circular stakehole cut 0.07m diam x 0.18m deep with vertical sides V-shaped base and E-W inclination (Top-Base)55 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 63. 04E1120 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Period Phase Basic description Artefacts 118 10E0N 119 119 213 Natural infilling of shallow 2 2 soft greyish brown clayey pit of unknown function sand with occasional char- coal flecks 119 10E0N 118 214 118 Cut of shallow pit with no 2 1 Sub-square pit cut with obvious function rounded corners and flat base 0.25m x 0.3m x 0.09m 120 10E0N 159 155 150 Charcoal rich lower fill of 2 1 soft black charcoal rich pit C.159 which is re-cut silt with occasional small into C.110 stones 121 10E0N 122 122 213 Natural infilling of stake- 2 1 Soft mid brown sandy clay hole after removal of stake with occasional charcoal fleck inclusions 122 10E0N 121 214 121 Cut of driven stake 2 1 Cut of circular stakeholePermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 0.08m diam x 0.15m deep Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road with vertical sides and V- shaped base 123 10E0N 124 124 213 Infilling of stakehole, 2 2 Firm black clayey silt charcoal rich but with no with frequent charcoal evidence for stake and occasional burnt clay flecks. Not representative of in-situ burning 124 10E0N 123 214 123 Cut of driven stake, most 2 1 Circular stakehole cut likely associated with others 0.1m x 0.12m x 0.11m located in same area deep with vertical sides and rounded base 125 10E0N 126 126 213 Natural infilling of stake- 2 2 Soft greyish brown clayey hole after removal of stake sand 126 10E0N 125 214 125 Cut of driven stake, pos- 2 1 Oval stakehole cut 0.11m sibly associated with other x 0.14m x 0.18m deep stakeholes in the same area with steep sides and of the grid rounded base56 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 64. 04E1120 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Period Phase Basic description Artefacts 127 10E0N 129 128 213 Upper fill of posthole, 2 1 Loose mid brownish grey appears to have been silty clay with frequent backfilled due to the large charcoal inclusions amount of charcoal in the 2 fills 128 10E0N 129 129 127 Basal fill of possibly back- 2 1 Loose mid reddish brown filled posthole silty clay with frequent large charcoal pieces and occasional flecks of burnt clay 129 10E0N 127,128 213 128 Cut of posthole, appears to 2 1 Sheet missing have been backfilled after the removal of the post due to the frequent charcoalPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ and occasional burnt clay Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road inclusions 130 10E0N 131 131 213 Natural infilling of stake- 2 2 Soft greyish brown clayey hole after the removal of the sand stake 131 10E0N 130 214 130 Cut of driven stake, possibly 2 1 Cut of oval stakehole 0.1m associated with other stakes diam x 0.09m deep with in close proximity in the vertical sides and rounded same grid base 132 10E0N 133 133 213 Infilling of stakehole after 2 2 Soft greyish brown clayey the removal of the stake sand with occasional char- coal flecks 133 10E0N 132 214 132 Cut of driven stakehole 2 1 Circular cut 0.09m x 0.1m with possible association to x 0.12m deep with vertical nearby stakeholes in same sides and rounded base grid 134 10E0N 136 135 213 Infilling of stakehole. Ap- 2 2 Soft light grey clayey silt pears to have filled naturally with occasional charcoal despite the fact that there flecks are 2 fills57 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 65. 04E1120 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Period Phase Basic description Artefacts 135 10E0N 136 136 134 Basal fill of stakehole, ap- 2 2 Soft mid brown silty clay pears to be natural infilling with occasional charcoal after removal of the stake flecks 136 10E0N 134,135 214 135 Cut of driven stakehole with 2 1 Circular cut 0.2m x 0.18m the stake removed prior to x 0.1m deep with steep infilling top vertical sides and rounded base 137 10E0N 138 138 213 Natural infilling of stake- 2 2 Soft brown sandy clay hole after removal of stake 138 10E0N 137 214 137 Cut of driven stake with 2 1 Circular stakehole cut possible association to other 0.07m diam x 0.08m deep similar stakeholes in the with vertical sides and area rounded base 139 10E0N 144,145 214 144 Cut of shallow rounded 2 1 Oval pit cut 0.89m xPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ pit which appears to have 0.66m x 0.12m deep with Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road filled in naturally. Possible steep sides and flat base domestic pit 140 Cancelled context 141 Cancelled context 142 10E0N 143 143 213 Single fill of small possible 2 2 Moderately compact mid domestic pit. Appears to greyish brown silty clay have infilled naturally after use 143 10E0N 142 142 214 Cut of possible domestic pit 2 1 Sub-rectangular cut with concave sides and base sloping from E-W 0.45m x 0.20m x 0.15m 144 10E0N 139 139 145 Natural infilling of possible 2 2 Soft grey sandy clay with domestic pit. Lower fill charcoal fleck inclusions 145 10E0N 139 144 213 Natural infilling of possible 2 2 Soft brown sandy clay domestic pit after use. Up- with charcoal fleck inclu- per fill sions 146 20E0N 147 147 213 Infilling of possible shallow 2 2 Firm dark grey clayey silt domestic pit. with moderate charcoal flecks58 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 66. 04E1120 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Period Phase Basic description Artefacts 147 20E0N 146 157 146 Cut of shallow possible do- 2 1 Oval pit cut with vertical mestic pit, probably associ- sides and flat base 0.5m x ated with nearby stakeholes 0.44m x 0.09m deep association 148 10E0N 159 159 109 Fill of re-cut of large pit 2 1 Moderate mottled brown- C.110. The re-cut appears to ish grey sandy clay with have been backfilled due to occasional charcoal flecks some of the fills containing large quantities of ash. This fill has been cut by possible cremation C.109 149 10E0N 159 150 148 Fill of re-cut C.159 of large 2 1 Moderately compact light pit C.110. The re-cut ap- grey silt/clay/ash mix with pears to have been back- occasional charcoal inclu-Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ filled due to some of the fills sions Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road containing large quantities of ash. 150 10E0N 159 120 149 Fill of re-cut C.159 of large 2 1 Moderately compact mid pit C.110. The re-cut ap- grey clayey sand/ash with pears to have been back- frequent charcoal inclu- filled due to some of the fills sions containing large quantities of ash. 151 10E0N 110 152 159 Fill of large irregular pit of 2 1 Moderately compact mot- unknown function, later re- tled yellowish/bluish grey cut by C.159 and cremation clayey sand with occasion- C.109 al charcoal inclusions 152 10E0N 110 153 152 Fill of large irregular pit of 2 1 Moderately compact blu- unknown function, later re- ish grey sandy clay with cut by C.159 and cremation occasional charcoal flecks C.109 153 10E0N 110 110 154 Fill of large irregular pit of 2 1 Moderately compact unknown function, later re- orange/brown sandy clay cut by C.159 and cremation with occasional charcoal C.109 fleck inclusions59 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 67. 04E1120 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Period Phase Basic description Artefacts 154 10E0N 110 152 110 Fill of large irregular pit of 2 1 Moderately compacted unknown function, later re- mottled greyish brown cut by C.159 and cremation sandy clay C.109 155 10E0N 159 159 120 Fill of re-cut C.159 of large 2 1 Firm very light brown pit C.110. The re-cut ap- sandy clay with occasional pears to have been back- charcoal flecks filled due to some of the fills containing large quantities of ash. 156 Cancelled context 157 200E0N 158 158 147 Natural infilling of stake- 2 1 Soft dark brownish grey hole after removal of stake. silty clay with moderate Cut by pit C.146 charcoal flecksPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 158 20E0N 157 214 157 Cut for driven stake. Cut by 2 1 Sub-circular stakehole Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road pit C.146. Possible relation- cut with vertical sides and ship with nearby stakeholes V-shaped base. 0.09m x 0.1m x 0.11m deep 159 10E0N 148, 149, 150, 155 151 Cut of backfilled ash rich 2 1 Taken from section face. 120, 155 pit which truncates earlier Cut of pit with concave large irregular pit C.110. sides and rounded base This re-cur was later cut by 0.8m across and 0.3m possible cremation C.109 deep 160 20E10N 161 161 213 Natural infilling of stake- 2 2 Soft brown sandy clay hole after the removal of the stake 161 20E10N 160 214 160 Cut of driven stakehole 2 1 Circular pit cut with verti- with possible relationship cal sides and rounded base to nearby pit C.146 and 0.11m x 0.1m x 0.15m stakehole C.158 deep 162 20E10N 163 214 162 Cut of isolated shallow pit. 2 2 Circular pit cut with con- Possibly domestic pit but cave sides and base 0.6m actual purpose unknown diam x 0.16m deep60 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 68. 04E1120 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Period Phase Basic description Artefacts 163 20E10N 162 163 213 Natural infilling of shallow 2 1 Firm mid greyish brown possible domestic pit fine sandy silt with frequent decayed stone inclusions 164 20E20N 165,166 213 165,166 Natural infilling of domes- 2 2 Soft dark greyish brown tic pit with stakehole in the silty clay with moderate base. Fills both features. charcoal flecks 165 20E20N 164 214 164 Cut of shallow domestic pit 2 1 Oval pit cut with vertical with a stakehole in the base. sides and flat base 0.45m x Both are filled with C.164 0.35m x 0.07m deep 166 20E20N 164 214 164 Cut of driven stakehole in 2 1 Oval stakehole cut 0.25m the base of pit C.165. Both x 0.14m x 0.12m deep are filled with C.164 with vertical sides and rounded basePermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 167 20E10N 168 168 213 Natural infilling of possible 2 2 Moderately compact mid Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road domestic pit greyish brown silty clay 168 20E10N 167 214 167 Cut of pit with unknown 2 1 D-shaped pit cut with function, possibly domestic rounded corners, vertical sides and flat base. 0.45m x 0.4m x 0.2m deep 169 20E0N 170 170 213 Natural infilling of driven 2 2 Firm greyish brown silty stakehole after removal of clay stake 170 20E0N 169 214 169 Cut for driven stake. Cut by 2 1 Circular stakehole cut pit C.146. Possible relation- 0.13m x 0.1m x 0.11m ship with nearby stakeholes deep with rounded base and vertical inclination 171 20E0N 172,173 172,173 213 Infilling of double stakehole 2 2 Moderate/loose orange after removal of stakes brown sandy clay 172 20E0N 171 214 171 Cut of driven stake, part of 2 1 Circular stakehole cut a double stakehole 0.1m in diameter x 0.28m deep with vertical inclina- tion of axis and V-shaped base61 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 69. 04E1120 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Period Phase Basic description Artefacts 173 20E0N 171 214 171 Cut of driven stake, one half 2 1 Circular stakehole cut of double stakehole 0.07m in diameter x 0.25m deep with V- shaped base and vertical inclination of axis 174 20E0N 175 175 213 Infilling of posthole after 2 2 Soft dark grey clayey silt the removal of the stake with occasional charcoal flecking 175 20E0N 174 214 174 Cut of posthole, would ap- 2 1 Cut of circular posthole pear that the cut was made 0.18m x 0.19m x 0.1m prior to the insertion of the with vertical sides and flat post base 176 20E10N 177 214 177 Small domestic pit with pos- 2 1 Sub-circular pit cut 0.23m sible stakehole in the base x 0.2m x 0.19m deep. BasePermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ is rounded with V-shape Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road in middle. The pit has concave/vertical sides 177 20E10N 176 176 213 Infilling of small domestic 2 2 Soft light-mid brown pit after use sandy clay with occasional charcoal flecks 178 20E0N 179 214 179 Cut of posthole. Flat base 2 1 Circular posthole cut would indicate that cut was 0.2m in diameter x 0.13m made prior to insertion of deep with vertical sides the posthole and flat base 179 20E0N 178 178 213 Infilling of posthole after 2 2 Mid grey/brown sandy the removal of the post clay with moderate char- coal flecks 180 20E0N 181 181 213 Natural infilling of stake- 2 2 Firm light brown silty clay hole after stake removal with occasional charcoal flecks 181 20E0N 180 214 180 Cut of driven stake. Prob- 2 1 Circular stakehole cut ably associated with a 0.07m x 0.065m x 0.1m number of stakeholes in the deep with vertical sides, areas rounded base and vertical inclination62 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 70. 04E1120 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Period Phase Basic description Artefacts 182 20E0N 183 183 213 Natural infilling of stake- 2 2 Firm greyish brown clayey hole after removal of stake silt 183 20E0N 182 214 182 Cut of flat based posthole, 2 1 Posthole cut 0.25m x indicating that cut was 0.19m x 0.12m deep with made prior to insertion of vertical sides and flat base post 184 20E0N 185 185 213 Fill of driven stakehole. 2 2 Loose dark greyish brown Filled naturally after re- clayey silt moval of stake 185 20E0N 184 214 184 Cut of driven stake. One of 2 1 Keyhole shaped stakehole a number in this area which cut with steep sides and are most likely related V-shaped base 0.13m x 0.12m x0.2m deep 186 20E0N 187 187 213 Fill of small posthole which 2 2 Moderate dark grey/Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ filled in after removal of the brown fine clayey sand Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road post with moderate charcoal 187 20E0N 186 214 186 Small flat bottomed post- 2 1 Circular posthole cut hole cut, indicating that cut 0.15m x 0.13m x 0.11m was made prior to insertion deep with concave sides, of post vertical inclination and flat base 188 20E0N 189 189 213 Natural infilling of stake- 2 2 Firm dark brown silty clay hole after the removal of the with occasional charcoal stake flecks 189 20E0N 188 214 188 Cut of driven stakehole 2 1 Oval stakehole cut 0.3m likely associated with other x 0.2m x 0.07m deep with nearby stakeholes vertical sides, rounded base and vertical inclina- tion 190 20E0N 191 191 213 Natural infilling of small 2 2 Firm mottled white/ domestic pit brown sandy clay with moderate charcoal flecks and frequent decayed stone63 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 71. 04E1120 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Period Phase Basic description Artefacts 191 20E0N 190 214 190 Cut of small oval pit. Func- 2 1 Oval pit cut 0.28m x 0.1m tion unknown but assumed x 0.12m deep with a flat to be domestic. Possibly as- base and sloping sides sociated with nearby stakes 192 Cancelled context 193 Cancelled context 194 20E-0N 195 195 213 Possible backfill of small 2 1 Dark grey/black silty clay domestic pit with frequent inclusions of charcoal 195 20E-0N 194 214 194 Cut of small isolated pit. 2 1 Circular pit cut 0.14m di- Unknown use but assumed ameter x 0.11m deep with to be domestic concave sides and slightly rounded base 196 20E0N 197 197 213 Fill of extremely shallow pit. 2 1 Hard orange brown sandyPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ Large amount of charcoal clay with frequent char- Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road gives evidence of burning coal inclusions but lack of heat affected natural would indicate that burning took place elsewhere and material was dumped here 197 20E0N 196 214 196 Very shallow cut for pit of 2 1 Oval pit cut with concave unknown use. Frequent sides and flat base 0.85m x charcoal in the fill would 0.56m x 0.06m deep indicate that the mate- rial was dumped here from somewhere else 198 30E0N 199 199 213 Backfill of shallow pit, indi- 2 1 Firm dark greyish black cated by the large amount of clayey silt with frequent stones and charcoal charcoal and decayed stone 199 30E0N 198 214 198 Cut of pit of unknown 2 1 Oval pit cut 1.31m x 0.9m function which truncates x 0.12m deep with gently stakehole C.203. Appears to sloping sides and flat base have been backfilled64 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 72. 04E1120 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Period Phase Basic description Artefacts 200 30E0N 201 201 213 Natural infilling of possible 2 2 Hard orangey brown silty domestic pit. clay with occasional char- coal flecking inclusions 201 30E0N 200 214 200 Cut of pit of unknown 2 1 Sub-circular pit cut 0.6m function but assumed to be x 0.2m x 0.15m deep with domestic pit steep sides and rounded base 202 30E10N 203 203 199 Infilling of driven stake 2 1 Soft light grey sandy silt after the stakes removal 203 30E10N 202 214 202 Cut of driven stake. Trun- 2 1 Circular stakehole cut cated by C.199 with vertical sides and rounded point base 0.085m x 0.09m x 0.07m deepPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 204 30E10N 205 214 205 Cut of posthole with flat 2 1 Oval posthole cut with Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road base. Appears to have been vertical sides and uneven cut prior to insertion of base due to stones 0.23m x post. Stones in the base of 0.19m x 0.14m deep the cut 205 30E10N 204 204 213 Possible backfill of posthole 2 2 Compact brownish grey due to large amount of silty clay with frequent charcoal. Does not seem to charcoal flecks and pieces indicate that post was still present in the cut 206 30E10N 207 207 213 Natural infilling of stake- 2 2 Compact greyish blue hole after the removal of the sandy clay stake 207 30E10N 206 214 206 Cut of driven stake 2 1 Oval stakehole cut with steep sides and concave base 208 30E10N 210 209 213 Fill of modern large linear 3 1 Soft mid brown silty clay Modern pottery feature with moderate amounts of sherd charcoal 209 30E10N 210 210 208 Fill of large shallow modern 3 1 Soft mottled bluish grey feature silty clay with moderate charcoal flecks65 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 73. 04E1120 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Period Phase Basic description Artefacts 210 30E10N 208, 209 214 209 Irregular shaped feature. 3 1 Irregular shaped cut, all Modern sides shallow gradient and flat/irregular base. 2.15m x 0.76m x 0.16m deep 211 30E10N 212 212 213 Infilling of posthole after 2 2 Compact greyish blue the removal of the post sandy clay 212 30E10N 211 214 211 Cut of flat bottomed post- 2 1 Oval posthole cut with hole, indicating the cut was sharp sides and flat base made prior to the insertion due to stones 0.22m x of the post 0.12m x 0.09m deep 213 entire site Topsoil 3 1 Soft dark brown silty clay Three post- with occasional modern medieval pottery pottery shards. Approx sherds & flint 0.3m deep corePermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 214 entire site Natural 1 1 Orange/yellow clay Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road 215 0E0N 25 21 25 Cut of stakehole in the top 2 1 Stakehole cut only evident of hearth C.22. in section face 0.05m x 0.32m deep with vertical sides and V-shaped point. Vertical inclination AREA B * * * * * * * * * * 1001 B 1002, 1003, 214 1011 Cut of extremely large pit 2 1 Cut of sub-circular pit 1004, 1005, with evidence of in-situ 6.25m x 3.25m x 2.18m 1006, 1007, burning and stakehole deep with steep sides and 1008, 1009, groups in the north and rounded base 1010, 1011 south sides. Next to a pit of similar size C.1014. Func- tion unknown. The pit did contain some small pieces of burnt bone 1002 B 1001 1003 213 Natural infilling of pit after 2 2 Light brownish orange abandonment sandy clay with occasional charcoal flecks 0.12m deep66 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 74. 04E1120 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Period Phase Basic description Artefacts 1003 B 1001 1004 1002 Natural infilling of pit after 2 2 Mid brown sandy clay abandonment with frequent charcoal flecks 0.4m deep 1004 B 1001 1005 1003 Natural infilling of pit after 2 2 Light brown sandy clay abandonment with occasional charcoal flecks 0.37m deep 1005 B 1001 1006 1004 Natural infilling of pit after 2 2 Light brownish grey sandy abandonment clay with charcoal inclu- sions 0.12m deep 1006 B 1001 1007 1005 Natural infilling of pit after 2 2 Light brown sandy clay abandonment with occasional charcoal flecks 0.3m deep 1007 B 1001 1008 1006 Natural infilling of pit after 2 2 Mid brown sandy clay abandonment with occasional charcoalPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ flecks 0.35m deep Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road 1008 B 1001 1009 1007 Natural infilling of pit after 2 2 Light brown sandy clay abandonment with occasional charcoal flecks 0.33m deep 1009 B 1001 1010 1008 Natural infilling of pit after 2 2 Dark brownish grey silty abandonment clay with occasional char- coal 0.15m deep & flecks of burnt bone 1010 B 1001 1011 1009 This was a layer of burnt fill 2 1 Orange sandy clay with which lay close to the base occasional charcoal. Ap- of the pit peared to have been heat affected 0.15m deep 1011 B 1001 1001 1010 A layer of very charcoal rich 2 1 Light brownish orange fill at the very base of c1001 sandy clay with occasional charcoal flecks & flecks of burnt bone 0.1m deep 1012 B 1013 214 1013 Cut of possible posthole. 2 1 Irregular shaped pit cut Flat base would indicate with steep sides and flat that cut was prior to inser- base 0.31m x 0.39m x tion of post 0.31m deep67 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 75. 04E1120 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Period Phase Basic description Artefacts 1013 B 1012 1012 213 Fill of possible inserted 2 2 Mid brown silty clay with posthole after removal of occasional charcoal flecks post 1014 B 1022 214 1022 Cut of extremely large 2 1 Sub-oval large pit cut with pit. No evidence of in-situ steep/vertical sides. Not burning but a large amount bottomed due to health of charcoal in some of the and safety reasons 3.64m lower fills. Later re-cut by x 4.3m and excavated C.1025. In close proxim- depth was 2.05m ity to similar pit C.1001. Function unknown. This pit was not bottomed due to health and safety reasons so the true depth is unknownPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ but there appeared to be Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road frequent charcoal deposits at the base. As there is no fur- ther evidence for subsequent occupation on the sites I am going to assume that this pit was backfilled and later re-cut during the same oc- cupational phase 1015 B 1016 1016 213 Natural infilling of possible 2 1 Bluish brown sandy clay pit after abandonment with moderate small char- coal pieces 1016 B 1015 214 1015 cut of irregular pit with 2 1 Irregular shaped pit cut unknown function with gentle sloping sides 0.64m x 0.34m x 0.12m deep 1017 B 1025 1018 213 Upper fill of large pit. Ap- 2 2 Dark brown silty clay with pears to be a natural fill moderate charcoal pieces after abandonment 1018 B 1025 1019 1017 Natural infilling of re-cut of 2 2 Mid brownish grey silty large pit clay with occasional flecks of charcoal0.58m deep68 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 76. 04E1120 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Period Phase Basic description Artefacts 1019 B 1025 1020 1018 Natural infilling of re-cut of 2 2 Light orange clay with large pit occasional charcoal flecks 0.34m deep 1020 B 1025 1021 1019 Natural infilling of re-cut of 2 2 Mid orange clay with large pit charcoal flecks 0.28m deep 1021 B 1025 1025 1020 Charcoal rich layer at the 2 1 Dark brownish grey base of the re-cut of large pit silty clay with frequent C.1014. Possibly deposited charcoal flecks and pieces layer 0.08m deep 1022 B 1014 1014 1025 This is the initial fill of 2 1 Mid brownish grey silty large pit c1014, it was re-cut clay with moderate char- by C.1025 coal inclusions 1023 B ? 214 ? This was the number given 2 1 Group of 11 stakeholesPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ to a group of stakeholes that all were circular in plan Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road were situated in the south- with N-S inclination ern half of pit C.1001 in the (top-base) and dimensions upper half of the side of 0.02-0.06m diameter x 0.06-0.2m depth 1024 B ? 214 ? This was the number given 2 1 Group of 5 stakeholes on to a group of stakeholes that the north and east sides were situated in the north- of pit C.1001. All were ern half of pit C.1001 in the circular in plan with in- upper half of the side clination S-N (Top-Base). Dimensions were 0.06- 0.12m in diameter and 0.06-0.2m deep 1025 B 1017,1018, 1021 1022 This is the re-cut of large 2 1 Recut of large pit. 1019, 1020, pit C.1014. It appears to Circular in plan with a 1021 have widened the cut along V-shaped profile. Taken with truncating fill C.1022. from section 3.64m across There is a charcoal rich layer x 1.33m deep in the base but no sign of in- situ burning suggesting this charcoal was deposited here69 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 77. 04E1120 Context # Grid Fill of Filled with Above Below Basic Interpretation Period Phase Basic description Artefacts AREA C * * * * * * * * * * 2001 C 2002 2002 213 Fill of pit. Material is typical 2 2 Bluish black clayey silt of cremations but no burnt with frequent charcoal bone was evident during excavation 2002 C 2001 214 2001 Cut of pit. 2 1 Circular cut with gradu- ally sloping sides and con- cave base 0.4m x 0.33m x 0.1m deep 2003 C 2004 2004 213 Fill of pit. Material is typical 2 2 Loose black clayey silt of cremations but no burnt with frequent charcoalPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ bone was evident during Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road excavation 2004 C 2003 214 2003 Cut of pit. 2 1 Sub-oval cut with steep sides and irregular base 0.45m x 0.4m x 0.2m deep 2005 C 2007 2006 213 Natural infilling of shallow 2 2 Brownish yellow clay with pit with unknown function occasional charcoal flecks 2006 C 2007 2007 2005 Natural infilling of pit with 2 2 Brownish grey clay with unknown function occasional charcoal flecks and decayed stone 2007 C 2005 2006 214 2006 Cut of shallow pit of 2 1 Oval feature with very unknown function. Possibly gradually sloping sides and just a natural depression flat base. 1.05m x 1.1m x 0.13m deep70 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 78. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 9.3 Appendix 3: Finds Register Licence:Context:Find number Artefact Type Period 04E1120:19:01 Pottery Late Bronze Age 04E1120:19:02 Pottery Late Bronze Age 04E1120:208:01 Pottery Post med/early modern 04E1120:213:01 Pottery rim Post-medieval 04E1120:213:02 Pottery base Post-medieval 04E1120:213:03 Pottery handle Post-medieval 04E1120:213:04 Flint PrehistoricPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 71
  • 79. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 9.4 Appendix 4: Plant Remains Report for 04E1120 By: Abigail Brewer Introduction This report presents the results from scanning eleven bulk soil samples taken at a site at Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (04E1120). The site was excavated in three areas; samples from Area A included the fills of four pits, one stakehole fill and one pit fill, two samples from Area B were from charcoal rich fills of two large, adjacent, pits and three samples from Area C were from pits. Methodology The samples were collected on site as bulk soil and were processed using a simple flotation method. Each sample was saturated in water to allow carbonised plant material to float; this “flot” (the floating material) was then poured into a stack of geological sieves and trapped in the sieve meshes (the small- est measured 250µm). When all the carbonised material was collected the flot was then air-dried in paper-lined drying trays prior to storage in airtight plastic bags. Scanning of the flots was carried out using a low-powered binocular microscope (magnification x10 to x40) and the results are presented in Table 1 at the end of this report. Results and Discussion No plant remains other than charcoal were recorded from any of the samples taken from 04E1120. Although there was some cremated bone from the site, this was generally un-diagnostic, and one fragment was identified as potentially animal. This suggests a secular rather than ritual origin for the excavated deposits. The absence of charred plant remains from domestic contexts is perhaps surprising, although the site consisted of ephemeral archaeological deposits that were scattered over a large area, and with a range of dating evidence that suggests long-term, yet intermittent activity in the area (Early Bronze Age radiocarbon dates, Late Bronze Age ceramic fragments and Middle Iron Age radiocarbon dates). These anomalous archaeological remains may possibly be typical of activity associated with the margins of settlement in prehistory and, if this is the case, it is likely that activities such as cooking and processing of plant foods, when charring is likely to occur, was carried out closer to the structures and focus of the settlement(s). However, even within well defined house deposits there is often a dearth of plant remains material; the plant assemblage retrieved from Mitchelstown I (04E1072), where three Bronze Age structures were excavated, was small, it consisted mostly of weed seeds, and it was difficult to interpret. The presence or absence of plant remains in prehistoric site assemblages is often related to taphonomy; while plant resources were presumably widely used throughout prehistory, they are gener- ally only preserved at dryland sites if they were charred, and if the plant material at any given site was not brought into contact with fire no plant remains will be recovered.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 72
  • 80. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Table 1: Scanning results for samples from Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (04E1120) Context S.S. No. Cereals Weeds Charcoal Comments 1021 8 **** poss ID 24g 2001 9 **** 32g 1011 11 **** 7g 123 7 **** 5g 2003 10 **** 137g 109 5 **** 18g 84 3 **** 15g 2001 9 **** 31g 114 5 * mod seed + nutshell **** poss ID 14g 88 2 **** poss ID 250g 120 6 **** 170gPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 73
  • 81. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 9.5 Appendix 5: Pottery Report Stagpark 1, Co. Cork (04E1120) A base-angle sherd and a body sherd (19:1-2) were uncovered in pit C.20 and represent a single Late Bronze Age flat-based coarse vessel. The fabric of the weathered sherds is thick-walled (averaging 12.8mm thick) and coarse in texture with a high content of large inclusions (≤ 9.0mm) that protrude through the exterior surface. The fabric is buff-orange in colour and traces of carbonised matter are present on the interior surface, a probable indication that it had been used at some stage in a domestic context. This type of pottery is consistent with other coarse, flat-based Late Bronze Age vessels found in domestic and funerary contexts throughout the country, for example, at Mondaniel 1, on the N8 Rathcormac-Fermoy Bypass (Roche and Grogan 2005) and to the west at Knockadoon, Lough Gur, Co. Limerick (Ó Ríordáin 1954, figs 16-7, pl. 46a; Grogan and Eogan 1987, 476-479). Small assem- blages have been found to the south, from the megalithic tomb at Harristown (Hawkes 1941), at Kil- greany Cave, and at Ahanaglogh (field 5), Co. Waterford (Tratman 1928; Movius 1935; Tierney et al. 2002). Larger assemblages of Late Bronze Age coarse vessels have also been found on settlement sites such as Freestone Hill, Co. Kilkenny (Raftery 1969, 86-96), and the lakeside settlements at Clonfin- lough, Co. Offaly, and Knocknalappa, Co. Clare (Moloney et al. 1993, 42-47, 129-131; Grogan et al. 1999, 111-123). Pottery of this type has been dated at Haughey’s Fort, Co. Armagh (Mallory 1995), and Mooghaun South, Co. Clare (Grogan 2005), to between 1200BC and 800 BC. References Grogan, E. 2005 The North Munster Project. Volume 1: The later prehistoric landscape of south-east Clare. Discovery Programme Monographs 6, Wordwell, Dublin Grogan, E. and Eogan, G. 1987 Lough Gur excavations by Seán P. Ó Ríordáin: further Neolithic and Beaker habitations on Knockadoon, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 87C, 299-506. Grogan, E., O’Sullivan, A., O’Carroll F. and Hagen, I. 1999 Knocknalappa, Co. Clare: a reappraisal, Discovery Programme Reports 6, 111-123, The Discovery Programme/Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. Hawkes, J. 1941 Excavations of a megalithic tomb at Harristown, Co. Waterford, Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland 71, 130-47. Mallory, J. 1995 Haughey’s Fort and the Navan Complex in the Late Bronze Age. In J. Waddell and E. Shee Twohig (eds) Ireland in the Bronze Age, 73-89. Stationery Office, Dublin. Moloney, A. Jennings, D., Keane, M. and McDermott, C. 1993 Excavations at Clonfinlough CountyPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 74
  • 82. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Offaly. Irish Archaeological Wetland Unit Transactions 2, Office of Public Works/University College Dublin, Dublin. Movius, H. 1935 Kilgreany Cave, County Waterford, Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland 65, 254-96. Ó Ríordáin, S.P. 1954 Lough Gur Excavations: Neolithic and Bronze Age Houses on Knockadoon, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 56C, 297-459. Raftery, B. 1969 Freestone Hill, Co. Kilkenny: an Iron Age hillfort and Bronze Age cairn, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 68C, 1-108. Roche, H. and Grogan, E. 2005 The N8 Rathcormac-Fermoy Bypass. The Prehistoric Pottery. Unpublished Report for ACS Ltd. Tierney, J., Richardson, A. and Frazer, B. 2002 Ahanaglogh-Graigueshoneen. Prehistoric. In I. Bennett (ed.) Excavations 2000, 328-31. Wordwell, Dublin. Tratman, E.K. 1928 Excavations at Kilgreany Cave, Co. Waterford, Proceedings of the Bristol Speleological Society 3, 109-153.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 75
  • 83. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 9.6 Appendix 6: Lithics Finds Report for 04E1020 – Mitchelstown 1. Stagpark (04E1020) The lithic assemblage from Stagpark consists of a small flint core (04E1120:213:4) which was recov- ered from the topsoil. Condition: The flint is in slightly rolled condition. Technology: The core appears to have rested on an anvil during flake removal and was probably produced on a split pebble. It displays the negative removal scars of at least 6 small flake removals. Dating: The artefact is undiagnostic in nature, but is likely to be associated with the complex of Bronze Age pits and cremation pits at Stagpark which produced a radio-carbon date of cal BC 1885-1690. Interpretation: The core can be interpreted as a discarded waste product which is likely to be associated with the Bronze Age pits excavated at Stagpark. Find No. Context Material Type Cond. Length (mm) Width (mm) Thickn. (mm) Complete Retouch 04E1120:213:4 Topsoil Flint Core Rolled 17 20 8 Yes NoPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 76
  • 84. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 9.7 Appendix 7: Bone Report A Short Note on the Cremated Skeletal Remains from Mitchelstown, Co. Cork (04E1120) Linda Fibiger BA (Hons) MSc MIAI November 2005 One sample was submitted for analysis. It consisted of 17 bone fragments measuring between 0.2 and 2.3 cm in maximum length and weighing approximately 2 grams. All remains were greyish-white in colour, indicating that they had been thoroughly burned. Surface preservation was poor and none of the fragments were diagnostic. The majority of remains could therefore not be positively identified as either animal or human bone. At least one animal bone fragment appeared to be present, identified through its very smooth and almost polished cortical surface. 1001 - Sample 12 Number of Fragments: 17 Weight: 2 g Size: 0.2-2.3 cm Colour: Greyish-White Identification: Includes cortical and trabecular bonePermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 77
  • 85. 04E1120 Stagpark 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Appendix 8: Summary account of site archive STAGPARK 1 04E1120 Type Description Quantity Notes Contexts Area A Validated contexts from excavation 215 Area B 25 Area C 7 Plans 1:100 plan (sheets) 0 1:50 plan (sheets) 4 1:20 plan (sheets) 2 Sections 1:20 sections and profiles (Sheets) 12 Matrices 1 Photographs 126 6 rolls Registers Context 1 Photograph 1 Drawing 1 Finds 1 Samples 1 9.9 Appendix 9: Dissemination Strategy STAGPARK1 04E1120 Publications Excavations 2004 Text submitted January 2004 Publication pending NRA publication Text submitted February 2006 Publication pending Presentation Lecture given to Mitchelstown and Mallow Historical Societies May & October 2005 Overview of the Scheme was given to the IAI conference in Cork April 2005 It is the right of Cork County Council (the Council) to fulfil some or all of the stated publication requirements, either in part or in full, should it so decide, and that copyright is aggisned to the Council in order that it may make such information available to the public. It is the right of Cork County Council (the Council) to fulfil some or all of the stated presentation requirements, either in part or in full, should it so decide.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1120-stagpark1/ 78

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