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Archaeological Report - Park  2, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
 

Archaeological Report - Park 2, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)

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The excavation of the site at Park comprised a substantial mound of burnt material. The mound measured 32 m by 16 m by 0.5 m in depth. It overlay a trough, a well and two pits. Evidence of trough-side ...

The excavation of the site at Park comprised a substantial mound of burnt material. The mound measured 32 m by 16 m by 0.5 m in depth. It overlay a trough, a well and two pits. Evidence of trough-side furniture in the form of 17 stake-holes and two post-holes was recorded at the western end of the trough. Two Middle Bronze Age radiocarbondates were returned from a fill of the trough and the well. Small quantities of plant remains and animal bone were recovered from the site.

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    Archaeological Report - Park  2, Co. Tipperary (Ireland) Archaeological Report - Park 2, Co. Tipperary (Ireland) Document Transcript

    • Eachtra JournalIssue 11 [ISSN 2009-2237] Archaeological Excavation Report E3772 - Park 2, Co. Tipperary Burnt Mound
    • EACHTRAArchaeological Projects Archaeological Excavation Report Park 2 Co Tipperary Burnt Mound Date: December 2011 Client: Laois County Council and National Roads Authority Project: N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Contract 1) E No: E3772Excavation Director: John Tierney Written by: Jacinta Kiely and John Tierney
    • Archaeological Excavation Report Park 2 Co Tipperary Excavation Director John Tierney Written By Jacinta Kiely and John Tierney EACHTRA Archaeological Projects CORK GALWAY The Forge, Innishannon, Co. Cork Unit 10, Kilkerrin Park, Liosbain Industrial Estate, Galwaytel: 021 4701616 | web: www.eachtra.ie | email: info@eachtra.ie tel: 091 763673 | web: www.eachtra.ie | email: galway@eachtra.ie
    • © Eachtra Archaeological Projects 2011 The Forge, Innishannon, Co Cork Set in 12pt Garamond Printed in Ireland
    • Table of Contents Summary���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������iii Acknowledgements�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� iv1 Scope of the project �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Route location��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 23 Receiving environment ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 24 Archaeological and historical background ��������������������������������������������������������������������� 4 Neolithic(c�4000to2000BC)������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 4 �5 Site Location and Topography �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 76 Excavation methodology ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 77 Excavation results ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 11 Layersofburntmoundmaterial���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 11 � TheTrough,post-holes,wellandpits������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������15 Modernagriculturalactivity���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������15 Plantremains����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������17 � Animalbone����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������18 Charcoal���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������18 Radiocarbondates�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������188 Discussion �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 199 References ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������23Appendix 1 Stratigraphic Index ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������25Appendix 2 Site Matrix ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 26Appendix 3 Groups and subgroups ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������30 �Appendix 4 Plant remains report������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 39Appendix 5 Animal bone report ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 42 i
    • List of Figures Figure 1: Portion of map of Ireland showing the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme (Contract 1)� ����������������������������������������������������������� 3 Figure 2: Discovery series OS map showing the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme (Contract 1) and the location of all excavation sites� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 5 Figure 3: Portion of the Ist edition Ordnance Survey Map TN22 showing the location of Park 2� �� 8 Figure 4: Location and extent of Park 2 E3772 on the N7 Castletown to Nenagh� �����������������������������10 Figure 5: Post-excavation plan of Park 2 E3772� ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Figure 6: Post-excavation plan of trough C�5� �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 14 Figure 7: Section of well C�119, ditch C�54 and trough C�5� ������������������������������������������������������������������������� 16 Figure 8: Prehistoric sites on and in the environs of N7 Castletown to Nenagh� ��������������������������������20 List of Plates Plate 1: Aerial view of Park 2� ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 9 Plate 2: View of Park 2 from south-west� ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 11 Plate 3: View of trough C�5, well C�119 and pit C�183 from west� ������������������������������������������������������������ 13 Plate 4: View of trough C�5 from west� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 13 Plate 5: View of well C�119 from north� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 17 Plate 6: View of pit C�183 from south� ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 17 List of Tables Table 1: Dimensions of trough, well and pits ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 15 Table 2: Radiocarbon dates ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 18 Table 3: Radiocarbon dates from the burnt mound sites on the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Contract 1) �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������21ii
    • Park 2-E3772 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/SummaryThe excavation of the site at Park comprised a substantial mound of burnt material. Themound measured 32 m by 16 m by 0.5 m in depth. It overlay a trough, a well and twopits. Evidence of trough-side furniture in the form of 17 stake-holes and two post-holeswas recorded at the western end of the trough. Two Middle Bronze Age radiocarbon dateswere returned from a fill of the trough and the well. Small quantities of plant remains andanimal bone were recovered from the site.Road project name N7 Castletown to NenaghSite name Park 2E no. E3772Site director John TierneyTownland ParkParish Aghnameadle and BallymackeyCounty TipperaryBarony Upper OrmondOS Map Sheet No. TN22National Grid Reference 200173 181436Elevation 114 m O.D. iii
    • iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Acknowledgements The project was commissioned by Laois County Council and was funded by the Na- tional Roads Authority under the National Development Plan (2000–2006). The project archaeologist was Niall Roycroft. Kildare County Council supervised the archaeological contract with RE staff of Pat Dowling and Colum Fagan. Kildare County Council Sen- ior Executive Engineer was Joseph Kelly and Kildare County Council Senior Engineer was John Coppinger. The senior archaeologist was John Tierney and the post-excavation manager was Jacinta Kiely. Illustrations are by Maurizio Toscano, photographs by John Sunderland and Eagle Photography and aerial photography by StudioLab. Specialist anal- ysis was carried out by Mary Dillon, Penny Johnston, Margaret McCarthy and the 14 Chrono Centre at Queen’s University Belfast.iv
    • Park 2-E3772 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/1 Scope of the projectEachtra Archaeological Projects were commissioned by Laois County Council and theNational Roads Authority to undertake archaeological works along 17.1 km (Contact1) of the 35km N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) national roadscheme (EIS approved in November 2005). The scheme runs from the eastern junctionof the present N7 Nenagh Bypass, North Tipperary a tie in to the M7/M8 Portlaoise-Castletown scheme to the south of Borris-in-Ossory in County Laois. The scheme is ap-proximately 191 hectares. Contract 1 comprises the western half of the scheme and runsfrom Clashnevin to Castleroan passing along the Tipperary North and Offaly countyborder regions. The Ministers Direction Number is A38. It was funded by the Irish Government under the National Development Plan 2000–2006. The total archaeological cost was administered by the National Roads Authoritythrough Laois County Council as part of the Authority’s commitment to protecting ourcultural heritage. The purpose of the archaeological services project was to conduct ar-chaeological site investigations within the lands made available for the scheme and toassess the nature and extent of any new potential archaeological sites uncovered. Phase 1 of the project (archaeological testing of the route) was carried out in 2007under licence E3371, E3372 and E3375–8 issued by Department of the EnvironmentHeritage and Local Government (DoEHLG) in consultation with the National Museumof Ireland. The principal aim of this phase of the project was to test for any previouslyunknown sites by a programme of centreline and offset testing and to test sites of archaeo-logical potential identified in the EIS. Phase 2 of the project (resolution) involved the resolution of all archaeological sitesidentified within the proposed road corridor prior to commencement of the constructionof the road. This phase of the project was carried out from June 2007 to February 2008and excavations were conducted under the management of a Senior Archaeologist. A totalof 27 sites were excavated during this phase of works under separate licences issued byDoEHLG. A post-excavation assessment and strategy document was prepared in Phase 3 of theproject to present a management strategy for dealing with post-excavation work aris-ing from archaeological works along the route of the new N7 Castletown to Nenagh. Itincluded a proposal for post-excavation and archiving work and a budget for the works. 1
    • iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort 2 Route location The route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh road is located in Counties North Tipperary and Offaly (OF) (Figure 1). The project (Contract 1) involves the construction of c. 17.5 km of the N7 from Clashnevin east of Nenagh to Castleroan south-east of Dunkerrin. It passes through the townlands of Clashnevin, Derrybane, Newtown, Lissanisky, Killeisk, Garavally, Derrycarney, Garrynafanna, Gortnadrumman, Kilgorteen, Falleen, Knock- ane, Clash, Park, Rosdremid (OF), Clynoe (OF), Cullenwaine, Moneygall, Greenhills, Drumbaun, Busherstown (OF), Drumroe (OF), Moatquarter, Loughan (OF) and Cas- tleroan (OF). The townlands are located in the parishes of Ballymackey, Cullenwaine, Castletownely, Rathnaveoge, Finglas and Dunkerrin and the baronies of Upper Ormond, Ikerrin and Clonisk, The route begins at the eastern end of the Nenagh bypass at Clashnevin c. 5 km east of Nenagh and continues eastward on the northern side of the existing N7 in Co. Tip- perary. It crosses a number of third class roads to the north of Toomyvara and 0.7 km east of Clash crossroads crosses the Ollatrim River. It extends into County Offaly directly east of Park. From here it crosses the R490 0.6 km north of Moneygall. It extends back in County Tipperary and through the demesne of Greenhills before crossing the existing N7 at the junction of Greenhills and Drumbaun townlands. It crosses back into County Offaly and climbs east into Busherstown and Drumroe. It crosses the Keeloge Stream into Moatquarter in County Tipperary and extends northeast back into County Offaly through the townlands of Loughan and Castleroan 1.4 km southwest of Dunkerrin. 3 Receiving environment North Tipperary is bounded on the west by the River Shannon and Lough Derg with the Silvermines, to the south, and small hills extending towards Devilsbit and Borrisnoe Mountains to the east. The mountains are composed largely of Silurian strata and Old Red Sandstone. Copper, silver and lead deposits have been mined in the Silvermines. The geology of the lowlands consists of Carboniferous limestone covered by glacial drift in addition to tracts of raised bog. The western portion of the study area is drained by the Ollatrim River which flows westwards into the River Ballintotty which in turns drains into the River Nenagh. The eastern portion is drained by the Keeloge Stream and other small water sources. These rise in the foothills of the Silvermine Mountains and flow north. The Keeloge drains into the Little Brosna River c. 1 km south of Shinrone, Co Offaly. The Brosna turns north and drains into the Shannon south of Banagher. The largest population centre in the area is Nenagh. The smaller population centres, are Toomyvara, Moneygall and Dunkerrin. The soils on the route are characterised by 80% grey brown podzolics, 10% gleys, 5% brown earths and 5% basin peat. They are derived from glacial till of predominantly Car- boniferous limestone composition. These soils occur in Tipperary and Offaly and have a2
    • 182550 198900 215250 Park 2-E3772 193300 193300 ! ( Nenagh Derg (Lough) 182950 182950 172600 172600 0 5 10 182550 198900 Kilometres 215250 ± Figure 1: Portion of map of Ireland showing the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme (Contract 1)� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/3
    • iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort wide use range being suitable for both tillage and pasture (Gardiner and Radford 1980, 97–99). Land use along the route was a mix of grassland devoted to intensive dairying and cattle-rearing and tillage. 4 Archaeological and historical background Archaeological sites of numerous periods were discovered along the route of the new road (Figure 2). The periods are referred to as follows: Mesolithic (c. 8000 to 4000 BC), Neo- lithic (c. 4000 to 2000 BC), Bronze Age (c. 2000 to 600 BC), and Iron Age (c. 500 BC to AD 500), early medieval period (c. AD 500 to 1100), medieval period (c. AD 1100 to 1650), post-medieval period (c. AD 1650 to the present). Mesolithic (c. 8000 to 4000 BC) The earliest known human settlement in Ireland dates from the Mesolithic period (c. 8000 BC - 4000 BC). The majority of the evidence (flint scatters) for Mesolithic occupa- tion has come from the river valleys. No evidence for the Mesolithic was recorded on the route. Neolithic (c. 4000 to 2000 BC) The Neolithic Period is characterised by the introduction of agriculture and the begin- nings of the clearance of the woodlands. The population increased and became more sedentary in nature. The most important Neolithic site in the vicinity was at Tullahedy recorded on the route of the Nenagh by-pass. It was a specialist chert arrow manufactur- ing site. No evidence for a Neolithic site was recorded on the route but stone tools dating to the Neolithic were recorded at Busherstown E3661, Clash E3660, Cullenwaine E3741 and Greenhills 2 and 3 E3637 and E3658. Stone tools dating to the late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age were recorded at Busherstown E3661, Castleroan E3909, Cullenwaine E3741, Derrybane 1 E3585, Drumroe E3773, Greenhills 1 E3638 and Moatquarter E3910 Bronze Age (c. 2000 to 600BC) The Bronze Age is characterised by the introduction of metallurgy and an increase in settlement and burial sites. Copper ores were mined and copper, bronze and gold items manufactured. The range of burial site types includes cist graves, pit and urn burials, cremation cemeteries, barrows, ring-ditches and wedge tombs. Stone circles and stand- ing stones also date to the Bronze Age. Both enclosed and unenclosed settlement sites are known. The most prolific Bronze Age site type is the fulacht fiadh. These monuments survive as low mounds of charcoal rich black silt, packed with heat-shattered stones, and generally situated close to a water source. Fulachta fiadh are generally classified as ‘cook-4
    • 190400 196200 202000 207800 Park 2-E3772 186400 186400 Park 2 Castleroan 1 E 3909 Busherstown 1 E 3661 Loughan 1 E 4000 Greenhills 3 E 3658 Moneygall 2 Culleenwaine 1 E 3635 E 3741 Moatquarter 1 Clynoe 2 E 3910 E 3774 181800 181800 Park 1 Drumroe 1 Garravally Kilgorteen 1 E 3659 E 3773 E 3589 E 3739 Drumbaun 2 Derrybane 2 E 3912 E 3591 Greenhills 1 Greenhills 2 E 3638 E 3637 Clashnevin 2 E 3590 Clash 1 Park 2 E 3660 E 3772 Derrycarney 1 E 3740 Clashnevin 1 Derrybane 1 Killeisk 1 E 3586 E 3585 E 3587 177200 177200 0 3 6 Kilometres ± 190400 196200 202000 207800 Figure 2: Discovery series OS map showing the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme (Contract 1) and the location of all excavation sites� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/5
    • iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort ing places’, whereby stones were heated in a hearth and subsequently placed in a trough of water, the water continued to boil with the addition of hot stones and wrapped food was cooked within the hot water. The trough eventually filled with small stones, ash and charcoal that were removed, forming the basis of the familiar mound. Two new fulachta fiadh or burnt mounds were recorded at Clashnevin 1 E3586, Cullenwaine E3741 and six at three separate locations in Greenhills, E3638, E3637 and E3658. Evidence of nine roundhouses or partial round structures were recorded; two at Castleroan E3909, Derrybane 2 E3591 and Drumbaun 2 E3912 and one at Clash E3660, Drumroe E3773 and Moatquarter E3910. Iron Age (c. 500 BC to AD 500) Upto recently there was little evidence of a significant Iron Age presence in Munster. Settlement sites are few and far between as well as being difficult to identify (Woodman, 2000) while the material culture of this period is limited. Linear earthworks, believed to have marked tribal boundaries, and hillforts are two of the most visible monuments of the period. Ten percent of sites excavated on NRA road schemes in recent years have produced Iron Age dates. The dates have led to the identification of 30 new Iron Age sites in Munster from road schemes in counties Cork, Limerick and Tipperary (McLaughlin 2008, 51). These include a ditched enclosure in Ballywilliam and a wooden trackway in Annaholty Bog excavated on the route of the N7 Nenagh-Limerick (Taylor 2008, 54). Evidence of domestic activity dating to the Late Bronze Age / Early Iron Age was re- corded at Clashnevin 2. Early medieval period (c. AD 400 to 1100) The early medieval period is characterised by the arrival of Christianity to Ireland. The characteristic monument type of the period is the ringfort. Ringforts are the most nu- merous archaeological monument found in Ireland, with estimates of between 30,000 and 50,000 illustrated on the first edition of the Ordnance Survey 6” maps of the 1840’s (Barry 1987). As a result of continued research, the construction of these monuments has a narrow date range during the early medieval period between the 7th and 9th centuries AD. Although there are some very elaborate examples of ringforts, they often take the form of a simple earth or stone enclosure functioning as settlements for all classes of secu- lar society (Stout 1997). North Tipperary is rich in early ecclesiastical sites and the remains of these religious centres are at the core of some of the towns and villages. Roscrea, for example, was chosen by St Cronan as a location for his monastery in the seventh century as it was located at the crossroads on the Slighe Dála, an important roadway in early medieval times (NIAH 2006, 4–8). A possible early medieval enclosure and associated road way was recorded at Killeisk E3587. A denuded ringfort (OF046–013) was excavated at Clynoe 2 E3774.6
    • Park 2-E3772 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/High and later medieval periods (c. AD 1100 to 1650)This period is characterized by the arrival of the Anglo-Normans and the building of tow-er houses. The Anglo-Normans obtained charters in the thirteenth century for the townsof Nenagh, Roscrea, Thurles and Templemore and established markets. Nenagh grewrapidly in the aftermath of the granting of the lands of Munster to Theobald fitzWalter in1185 (ibid. 8). Moated sites represent the remains of isolated, semi-defended homesteadsin rural areas. They were build mainly in the late thirteenth and early fourteenth cen-turies in counties, such as Wexford, Kilkenny, Tipperary, mid-Cork and Limerick, thatwere colonised by English settlers (O’Conor 1998, 58). The Archaeological Inventory forNorth Tipperary lists 39 moated sites (2002, 298). A newly recorded moated site was excavated at Busherstown E3661.Post-medieval period (c. 1650 to the present).The post-medieval period is characterised by mills, limekilns, workhouses, country hous-es and associated demesnes, vernacular buildings and field systems (Figure 3). A smalldemesne associated with a county house was recorded in the townland of Greenhills.5 Site Location and TopographyPark 2 was located in a low-lying area on the lower edge of a sandy ridge overlooking awetter boggy area (Plate 1). The extensive archaeological settlement site Park 1 E3659extended over, higher drier ground, for a distance of 500 m to the east. Extensive archaeo-logical remains, including five burnt mounds, were recorded in the land adjoining Parkto the north and east during an assessment of the site for a motorway service area (Frazer2009). The Ollatrim River flows on the western side of the ridge. The townland bound-ary between Park and Rosdrehid and Clynoe to the east also serves as the county boundsbetween Tipperary and Offaly.6 Excavation methodologyThe site was mechanically stripped of topsoil under strict archaeological supervision.Stripping was done with a tracked machine with a flat toothless bucket. Topsoil strippingcommenced in the areas of identified archaeology and continued radially outward untilthe limit of the road take was reached or until the limit of the archaeological remains wasfully defined. A grid was set up in the excavation area(s) and all archaeological featureswere sufficiently cleaned, recorded and excavated so as to enable an accurate and mean-ingful record of the site to be preserved. The excavation, environmental sampling, sitephotographs, site drawings, find care and retrieval, on-site recording and site archive wasas per the Procedures for Archaeological works as attached to the licence method state-ments for excavation licences. 7
    • 198899 1998998 ROSDREHID CLYNOE CARROWEA BALLYKNOCKANE 181208 181208 Ollatrim (River) Park 2 Park 1 iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 PARK Clash 1 180558 180558 CLASH 0 300 600 ¥ Meters 198899 199899 Figure 3: Portion of the Ist edition Ordnance Survey Map TN22 showing the location of Park 2� archaEological Excavation rEPort
    • Park 2-E3772 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/Plate 1: Aerial view of Park 2� Park 2 (E3772) 0 20 40 Meters ± The site was excavated from 29 September 2007 to the 17 November 2007. Only areaswithin the LMA (lands made available) were resolved. The full extent of the area of exca-vation measured 1900 m sq (Figure 4). The full record of excavated contexts is recorded in the context register (Appendix 1)and the stratigraphic matrix (Appendix 2). Detailed stratigraphic descriptions are foundin the groups and sub-groups text (Appendix 3). The context register and site photographsmaybe viewed in the EAPOD (Eachtra Archaeological Projects office database) in theaccompanying CD. 9
    • 199531 199901 20027110 ROSDREHID C LY N O E 181366 181366 920 0 910 0 iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 900 0 890 0 880 0 PA R K 181136 181136 870 0 86 00 85 00 84 00 83 00 180906 180906 Park 2 (E3772) 82 00 0 100 200 Metres ± 199531 199901 200271 Figure 4: Location and extent of Park 2 E3772 on the N7 Castletown to Nenagh� archaEological Excavation rEPort
    • Park 2-E3772 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/Plate 2: View of Park 2 from south-west�7 Excavation resultsThe excavation of the site at Park comprised a substantial mound of burnt material (Fig-ure 5). The mound measured 32 m by 16 m by 0.5 m in depth. It overlay a trough, a welland two pits (Plate 2). Evidence of trough-side furniture in the form of 17 stake-holes andtwo post-holes was recorded at the western end of the trough. Two Middle Bronze Ageradiocarbon dates were returned from a fill of the trough and the well. Small quantitiesof plant remains were recovered from the site. A modern field boundary and a quarry pitwere recorded in the area of excavation.Layers of burnt mound materialThe burnt mound comprised several layers (C.3, C.14, C.17, C.18, C.20, C.41, C.42,C.55, C.69, C.87, C.88, C.93, C.94, C.95, C.96, C.97, C.98, C.114 and C.117). The mainlayer C.3 was a black silty sandy with inclusions of stone. It measured 32.6 m in lengthby 16.4 m in width and 0.48 m in depth. Four other layers (C.41, C.55, C.69 and C.117)were similar in composition to the primary layer. Four layers (C.14, C.42, C.87 and C.88)were recorded overlying the main layer of burnt mound material. At least five layers (C.15,C.80, C.81, C.82 and C.185) were derived from re-deposited material from the excavationof the cut features. They were a mix of sands and silts. Seven layers of sand (C.93, C.94, 11
    • 199890 19992012 ± 49 197 Pit 181143 181143 Mound material iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 54 89 183 Trough 91 O ) 133 Trough Well 114 m O.D. Pair of upright 5 Field boundary posts 119 137 181130 181130 0 10 m 199890 199920 Figure 5: Post-excavation plan of Park 2 E3772� archaEological Excavation rEPort
    • Park 2-E3772 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/Plate 3: View of trough C�5, well C�119 and pit C�183 from west�Plate 4: View of trough C�5 from west� 13
    • 199910 19991514 ± 181135 181135 5 133 189 191 193 139 iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 155 153 161 163 151 165 Trough 159 157 149 147 Pair of upright posts 142 143 146 137 181132 181132 0 2m 199910 199915 Figure 6: Post-excavation plan of trough C�5� archaEological Excavation rEPort
    • Park 2-E3772 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/C.95, C.96, C.97, C.98 and C.114) were recorded underlying the main layer of burntmound materialThe Trough, post-holes, well and pitsThe trough C.5 was a large oval pit that was centrally located beneath the mound (Figure6, Plate 3). It was cut into a slope and was deepest at the western end. The basal fill C.4was a grey sandy silt. The primary fills (C.17, C.18 and C.20) were layers of burnt moundmaterial. A Middle Bronze Age date of cal BC 1508–1422 (UB-12351) was returned frompomideae charcoal from the fill C.4. Context Dimensions Shape Trough C.5 4.26 x 1.6 x 0.62 Rectangular Well C.119 4.52 x 2.86 x 0.6 Oval Pit C.183 1.9 x 1.65 x 0.29 Oval Pit C.197 1.72 x 1.38 x 0.37 OvalTable 1 Dimensions of trough, well and pits Two postholes (C.133 and C.137) were located on the northern and southern side ofthe trough respectively (Plate 4). Post-hole C.133 was circular in plan and measured 0.45m by 0.38 m by 0.32 m in depth. Post-hole C.137 was measured 0.77 m by 0.51 m by 0.37m in depth. A group of 17 stake-holes were located at the western end of the trough. Three ofthe stake-holes were located between the posts and the edge of the trough, two (C.142and C.146) on the southern side and one C.139 on the northern. Five of the stake-holes(C.189, C.153, C.151, C.49 and C.143) formed an approximate arc on the periphery of thecluster. Four (C.147, C.155, C.191 and C.193) were located within the arc. Five (C.157,C.159, C.161, C.163 and C.165) were situated in a very close cluster. The well C.119 was located 2 m east of the trough. It was oval in plan (Figure 7, Plate5). The four fills (C.129, C.130, C.131, C.132) were a mix of sands and silts. Ground waterwas recorded in the base of the well during the course of the excavation. Two oval pits (C.183 and C.197) were located to the north of the trough. The pits weresimilar in terms of size and plan. Pit C.183 was located 3 m north of the trough (Plate 6).Pit C.197 was located 5 m north of pit C.183. It had been cut by the field boundary C.54.Modern agricultural activityA field boundary C.54 orientated north-east /south-west was recorded in the northern sec-tion of the area of excavation. It was marked on the 1st edition OS map sheet TN22. Theditch was 3 m wide by 0.6 m in depth. Sherds of 19 century creamware and a tin brooch(E3772:86:1 and E3772:57:1) were recorded in the ditch. A possible quarry pit C.49 had cut the field boundary. It measured 5 m by 3 m andwas 0.6 m in depth. The fills were a mix of brown silts. 15
    • 16 Park 2 E3772 Northwest facing section of C.119 C.129 C.131 C.130 d oo C.132 W Wood Wood C.119 iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 Park 2 E3772 West facing section of C.54 C.86 C.85 Overcut C.84 C.83 C.54 Park 2 E3772 West facing section of C.5 C.20 C.17 C.18 C.4 C.5 0 500 mm Figure 7: Section of well C�119, ditch C�54 and trough C�5� archaEological Excavation rEPort
    • Park 2-E3772 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/Plate 5: View of well C�119 from north�Plate 6: View of pit C�183 from south�Plant remainsThe plant remains were examined by Penny Johnston (Appendix 4). Small quantities ofcharred plant remains, including hulled and naked barley and hazelnut shell fragments,were recovered from the basal fill of the trough, a layer of burnt mound material, the 17
    • iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort quarry pit and a stake-hole. The seeds recovered from the well were un-charred. The plant remains were recovered in small quantities and are likely to be accidental inclusions. Animal bone The animal bone was examined by Margaret McCarthy (Appendix 5). The quantity of bones recovered from Park 2 was very small and apart from documenting the presence of cattle at the site no other dietary information can be extrapolated from the data. Four adult cattle teeth were recovered from one of the layers (C87) of burnt mound material. The fill (C57) of a modern field boundary also contained cattle teeth, two molars from an adult individual. Charcoal The charcoal was identified for radiocarbon dating by Mary Dillon. Pomideae charcoal and hazel charcoal were identified from the fills of the trough and the well respectively. Radiocarbon dates Radiocarbon analysis was carried out by the 14 Chrono Centre in Queen’s University Belfast. Dates were calibrated using Calib Rev5.0.2 (©1986–2005 M.Stuiver & P.J. Re- imer) and in conjunction with Stuiver & Reimer 1993 and Reimer et al. 2004. Lab code Context Material Un-cali- δ 13 1 sigma calibration 2 sigma brated date C calibration UB- 4 Pomideae charcoal 3197 +/- 24 -24.2 BC 1494–1471 BC 1508–1422 12351 from trough C.5 1466–1443 UB-12352 132 Hazel charcoal from 3220 +/- 24 -25.3 BC 1505–1453 BC 1527–1433 well C.119 Table 2: Radiocarbon dates18
    • Park 2-E3772 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/8 DiscussionA fulacht fiadh / burnt mound were recorded on low ground in Park. The layers of burntmound material overlay a trough, pits and a well. Many theories speculate as to the actualuse of burnt mound/fulacht fiadh sites (e.g. O’Kelly 1954; Ó Drisceoil 1988). We recog-nise the sites archaeologically by the remains of charcoal and heat shattered stones butas Ó Néill (2004) points out, these are the remains of a technology (the use of hot stonesknown as ‘pyrolithic technology’), rather than specific indications of the aims of the proc-ess. The large trough and smaller pits indicate that there was extensive use of hot stonetechnology at this site and that it was probably used for heating water. Burnt mounds are the most common Bronze Age sites found in Ireland. Estimatessuggest that at least 4,500 examples are known. The characteristic site-type is found inlow-lying and damp ground and consists of a mound of charcoal-rich black sediment thatis packed with heat shattered stones and forms a horse-shoe shape around a pit or troughthat filled with water. In many cases all that survives to the present day are black charcoalrich deposits with fragments of shattered stones visible in ploughed fields. These sites are associated with the process of roasting stones to heat water. The remainsof these ‘pyrolithic technologies’ (terminology follows Ó Néill 2004) produce the tell-taledeposits rich in charcoal and heat-affected stone. Debate continues about their use, as hotwater is required for many processes including cooking, brewing, washing, dyeing and,most recently it has been argued that some burnt mounds were primarily used to boil andcure meat for long term storage (Roycroft 2006). Traditionally these sites have been interpreted as ancient cooking places, where largestones were heated in fires and then added to the water filled trough the extreme heatof the stones eventually heating the water in the trough until it reached boiling point.Experimental cooking at reconstructed sites such as Ballyvourney (O’Kelly 1954) hasdemonstrated that meat wrapped in straw and placed into a boiling trough can be cookedquite effectively. The perceived lack of any animal bones from these excavated sites hasbeen used as an argument against this theory. More recently however there is a growingcorpus of sites which have produced animal bone (Tourunen 2008) including, though theamounts are small, all of the burnt mounds sites on the N7 (Contract 1). The traditional perception of the burnt mound site is that they are isolated featureson the landscape situated on marginal ground away from settlement. Recent studies how-ever are requiring a re-evaluation of this perception. It can be regarded as certain thatthe settlement sites and associated burnt mounds are only one part of a wider prehistoriclandscape which also includes lithic production and metalworking sites as well as burialsites (Sternke 2009). Each of the six sites excavated on the N7 was located with a 1km ra-dius of a Bronze Age settlement site, Clashnevin within 1 km east of Derrybane 2 E3591,the site at Park E3772 was one of complex of burnt mound sites in the vicinity of Park 1E3659 and the three sites at Greenhills (E3638, E3637, and E3658) within 1 km east ofDrumbaun E3912. 19
    • 191232 20823220 ¢ 184059 184059 iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 178059 178059 191232 208232 Barrow (11) Cairn (1) Fulacht Fiadh (15) Megalithic tomb (3) Pit group (3) Standing stone (9) 0 2.5 5 Burnt spread (2) Cremation (2) Linkardstown burial (2) Mound (6) Settlement site (9) Km Figure 8: Prehistoric sites on and in the environs of N7 Castletown to Nenagh� archaEological Excavation rEPort
    • Park 2-E3772 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/ The inventory for North Tipperary lists 77 burnt mounds (Farrelly 2002) and theinventory for Offaly lists 14 (O’Brien 1997) (Figure 8). Many more sites have been re-corded since the inventories were published. A total of six burnt mounds including Parkwere excavated on the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Contract 1). At least 15 burnt moundsites were excavated on the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Contract 2) with a concentrationof 11 sites in the townland of Camlin. Burnt mounds were also excavated on the routeof the Nenagh by-pass and the Limerick Ring Road. A further five sites were recorded inPark and Rosdrehid townlands during the testing of the service area site (Frazer 2009). Site Name E No. Radiocarbon date 2 sigma calibration Period Clashnevin 1 E3586 BC 1262–1110 1103–1072 1068–1056 Middle Bronze Age Clashnevin 1 E3586 AD 982–1040 Medieval Cullenwaine E3741 BC 2462 - 2294 Early Bronze Age Greenhills 1 E3638 BC 2133 - 1950 Early Bronze Age Greenhills 2 E3637 BC 1889–1748 Early Bronze Age Greenhills 2 E3637 BC 2561–2536 2492–2299 Early Bronze Age Greenhills 3 E3658 BC 1125–975 954–943 Middle Bronze Age Greenhills 3 E3658 BC 2465–2286 2246–2243 Early Bronze Age Greenhills 3 E3658 BC 1876–1841 1823–1797 1781–1683 Early Bronze Age Park 2 E3772 BC 1508–1422 Middle Bronze Age Park 2 E3772 BC 1527–1433 Middle Bronze AgeTable 3: Radiocarbon dates from the burnt mound sites on the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Contract 1) Most dated burnt mound sites have a focus of activity in the Middle to Late BronzeAge (Brindley and Lanting 1990; and see graph of dates in Ó Néill 2003/2004). In allten radiocarbon dates were obtained from the burnt mound sites on the route of the N7Castletown to Nenagh. The majority of the sites are Early Bronze Age in date. There are six main types of archaeological features encountered at burnt mound sites;wells/springs, layers/deposits, hearths, trough/boiling pits, smaller pits, and stakeholes/postholes. Five of the six feature types were recorded at Park. The mound overlay atrough, pits and a large well. There is no water course in proximity to the site but the well,cut into the water table would have provided any water that was needed and the site islocated on the edge of a wet boggy area. The mound at Park survived to a height of 0.5 mand several layers were identified within the mound of burnt material. No formal hearthwas identified in association with the mound. A substantial trough was located 2 m westof the well. A total of 17 stake-holes and two post-holes were located at the western endof the trough. It is envisaged that the three components, the trough and the trough-sidefurniture constructed from the stake-holes and the pair of opposing posts, would havefunctioned in unison in food processing. A similar type of trough-side furniture was re-corded at one of the troughs at Clashnevin 1 E3586. Two pits located to the north of thetrough may have functioned as boiling pits. They may have held containers made fromorganic material such as baskets or wooden buckets and would have functioned in con-junction with the other elements at the site in food processing. 21
    • iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort There were six burnt mound sites recorded on the route of the N7 (Contract 1). All of the sites conformed to a general common design but there were a number of differences that distinguished one site from another. The water source that was used at each site was different. A substantial well was recorded at Clashnevin, a less substantial well was record- ed at Park. In addition the sites at Greenhills and Park were located on the edge of wet boggy ground. There was no obvious water source at Cullenwaine. There were no stone tools recovered from the burnt mound at Clashnevin. In contrast they were recovered from four of the other five sites. The presence of the flint and chert scrapers suggests that hide-processing and wood- and/or bone-working were some of the activities that could have been carried out at these sites.22
    • Park 2-E3772 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/9 ReferencesBrindley, A.L. and Lanting, J.N. (1990) ‘The dating of fulachta fiadh’, in Buckley, V. (ed.) Burnt Offerings. International contributions to burnt mound archaeology, 55–56. Dublin, Wordwell.Farrelly, J., and O’Brien, C. (2002) Archaeological Inventory of County Tipperary Vol. 1 - North Tipperary, The Stationery Office Dublin.Frazer, W. (2009) Archaeological Assessment Report Nenagh NRA Service Area Park townland, North Co. Tipperary and Roshedrid and Clynoe townlands, Co. Offaly 09E122. Margaret Gowan & Co. Ltd. Unpublished report.Gardiner, M.J. and Radford,T. (1980) Soil Associations of Ireland and Their Land Use Potential. Dublin, An Foras Talúntais.McLaughlin, M. and Conran, S. (2008) ‘The emerging Iron Age of South Munster’ in Seanda, Issue 3, 51–53. Dublin.National Inventory of Architectural Heritage (2006) An Introduction to the Architectural Heritage of North Tipperary. Government of Ireland.O’Brien, C. (1997) Archaeological Inventory of County Offaly, The Stationery Office, Dublin.O’Conor, K.D. (1998) The Archaeology of Medieval Rural Settlement in Ireland, Discovery Programme Monographs No 3, Discovery Programme/Royal Irish Academy Dublin.O’Kelly, M.J. (1954) Excavations and experiments in Irish cooking places. Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Vol 84.Ó Néill, J. (2003/2004) Lapidibus in igne calefactis coquebatur: The historical burnt mound “tradition”, Journal of Irish Archaeology Vol. XII & XIII.Reimer, P.J., Baillie, M.G.L., Bard, E., Bayliss, A., Beck, J.W., Bertrand, C., Blackwell, P.G., Buck, C.E., Burr, G., Cutler, K.B., Damon, P.E., Edwards, R.L., Fairbanks, R.G., Friedrich, M., Guilderson, T.P., Hughen, K.A., Kromer, B., McCormac, F.G., Manning, S., Bronk Ramsey, C., Reimer, R.W., Remmele, S., Southon, J.R., Stuiver, M., Talamo, S., Taylor, F.W., van der Plicht, J. and Weyhenmeyer, C.E. (2004) ‘IntCal04 Terrestrial Radiocarbon Age Calibration, 0–26 Cal Kyr BP’, Radiocarbon 46, 1029–1058. 23
    • iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Roycroft, N. (2006) A theory on Boiled Bull and Burnt Mounds, Seanda Issue 1, 38–39, National Road Authority, Dublin. Roycroft, N. (2008) Before, during and after the Kingdom of Ely, Seanda, Issue 3. 34–35, National Road Authority, Dublin. Sternke, F. (2009) More than meets the eye; an appraisal of the lithic assemblages from the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Contract 1). Seanda. Issue 4, 30–31,National Road Authority, Dublin. Stuiver, M., and Reimer, P.J. (1993) ‘Extended (super 14) C data base and revised CALIB 3.0 (super 14) C age calibration program’, Radiocarbon 35, 215–230. Stout, M. (1997) The Irish Ringfort. Dublin, Four Courts Press. Taylor, K. (2008) ‘At home and on the road: two Iron Age sites in County Tipperary’ in Seanda, Issue 3, 54–55. Dublin. Tourunen, A. (2008) Fauna and fulachta fiadh: animal bones from burnt mounds on the N9/N10 Carlow Bypass. In J. O’Sullivan and M. Stanley (eds.), Roads, Rediscovery and Research. Archaeology and the National Roads Authority Monograh Series No. 5. Wordwell. Woodman, P.C. (2000) ‘Hammers and Shoeboxes: New Agendas for Prehistory’., pp. 1 -10 in Desmond, A., Johnson, G., McCarthy, M., Sheehan, J. and Shee Twohig, E. New Agendas in Irish Prehistory. Papers in commemoration of Liz Anderson. Bray, Wordwell.24
    • Park 2-E3772 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/Appendix 1 Stratigraphic IndexPlease see attached CD. 25
    • iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Appendix 2 Site Matrix26
    • iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort27
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    • iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Appendix 3 Groups and Subgroups Group Description Subgroup Description Context No. No. No. Group 1 Natural deposits A Topsoil C.1 B Subsoil C.2 Group 2 Trough and as- A Trough C.5 sociated features B Re-deposited layers associ- C.52, C.53, C.123, C.135 ated with Trough C Postholes C.133, C.137 D Stakeholes C.139, C.142, C.143, C.146, C.147, C.149, C.151, C.153, C.155, C.157, C.159, C.161, C.163, C.165, C.189, C.191, C.193. Group 3 Well and associ- A Well C.119 ated features B Re-deposited C. 99, C.100, C.120, C.121, Layers C.122, C.127, C.128 Group 4 Pits A Pit close to trough C.183 B Pit Underneath Field C.197 Boundary Group 5 Layers of burnt A Main layers of burnt C.3, C.41, C.52 C.117 mound material mound material B Layers of re-deposited C.15, C.41, C.55, C.69, C.80, material within mound C.81, C.82, C.185 C Re-deposited material C.93, C.94, C.95, C.96, C.97, underlying main layer of C.98. burnt mound material D layers of burnt mound ma- C.14, C.42, C.87, C.88. terial overlying the main layer of burnt mound material Group 6 Modern features A Field Boundary C.54 B Re-deposited natural asso- C.177, C.178, C.179, C.180, ciated with field boundary C.181, C.182, C.186 C Quarry C.49 D Furrows C.89, C.91 Group 7 Natural features A C.7, C.10, C.13, C.21, C.22, C.24, C.30, C.34, C.35, C.37, C.38, C.46, C.48, C.56, C.70, C.101, C.102, C.103, C.107, C.109, C.124, C.169, C.17230
    • Park 2-E3772 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/Group 1 Natural DepositsSubgroup ATopsoil C.1DescriptionA dark brown, peaty silt topsoilSubgroup BSubsoil C. 2DescriptionA light grey, silty sand subsoilInterpretationGroup 2 Trough and associated featuresSubgroup ATrough C.5 (fills C. 4, C.17, C.18, and C.20)DescriptionA trough located centrally under the fulacht mound, rectangular in shape, measuring4.26m long, 1.6mwide, and .62 m in depth. The trough was cut into the slope, and wasdeepest to the west, while the maximum depth at the eastern end was approximately .15min depth. The trough was filled by two fills. The primary fill was a dark greyish black,stony, silty sand with a large amount of burned stone and a moderate amount of charcoal.The secondary fill was a light yellowish, brownish grey sandy silt. This was a layer fromabove the trough which has slumped into the cut of the trough.InterpretationThis trough was a typical trough found in a fulacht fiadh. It was likely used to heat water,which may have been supplied from the well C.119. Three of the layers of burnt moundmaterial C.17, C.18 and C.20 had slumped into the trough and overlay the basal fill C.4Subgroup BRedeposited Natural Associated with Trough C.53, C.123, C.135DescriptionThese are layers of redeposited soil located near the trough, which may be indicative ofeither the initial excavation of the trough, or with cleaning episodes of the trough. 31
    • iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Subgroup C Postholes C.133 (fills C.134, C.136) and C.137 (fill C.138) Description Two postholes located on either side of the western end of the trough. The northern posthole C.133 was circular, 0.45 m long, 0.38 m wide and 0.32 m deep. The primary fill (C.134) was a dark brown silt with a large amount of stones. There was a hollow area in the centre, which may indicate the removal of the post. The stones in this fill may be packing material, which has collapsed into the cut. The secondary fill was located in the southwest corner of the cut and appeared to be a mix of natural subsoil and burnt mound material. The southern posthole C.137 was sub-circular in plan with steep sides. It measured 0.77 by 0.51 by 0.37 m in depth. The fill C.138 was a black silty sand with inclusions of stones and charcoal. Interpretation The postholes were located on either side of the western end of the trough. Subgroup D 17 Stakeholes C.139 (fill C.140), C.142 (fill C.141), C.143, (fill C.144), C.146 (fill C.145), C.147 (fill C.148), C.149 (fill C.150), C.151 (fill C.152), C.153 (fill C.154), C.155 (fill C.156) C.157 (fill C.158), C.159 (fill C.160), C.161 (fill C.162), C.163 (fill C.164), C.165 (fill C.166), C.189 (fill C.190), C.191 (fill C.192), C.193 (fill C.194) Description The average measurement was 0.12m by 0.10m with the average depth being 0.9m. All the stakeholes are circular to sub-circular in plan. The sides are all smooth and vertical. Interpretation Seventeen stakeholes on western side of trough Group 3 Well and associated material Subgroup A Well Well C.119, (fills C.129, C.130, C.131, C.132) Description The cut was sub-circular in plan with rounded corners. The break of slope top and base were both gradual. The sides were steep and smooth on NE, moderate and irregular on SW, steep and concave on SE, steep and stepped on NW. The base was oval in plan and concave in profile. The cut measured 4.52m NE SW by 2.86m and had a maximum depth of 0.6m. The upper fill was a weakly cemented, dark black stony sand. The next fill was a soft, dark brownish grey peaty silt with occasional small pieces of charcoal. The next layer32
    • Park 2-E3772 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/was a loose, dark greyish black, sandy, stony silt. The basal layer was a firm, mid brownsilty sand.InterpretationCut of pit located 2 m west of trough C5. Deliberated excavated for some purpose as-sociated with burnt mound. Possible well- base filled slightly with ground water duringexcavation. May have been used as a water source for trough C5.Subgroup BRedeposited Material Associated with WellLayers C. 99, C.100, C.122, C.120, C.121, C.127, C.128DescriptionThe layer C.99 was a soft, light yellowish brownish grey sandy silt. Underneath that layerwas C.100, which was a soft, light yellowish brownish grey sandy silt. These layers areredeposited natural. Both are present as a positive feature similar to nearby feature C120.The upper layer of this positive feature was a firm, dark brown silt. The middle fill was asoft, light greyish brown sandy silt. The basal layer was a firm, dark brown silt. The layerC.127 was a soft, light yellowish brownish grey sandy silt. Underlying this was the layerC.128, which was a soft, mid reddish brown clayey, peaty silt.InterpretationThese contexts form three positive features of redeposited natural. Material possibly cast-up from the pit C119.Group 4 PitsSubgroup APit C.183 (fills C.184, C.187, and C.188)DescriptionThe cut was oval in plan with rounded corners. The break of slope top and base weresharp. The sides were moderate and smooth on N, steep and smooth/concave on S, steepand smooth/stepped on E, steep and smooth on W. The base was oval in plan and flat inprofile. The cut measured 1.9m by 1.65m had a maximum depth of 0.29m and was ori-entated east west. The upper fill was a very soft, dark black stony silt. The next fill was afirm, dark reddish brown peaty silt. The basal layer was a loose, light yellowish grey silty,stony sand.InterpretationCut of a possible pit. Regular shape indicates that it was probably a pit rather than anaturally formed feature; however, shallow depth suggests it was unlikely to be a trough.Fulacht material within fill suggests it was contemporary with fulacht. May be related totrough cut C5 in close proximity. 33
    • iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Subgroup B Pit Underneath Field Boundary C.197 (fills C.195, C.196) Description The pit was oval in plan with rounded corners. The break of slope top was gradual. The sides were steep and smooth on W, moderate and smooth elsewhere. The break of slope base was imperceptible. The base was oval in plan and concave in profile. The pit meas- ured 1.72m north south by 1.38m and had a maximum depth of 0.37m. The upper fill of the pit was a weakly cemented, mid greyish black silty sand, while the basal fill was filled with loose grey pebbles. Interpretation Cut of pit. The regular shape would suggest formation due to human activity. Presence of charcoal, roots and animal teeth in the fill are indicative of human activity. Pit pre-dates field boundary C54 and was truncated by this field boundary. Group 5 Layers of burnt mound material Subgroup A Main Layers of Mound C.3, C.41, C.55, C.69, C.117 Description The upper layer C.117 was a compact black silty sand and was a layer which occurred over the mound. The main layer was C.3, which was a stiff, dark greyish black silty sand and stones and represents the burnt mound material covering the majority of the site. The layer measured 32.6m north south by 16.4m and had a maximum depth of 0.48m. The next layer C.41 measured 2.91m north south by 2.91m and had a maximum depth of 0.15m and comprised of a firm, dark greyish black silt. The next layer C.55 was also a firm, dark greyish black silt. The layer C.69 was a soft dark greyish black silt. Interpretation These contexts represent the burnt mound material covering the majority of the site. This material was formed due to human factors - stones were heated, added to the trough to boil water and then were discarded to form the layers. Subgroup B Layers of Re-deposited Material within Mound C.15, C.80, C.81, C.82, C.185 Description C.15 was a weakly cemented light brownish yellow sand and was located between con- texts C.41 and C.55. The layer C.80 was a compact dark grey clayey silty sand. Directly under C.80 was C.81, which was a soft, dark grey sandy silt. The next layer was a C.82,34
    • Park 2-E3772 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/which was a compact, mid grey silty sand. The final layer of re-deposited material was aweakly cemented, light grey sand which was located between layers C.94 and C.114.InterpretationThese layers of re-deposited material occur within the mound and maybe as a result ofexcavation of pits and troughs.Subgroup CLayers of re-deposited material underlying main layer of burnt mound materialC.93, C.94, C.95, C.96, C.97, C.98, C.114DescriptionThe upper layer was a compact light yellowish grey sand. The next layer was a compact,light greyish black silty sand. Underlying this was a compact, mid greyish white sand. Thenext layer was a loose, mid greyish white sand. The layer C.97 was a weakly cemented,mid greyish white sand. Underlying this was a compact, light brownish white silty sand.The basal layer was a stiff, mid brown clayey silt.InterpretationThese layers formed through the dumping of burnt mound material mixed with subsoiland oxidisation processes.Subgroup DSmall layers of burnt mound material overlying the main moundC.3, C.14, C.42, C.87, C.88,C.3 was the main layer that comprised the mound of burnt material. There were severalmixed layers of re-deposited burnt mound material underlying the main layer. Its difficultto trace all the layers and whether they were primary layers or re-deposited layers butthey all make up the mound. C.14 and C.42 were both weakly cemented, light orangishbrown silts and maybe a natural transference layer between topsoil and burnt mound ma-terial C3. The layer C.87 was a soft, mid brown peaty silt and may have formed throughthe natural accumulation of soil over the burnt mound material. The layer C.88 was afirm, dark greyish black clayey, stony silt which was mixed burnt mound material.InterpretationThese layers represent the natural formation of soils over the mound since its last use.Group 6 Modern FeaturesSubgroup AField Boundary C.54 (fills C.57-C.67, C.72- C.79 and C.83-C.86)Description 35
    • iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort The cut was linear in plan and the base was linear in plan and concave in profile. The boundary was orientated east/west. It was over 50 m in length by 3m in width by 0.6 m in depth. The fills C.57 to C.77 were all sand based soils with the colour brown being the predominant colour throughout. All these fills contained stone inclusions. The final six fills were all silt based fills and as with the previous fills brown was the predominant colour and all fills contained stone inclusions. Interpretation This context represents the cut of a field boundary as seen through three excavated sec- tions - slot 1, 2 and 3. It appears to truncate the burnt mound and therefore post-dates it, as seen through post-medieval finds from several of the 23 fills. The ditch is annotated on the 1st edition OS map TN22. Subgroup B Redeposited Natural Associated with Field Boundary Layers C.177, C.178, C.179, C.180, C.181, C.182, C.186 Description These layers combine to form a positive feature, which was possibly upcast from the ex- cavation of the field boundary. The upper layer was a firm, light grey sandy silt. The next layer was a firm, mid grey sandy silt. The next layer was a firm, light yellowish clayey silt. Layer C.180 was a firm, mid yellowish grey sandy silt. The next layer was a spongy, dark brown peat. The layer C.182 was a compact, dark brownish grey clayey sand. The basal layer was a firm, light yellowish white clayey silt. Interpretation These layers may have originated from excavation of linear cut C54. Subgroup C Quarry C.49 (fills C.8, C.9, C.19, C.23, C.32, C.33, C.43, C.44, C.173) Description The cut was orientated east west, measured 5m by 3m, and had a maximum depth of 0.6m. The quarry was irregular in plan with rounded corners. The base was irregular in plan and flat in profile. This context truncated the ditch cut C54.The layers were all silt based brown in colour although there was variations in the modifier and hues. All the fills contain stone inclusions. Interpretation Cut of a possible modern feature terminating at N-S baulk. May be associated with ditch. Possible quarry pit. Subgroup D Furrows Furrow C.89 (fill C.90), Furrow C.91 (fill C.92) Description36
    • Park 2-E3772 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/The furrow (C.89) was linear in plan; the base was linear in plan and concave in profile.The fill was a soft, mid greyish brown clayey silt and was orientated east west. The secondfurrow was also linear in plan; the base was linear in plan and concave in profile while thefill was a soft, dark greyish brown clayey silt. The furrow was orientated east west.InterpretationTwo regular features are furrows.The field boundary is marked on the 1st edition OS map TN22.Group 7 Natural featuresSubgroup AC.7 (C.6), C.10 (C.11), C.13 (C.12), C.21 (C.28), C.22 (C.26, C.27), C.24 (C.25), C.30 (C.31), C.34, C.35 (C.36), C.37 (C.39), C.38 (C.40), C.46 (C.45, C.50), C.48 (C.47),C.56 (C.68), C.70 (C.71), C.101 (C.104), C.102, (C.105, C.106), C.103 (C.111, C.112),C.107 (C.108), C.109 (C.110), C.124 (C.125, C.126), C.169 (C.170, C.171), C.172 (C.174,C.175, C.176).InterpretationA group of 22 features identified during post-excavation as stone sockets, roots, naturaldepressions or animal burrows.The fills of all these natural features were derived from the layers of burnt mound mate-rial, it had filled all the depressions and hollow in the natural subsoil. 37
    • iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Appendix 4 Plant Remains Report By Penny Johnston Introduction This report details the analysis of plant remains from Park 2, Co. Tipperary (E3772). The site comprised a burnt mound/fulacht fiadh, trough and associated pits, post-holes, stake- holes and a possible well. The plant remains were identified as barley and hazelnut shell fragments, as well as some indeterminate cereals and some weed seeds. Methodology The samples were collected on site as bulk soil and were processed using machine-as- sisted floatation (following guidelines in Pearsall 2000). The floating material (or ‘flot’) from each sample was collected in a stack of geological sieves (the smallest mesh size was 250mm). The samples were scanned under low-powered magnification (x 10 to x 40) using a binocular microscope. Nomenclature and taxonomic order follows Stace (1997). Results A total of 40 samples from Park 2 were assessed and the results are listed in the assessment report, and in Table 1, listed below. The initial assessment report of the samples from Park 2 indicated that 16 of the samples contained plant remains, however, further examination of the selected samples indicated that most of the material in these samples were probably actually fungal sclerotia, rather than seeds. Fungal sclerotia are spores from a soil fungus and can be relatively recent in date. In total, only 6 of the 40 samples actually contained plant remains. The results are presented in Table 2 at the end of this report. In general the plant remains from Park 2 were charred, apart from the seeds found in C.132 (S.103), which were un-charred. The un-charred plant remains were identified as hazelnut shell fragments, blackberry drubes and sedge seeds. As the sample does not appear to have been from a water-logged context it is likely that these un-charred remains from Park 2 were relatively modern in origin. It is unusual to find charred plant remains from burnt mound/fulacht fiadh sites (see Johnston 2007, 70). However, the charred plant remains from Park 2 were recovered only in small quantities. The identified cereals included grains of both hulled and naked barley, as well as some hazelnut shell fragments. As these were recovered in very small quantities it is likely that these plant remains were accidental inclusions in the deposits from this site. They were recovered in such small quantities that it is unlikely that they represent a significant reflection of the activity at the site.38
    • Park 2-E3772 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/ReferencesJohnston, P. 2007 ‘Analysis of carbonised plant remains’ in Grogan, E., O’Donnell, L. and Johnston, P. The Bronze Age Landscapes of the Pipeline to the West. Bray, Wordwell, 70 – 79.Pearsall, D. 2000 Paleoethnobotany: a Handbook of Procedures. New York, Academic Press.Stace, C. A. 1997 New Flora of the British Isles. (2nd edition) Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.Sample Context Charcoal Seeds Percentage1 3 High Absent 502 4 High Low 1003 6 High Low 10026 23 Low Low 10029 18 High Absent 10038 57 Low Absent 10066 87 Medium Absent 10070 94 High Absent 10071 95 Low Absent 10072 96 Medium Absent 10073 97 Medium Absent 10074 98 High Absent 10083 114 Medium Absent 10086 117 High Absent 5088 88 Medium Absent 10095 123 Medium Absent 100100 129 High Absent 100101 130 High Absent 100102 131 High Low 100103 132 Medium Low 100104 134 High Absent 50106 4 High Absent 100107 123 Medium Absent 100109 140 Medium Absent 100110 144 High Absent 100114 150 High Absent 100116 154 High Absent 100117 156 High Absent 100118 158 Medium Absent 100 39
    • iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Sample Context Charcoal Seeds Percentage 120 162 Medium Absent 100 121 164 High Absent 100 122 166 Medium Absent 100 128 173 High Absent 100 144 184 High Absent 100 145 187 High Absent 100 146 188 High Absent 100 147 190 Medium Low 100 148 192 High Absent 100 149 194 Medium Absent 100 152 196 Medium Absent 100 Table 1: Scanned samples from Park 2, Co� Tipperary (E3772) Sample 2 3 26 102 103 147 Context 4 6 23 131 132 190 Charred plant remains Hazelnut shell fragments (Corylus avellana) 1 Naked barley (Hordeum vulgare var. nudum) 1 Hulled barley (Hordeum vulgare) 1 Probable hulled barley (cf Hordeum vulgare) 1 Barley rachis internode (Hordeum spp.) 1 Barley/Wheat (Hordeum/Triticum) 1 Indeterminate grass seeds (Poaceae) 1 Indeterminate cereal grains 1 Un-charred plant remains Hazelnut kernel (Corylus avellana) 1 Hazelnut shell fragments (Corylus avellana) 2 Blackberry/Raspberry (Rubus spp.) 5 Indeterminate sedge seeds (Cyperaceae) 1 Table 2: Identified plant remains from Park 2, Co� Tipperary (E3772)40
    • Park 2-E3772 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/E3772-park2-co-tipperary/Appendix 5 Animal Bone ReportThe quantity of bones recovered from Park 2 is very small and apart from documentingthe presence of cattle at the site no other dietary information can be extrapolated from thedata. Four adult cattle teeth were recovered from one of the layers (C87) of burnt moundmaterial. The fill (C57) of a modern field boundary also contained cattle teeth, two molarsfrom an adult individual. 41