Archaeological Report - Park 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)

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The excavation of the site at Park revealed a multiperiod site, the site extended over a distance of c.450m. The earliest phase of activity, dated to the Bronze Age, was represented by a concentration …

The excavation of the site at Park revealed a multiperiod site, the site extended over a distance of c.450m. The earliest phase of activity, dated to the Bronze Age, was represented by a concentration of pits, postholes and stake-holes in the western area of the site. A cluster of nine stake-holes represented the remnants of a small structure, c. 5m in diameter.
In the far western extent of the site four oval cremation pits were recorded.
A concentration of 77 pits and six hearths, dated to the medieval period, was located across the area of the excavation. A later phase of medieval activity at the site was associated with four kilns. A keyhole-shaped kiln was excavated in the western part of the site.
This comprised a flue and two chambers. Another kiln was located c. 95m west of the eastern limit of excavation. It was dumb-bell shaped and fragments of rotary querns were used as part of the stone lining. A third kiln was recorded just 90m further west. It was a stone-lined keyhole-shaped kiln and comprised two chambers and a flue. The fourth kiln was partly destroyed by a later ditch. Quern stone fragments were recovered from the fills of three pits, two kilns and two ditches. Limited evidence for metalworking was recorded at the site, slag was found in two of the ditches, four pits and a hearth.
Several ditches extended across the site. Eight of the ditches may be medieval in origin and these were possibly associated with medieval enclosures and were probably contemporary with activity at the kilns. A small portion of an enclosure, c. 10m by 18m internally, was recorded at the western end of the site. It extended beyond the LMA to the south. No features were excavated in the interior. Fifteen of the ditches were interpreted as modern field boundaries.

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  • 1. Eachtra JournalIssue 11 [ISSN 2009-2237] Archaeological Excavation Report E3659 - Park 1, Co. Tipperary Prehistoric activity and Medieval settlement site
  • 2. EACHTRAArchaeological Projects Archaeological Excavation Report Park 1 Co. Tipperary Prehistoric activity and Medieval settlement site Date: July 2011 Client: Laois County Council and National Roads Authority Project: N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Contract 1) E No: E3659Excavation Director: Gerry Mullins Written by: Gerry Mullins
  • 3. Archaeological Excavation Report Park 1 Co. Tipperary Excavation Director Gerry Mullins Written By Gerry Mullins EACHTRA Archaeological Projects CORK GALWAY The Forge, Innishannon, Co. Cork Unit 10, Kilkerrin Park, Liosbain Industrial Estate, Galwaytel: 021 4701616 | web: www.eachtra.ie | email: info@eachtra.ie tel: 091 763673 | web: www.eachtra.ie | email: galway@eachtra.ie
  • 4. © Eachtra Archaeological Projects 2011 The Forge, Innishannon, Co Cork Set in 12pt Garamond Printed in Ireland
  • 5. Table of Contents Summary��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� v Acknowledgements�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� viScope of the project ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1Route location������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 1Receiving environment������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3Archaeological and historical background ������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 4 Mesolithic(c�8000to4000BC)���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4 Neolithic(c�4000to2000BC)������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 4 � BronzeAge(c�2000to600BC)����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4 IronAge(c�500BCtoAD500)����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 6 Earlymedievalperiod(c�AD400to1100)����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 6 Highandlatermedievalperiods(c�AD1100to1650)���������������������������������������������������������������� 7 Post-medievalperiod(c�1650tothepresent)��������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 7Site Location and Topography ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 7Excavation methodology ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 7Excavation results ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 10 EarlyBronzeAgeartefacts������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������10 MiddleBronzeAgefeatures���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������12 LateBronzeAgefeatures���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������12 Earlymedievalactivity�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������13 Latermedievalfeatures�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������22 Post-medieval/earlymodern�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������30 Modern����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������39 � Undatedfeaturesandstructures��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 40 � Specialistanalysis��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������41Discussion������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 47References �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������50Appendix 1 Stratigraphic Index �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 53Appendix 2 Site Matrix �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������54Appendix 3: Groups and Subgroups ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 65 Group1:NaturalDeposits������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������65 Group2:CultivationFurrows������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������65 Group3:ModernFieldBoundaryDitches��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������70 Group4:Earlymodernfieldboundaryditches���������������������������������������������������������������������������71 i
  • 6. Group5:MedievalDitches����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������75 � Group6:TwoPotentialDryingKilns�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 80 Group7:ThreeDryingKilns��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������81 Group8:Postholesandpotentialstructures��������������������������������������������������������������������������������85 � Group9:Stakeholes�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������92 Group10:Pits������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 94 � Group11:Hearths��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 105 Group12:ModernAgriculturalFeatures��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 107 Group13:LinearFeature������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 107 Group14:CremationPit�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������108 Group15:TreeBowl/RootandAnimalBurrows��������������������������������������������������������������������108 Group16:NaturalHollows,NonArchaeologicalandVoidNumbers���������������������������110 Appendix 4: Stone Tools ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������111 Appendix 5: Lithics report ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 117 Appendix 6: Pottery report ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������122 Appendix 7: Animal bones�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������125 Appendix 8: Archaeometallurgy Report ���������������������������������������������������������������������������126 Appendix 9: Plant remains �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������136 Appendix 10: Osteoarchaeological Report�������������������������������������������������������������������������148 Appendix 11: Geophysical Report �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������155ii
  • 7. List of FiguresFigure 1: The route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh overlain on the Ordnance Survey Discovery Series map� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 2Figure 2: The route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh overlain on the Ordnance Survey Discovery Series map with all the excavation sites marked� ����������������������������������������������������� 5Figure 3: Portion of the Ist edition Ordnance Survey Map TN21 showing the location of Park 1� � 8Figure 4: Location and extent of Park 1 E3659 on the N7 Castletown to Nenagh� ����������������������������� 11Figure 5: Post-excavation plan of Park 1� ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 16Figure 6: West facing section of pit C�341 showing fills C�478, C�371, C�575, C�370, C�369, C�560, later cut C�2184, fills C�366, C�352, C�419 and C�330� C�467 is not visible in this section� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 19Figure 7: East-facing section of kiln C�291 showing hearths C�448, C�368 and C�380 and kiln fills �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������20Figure 8: Medieval enclosing ditch C�297� ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������26Figure 9: Medieval ditch C�157 is truncated by ditch C�151, southeast facing section�����������������������29Figure 10: Southeast facing section of early modern ditch C�534 showing C�544 from which a cereal sample was recovered� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������33Figure 11: Northwest facing section of kiln C�514 showing fills C�515, C�538, C�537, C�536, C�559 and C�570� ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������35Figure 12: Post-excavation plan of Kiln cut C�2180 and associated fills C�2198, C�2183, C�2205, C�2204, C� 2207, C�2206, C�2200, C�2181 and C�2199� �������������������������������������������������������������������36Figure 13: Stone lining C�2198 on northern and southern side of kiln C�2180 ���������������������������������������37Figure 14: Medieval ditch C�2112 was truncated by modern feature C�2114�������������������������������������������38Figure 15: Post-excavation plan of modern ditches and agricultural furrows of Park 1� ��������������������42Figure 16: Interpretative geophysical plan of Park 1 overlain on the Ordnance Survey Discovery Series map� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������44 iii
  • 8. List of Plates Plate 1: Aerial view of Park 1 looking east� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 9 Plate 2: View of Park 1 mid-excavation looking east� ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������10 Plate 3: Pre excavation view of cremation pit C�272� ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 13 Plate 4: Mid-excavation of kiln C�291 at Park 1 (Photo: John Sunderland)������������������������������������������ 14 Plate 5: South facing section of kiln C�291 showing hearth C�380 truncating C�294���������������������� 15 Plate 6: Aerial view of enclosing ditch C�297 looking south� ������������������������������������������������������������������� 15 Plate 7: View of Medieval ditch C�1007 looking south� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������21 Plate 8: Pre excavation view of pit C�39� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������28 Plate 9: Burnt soil C�2146 truncated by early modern ditch C�2114� ������������������������������������������������������28 Plate 10: View of ditches C�157, C�43 and C�47 in the centre and ditch C�1007 in foreground at Park 1 from east� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������30 Plate 11: View of Early Modern Ditch C�43 and pit C�1039 looking southeast� ������������������������������������ 31 Plate 12: Kiln C�514 looking southeast showing primary fill C�538� ��������������������������������������������������������� 31 Plate 13: View of kiln C�2180 looking east showing C�2198� �����������������������������������������������������������������������33 Plate 14: View of the eastern chamber kiln C�2180 looking northeast� ��������������������������������������������������34 Plate 15: C�2146 truncated by early modern ditch C�2114� ��������������������������������������������������������������������������34 Plate 16: Mid-excavation of post-hole C�241� ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 41 Plate 17: Collection of stone artefacts from Park 1 (Photo: John Sunderland)� �����������������������������������45 List of Tables Table 1: Radiocarbon dates����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 41 Table 2: Radiocarbon dates for Bronze Age structures on the route of the N7 (C1)� ������������������������46iv
  • 9. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/SummaryThe excavation of the site at Park revealed a multiperiod site, the site extended over a dis-tance of c.450m. The earliest phase of activity, dated to the Bronze Age, was representedby a concentration of pits, postholes and stake-holes in the western area of the site. A clus-ter of nine stake-holes represented the remnants of a small structure, c. 5m in diameter.In the far western extent of the site four oval cremation pits were recorded. A concentration of 77 pits and six hearths, dated to the medieval period, was locatedacross the area of the excavation. A later phase of medieval activity at the site was associ-ated with four kilns. A keyhole-shaped kiln was excavated in the western part of the site.This comprised a flue and two chambers. Another kiln was located c. 95m west of theeastern limit of excavation. It was dumb-bell shaped and fragments of rotary querns wereused as part of the stone lining. A third kiln was recorded just 90m further west. It was astone-lined keyhole-shaped kiln and comprised two chambers and a flue. The fourth kilnwas partly destroyed by a later ditch. Quern stone fragments were recovered from the fillsof three pits, two kilns and two ditches. Limited evidence for metalworking was recordedat the site, slag was found in two of the ditches, four pits and a hearth. Several ditches extended across the site. Eight of the ditches may be medieval in originand these were possibly associated with medieval enclosures and were probably contem-porary with activity at the kilns. A small portion of an enclosure, c. 10m by 18m inter-nally, was recorded at the western end of the site. It extended beyond the LMA to thesouth. No features were excavated in the interior. Fifteen of the ditches were interpretedas modern field boundaries.Road project name N7 Castletown to NenaghSite name Park 1E no. E3772Site director Gerry MullinsTownland ParkParish Aghnameadle and BallymackeyCounty TipperaryBarony Upper OrmondOS Map Sheet No. TN22National Grid Reference 199643 180953 v
  • 10. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Acknowledgements The project was commissioned by Laois County Council and was funded by the Na- tional Roads Authority under the National Development Plan (2000-2006). The project archaeologist was Niall Roycroft. Kildare County Council supervised the archaeological contract with RE staff of Pat Dowling and Colum Fagan. Kildare County Council Sen- ior Executive Engineer was Joseph Kelly and Kildare County Council Senior Engineer was John Coppinger. The senior archaeologist was John Tierney and the post-excavation manager was Jacinta Kiely. Illustrations are by Maurizio Toscano, photographs by John Sunderland and Eagle Photography and aerial photography by StudioLab. Specialist anal- ysis was carried out by Mary Dillon, Penny Johnston, Linda Lynch, Margaret McCarthy, Helen Roche and Eoin Grogan, Tim Young, and the 14 Chrono Centre at Queen’s Uni- versity Belfast.vi
  • 11. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/Scope of the projectEachtra Archaeological Projects were commissioned by Laois County Council and theNational Roads Authority to undertake archaeological works along 17.1 km (Contact1) of the 35km N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) national roadscheme (EIS approved in November 2005). The scheme runs from the eastern junctionof the present N7 Nenagh Bypass, North Tipperary a tie in to the M7/M8 Portlaoise-Castletown scheme to the south of Borris-in-Ossory in County Laois. The scheme is ap-proximately 191 hectares. Contract 1 comprises the western half of the scheme and runsfrom Clashnevin to Castleroan passing along the Tipperary North and Offaly countyborder regions. The Ministers Direction Number is A38. It was funded by the Irish Government under the National Development Plan 2000-2006. The total archaeological cost was administered by the National Roads Authoritythrough Laois County Council as part of the Authority’s commitment to protecting ourcultural heritage. The purpose of the archaeological services project was to conduct ar-chaeological site investigations within the lands made available for the scheme and toassess the nature and extent of any new potential archaeological sites uncovered. Phase 1 of the project (archaeological testing of the route) was carried out in 2007under licence E3371, E3372 and E3375-8 issued by Department of the Environment Her-itage and Local Government (DoEHLG) in consultation with the National Museumof Ireland. The principal aim of this phase of the project was to test for any previouslyunknown sites by a programme of centreline and offset testing and to test sites of archaeo-logical potential identified in the EIS. Phase 2 of the project (resolution) involved the resolution of all archaeological sitesidentified within the proposed road corridor prior to commencement of the constructionof the road. This phase of the project was carried out from June 2007 to February 2008and excavations were conducted under the management of a Senior Archaeologist. A totalof 27 sites were excavated during this phase of works under separate licences issued byDoEHLG. A post-excavation assessment and strategy document was prepared in Phase 3 of theproject to present a management strategy for dealing with post-excavation work aris-ing from archaeological works along the route of the new N7 Castletown to Nenagh. Itincluded a proposal for post-excavation and archiving work and a budget for the works.Route locationThe route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh road is located in Counties North Tipperaryand Offaly (OF) (Figure 1). The project (Contract 1) involves the construction of c. 17.5km of the N7 from Clashnevin east of Nenagh to Castleroan southeast of Dunkerrin. Itpasses through the townlands of Clashnevin, Derrybane, Newtown, Lissanisky, Killeisk,Garavally, Derrycarney, Garrynafanna, Gortnadrumman, Kilgorteen, Falleen, Knock-ane, Clash, Park, Rosdremid (OF), Clynoe (OF), Cullenwaine, Moneygall, Greenhills, 1
  • 12. 182550 198900 2152502 193300 193300 ! ( Nenagh iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 Derg (Lough) 182950 182950 172600 172600 0 5 10 182550 198900 Kilometres 215250 ± Figure 1: The route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh overlain on the Ordnance Survey Discovery Series map� archaEological Excavation rEPort
  • 13. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/Drumbaun, Busherstown (OF), Drumroe (OF), Moatquarter, Loughan (OF) and Cas-tleroan (OF). The townlands are located in the parishes of Ballymackey, Cullenwaine,Castletownely, Rathnaveoge, Finglas and Dunkerrin and the baronies of Upper Ormond,Ikerrin and Clonisk, The route begins at the eastern end of the Nenagh bypass at Clashnevin c. 5 km eastof Nenagh and continues eastward on the northern side of the existing N7 in Co. Tip-perary. It crosses a number of third class roads to the north of Toomyvara and 0.7 kmeast of Clash crossroads crosses the Ollatrim River. It extends into County Offaly directlyeast of Park. From here it crosses the R490 0.6 km north of Moneygall. It extends backin County Tipperary and through the demesne of Greenhills before crossing the existingN7 at the junction of Greenhills and Drumbaun townlands. It crosses back into CountyOffaly and climbs east into Busherstown and Drumroe. It crosses the Keeloge Streaminto Moatquarter in County Tipperary and extends northeast back into County Offalythrough the townlands of Loughan and Castleroan 1.4 km southwest of Dunkerrin.Receiving environmentNorth Tipperary is bounded on the west by the River Shannon and Lough Derg withthe Silvermines, to the south, and small hills extending towards Devilsbit and BorrisnoeMountains to the east. The mountains are composed largely of Silurian strata and OldRed Sandstone. Copper, silver and lead deposits have been mined in the Silvermines. Thegeology of the lowlands consists of Carboniferous limestone covered by glacial drift inaddition to tracts of raised bog. The western portion of the study area is drained by the Ollatrim River, which flowswestwards into the River Ballintotty, which in turns drains into the River Nenagh. Theeastern portion is drained by the Keeloge Stream and other small water sources. These risein the foothills of the Silvermine Mountains and flow north. The Keeloge drains into theLittle Brosna River c. 1 km south of Shinrone, Co Offaly. The Brosna turns north anddrains into the Shannon south of Banagher. The largest population centre in the area is Nenagh. The smaller population centres,are Toomyvara, Moneygall and Dunkerrin. The soils on the route are characterised by 80% grey brown podzolics, 10% gleys, 5%brown earths and 5% basin peat. They are derived from glacial till of predominantly Car-boniferous limestone composition. These soils occur in Tipperary and Offaly and have awide use range being suitable for both tillage and pasture (Gardiner and Radford 1980,97-99). Land use along the route was a mix of grassland devoted to intensive dairying andcattle-rearing and tillage. 3
  • 14. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Archaeological and historical background Archaeological sites of numerous periods were discovered along the route of the new road (Figure 2). The periods are referred to as follows: Mesolithic (c. 8000 to 4000 BC), Neo- lithic (c. 4000 to 2000 BC), Bronze Age (c. 2000 to 600 BC), and Iron Age (c. 500 BC to AD 500), early medieval period (c. AD 500 to 1100), medieval period (c. AD 1100 to 1650), post-medieval period (c. AD 1650 to the present). Mesolithic (c. 8000 to 4000 BC) The earliest known human settlement in Ireland dates from the Mesolithic period (c. 8000 BC–4000 BC). The majority of the evidence (flint scatters) for Mesolithic occupa- tion has come from the river valleys. No evidence for the Mesolithic was recorded on the route. Neolithic (c. 4000 to 2000 BC) The Neolithic Period is characterised by the introduction of agriculture and the begin- nings of the clearance of the woodlands. The population increased and became more sedentary in nature. The most important Neolithic site in the vicinity was at Tullahedy recorded on the route of the Nenagh by-pass. It was a specialist chert arrow manufactur- ing site. A group of pits, dated to the Middle Neolithic was excavated at Culleenwaine E3741 and a hearth-side group of pits at Drumbaun E3912. A few sherds of Early Neolithic pottery was recorded at both sites. Stone tools dating to the Neolithic were recorded at Busherstown E3661, Clash E3660 and Greenhills 2 and 3 E3637 and E3658. Stone tools dating to the late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age were recorded at Busherstown E3661, Cas- tleroan E3909, Culleenwaine E3741, Derrybane 1 E3585, Drumroe E3773, Greenhills 1 E3638 and Moatquarter E3910. Bronze Age (c. 2000 to 600BC) The Bronze Age is characterised by the introduction of metallurgy and an increase in settlement and burial sites. Copper ores were mined and copper, bronze and gold items manufactured. The range of burial site types includes cist graves, pit and urn burials, cremation cemeteries, barrows, ring-ditches and wedge tombs. Stone circles and stand- ing stones also date to the Bronze Age. Both enclosed and unenclosed settlement sites are known. The most prolific Bronze Age site type is the fulacht fiadh. These monuments survive as low mounds of charcoal rich black silt, packed with heat-shattered stones, and generally situated close to a water source. Fulachta fiadh are generally classified as ‘cook- ing places’, whereby stones were heated in a hearth and subsequently placed in a trough of water, the water continued to boil with the addition of hot stones and wrapped food4
  • 15. 190400 196200 202000 207800 Park 1-E3659 Park 1 186400 186400 Castleroan 1 E 3909 Busherstown 1 E 3661 Loughan 1 Greenhills 3 E 4000 E 3658 Moneygall 2 Culleenwaine 1 E 3635 E 3741 Moatquarter 1 Clynoe 2 E 3910 E 3774 181800 181800 Park 1 Drumroe 1 Garravally Kilgorteen 1 E 3659 E 3773 E 3589 E 3739 Drumbaun 2 Derrybane 2 E 3912 E 3591 Greenhills 1 Greenhills 2 E 3638 E 3637 Clashnevin 2 E 3590 Clash 1 Park 2 E 3660 E 3772 Derrycarney 1 E 3740 Clashnevin 1 Derrybane 1 Killeisk 1 E 3586 E 3585 E 3587 177200 177200 0 3 6 Kilometres ± 190400 196200 202000 207800 Figure 2: The route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh overlain on the Ordnance Survey Discovery Series map with all the excavation sites marked� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/5
  • 16. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort was cooked within the hot water. The trough eventually filled with small stones, ash and charcoal that were removed, forming the basis of the familiar mound. Two new fulachta fiadh or burnt mounds were recorded at Clashnevin 1 E3586, Cullenwaine E3741 and six at three separate locations in Greenhills, E3638, E3637 and E3658. Evidence of nine roundhouses or partial round structures were recorded; two at Castleroan E3909, Derrybane 2 E3591 and Drumbaun 2 E3912 and one at Clash E3660, Drumroe E3773 and Moatquarter E3910. Iron Age (c. 500 BC to AD 500) Up to recently there was little evidence of a significant Iron Age presence in Munster. Settlement sites are few and far between as well as being difficult to identify (Woodman, 2000) while the material culture of this period is limited. Linear earthworks, believed to have marked tribal boundaries, and hillforts are two of the most visible monuments of the period. Ten percent of sites excavated on NRA road schemes in recent years have produced Iron Age dates. The dates have led to the identification of 30 new Iron Age sites in Munster from road schemes in counties Cork, Limerick and Tipperary (McLaughlin and Conran 2008, 51). These include a ditched enclosure in Ballywilliam and a wooden trackway in Annaholty Bog excavated on the route of the N7 Nenagh-Limerick (Taylor 2008, 54). Evidence of domestic activity dating to the Late Bronze Age / Early Iron Age was recorded at Clashnevin 2. Early medieval period (c. AD 400 to 1100) The early medieval period is characterised by the arrival of Christianity to Ireland. The characteristic monument type of the period is the ringfort. Ringforts are the most nu- merous archaeological monument found in Ireland, with estimates of between 30,000 and 50,000 illustrated on the first edition of the Ordnance Survey 6” maps of the 1840’s (Barry 1987). As a result of continued research, the construction of these monuments has a narrow date range during the early medieval period between the 7th and 9th centuries AD. Although there are some very elaborate examples of ringforts, they often take the form of a simple earth or stone enclosure functioning as settlements for all classes of secu- lar society (Stout 1997). North Tipperary is rich in early ecclesiastical sites and the remains of these religious centres are at the core of some of the towns and villages. Roscrea, for example, was chosen by St Cronan as a location for his monastery in the seventh century as it was located at the crossroads on the Slighe Dála, an important roadway in early medieval times (NIAH 2006, 4-8). A possible early medieval enclosure and associated road way was recorded at Killeisk E3587. A denuded ringfort (OF046-013) was excavated at Clynoe 2 E3774.6
  • 17. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/High and later medieval periods (c. AD 1100 to 1650)This period is characterized by the arrival of the Anglo-Normans and the building oftower houses. The Anglo-Normans obtained charters in the thirteenth century for thetowns of Nenagh, Roscrea, Thurles and Templemore and established markets. Nenaghgrew rapidly in the aftermath of the granting of the lands of Munster to Theobald fit-zWalter in 1185 (NIAH 2006, 8). Moated sites represent the remains of isolated, semi-de-fended homesteads in rural areas. They were build mainly in the late thirteenth and earlyfourteenth centuries in counties, such as Wexford, Kilkenny, Tipperary, mid-Cork andLimerick, that were colonised by English settlers (O’Conor 1998, 58). The ArchaeologicalInventory for North Tipperary lists 39 moated sites (Farrelly and O’Brien 2002, 298). A newly recorded moated site was excavated at Busherstown E3661.Post-medieval period (c. 1650 to the present).The post-medieval period is characterised by mills, limekilns, workhouses, country hous-es and associated demesnes, vernacular buildings and field systems (Figure 3). A smalldemesne associated with a county house was recorded in the townland of Greenhills.Site Location and TopographyThe site at Park (Plates 1 and 2) was located on a level ground at c. 110m OD overlookingthe River Ollatrim to the west. The site was well drained with a very slight slope to theeast and south. The subsoil was a mix of clay and gravel that accumulated from glacialoutwash. The fulacht fiadh at Park 2 E3772 was located c. 100m to the east of the site onlower wetter ground. Park townland is enclosed to the north, east and west by the River Ollatrim and smallwatercourses. The eastern boundary of Park is also the county bounds between Offalyand Tipperary. The southern boundary is a field boundary comprising of a bank and sea-sonal field drain. There are 173 acres in Park.Excavation methodologyThe site was mechanically stripped of topsoil under strict archaeological supervision.Stripping was done with a tracked machine with a flat toothless bucket. Topsoil strippingcommenced in the areas of identified archaeology and continued radially outward untilthe limit of the road take was reached or until the limit of the archaeological remains wasfully defined. A grid was set up in the excavation area(s) and all archaeological featureswere sufficiently cleaned, recorded and excavated so as to enable an accurate and mean-ingful record of the site to be preserved. The excavation, environmental sampling, sitephotographs, site drawings, find care and retrieval, on-site recording and site archive was 7
  • 18. 198157 199157 2001578 ROSDREHID Clynoe 2 CLYNOE CARROWEA 181333 181333 BALLYKNOCKANE Ollatrim (River) Park 2 Park 1 iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 PARK Clash 1 180683 180683 CLASH 0 300 600 ¥ Meters 198157 199157 200157 180033 Figure 3: Portion of the Ist edition Ordnance Survey Map TN21 showing the location of Park 1� archaEological Excavation rEPort
  • 19. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/Plate 1: Aerial view of Park 1 looking east�as per the Procedures for Archaeological works as attached to the licence method state-ments for excavation licences. The site was excavated from 29 September 2007 to the 17 November 2007. Only areaswithin the LMA (lands made available) were resolved. The full extent of the area of exca-vation measured 13900msq (Figure 4). The full record of excavated contexts is recorded in the context register (Appendix 1)and the stratigraphic matrix (Appendix 2). Detailed stratigraphic descriptions are foundin the groups and sub-groups text (Appendix 3). Some of the context numbers in Area 1and in Area 2 at Park 1 were duplicated during the course of the excavation. It was de-cided in post-excavation to re-number the context numbers in Area 2 to avoid repetitionof numbers. The context numbers from 3 to 209 in Area 2 were re-numbered 2003 to2209. The associated drawing numbers from 1 to 133 were re-numbered 301 to 433 andthe bone sample numbers from 1 to 6 were re-numbered 301 to 306. It was not possible tochange the context numbers on the photographic board included in the site photographs.The relevant area number (Area 1 or Area 2) prefaces the context number illustrated onthe board. 9
  • 20. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Plate 2: View of Park 1 mid-excavation looking east� Excavation results Park 1 was divided into two areas, Area 1 and Area 2, Area 1 measured 6900msq while Area 2 measured 7000msq (Figure 5). The prehistoric archaeological remains from Park 1 included Early Bronze Age finds, a Middle Bronze Age cremation pit and possibly associ- ated features, Late Bronze Age pottery from a pit and a possible building (Structure 1) and another possible prehistoric building (Structure 3). Material from the historic period included early medieval pits corn drying kilns, a building (Structure 4), an enclosing ditch and iron smelting features, as well as some iron finds. Later medieval archaeological remains included filed boundary ditches and pits. Human activities continued at Park into the modern era, represented by field boundaries, stakeholes and evidence of modern farming practices. Early Bronze Age artefacts During the course of soil stripping at Park 1 three flint flakes were recovered (1:1–3). All of these refitted together, suggesting flint knapping at the site. These artefacts have been dated to the Early Bronze Age (Appendix 5). Three quartzite rubbing stones recovered from the topsoil (1:5–7) have also, following specialist analysis, been attributed a Bronze Age date (Appendix 5). However, all these finds were recovered from the topsoil, not from sealed contexts.10
  • 21. 199260 199630 200000 ROSDREHID Park 1-E3659 890 0 181176 181176 880 0 870 0 PA R K 86 00 85 00 84 00 180946 180946 83 00 82 00 81 00 80 00 180716 180716 CLASH Olla trim 79 Park 1 (E3659) 00 ( Ri ver ) 0 100 200 Metres ± 78 00 199260 199630 200000 Figure 4: Location and extent of Park 1 E3659 on the N7 Castletown to Nenagh� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/11
  • 22. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Middle Bronze Age features Cremation pit (Group 14) The earliest clearly dateable feature excavated at Park was a token cremation pit burial (C.272, Plate 3). Radiocarbon analysis of the bone confirmed that it dated from 1300– 1118 cal BC (UBA-15451), placing it firmly in the Middle Bronze Age. This was not a complete human cremation burial, as the required weight of bone did not occur in the pit. According to McCormick et al. (1995, 93), a full human adult cremated skeleton weighs between 2500 and 3000 grams. McKinley (1989) states that a cremated human adult skeleton can weight between 1600 grams and 3500 grams, obviously depending on the sex and age of the individual. The excavated cremated human bone at Park weighed 49 grams. A fragment of worked bone was recovered from the fill, perhaps representing a grave good. It is therefore probable that the feature was a token burial rather than the complete cremated human remains. Features possibly associated with burials (Group 10A, 10B, 10W and 10X) The area in which pit C.272 occurred was severely truncated in all directions by later cul- tivation furrows. Perhaps other examples of token cremation pits, or indeed shallow cist burials, were destroyed during the process of later cultivation. It is possible that pits C.316, C.318 and C.325 could have originally been associated with the cremation pit, although no cremated bone was recovered. There was no evidence for an accompanying pyre. The closest burnt pit (C.293) at Park was found 20 m east of token cremation pit C.272. But there was no evidence re- covered from its excavation to confirm that it had been used in association with funerary ritual. Perhaps funeral pyres occur elsewhere in unexcavated and untested areas. The identification by Frazer (2009, 37: Location 11) of a ring-ditch some short dis- tance (c. 100 m) north of the excavated area, together with the other pit and cist burial evidence, confirms the area to have been widely used as a cemetery. Ring ditches have been associated with both cremation and inhumation burials and the majority date from the Bronze Age (Newman 1997, 160). Based of previously recorded evidence, particularly that at Belfast Road, Downpatrick, Co. Down (Cleary 2005, 27) there is no reason to sug- gest that the site at Park did not serve both a settlement and cemetery function. Late Bronze Age features Pit (Group 10I) Approximately 75 m to the east of cremation pit C.272, 28 pieces of Late Bronze Age pot- tery (Appendix 6), both body and rim sherds, were recovered from a pit (C.24). This was located near Structure 1 (see below for description) and may have been associated with it.12
  • 23. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/Plate 3: Pre excavation view of cremation pit C�272�Structure 1 (Group 8A and 9A)A small structure (see Figure 5A) was located close to the Late Bronze Age pit. It com-prised a post-hole (C.90) and ten stake-holes (C.22, C.53, C.129, C.145, C.152, C.159,C.161, C.164, C.165 and C.174). It was roughly U-shaped or oval in plan and was c. 5m in diameter. There was just a single setting of posts/stakes. There was no hearth foundand the structural evidence, although reasonably sturdy, may not have served to supporta permanent dwelling. It is even possible that the structure served a non-domestic func-tion, although there is no indication of what this was. Of the seven proposed ‘structures’identified at Park, Structure 1 was the most clearly defined. The other light structureslocated at the site are difficult to date; they might be associated with Bronze Age activitiesor with the early medieval period.Early medieval activityRadiocarbon analysis has placed three features on the Park site in the early medievalperiod, a pit, a kiln and an enclosing ditch. Other material probably dating to the earlymedieval period included a structure (Structure 4), iron working features and finds suchas an iron ring and a knife blade. 13
  • 24. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Plate 4: Mid-excavation of kiln C�291 at Park 1 (Photo: John Sunderland)� Pit C.341 (Group 10A) The first and most westerly of the early medieval activity was represented by a pit (C.341) (Figures 5A & 6). The pit was recut (C.2184) and charcoal recovered from a secondary fill (C.352) returned a radiocarbon date of cal AD 694–876 (UBA-15099). Slag was found in the pit and this indicated that metalworking was being practiced in the vicinity during the 8th/9th century. Pit C.341 also produced the largest identifiable collection of animal bone from the Park 1 site, including some burnt and unburnt bones. These have been identified as cattle, sheep and a possible horse (Appendix 7). These animal species roughly conform to the early medieval Irish economy described by Stout (1997, 35–8). But it is perhaps surprising that more pig bone was not present. The bone assemblage was recov- ered from contexts both pre-dating and post-dating the recut and it is considered that the time lapse involved between cuts was minimal, as the sandy nature of the soil in the area is very prone to collapse, especially in the rain. Kiln (Group 7A) and possible kiln (Group 6A) A corn drying kiln (C.291, Group 7A), (Figures 5A & 7, plates 4 & 5) roughly contem- porary with pit C.341, was found approximately 50 m to the southeast. Cereal recovered from a kiln basal fill (C.314) returned a radiocarbon date of cal AD 685–862 (UBA- 15045). Monk and Kelleher (2005, 105) have referred to problems with kiln dating and it is important that in this case cereal was recovered from a secure basal fill. It is noteworthy that kiln C.291 appears to be set in a corner protected on the east by proposed medieval ditch C.452. The occurrence of the kiln, in association with the evi- dence of domestic animal keeping, allows an insight into the economy of early medieval Ireland. Again, this is in broad agreement with the evidence identified by Stout (1997) for this period.14
  • 25. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/Plate 5: South facing section of kiln C�291 showing hearth C�380 truncating C�294�Plate 6: Aerial view of enclosing ditch C�297 looking south� A possible kiln (C.1002) was truncated by post-medieval/early modern ditch C.47.The preserved remains of one chamber (the western) measured 0.4 m by 0.3 m by 0.38 min depth. There was no stone lining or burnt soil present and a small amount of grain wasnoted in the chamber fill. It is therefore evident that the fire occurred in the destroyedchamber. It seems that the kiln belonged either to the figure of eight or to the dumb-bellcategory. According to Monk and Kelleher (2005, 105–6) this type of kiln pre-dates the 15
  • 26. Figure 5: Post-excavation plan of Park 1.16 318 452 389 250 97 205 ± 390 341 Cremation pits Structure 5 410 239 316 189 228 400 397 143 210 468 55 24 Structure 3 184 90 with associated pits Structure 1 174 164 282 422 165 145 141 22 53 62 152 241 Structure 2 373 305 18 297 481 42 379 293 272 267 269 433 452 Enclosure iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 Structure 4 431 Kiln 435 404 438 Structure 7 385 440 393 411 291 442 447 1/4 149 2/4 86 127 1001 155 180 45 125 124 ± 119 39 214 73 Ditch 112 1002 1048 182 1007 33 48 192 36 4 1018 199 1009 Metal 57 59 109 198 1013 83 working 68 1079 28 26 1039 1113 1050 1063 1101 1059 14 1075 8 1091 6 12 1067 1089 1041 1105 168 1056 157 Kiln Hearth 0 25 m Figure 5a: Post-excavation plan of western area of Park 1� archaEological Excavation rEPort
  • 27. 3/4 ± 2208 2030 585 2060 2180 Park 1-E3659 517 2097 2085 545 2006 2136 2174 2191 519 2013 2083 2134 2167 2196 611 2169 2142 Structure 6 2003 2190 563 2107 2124 2138 2027 2048 2175 2041 2022 2011 2044 2094 2203 2017 2102 2100 2033 2187 2104 2112 2074 609 2071 561 4/4 ± 546 567 513 530 542 540 514 532 550 505 501 Kiln Hearth 0 25 m Figure 5b: Post-excavation plan of eastern area of Park 1� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/17
  • 28. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort keyhole type ‘in evolutionary terms’, but they do warn that the issue of kiln dating needs to be reassessed. Structure 4 (Group 8E and 9I) Approximately 5 m–6 m west of kiln C.291 four postholes (C.385, C.393, C.404 and C.411) and two stakeholes (C.431 and C.433) were recorded. Although there is no direct evidence of association, it is possible that they represent a rectangular light structure (Structure 4, See Figure 5A). If a structure did exist, its southern side extended beyond the excavation limits. As both round and rectangular structures are known from this period (Edwards 1990, 25), and bearing in mind Monk and Kelleher’s work (2005), there is the possibility of a relationship with the kiln. An area, or possibly a light structure, would have been required for storage both before and after production. The potential structure is set to the west, safe from the prevailing wind during harvest season, thus lessening the possibility of accidental fire. Enclosure (Group 5C) A potential enclosure, comprising a rectangular ditch (C.297, Figures 5A & 8, Plate 6) was excavated at Park. Only the northern segment of this enclosure was excavated as the remainder was located outside the road corridor. The exposed portion of this enclosure formed an ‘L’ shape in plan, and this was clearly not a ringfort. However, it appears to be contemporary with the main period of ringfort occupation, since radiocarbon dating of charcoal recovered from a secondary fill (C.358) returned a date of cal AD 642–680 (UBA-15098). This date suggests that the enclosure was roughly contemporary with the kiln (C.291) and dated pit (C.341). There was no evidence for activity within the enclosure. Iron smelting features (Groups 10A, 10Q and 11A) Several features at Park 1 produced evidence of iron working in the locality but only slag pit iron smelting furnace C.561 was considered by specialist Dr Young (Appendix 8) to represent a typical example of an iron smelting pit (Figure 5B). Specialist analysis also deemed pit C.4, in which a limestone base was located, to be an example of smithing (Figure 5A). There was evidence that the stone base had been subject to erosion from the blast of a tuyère. It is also probable that the pit was associated with pit C.83, which was located in close proximity. In the opinion of specialist Dr Young, pits similar to C.4 are known to be early medieval. But pits of similar type and dimensions to C.561 are known from both the Iron Age and early medieval periods. The large dimensions of C.561 might also be explained by the soft sandy nature of the subsoil, as perhaps the sides of the feature collapsed. Collapsing sand has been noted on other sites, most famously the Sutton Hoo ship cenotaph in 1939 (Wheeler 1957, 56). Other features producing evidence of iron working in the vicinity were pit C.293, from which a single fragment of slag (weight 1 gram) was recovered and pits C.341 and C.1050 in which recovered slag was considered residual.18
  • 29. Park 1-E3659 N7CN Park 1 Area 1 West facing section of C.341 # # # # # # # # C.330 # # # # # C.366 C.419 C.366 C.560 C.352 C.2184 C.369 # # C.369 # C.370 # # # # # # # # C.467 C.575 # # # # # # # C.371# C.478 C.341 10 cm 0 50 cm Figure 6: West facing section of pit C�341 showing fills C�478, C�371, C�575, C�370, C�369, C�560, later cut C�2184, fills C�366, C�352, C�419 and C�330� C�467 is not visible in this section� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/19
  • 30. 20 N7CN Park 1 Area 1 East facing section so C.448 C.290 C.278 C.351 C.337 C.294 # # iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 # C.303 # # C.302 # # # # # # C.311 # # # # # # C.314 # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # C.472 C.449 # # # # # # # C.448 C.294 C.381 C.382 C.380 # # C.294 # # C.346 # C.351 # # # # # Baulk # C.302 # # # # # # # C.302 # C.302 C.314 # ## # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # C.436 # C.401 C.417 # C.448 C.448 10 cm 0 50 cm Figure 7: East-facing section of kiln C�291 showing hearths C�448, C�368 and C�380 and kiln fills � archaEological Excavation rEPort
  • 31. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/Plate 7: View of Medieval ditch C�1007 looking south�Iron ring and knife bladeA corroded and broken iron ring, possibly from horse harness, was recovered from C.302and a similarly corroded knife blade was found in C.367 during the excavation of the kilnC.291. Pit C.341, which dates from the same period produced possible horse bone, pos- 21
  • 32. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort sibly indicating the use of the horse as a food source while the harness indicates use as a working animal during this period at Park. Later medieval features Later medieval contexts at Park include field boundary ditches and pits. It is suggested that eight field boundary ditches at Park 1, C.452/C.454/C322, C.476, C.474, C.168, C.157, C.1001, C.1007 and C.2112 (Group 5) may date to the later medieval period. All display a roughly similar alignment (north/south) and occur intermittently east to west over a 220 m extent. Radiocarbon analysis of charred cereal from a fill (C.1098) of ditch C.157 (Figures 5A & 9) indicated a date of cal AD 1224–1281 (UBA-15046). The basal fill of one of the ditch fills (from C.1007, Plate 7) contained a saddle quern and a rubbing stone. The saddle quern is known to be a Neolithic introduction and its use continued to the Iron Age when it was replaced by the more efficient rotary quern. How- ever, this is not a reliable indicator of chronology since it was in use for a very long period of time (Appendix 4). Both the saddle quern and rubbing stone from Park 1 seem to be a matching pair. Carey notes that rotary querns were taxed and periodically inspected by the authorities, and that non-compliant examples were sometimes broken (Appendix 4). A total of ten broken rotary quern fragments and some possible examples were found at Park and one of these came from the same context (C.1007) as the saddle quern and it is even possible that the saddle quern was used at Park during the medieval period, perhaps as a tax avoidance mechanism. These ditches are all curvilinear in plan to some extent, some more so than others. Ac- cording to Mitchell (1976, 189), this originated when ploughing by smallholders took on an arcuate form, as the tillage strips were often set amid commonage. The usual pattern is that these strip fields are set in groups. He continues to state that such patterns were com- mon up to the pre-famine era and that many can still be noted in the landscape (Ibid., 201). The system resulted from the agricultural practices and feudal system introduced by the Anglo-Normans, and this period indeed coincides with the radiocarbon dating returned from curvilinear ditch C.157. Field boundary banks were constructed using a ‘dump construction method’; soil was literally excavated from the ground and dumped to form a bank. It’s for this reason that a series of linear/curvilinear ditches are often found parallel. In wet or normal land the excavated ditch served as drainage. Sometimes rough field stone cladding may have been used to contain the bank, or the soil may have held together by the planting of a stock proof hedge such as blackthorn or hawthorn. During excavations at Park 1, only the fills of curvilinear ditches C.452, C.476 and C.474 contained a moderate amount of stone, which might represent the remains of cladding. Perhaps many of the stones had been removed following the abandonment of the field system.22
  • 33. Park 1-E3659 N7CN Park 1 Area 1 NW facing section of C.297 C.373 C.296 C.358 C.372 C.297 10 cm 0 50 cm Figure 8a: Medieval enclosing ditch C�297 showing fills C�372, C�358, C�296 and C�373� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/23
  • 34. 24 N7CN Park 1 Area 1 SE facing section of C.297 iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 C.362 C.356 C.296 C.363 C.297 10 cm 0 50 cm Figure 8b: Medieval enclosing ditch C�297 showing fills C�372, C�356, C�358, C�296 and C�373 southeast facing archaEological Excavation rEPort
  • 35. Park 1-E3659 N7CN Park 1 Area 1 W facing section of C.297 C.373 C.296 C.358 C.356 C.372 C.297 10 cm 0 50 cm Figure 8c: Medieval enclosing ditch C�297 showing fills C�372, C�356, C�358, C�296 and C�373 northwest facing� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/25
  • 36. Figure 8: Medieval enclosing ditch C.297.26 N7CN Park 1 Area 1 SE facing section of C.297 C.373 iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 C.296 C.358 C.356 C.372 C.297 10 cm 0 50 cm Figure 8d: Medieval enclosing ditch C�297 showing fills C�363, C�356, C�296 and C�362� archaEological Excavation rEPort
  • 37. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/PitsA pit (C.39, Group 10Q (Figure 5A, Plate 8)) was located east of the medieval ditch C.157,the upper fill (C.38) produced a number of stone artefacts, adult cattle teeth and charcoal.Radiocarbon analysis of the charcoal indicated a date of cal AD 1293–1393 (UBA-15100),suggesting that it barely post-dates the cereal sample from the ditch C.157. The accompa-nying three burnt quartzite quern stone fragments (38:4–6) and an early medieval honestone (38:3) can be termed contemporary with the radiocarbon dating but two BronzeAge burnt quartzite rubbing stones (38:1–2, Appendix 5) must be intrusive. There areseveral pits located in close proximity throughout this very busy area at Park but fewhave stratigraphic relationships with another feature. In this event it is impossible to becertain of their dates. But many are doubtless medieval in origin. Although there was nodirect evidence of medieval domestic settlement at Park, remembering Mitchell’s remarks(ibid.), perhaps it occurs away from the field system, as he suggested that field strips mayoccur in outlying areas amid commonage. However, pits were commonly used duringall past periods for a variety of functions including storage; refuse disposal, human wastedisposal, perhaps dog shelters and cooking. Some 15 pits were found within 15 m of the medieval curving ditch C.2112 (Figure5B). Most of the pits in this area were deeper and more substantial than those excavatedelsewhere on the site. Pit C.2011 was typical of the group and displayed a burnt basalfill. A cereal sample recovered from its upper fill (C.2012) returned a date of cal AD1329–1444 (UBA-15047). There is no reason to dispute that other pits in the general areaare not roughly contemporary and used for a variety of purposes. A sandstone quernstone fragment (87:1) was recovered from the basal fill of pit C.57(Group 10Q), which was located 2 m east of medieval ditch C.1007 (Figure 5A). PitC.1009 (Group 10Q), located in the same area, produced a burnt rubbing stone (110:1),based on specialist dating to the Bronze Age. Due to the amount of medieval activity inthis general area, the fragment may be residual. Most of the pits excavated at Park 1 contained single fills similar in composition andtexture to the natural subsoil in the area. There were few associated finds and little evi-dence of a pit’s function.Late medieval artefactsLate medieval finds included a blue glass bead, recovered during the excavation of pitC.1101 (Figure 5A). Coloured glass beads are commonly found on medieval sites. An ironrivet and a copper alloy band were recovered from the basal fill of nearby pit C.1091. Bothof these features were taken from Group 10Q. Decorated quern stones were also possibly late medieval in date, three of these werefound at Park (537:2, 515:3 and 2198:1) and they probably dated from the 13th to the 17thcentury, based on their occurrence on other archaeological sites (see Appendix 4). Onestone from Park (1:9–10) was incised with ‘cross’ decoration and according to the spe-cialist report probably belonged to a monastery, as it was customary to so decorate their 27
  • 38. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Plate 8: Pre excavation view of pit C�39� Plate 9: Burnt soil C�2146 truncated by early modern ditch C�2114�28
  • 39. Park 1-E3659 N7CN Park 1 SE facing section of C.151 and C.157 C.150 C.162 C.156 C.151 C.157 10 cm 0 50 cm Figure 9: Medieval ditch C�157 is truncated by ditch C�151, southeast facing section� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/29
  • 40. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Plate 10: View of ditches C�157, C�43 and C�47 in the centre and ditch C�1007 in foreground at Park 1 from east� quernstones. It is probable that the un-decorated examples from Park represent a wide time span and perhaps date from the early medieval period onwards. Post-medieval/early modern With the exception of hand dug cultivation furrows, post-medieval and early modern activity seems to be concentrated in the eastern segment of the site. This hypothesis is sup- ported by radiocarbon dating, where in all cases, the further east the samples were taken, the later the date. Field boundaries and a kiln, or possibly two, and cultivation furrows are the main features assigned to this period. Field Boundaries Ditch C.543, which was curvilinear in plan, appeared to be the most easterly of a group of four ditches (C.543, C.603, C.605 and C.524, Group 4) enclosing a possible field. A corn drying kiln C.514 (Group 7D) occurred in the southeastern corner (Figure 5B). The basal fill (C.544) of ditch C.543 (Figure 10) occurred immediately beside the kiln and a cereal from this context returned a radiocarbon date of cal AD 1521–1645 (UBA-15048). It is supposed that, due to the location, the cereal originated in association with the kiln. The fact that the cereal occurred on the ditch base suggests that the ditch, and perhaps associated bank, were intact during the 16th/17th centuries. Without the benefit of radiocarbon or stratigraphic evidence, the chronology applying to ditches C.47, C.43 and C.151 (Group 4, Figure 5A) is uncertain (Plate 10). However, C.47 and C.43 seem to be associated with ditch C.151, which stratigraphically post-dates30
  • 41. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/Plate 11: View of Early Modern Ditch C�43 and pit C�1039 looking southeast�Plate 12: Kiln C�514 looking southeast showing primary fill C�538�the curvilinear medieval ditch C.157 from which a 13th century date was obtained. Pos-sible kiln C.1002, which is potentially medieval, was truncated by ditch C.47 (Figure 5B).Pit C.1039 and ditch C.43 (Plate 11) were also stratigraphically related. 31
  • 42. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort It is therefore proposed that the three ditches, C.43, C.47 and C.151 are later medieval or early modern. Are they likely to be recuts or to represent the re-building of the same field boundary? They are roughly parallel and encompass an area approximately 5 m west of medieval field boundary C.157, which is truncated by C.151. None of the three features are recorded on the first edition OS maps, but the subsequent RMP map, based on a later OS edition, records a field division in the locality. It is therefore possible that the field boundary was constructed during the early modern period. On the other hand, all three ditches are aligned roughly parallel to medieval ditch C.157. It is feasible that the three features, C.43, C.47 and C.151 were earlier re-alignments or were associated with the rebuilding of C.157 during the later medieval/early modern period. Perhaps the cuttings were still visible during a later period and the outline re-used to construct a new ditch. The available stratigraphy allows for the consideration of both theories. Kilns It is likely that the cereal which returned a 16th/17th century date from ditch C.543 (see above) originated in associated with the use of kiln C.514 (Group 7D) (Plate 12) (Fig- ures 5B & 11), therefore dating it to the post-medieval period. In common with kiln C.291 (Group 7A), kiln C.514 is set beside a ditch as if using the now destroyed bank for protection. Another keyhole kiln C.2180 (Group 7F; Figures 5B, 12 & 13, Plates 13 and 14) was excavated at the site and although suggesting a date is difficult. The feature occurs at the eastern side of medieval ditch C.2112 (Figure 14). This area seems to be removed from early and later medieval activities and is more associated with post-medieval and the early modern period. This allocation to the post-medieval/early modern period is also based on a possible association with ditch C.2114 (Group 4C; Plate 15) and burnt spreads C.2146, C.2148 and C.2123 (from Group 10Y). The three burnt spreads C.2146, C.2148 and C.2123 (Group 10Y) might represent the early modern practice of ‘panning and burning’. This involved the removal and burning of the sod to be used as fertilizer. The practice was heavily dependent on the availability of cheap labour, which points to the pre-famine era, and was not approved of by the authori- ties. However, there was no other evidence of the practice on the site, which is usually recognised by intermittent deposits of reddish-burnt clay throughout the field. Perhaps if the burnt spreads represent the practise, the fertilizer was used elsewhere, as they appear close to the northern site limit. But burnt spread C.2146 was truncated by possible kiln shelter ditch C.2144, which, if the associations are correct, potentially sets the kiln in the early modern era. The stratigraphy of features surrounding kiln C.2180 is straightforward but unfortu- nately there is no relationship between any of these features and the actual kiln. Monk and Kelleher (2005, 84–5) have referred to the numbers of structures associated with drying kilns and to the fact that many were unrecognised in the past. Of particular inter- est to the Park excavations is their reference to the occurrence of associated trenches at Jordanstown, Co. Dublin and at Kilferagh, Co. Kilkenny. It is thought that some type32
  • 43. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/ # # C.596 C.544 # # # # # N7CN C.543 Park 1 Area 2 SE facing section of C.543 C.554 # # C.596 C.544 # # # # # C.543 10 cm 0 50 cmFigure 10: Southeast facing section of early modern ditch C�534 showing C�544 from which a cereal sam- ple was recovered� 10 cm 0 50 cmPlate 13: View of kiln C�2180 looking east showing C�2198�of structure involving a shelter or screen had been erected on both of these kiln sites.Ditch C.2114 at Park 1 potentially served a similar function. Although the ditch (C.2114)truncates medieval ditch C.2112, it is itself truncated by three cultivation furrows. Monkand Kelleher (ibid.) have also referred to the numbers of postholes, as at Kiltenan South, 33
  • 44. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Plate 14: View of the eastern chamber kiln C�2180 looking northeast� Plate 15: C�2146 truncated by early modern ditch C�2114�34
  • 45. Park 1-E3659 N7CN Park 1 Area 2 SW facing section of C.514 # # C.536 # C.515 # # # C.537 # # # # # # # C.514 10 cm 0 50 cm Figure 11: Northwest facing section of kiln C�514 showing fills C�515, C�538, C�537, C�536, C�559 and C�570� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/35
  • 46. 36 2183 ± 2180 2198 iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 2207 2205 2204 2199 2200 2206 2200 0 5m Figure 12: Post-excavation plan of Kiln cut C�2180 and associated fills C�2198, C�2183, C�2205, C�2204, C� 2207, C�2206, C�2200, C�2181 and C�2199� archaEological Excavation rEPort
  • 47. Park 1-E3659 N7CN Park 1 Area 2 Lining of the northern edge of Kiln (C.2180) N7CN Park 1 Area 2 Lining of the southern edge of Kiln (C.2180) 10 cm 0 50 cm Figure 13: Stone lining C�2198 on northern and southern side of kiln C�2180 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/37
  • 48. 38 N7CN Park 1 Area 2 SE facing section of C.2114 and C.2112 iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 C.2108 C.2110 C.2113 C.2115 C.2112 C.2114 10 cm 0 50 cm Figure 14: Medieval ditch C�2112 was truncated by modern feature C�2114� archaEological Excavation rEPort
  • 49. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/Co. Limerick, associated with drying kilns, possibly to support a cover. It is probable thatposthole C.2208, on the eastern side of kiln C.2180, at Park served a similar purpose.Early modern artefactsEarly modern finds included a hone stone, a horse shoe and an iron arrowhead. The honestone (46:2) was recovered from the fill of ditch C.47 (Group 4A). These stone tools wereregularly used for sharpening metal tools throughout most of the periods for which thereis evidence of activity at Park. Dating them outside of context can be a problem, as thereis little difference observed. An iron horse shoe was also recovered from C.46 and an ironarrowhead, possibly medieval, was recovered from the shallow fill of burnt feature C.2146(see Plate 15), part of Group 10Y. This feature is likely to be early modern and the artefactis probably residual.Cultivation FurrowsThere were 60 cultivation furrows recorded during excavations at Park 1. These were dis-tributed throughout the excavated area, being far more numerous on the western side ofthe site than in the eastern section (Figure 15). Seven principal subgroups were identified,allocated according to area (Groups 3A–N). The eighth (Group 3O–P) was made up ofprobable isolated examples. No furrow was truncated by any other archaeological feature at Park, proving them torepresent the final stages of pre-modern activity on the site. The furrows seem typical ofearly modern Irish ridge and furrow hand dug cultivation (Figures 15, 16 and 17). This isparticularly true of the commonly found grid pattern identified towards the extreme westof the site. Minerals, especially phosphates, leech from the topsoil. By digging into thesubsoil and mixing with the topsoil these minerals were re-introduced. This practise ena-bled the crop, particularly potatoes, to receive a boost. During the pre-famine era, whentenants were forced by economic circumstances to re-use land without the benefit of nor-mal crop rotation, land quality deteriorated without the addition of sufficient fertilizer. The only anomaly with the cultivation furrows is that they seem to respect the line ofthe medieval field boundaries. Only ditches C.157 and C.1001 are truncated by a furrow.In all other instances, with rare exceptions, furrows are similarly aligned to the medievalditches and do not truncate them. It is possible that the narrow space between ditchesC.157 and C.1001 represents a passageway or an access route, since the approximately 4m wide gap is too narrow a space for a normal field. Perhaps these ditches were the firstof the medieval field system to be removed, allowing early modern tillage of the area andthe remaining medieval field system survived into the early modern period before beingremoved during a subsequent period of ‘land improvements’?ModernThe principal modern features to be identifies at Park were three ditches C.503, C.506 andC.2153 (Group 3). All three features represent modern field divisions and are identified 39
  • 50. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort on the first and subsequent editions of the OS maps. These field divisions were removed within living memory (pers. comment Mr Denis Haverty, machine operator on soil strip- ping at Park). Other modern excavated features include four postholes forming a fence associated with modern ditch C.503, a modern service pole and the impression of a circular metal cattle feeder. Some burnt spreads including C.513 are likely associated with the burning of light vegetation following the removal of modern field boundaries. Undated features and structures Possible structures Possible Structure 2 (Figure 5A) comprised one post-hole C.241 (Group 8A, plate 16) and twelve stake-holes C.260, C.261, C.262, C.263, C.279, C.280, C.281, C.282, C.283, C.284, C.285 and C.455 (Group 9C) is not a hut site but probably represents a windbreak or industry related structure. Due to its location, being close to both potential Bronze Age and definite early medieval activities, it is impossible to determine the date of the features associated with this structure. A possible building (Structure 3) comprised four postholes, C.178 (Plate 15), C.184, C.189 and C.210 (Group 8C) forming a short arc, facing west, the focus of which may be on pit C.143. Perhaps the features represent a shelter or windbreak, as it protects from an easterly wind (See Figure 5A). An outlying pit (C.228) may have been associated with this structure. Chert debitage was recovered from fill (C.223) of the pit and it is potentially prehistoric, especially in an area in which there is evidence for prehistoric activity. Possible Structure 5 (Figure 5A) was made up of five postholes, C.389, C.390, C.397, C.400 and C.410 (Group 8G) and one possible stakehole, C.465 (Group 9K). They were organised in a roughly linear fashion. The excavated area is close to the northern site boundary and perhaps other postholes are located outside the limits. But the excavated segment is sub linear in plan. The postholes occur in the same general area as do pro- posed Structures 1, 2, 3 and 7, but the function and period of this potential structure is unknown. Possible Structure 6 (See Figure 5B, Group 8M) seems isolated. It comprised five post-holes, C.2167, C.2175, C.2190, C.2191 and C.2196 (Group 8M). Four of the post- holes (C.2175, C.2190, C.2196 and C.2191) were organised in a short arc, with the fifth posthole (C.2167) opposite these. The postholes might represent a sheepfold or a semi- enclosed compound of some type. If the proposal that it does represent an enclosure is correct, it could date from any era. Possible Structure 7 (See Figure 5A) comprised five stakeholes, C.435, C.438, C.440, C.442 and C.447 (Group 9E). The first four stakeholes were arranged on a slightly curved arc, and the fourth was to the west of these. It is possible that this acted as a simple wind- break. The structure may have been associated with the early medieval enclosure C.297.40
  • 51. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/ Plate 16: Mid-excavation of post-hole C�241�But it is set in the same general area as Structure 1 and potential windbreak Structure 3,both of which are likely prehistoric.Hearth and postholeA hearth (C.269, Group 11A) and a posthole (C.267, Group 8U) were located outside theditch and are of unknown date. Based on their location it is possible that they date to thesame period but both are isolated examples with no stratigraphical links.Specialist analysisStone toolsThe stone tools were examined by Anne Carey (Appendix 4). They comprised ten rotaryquern fragments, one whet stone and one saddle quern (Plate 17).LithicsThe lithics were examined by Farina Sternke (Appendix 5). A total of eighteen macrotools were recovered during the excavations. They are all made of quartzite and can bedivided into three groups: four hone stones, seven rubbing stones and seven quern stonefragments. 41
  • 52. Figure 15: Post-excavation plan of modern ditches and agricultural furrows of Park 1.42 ± 450 450 iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 463 270 1/4 1037 1010 1021 1033 2/4 1043 ± 1061 1093 1077 151 1045 1071 43 1117 1087 1016 1054 1071 1014 1057 47 1109 1103 1121 1115 1085 1123 1111 1099 1043 1119 1031 1035 Modern & Early modern ditch 0 25 m Furrow & Modern agriculture Figure 15a: Post-excavation plan of modern ditches and agricultural furrows at western area of Park 1� archaEological Excavation rEPort
  • 53. 3/4 ± 2010 2165 543 Park 1-E3659 2114 598 2114 2035 2144 2153 603 2163 2202 524 2007 2087 2092 2161 2165 573 2029 2121 607 605 583 4/4 ± 506 508 503 587 573 543 580 558 526 521 0 25 m Furrow & Modern agriculture Modern & Early modern ditch Figure 15b: Post-excavation plan of modern ditches and agricultural furrows at eastern area of Park 1� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/43
  • 54. 44 ± iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 Kiln Kiln Ditch Kiln Ditch Gradiometer interpretation Ditch Pits Industry Plough furrows 0 50 m Figure 16: Interpretative geophysical plan of Park 1 overlain on the Ordnance Survey Discovery Series map� archaEological Excavation rEPort
  • 55. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/Plate 17: Collection of stone artefacts from Park 1 (Photo: John Sunderland)�PotteryThe pottery was examined by Helen Roche and Eoin Grogan (Appendix 6). Late BronzeAge pottery sherds were recovered from the site.Animal BoneThe animal bone was examined by Mags McCarty (Appendix 7). The sample sizes fromthe excavated areas are small, however the samples document the presence of the threemain livestock animals, bovine, ovine and suidae.ArchaeometallurgyThe archaeometallurgy was examined by Tim Young (Appendix 8). The assemblage in-cludes a total of 12.8kg of examined material. In situ archaeometallurgical residues wereconfined to two areas of the site. In the east of the area an isolated pit is interpreted asthe rather truncated basal pit of a slag pit iron smelting furnace. Its large diameter raisesthe possibility that it may be relatively early. Post-medieval ditches in Area 2 yielded threecertain or possible smithing hearth cakes. Pits in Area 1 yielded one certain and one pos-sible pieces of residual iron smelting slag.Plant remainsThe plant remains were examined by Penny Johnston (Appendix 9). The plant remainsfrom Park 1 included a large assemblage of cereal grains and quite a significant quantity 45
  • 56. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort of weed seeds. The cereals were predominantly identified as oat, most of these being taken from deposits within the corn drying kilns. Cremated bone The cremated bone was examined by Linda Lynch (Appendix 10). The human remains were from a single, probable adult, individual. At just 49 g the human cremains comprise only a tiny portion of the original cremation. It is unknown what was done with the main volume of cremains. Geophysical report A geophysical report was produced by Earthsound Archaeological Geophysics (Appendix 11). A possible boundary ditch was identified as well as series of linear isolated and inter- connecting possible ditches (Figure 16). The remains of a “finger-shaped” ditch, which could be interpreted as a cursus monument, were also identified on the western edge of the survey area. Charcoal The charcoal was identified in advance of radiocarbon dating by Mary Dillon. Radiocarbon dates Radiocarbon analysis was carried out by the 14 Chrono Centre in Queen’s University Belfast. Dates were calibrated using Calib Rev5.0.2 (©1986-2005 M.Stuiver & P.J. Re- imer) and in conjunction with Stuiver & Reimer 1993 and Reimer et al. 2004. Lab code Context Material Un-calibrated δ 13 C 2 sigma Period date calibration 15045 314 Charred cereal from 1245 +/- 19 -26.2 AD 685-783 early kiln 291 787-825 840-862 medieval 15046 1098 Charred cereal from 757 +/- 25 -25.8 AD 1224-1281 medieval ditch 157 15047 2012 Charred cereal from 512 +/- 28 -25.5 AD 1329-1340 medieval pit 2011 1396-1444 15048 544 Charred cereal from 303 +/- 15 -24.9 AD 1521-1591 modern ditch 543 1620-1645 15098 358 Hazel charcoal from 1363+/- 21 -26.9 AD 642-680 early ditch 297 medieval 15099 352 Ash charcoal from pit 1230 +/- 18 -29.8 AD 694-703 early 341 706-748 765-876 medieval 15100 38 Hazel charcoal from 627 +/- 16 -24.9 AD 1293-1324 medieval 39 1345-1393 15451 271 Cremated Human 2970 +/- 25 -23.0 BC 1300-1118 Middle Remains from pit 272 Bronze age Table 1: Radiocarbon dates46
  • 57. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/DiscussionExcavations at Park 1 proved use of the site that spanned at least the Middle Bronze Ageto the modern era. The non-occurrence of definite Iron Age features or artefacts is unfor-tunate but this is a commonly encountered problem on many Irish archaeological sights.Perhaps the area was temporarily abandoned or maybe some Iron Age features have notbeen recognised as such. The Middle Bronze Age cremation at Park was a small token cremation that appearedto be isolated. However, infrastructural development has revealed extensive evidence forMiddle and Late Bronze Age Irish burial evidence, including from the Gas Pipeline to theWest, where simple, un-marked pits were the normal grave form, occurring both as singlegraves and in cemeteries (Grogan et al. 2007, 114–5). It also appears that the practice ofdepositing just a portion of the entire cremated skeleton, known as a token cremation,was common (ibid. 116). While the cremation from Park appears to have been isolated, subsequent archaeologi-cal testing directly to the north of the site (Frazer 2009) identified a cluster of cremationpits and a possible cist burial (Frazer 2009, 55: referred to as location 10 in the testingreport). It is probable that the cist burial identified by Frazer is roughly contemporary, orperhaps predates the cremation pit C.272. It is therefore probable that the token crema-tion burial excavated at Park is related to a wider flat cemetery. Such burial sites areknown to have been used over a prolonged time period. Waddell (1998, 157) refers to aflat Bronze Age cemetery at Keenoge, Co. Meath, where radiocarbon dating has shownthat burial continued for up to 760 years. A small structure (Structure 1) was recorded near a pit that contained Late BronzeAge pottery. It comprised a combination of stakeholes and postholes and it appeared tobe broadly curvilinear in plan. Although the ground plan was not clear, it was probablyopen at one end and was therefore U-shaped. Doody’s (2007, 86–103) compilation of evi-dence for Bronze Age round houses from Munster suggests that there are 9 comparativetimber U-shaped or oval structures from the region and that these are, on average, 6.8 min diameter (Ibid., 88). Structure 1 from Park appears to measure c. 5 m across and it istherefore slightly smaller than Doody’s other examples. There were several examples ofBronze Age houses excavated along the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (see Table2), with great diversity in house size, internal pattern and construction materials identi-fied. Unlike the evidence from many of these sites (Tierney and Johnston 2009, 105),there was no suggestion of axial symmetry in the house from Park.Site Name Structure Calibrated BC 2–sigma dates PeriodClash Structure 1 1111–920 and 895–800 MBA-LBACastleroan Structure A 1249–1016 MBACastleroan Structure B 1011–914 LBADerrybane Structure 1 741–406 and 833–797 LBADerrybane Structure 2 794–550 LBADerrybane Structure 3 1929–1773 EBA 47
  • 58. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Site Name Structure Calibrated BC 2–sigma dates Period Drumbaun Structure A 1436–1316 MBA Drumbaun Structure B 1520–1442 MBA Drumroe Structure 1 895–815 LBA Moatquarter Structure 1 1495–1321, 1432–1316 and 1429–1315 MBA Table 2: Radiocarbon dates for Bronze Age structures on the route of the N7 (C1)� A potential early medieval enclosure was recorded at the site (see plate 6). It appears that it was rectangular in plan, although not all of the enclosure was exposed and exca- vated as it was located outside the road corridor. Many of the early medieval enclosures excavated in recent years are not circular (Kinsella 2010, 89). Coyne (2006, 63–72) has excavated what he suggests is a ‘plectrum’ shaped enclosure at Newtown, Co. Limerick. This is similar in plan to the segment excavated at Park 1, and it is also roughly contem- porary, post-dating the evidence from Park by 100 years or so. Although, unlike New- town, no internal occupation evidence was found at Park, this is probably because only a segment of the feature occurred within the road corridor. A similarly shaped enclosure was excavated by Ó Droma (2008, 54–5) at Twomileborris, Co. Tipperary. This enclosure was thought to be contemporary with an immediately adjacent ringfort. But in this case it contained, not evidence of occupation, but 20 early medieval human burials. All three examples occur in the north Munster area, perhaps representing a regional type of medi- eval enclosure? Kinsella (2010, 90) argues that the variety of different enclosure types that have been identified in recent excavations mirror the types of material evidence found at previously excavated ringforts, and that enclosure shape has no relation to the types of activities or the social/hierarchical status of the individuals that occupied these sites. On the other hand, Monk (forthcoming) suggests that the form of an enclosure is influenced by many factors, including topography and geology. Evidence for early medieval iron working from Park is scattered in several contexts across the site including both smelting and smithing residues. Metalworking features are relatively common at early medieval settlement sites, and are quite common at excavated ringforts, often located just outside the enclosures. This suggests that the metalworking at Park may have been associated with occupation of the early medieval rectangular en- closure at the site. There are three basic models as to how blacksmiths may have operated in society. They may have been a high status individual or a member of a high status kin- group intimately connected through bonds of patronage and by virtue of the perception of the significance of their craft skills, to ruling elites at all levels from tuath to the pro- vincial level (Patterson 1994, 40). They may have belonged to an itinerant group of people who travelled set circuits selling their skills, perhaps partly seen as outcasts because of the very magical skills of smelting that they possessed (Edwards 1990, 86–92). Finally, smelt- ing, blacksmithing and other metalworking activities may have been part of the series of skills many farmers would have had allowing them to make simple tools and carry out repairs. Carlin et al (2008, 111) suggest that the excavation record for the early medieval period lends a high degree of credence to the idea of metalworking being carried out on a48
  • 59. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/small scale by independent farmers, a do-it-yourself approach, rather than blacksmithingas the preserve of a high status craftsperson.. A single early medieval kiln and one early medieval possible kiln were identified atPark. Early medieval kilns were also excavated at Busherstown, also excavated along theroute of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh. The possible kiln was truncated but the definitekiln was keyhole-shaped. Monk and Kelleher (2005, 105) observe that many keyhole kilnsare dated to the later and post-medieval periods, making the kiln from Park an early ex-ample. Such early keyhole kilns are known, e.g. an early example, returning a date rangeof AD 860–1000, was excavated at Scart 1, Co. Kilkenny, on the Waterford to Knock-topher road scheme (Monteith and Wren 2008, 28–9). Charred hazelnut recovered fromthe kiln at Carrigatogher, Co. Tipperary returned a Bronze Age date of 1520–1435 BC,making it one of the earliest to have been archaeologically excavated in Ireland (Hackett2010, 34–5). The evidence at Park indicates that their use extended into the medieval andpost-medieval period. The cereal drying kiln is a common feature in Ireland because of the damp climate.Even during reasonably dry sunny years corn is often harvested with too high a moisturecontent (often 20%, or more in wet years) for successful storage. It is necessary to storegrain for up to a year, or until the next harvest. Un-dried grain is susceptible to mildewand other decomposing processes, which make it unhealthy and un-edible. Modern kilnsare large, either electric or oil fired, and are usually controlled by the bigger professionalgrain dealers and manufactures of animal and human food. Ideal moisture content forthe successful storage of grain is between 14% and 16%. Wheat bound for milling needsto be slightly dryer. Retaining this much moisture prevents the grain from loosing toomuch weight, therefore retaining its food value. Testing equipment is today available tothe grain dealers to determine moisture content but it is likely that in the past this wasdetermined by weight differential. But it is more likely that those engaged in the processbecame expert and could determine by touch if the finished product was suitable. The evidence from these kilns indicates that the site was intimately connected withagricultural production. Later medieval and post-medieval field systems excavated at thesite indicate that the agricultural connection continued far beyond the early medievalperiod. In most cases there was no indications of dates associated with these field systemsbut they are nevertheless evidence of an evolving sequence of land-use within this agri-cultural landscape. 49
  • 60. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort References Barry, T. (1987) The Archaeology of Medieval Ireland. London, Methuen & Co. Ltd. Carlin, N. Ginn, V. and Kinsella, J. 2008 ‘Ironworking and production’, pp. 87 – 112 in Carlin, N., Clarke, L. and Walsh, F. The Archaeology of Life and Death in the Boyne Floodplain. The linear landscape of the M4. Dublin, National Roads Authority. Cleary, K 2005 ‘Skeletons in the Closet: The dead among the living on Irish Bronze Age settlements’, Journal of Irish Archaeology, Vol. 14, 23–42. Coyne, F. 2006 ‘Excavation of an early medieval “plectrum-shaped” enclosure at Newtown, Co. Limerick. In J. O’Sullivan and M. Stanley (eds), Settlement, industry and ritual, 63–72. National Roads Authority Monograph Series 3. Dublin. National Roads Authority/Wordwell. Doody, M. (2007) ‘Curraghatoor and Bronze Age houses in Munster’, pp. 86–103 in Doody, M. Excavations at Curraghatoor, Co. Tipperary. Cork, UCC Department of Archaeology Archaeological Monograph. Edwards, N. 1990, The Archaeology of Early Medieval Ireland. BT Batsford, London. Farrelly, J., and O’Brien, C. (2002) Archaeological Inventory of County Tipperary Vol. 1 - North Tipperary, The Stationery Office Dublin. Frazer, W. (2009) Archaeological Assessment Report Nenagh NRA Service Area Park townland, North Co. Tipperary and Roshedrid and Clynoe townlands, Co. Offaly 09E122. Margaret Gowan & Co. Ltd. Unpublished report. Gardiner, M.J. and Radford,T. (1980) Soil Associations of Ireland and Their Land Use Potential. Dublin, An Foras Talúntais. Grogan, E. 2005 Grogan, E, O’Donnell, L & Johnston, P (2007) The Bronze Age Landscapes of the Pipeline to the West. Bray, Wordwell. Hackett, L. (2010) ‘The earliest cereal-drying kiln in Ireland?’, Seanda 5, 34–35. Kinsella, J. (2010) ‘A new Irish early medieval site type? Exploring the “recent” archaeological evidence for non-circular enclosed settlement and burial sites’, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy Vol. 110C, 89–132.50
  • 61. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/McCormick, F., Cribbin, G., Robinson, M.E. and Shimwell, D.W. (1995) ‘A pagan– Christian transitional burial at Kiltullagh’, Emania 13, 89–98.McKinley, J. I. 1989 ‘Cremations, expectations, methodologies, and realities’, in C. A. Roberts, F. Lee & J. Bintliff (eds), Burial Archaeology. Current Research, Methods, and Developments, 65–76. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports 211 (British Series).McLaughlin, M. and Conran, S. (2008) ‘The emerging Iron Age of South Munster’ in Seanda, Issue 3, 51-53. Dublin.Mitchell, F. (1976) The Irish Landscape. London, Collins.Monk, M. (Forthcoming) ‘Overview of early medieval sites’, in Johnston, P. and Kiely, J. The Archaeology of North Cork: archaeological excavations on the route of the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown. (Working title).Monk, M. A. and Kelleher, E. (2005) ‘An assessment of the archaeological evidence for Irish corn-drying kilns in the light of the results of archaeological experiments and archaeobotanical studies’, Journal of Irish Archaeology XIV, 77–114.Monteith, J. and Wren, J. (2008) ‘Drying the harvest: cereal-drying kilns on the N9/ N10’, Seanda 3, 28–30.National Inventory of Architectural Heritage (2006) An Introduction to the Architectural Heritage of North Tipperary. Government of Ireland.Newman, C (1997) Tara: an archaeological survey. Dublin, Royal Irish Academy. Discovery Programme Monographs 2.O’Conor, K.D. (1998) The Archaeology of Medieval Rural Settlement in Ireland, Discovery Programme Monographs No 3, Discovery Programme/Royal Irish Academy Dublin.Ó Droma, M. (2008) ‘Archaeological investigations at Twomileborris, Co. Tipperary’, pp. 45 – 58 in O’Sullivan, J. and Stanley, M. (eds) Roads, Rediscovery and Research. Dublin, National Roads Authority.Patterson, N. 1994. Cattle Lords and Clansmen, The Social Structure of Early Ireland. University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame.Reimer, P.J., Baillie, M.G.L., Bard, E., Bayliss, A., Beck, J.W., Bertrand, C., Blackwell, P.G., Buck, C.E., Burr, G., Cutler, K.B., Damon, P.E., Edwards, R.L., Fairbanks, 51
  • 62. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort R.G., Friedrich, M., Guilderson, T.P., Hughen, K.A., Kromer, B., McCormac, F.G., Manning, S., Bronk Ramsey, C., Reimer, R.W., Remmele, S., Southon, J.R., Stuiver, M., Talamo, S., Taylor, F.W., van der Plicht, J. and Weyhenmeyer, C.E. (2004) ‘IntCal04 Terrestrial Radiocarbon Age Calibration, 0–26 Cal Kyr BP’, Radiocarbon 46, 1029-1058. Stuiver, M., and Reimer, P.J. (1993) ‘Extended (super 14) C data base and revised CALIB 3.0 (super 14) C age calibration program’, Radiocarbon 35, 215-230. Stout, M. (1997) The Irish Ringfort. Dublin, Four Courts Press. Taylor, K. (2008) ‘At home and on the road: two Iron Age sites in County Tipperary’ in Seanda, Issue 3, 54-55. Dublin. Tierney, J. and Johnston, P. (2009) ‘No corners! Prehistoric roundhouses on the N8 and N7 in counties Cork, Tipperary and Offaly’, pp. 99–108 in Stanley, M., Danaher, E. and Eogan, J. (eds) Dining and Dwelling. Dublin, National Roads Authority. Waddell, J (1998) The Prehistoric Archaeology of Ireland. Bray, Wordwell. Wheeler, M. (1957) A Book of Archaeology. Cassell & Company Ltd, London Woodman, P.C. (2000) ‘Hammers and Shoeboxes: New Agendas for Prehistory’., pp. 1 -10 in Desmond, A., Johnson, G., McCarthy, M., Sheehan, J. and Shee Twohig, E. New Agendas in Irish Prehistory. Papers in commemoration of Liz Anderson. Bray, Wordwell.52
  • 63. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/Appendix 1 Stratigraphic IndexPlease see attached CD. 53
  • 64. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPortAppendix 2 Site Matrix54
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  • 75. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/Appendix 3: Groups and SubgroupsSome of the context numbers in Area 1 and in Area 2 at Park 1 were duplicated duringthe course of the excavation. It was decided in post-excavation to re-number the contextnumbers in Area 2 to avoid repetition. The context numbers from 3 to 209 in Area 2were re-numbered 2003 to 2209. The associated drawing numbers from 1 to 133 werere-numbered 301 to 433 and the bone sample numbers from 1 to 6 were re-numbered301 to 306. It was not possible to change the context numbers on the photographic boardincluded in the site photographs. The relevant area number (Area 1 or Area 2) prefaces thecontext number illustrated on the board. The 16 different groups of archaeological features are described in detail below.Group 1: Natural Deposits a Descrip- Context No. Filled by context tionSubgroup A Topsoil C.1 365Subgroup B Subsoil C.2Subgroup C Glacial till C.479The site was covered by a loose mid greyish brown pebbly silty sand. There were moder-ate inclusions of fine and medium sub-rounded pebbles and charcoal. Depths varied, thetopsoil being up to 0.3 m deep on the western side of the site. The eastern area was shal-lower, some areas being only 0.1 m in depth. Three flint flakes dated to the Bronze Agewere recovered from C.1 during topsoil stripping. Three burnt quartzite rubbing stones,also dated to the Bronze Age, were recovered from the same context. C.2 subsoil consisted of loose soft light greyish yellow sand. There were moderateinclusions of fine and medium sub-rounded pebbles and occasional inclusions of smallsub-rounded stones. A burnt quernstone fragment was recovered from the surface of C.2following initial topsoil removal. C.479 was a loose light grey glacial till. It was comprised of stony gravel. Stones weregenerally small (average 0.2 m) and rounded. This glacial till underlay subsoil C.2 andwas first noted during the excavation of modern ditch C.503. C.479 was not encounteredduring excavations west of this area. Features east of this area were shallow and did notgo deeper than C.2.Group 2: Cultivation FurrowsThere were 60 cultivation furrows recorded at Park 1 (see Figure 15). These were distrib-uted throughout the excavated area, being far more numerous in the west than in theeastern section. These were noted to occur in seven principal subgroups, the eight beingmade up of isolated examples. 65
  • 76. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Subgroup Furrows A and B Feature Context Area enclosed by grid Filled by context pattern 16 cultivation furrows 364 167 sq.m. 365 Group 2 Subgroup A Furrows and Subgroup B Furrow Fills At the western extremity of the site, between 60 and 80m east, a group of ten furrows are noted to extend in a northwest/ southeast direction. These are crossed by 4 roughly east / west aligned furrows, giving a sub rectangular grid pattern. Two short isolated fur- rows also occur within this area immediately west of a kiln (C.291). For convenience the cultivation furrows of this group have been allocated the same context number (C. 364). The longest example measured 17.5 m east / west. The shallow fills are composed of loose mid-reddish brown sandy clay with occasional inclusions of fine, medium and large sub-angular stone. There were no artefacts recovered from the excavation Subgroup A furrows. Subgroup A cultivation furrows are defined by their location west of field boundary ditch C.452. The furrows extend to the western boundary of the excavated area and none of the group is stratigraphically linked to ditch C. 452. They are potentially associated with the corn drying kiln (C.291), which is located approximately 15 m southeast of the main group. Subgroups Furrows C and D Feature Context Length Width Depth Filled by context Furrow cut 1123 4.2 m 0.24 m 0.05 m 1124 Furrow cut 1121 6.3 m 0.34 m 0.12 m 1122 Furrow cut 1119 4.3 m 0.43 m 0.13 m 1120 Furrow cut 1117 15 m 0.32 m 0.04 m 1118 Furrow cut 1115 7.1 m 0.46 m 0.06 m 1116 Furrow cut 1111 21.5 m 0.42 m 0.13 m 1112 Furrow cut 1109 9.8 m 0.36 m 0.07 m 1110 Subgroup C Furrows and Subgroup D Furrow Fills Located at between 180 m and 200 m east, 7 cultivation furrows extend in a north- west / southeast direction. Lengths varied between 4.2 m and 21.5 m. Their eastern limit is defined by a proposed medieval field boundary ditch (C.168). Furrow fills were similar and comprised of loose mid greyish brown silty sand with moderate fine and medium angular and sub-angular pebbles and charcoal flecks. No artefacts were recovered from the excavation of Subgroup C furrows. The curvature of the field boundary ditch (C.168) may suggest a medieval date. The furrows respect this boundary ditch cut, which suggests that Subgroup C is contempo- rary with the field boundary. But there is no stratigraphic relationship between the ditch and the furrows.66
  • 77. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/Subgroup Furrows E and FFeature Context Length Width Depth Filled by contextFurrow cut 1103 5.3 m 0.35 m 0.06 m 1104Furrow cut 1099 21 m 0.32 m 0.09 m 1100Furrow cut 1093 18.6 m 0.35 m 0.15 m 1094Furrow cut 1087 23 m 0.33 m 0.04 m 1088Furrow cut 1085 2.4 m 0.36 m 0.11 m 1086Furrow cut 1077 12 m 0.31 m 0.06 m 1078Furrow cut 1016 32 m 0.89 m 0.16 m 1017Furrow cut 1010 31.9 m 0.42 m 0.14 m 1011Furrow cut 1021 31.9 m 0.31 m 0.03 m 1022Furrow cut 1031 31.9 m 0.28 m 0.04 m 1032Furrow cut 1033 32 m 0.24 m 0.08 m 1034Furrow cut 1035 31.9 m 0.24 m 0.12 m 1036Furrow cut 1037 31.9 m 0.29 m 0.12 m 1038Subgroup E Furrows and Subgroup F Furrow Fills This group of 13 cultivation furrows occur between 245 m and 203 m east. They arelocated between two potential medieval field boundary ditches, C.168 to the west andC.157 to the east. Immediately west of ditch C.157, the ground has been disturbed by thecutting of early modern ditches C.47, C.43 and C.151. This disturbance might accountfor the absence of cultivation furrows in the locality, dependent on their exact dating.Furrow C.1010 truncated hearth C.127 and furrow C.1093 truncated pit C.26. A possibledrying kiln (C.1002) also occurred in this area, disturbed by early modern ditch C.47.The relationship between furrow C.1087 and pit C.6 is unclear. Furrow fills are similar, generally comprising of loose greyish brown silty sand withoccasional fine and medium sub-rounded pebble inclusions and charcoal flecks. Therewere no artefact associated with Subgroup E furrows. In common with other cultivation furrow subgroups, these features represent the ar-chaeological evidence of cultivation at Park 1. In common with Subgroup C, furrows ofSubgroup E seem to respect the field boundary system. It is therefore likely that these fur-rows are contemporary with the field system ditches. However, ridge and furrow cultiva-tion has been traditionally associated with the early modern and modern periods in Irishagricultural practice. Without stratigraphic links with other features on site it is difficultto determine the period to which the furrows belong.Subgroup Furrows G and H Feature Context Length Width Depth Filled by context Furrow 1043 31.8 m 0.31 m 0.06 m 1044 Furrow 1045 2.6 m 0.47 m 0.08 m 1046 Furrow 1057 23 m 0.22 m 0.04 m 1058 Furrow 1054 19.3 m 0.34 m 0.07 m 1055 Furrow 1061 10.9 m 0.31 m 0.07 m 1062Subgroup G Furrows and Subgroup H Furrow Fills 67
  • 78. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Cultivation furrows of Subgroup G are aligned in a truer north/south direction than those of Subgroups A, C or E. They occur west of medieval field boundary C.1007. There are also some stratigraphical relationships between other features in the area. C.1057 truncates pits C.180, C.119 and C.1079 of pit Subgroups O and Q and also truncates ditch medieval C.1001. Furrow cut C.1043 truncates medieval ditch cut C.157. The single fills were generally similar, generally comprising of loose mid greyish brown silty sand with moderate inclusions of medium sub-rounded pebbles and occasional in- clusions of fine sub-rounded and coarse sub-angular pebbles and charcoal flecks. There were no artefacts recovered from the furrows in Subgroup G. Based on the stratigraphical evidence it is suggested that Subgroup G cultivation fur- rows might date from a later period than those of Subgroups A, C and E. This interpreta- tion is based on a 13th century date returned from organic material recovered from a basal fill (C.1098) of ditch C.157 and the truncation of ditch C.157 by furrow C.1043. But as three pits, C.180 and C.119 of Subgroup O and pit C.1079 of Subgroup Q are truncated by the furrow C.1057; it must make them, the pits, earlier still. Subgroup I and J Feature Context Length Width Depth Filled by context Furrow 1071 5.6 m 0.27 m 0.08 m 1072 Furrow 1014 2.5 m 0.26 m 0.06 m 1015 Furrow 2010 5.6 m 0.26 m 0.08 2009 Furrow 2007 1.5 m 0.26 m 0.08 m 2008 Furrow 2035 2m 0.2 m 0.04 m 2034 Furrow 2029 31.8 m 0.29 m 0.1 m 2028 Furrow 2161 22.6 m 0.26 m 0.17 m 2162 Furrow 2163 1.28 m 0.26 m 0.14 m 2164 Subgroup I Furrows and Subgroup J Furrow Fills Subgroup I cultivation furrows occur between medieval ditch cuts C.1007 and C.2112. In common with other furrow groups, all are aligned in a general north/south direction. Furrow C.2029 truncates pits C.2027, C.2063 and C.2094 of Subgroup U. Fur- rows C.2029, C.2163 and C.2161 truncate potential early modern ditch C.2114. The fills are typically described as being comprised of loose mid orange of yellow brown silty sand. There were moderate fine and occasional medium sub-angular and sub- rounded. No artefacts were recovered from the fills of Subgroup I. There was a lot of activity in this general area. Postholes, pits and a hearth were noted. But the truncation of three pits, C.2027, C.2063 and C.2094, by furrow C.2029 suggests that at least some of this activity pre-dated cultivation and potentially the field system in the area. Drying kiln C.2180 is perhaps associated with this furrow group. Subgroup K and L Feature Context Length Width Depth Filled by context Furrow 2087 23 m 0.24 m 0.04 m 2088 Furrow 2165 13 m 0.4 m 0.12 m 216668
  • 79. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/ Feature Context Length Width Depth Filled by context Furrow 2121 12 m 0.03 m 0.05 m 2122 Furrow 2144 3.45 m 0.28 m 0.04 m 2145Subgroup K Furrows and Subgroup L Furrow Fills Cultivation furrows of Subgroup K occur between medieval ditches C.2112 and 335m east. Furrows C.2087, C.2165 and C.2121 occur in segments, all of which have beenaligned and allocated the same context number. The fills are generally comprised of loosemid greyish brown silty sand with occasional fine and medium sub-angular pebble andoccasional charcoal fleck inclusions. No artefacts were recovered from the fills. FurrowsC.2087, C.2165 and C.2121 truncate potential early modern ditch (C.2114). Some pitsfrom Group 10G were truncated by these cultivation furrows. The upper fill, C.2125, ofpit C.2124 is truncated by cultivation furrow C.2121. Pit C.2085 is truncated by cultiva-tion furrow C.2087. Pit C.2158 is truncated by cultivation furrow C.2165 and pit C.2138is truncated by cultivation furrow C.2144. In the cultivation subgroup selection process it was attempted to contain the varioussubgroups between potential field boundaries. This selection started on the western ex-tremity of the excavated area with Subgroup A and continued to move eastwards acrossthe site. Subgroup L cultivation furrows occur east of potential medieval ditch C.2112,the most easterly of the proposed medieval ditches. They have no natural eastern bound-ary. They simply seem to terminate in group formation and occur only sporadically fur-ther towards the east. But t is possible that modern field boundary ditch C.2153 wasresponsible for the destruction of other furrows, east of Subgroup K. In common withother cultivation furrow subgroups, furrows always truncate pits.Subgroups M and N Feature Context Length Width Depth Filled by context Furrow 558 2.2 m 0.3 m 0.2 m 557 Furrow 573 2.13 m 0.33 m 0.05 m 574Subgroup M Furrows and Subgroup N Furrow Fills Two short furrow remnants were located between 10 m and 20 m west of drying kilnC. 514. But unlike all western furrow subgroups, both of these examples were alignedeast/west. The fills were comprised of compact light brown silty sand with frequent fine andmedium coarse sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles. There were occasional small sub-angular and sub-rounded stones. No artefacts were recovered from their excavation. Furrows in this area and towards the eastern portion of the site are not as plentifulas was evident in the west. It is probable that this area was not as intensely cultivated orthat furrows have been destroyed due to subsequent agricultural activities. These twoshort furrows also occur within the proposed early modern field system. There were nostratigraphical relationships with other archaeological features on site. Land towards theeastern excavated area was slightly wetter than that on the west. This would make itunsuitable, without drainage in an early modern setting, for potato planting. Therefore 69
  • 80. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort cultivation furrows west of Subgroup M potentially date from the early modern period and only accidentally miss truncating western medieval ditches. Subgroup O and P Feature Context Length Width Depth Filled by context Furrow 583 4.6 m 0.25 m 0.05 m 584 Furrow 508 27.9 m 0.5 m 0.22 m 509 Furrow 450 5.18 m 0.26 m 0.13 m 451 Furrow 270 6.0 m 0.57 m 0.18 m 258 Furrow 2202 3m 0.52 m 0.12 m 2201 Subgroup O Furrows and Subgroup P Furrow Fills These 5 cultivation furrows occur in isolation. Furrow C.583 is located 15 m north of medieval ditch C.543, on the northern extremity of the excavated area aligned east/ west. It truncates hearth C.583. Furrow C.508 occurs on the northeastern extremity of the excavated area and is found parallel to modern field boundary C.506, aligned east/west. Furrow C.450 occurs roughly parallel to and west of medieval field boundary C.452 and may be contemporary with furrow Subgroup A. Furrow C.270 occurs approximately 15 m west of the L shaped medieval enclosing ditch C.297. Furrow C.2202 is located at 367 m east, 4 m east of modern field boundary ditch C.2153. C.2201, single fill of C.2202 is described as a loose mid greyish brown sand with moderate inclusions of fine and medium sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles, and oc- casional inclusions of coarse sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles, small sub-rounded stones and charcoal flecks. C.451, fill of C.450 was similar to fills of Subgroup A, and C.509, fill of C.508, comprised of firm light brown silty sand. In general the fills were similar to the soil in the respective vicinities of all furrows. No artefacts were recovered from furrows of Subgroup O Isolated furrows potentially represent the preserved remnants of a destroyed cultivated area or perhaps a smaller domestic garden. However, the spread of cultivation furrows extends literally from the western to the eastern boundaries of the excavation. A short furrow segment (C.2202) occurs in semi-isolation east of furrow Subgroup K. It is pos- sible that other cultivation furrows in this vicinity were destroyed by the construction of modern ditch C.2153. Although evidence for cultivation is far more prominent in the western half of the site, it is reasonable to suggest that at some time during the period of human activity at Park 1, the greater part of the site was under tillage. Group 3: Modern Field Boundary Ditches Modern Ditches Subgroup A Filled by Subgroup B Feature Context Length Width Depth Filled by context Ditch 503 24 m 2m 0.63 m 502 510 Ditch 506 5m 1m 0.48 m 507 Ditch 2153 32 m 4m 1m 2152 2154 2155 2156 Modern Ditches Subgroup A and Subgroup B Fills70
  • 81. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/ Linear ditch C503 occurs at 477 m east. The break of slope on top was sharp and thesides were steep and concave. The break of slope base was gradual and the base varied inparts from flat to concave in profile. Linear ditch C.506 was aligned east/west and extends but a short distance in the ex-treme northeastern corner of the excavated area. The same feature was again noted duringPark 2 excavations to the east. Its break of slope on top and base was sharp; the sides weresteep and concave. Its base was again linear in plan and concave in profile. Both ditches(C.503 and C.506) transverse the site aligned north/south. Linear ditch C.2153 occurred at 360 m east, it transversed the site aligned north/south. During excavations it was noted to be extremely broad, at 4 m. There was a gradualbreak of slope at top and the sides were steep. The base was concave in profile. The upper fill C.502, of C.503, comprised of spongy, weakly cemented, dark brownishblack peaty sand. The basal fill, C.510, was a soft, loose, mid greyish brown sandy silt withoccasional fine angular and sub-angular pebbles. The single fill, C.507, of ditch C.506 consisted of a firm, mid brown silty sand with oc-casional fine and medium sub-rounded pebbles and occasional small sub-angular stones. Although four fills were recorded in ditch C.2153, all are similar in composition,being generally comprised of sand. The upper fill (C.2152), from which a modern metalkitchen utensil was recovered, was comprised of clayey sand, and was possibly the residueof topsoil left in a depression. No artefacts were recovered from the other features. Ditches C.503, C.506 and C.2153 are modern and are represented on the first andsubsequent editions of the OS maps. All 3 features represent modern field divisions. Theperceived width of ditch C.2153 was possibly due to its removal by machine and the landnot being tilled afterwards.Group 4: Early modern field boundary ditchesEarly Modern Ditches Subgroup A Filled by Subgroup B (see figure 15)Feature Context Length Width Depth Filled by contextDitch 43 32 m 1m 0.4 m 42Ditch 47 30 m 1.65 m 0.4 m 46 1005Ditch 151 29 m 0.81 m 0.23 m 150Ditch 603 31 m 1.6 m 0.5m 604Ditch 605 9.8 m 1.7 m 0.62 m 606Ditch 543 40 m 1.3 m 0.65 544 554 595 596 599 600 602 Ditch 524 22 m 0.73m 0.24m 525 Ditch 598 3.62 m 1.44m 0.22 m 597Early Modern Ditches Subgroup A and Subgroup B Fills Linear ditch C.43 is potentially an early modern field boundary, perhaps associatedwith early modern ditch C.47 and early modern ditch C.151. Its sides were concave and 71
  • 82. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort sloped moderately. The break of slope at the base was gradual and the base was concave in profile. The cutting of pit C.1039, in which a quern stone fragment was located, does not have a stratigraphical relationship with the cutting of ditch C.43. But it is evident that the fill of ditch C.43, C.42, slightly overlies the fill, C.1040, of C.1039. Linear ditch C.47 was located immediately west of and parallel to ditch C.43. Both were similarly aligned. Its break of slope on top was sharp; the sides were concave and sloped moderately on the east and gently on the west. The break of slope at base was gradual. Ditch C.47 truncated potential kiln cut C.1002. Linear ditch C.151 was located approximately 2 m east of and parallel to ditch C.47. There was a gradual break of slope at top and base. The sides were concave and sloped moderately; the base was concave in profile. The cutting truncated medieval field bound- ary ditch C.157 at the northern end (see Figure 5a). The single fill (C.42) of C.43 comprised of loose mid greyish brown sand from which no artefacts were recovered. C.46, the upper fill of ditch C.47 comprised of loose mid greyish brown sand with occasional inclusions of coarse sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles. An early medieval hone stone recovered from the principal fill (C.46) may be intrusive. Ditch fill, C.1005, comprised of compact mid yellowish grey sand with mod- erate inclusions of fine and medium sub-angular pebbles and occasional inclusions of coarse sub-angular stones. This fill is located only at the point where ditch C.47 trun- cated proposed kiln C.1002. The single fill, C.150, of ditch C.151, comprised of loose mid greyish brown sand with occasional inclusions of fine sub-angular pebbles. Charcoal was returned from the sieving of fill C.150. Early modern ditches C.43, C.47 and C.151 are likely to be related re-cuts or to represent the re-building of the same field boundary. They occur roughly parallel and encompass an area approximately 5 m west of medieval field boundary C.157, which is truncated by C.151. Proposed kiln C.1002, which is potentially medieval, is truncated by ditch C.47. Although fill C.42 of ditch C.43 barely overlay the single fill (C.1040) of pit C.1039, the stratigraphy of the cuts is not linked. There are no other features stratigraphi- cally related to the proposed modern ditches. None of the three features are recorded on the first edition OS maps. But the subsequent RMP map, bases on a later OS edition, records a field division in the locality. It is therefore probable that a field boundary was constructed in approximately the same position during the early modern period. However, it is noted that all three ditches are aligned roughly parallel to medieval ditch C.157. It is feasible that the three features, C.43, C.47 and C.151 were earlier re- alignments or were associated with the rebuilding of C.157 during the medieval period. Perhaps the cuttings were still visible during a later period and the outline re-used to con- struct a new ditch. Unfortunately the available stratigraphy allows for the consideration of both theories. Curvilinear ditch C.603 extends in a general northeast/southwest direction between 375 m and 390 m east. It transversed the site and runs beneath both the northern and southern excavation limits. The break of slope at the top was sharp; the sides were moder- ate and concave in profile. The break of slope at the base was gradual and the base was72
  • 83. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/again concave in profile. The single fill, C.604, of C.603 was comprised of loose midyellowish brown silty sand with occasional medium and moderate coarse sub-roundedpebbles and occasional large (0.40 m) sub-angular stones. There were no artefacts recov-ered. Ditch C.605 is truncated by Ditch C.603 at their point of intersection. Only ditchesC.524 and C.603 at Park 1 were on the same alignment and all of these ditches could berelated in function. As there is a difference in alignment with the medieval ditches, andsince there is a scarcity of recognisable cultivation furrows west of ditch C.603, it is prob-able that the ditch belongs to a different and later field system than those excavated in thewestern portion of the site. Linear ditch C.605 extends in a southeasterly direction from near the southern tipof ditch C.603. It extends a little more than 9 m before running beneath the southernexcavation limit. The break of slope on top was sharp and the sides were moderate andconcave on the southeast and moderate and smooth on the northwest. The base was con-cave in profile. Ditch C.605 is truncated near its southern end by ditch C.603. The single fill, C.606 of ditch C.605 was truncated on top by modern agriculturalfeature C.607 (Group 12A). C.606 comprised of loose mid yellowish brown silty sandwith occasional medium and coarse sub-rounded pebbles. Metal slag was recovered fromthe same single fill. Although ditch C.605 is truncated by ditch C.603, both served the same field enclo-sure system and are likely to be contemporary. The furtherance of ditch C.605 south ofthe excavation potentially indicates the continuation of the field system. Linear ditch C.524 is located between 393 m and 400 m east, it transversed the sitealigned northeast/southwest. The break of slope on top was sharp on both sides. Its sideswere steep and smooth and the break of slope at base was gradual; the base was flat inprofile. Single ditch fill C.525, of ditch C.524, comprised of a firm mid orange brown clayeysilt with moderate coarse sub-angular pebbles and moderate small sub-angular stonesfrom which metal slag was recovered. Both ditches C.524 and C.603C are aligned northeast/southwest, and although nostratigraphic relationship was established between C.524 and ditch C.543 all conform toa field pattern when aligned with ditch C.605. The moderate occurrence of metal slag inthe area, combined with the lack of direct evidence for metalworking on this part of thesite, indicates that the entire area of occupation was not covered by the excavation. Curvilinear ditch C.543 is aligned northwest/southeast and located a maximum of43 m east of ditch C.503. The break of slope on top was sharp. Its sides were moderate tosteep in slope (45 to 70 degrees) and the break of slope base was gradual. The base wasalso curvilinear in plan and concave in profile. The southern extent of the ditch is locatedadjacent to kiln C.514. Basal fill C.544 comprised of soft dark blackish brown sandy silt. There were moderateamounts of fine and medium pebble inclusions, with frequent flecks and small pieces ofcharcoal. This thin band of charcoal rich fill occurred only immediately adjacent to kilnC.514 and nowhere else in the ditch. It extended for 4.5 m, was 0.4 m wide and 0.2 m 73
  • 84. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort deep. There was no indication of in situ burning, the fill probably originated in the kiln (C514). An early 17th century date was obtained from cereal recovered from this basal fill (C.544). Basal fill C.595 comprised of soft mid brownish grey clayey silt with frequent fine, medium and coarse pebble inclusions. There were also frequent small, moderate me- dium and occasional large (0.2 m -0.35 m) stones. This basal fill occurred at the southern end of the ditch extending for about 5 m. It was 1 m in width and 0.25 m in depth. This is probably deposited material, perhaps from kiln construction. Bone was recovered from this basal fill (C.595). C.596 is the principal basal fill of ditch C.543, extending 20 m along the northern base. It comprised of soft mid brown sandy silt with frequent fine, medium and coarse pebble inclusions and occasional small and moderate medium stones. Secondary fill C.599 was comprised of compact light greyish brown silty sand with occasional fine and medium pebble inclusions and occasional medium to large (0.2 m - 0.3 m) stones. It is probably an intentional backfill occurring over a 6 m ditch length adjacent to the kiln (C.514). Many of the stones are of the same type to build the kiln lining; supporting the theory of purpose deposition of C.544 at the ditch base in the area, perhaps the location of these stones confirm that the ditch was open during either con- struction or destruction of the kiln. Upper ditch fill C.554 occurs only adjacent to the kiln extending northwards along a 7 m length. It comprised of soft peaty silt and moderate fine and medium pebble inclu- sions with occasional small, medium and large (0.2 m - 0.3 m) stones. The inclusion of large stones again suggests that they were purpose backfilling of the ditch, perhaps being surplus to requirements. Upper fills C.600 and C.602 were both comprised of silty sand with pebble and some larger stone inclusions, particularly when occurring close to the kiln. There were no arte- facts associated with the ditch fills. It is probable that ditches C.543, C.603, C.605 and C.524 are associated and formed the boundary to an early modern field enclosure. The usual single fills occur in all ditches, the more complex stratigraphy of ditch C.534 fills is associated with its close proximity to the kiln rather that a prolonged filling process. Activity in this vicinity of the Park 1 site post-dates similar agricultural practices recorded further west. Short linear ditch C.598 occurs at the northern potential meeting point of early mod- ern ditches C.524 and C.543, immediately inside the northern excavation limit. The iden- tified ditch segment measured 3.62 m in length. It was sub-rectangular in plan with rounded corners. The break of slope top and base was gradual. Both sides were gentle and smooth. Ditch C.524 is truncated by ditch C.598. The single fill of ditch C.598, C.579, comprised of soft loose mid brownish black sandy silt with moderate inclusions of fine and occasional medium sub-angular pebbles in which there were no artefacts. Ditch C.598 forms part of the early modern field boundary system together with ditch C.524 and C.543. Although ditch C.524 is truncated by C.598, in common with the stratigraphic relationship between ditches C.603 and C.605, both are likely to form part74
  • 85. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/of the same field enclosure boundary. The absence of a stratigraphic link between C.598and ditch C.543 may indicate a potential gap, or exit / entry point to the field. But theoccurrence of postholes, to facilitate gate hanging, would be expected in this area. Therewere none.Early Modern Ditch Subgroup C Filled by Subgroup D Feature Context Length Width Depth Filled by context Ditch 2114 25 m 1.6m 0.38 2113 2115 2160Early Modern Ditch Subgroup C Filled by Subgroup D Ditch cut C.2114 is likely to be an early modern feature at Park 1. It is aligned east/west before turning to a north/south direction, giving it an ‘L’ shape. The feature is lo-cated on the northern perimeter of the site between 313 m and 328 m east. But neitherarm extended to the excavation limit. It truncated medieval ditch cut C.2112 and in turnwas itself truncated by furrow cuts C.2029, C.2163 and C.2161 (Group 2I), and furrowsC.2087, C.2165 and C.2121 (Group 2K). The break of slope top and base was gradual. Itssides were gentle and concave. Its base was flat in profile. The three fills of ditch C.2114, fills C.2115, C.2160 and C.2113 comprised of variousmixtures of the natural soil and sand found in the locality and do not help interpret thefeature. No artefacts were recovered during excavations. Ditch C.2144 does not qualify as a field boundary, the terminals of both arms wereclearly visible and neither extended beyond the excavation limits. Perhaps it served toenclose a yard or working area associated with kiln C.2180.Group 5: Medieval DitchesMedieval Ditches Subgroup A Filled by Subgroup B (see figure 5)Feature Context Length Width Depth Filled by contextDitch 452 18 m 1.09 m 0.27 453 =454 =455 =322 =321Ditch 476 4m 0.8 m 0.3 m 477Ditch 474 25.8 m 0.85 m 0.3 m 475Ditch 168 29.2 m 1.2 m 0.31 m 167Ditch 157 30 m 1.15 m 0.51 m 156 162 219 1098Ditch 1001 31 m 1.2 m 0.2 m 1000Ditch 1007 35 m 1.9 m 0.6 m 1006 1056Ditch 2112 32.4 m 1.9 m 0.55 m 2108 2009 2110 2111 2151Medieval Ditches Subgroup A Filled by Subgroup B The southern segment of medieval ditch C.452, aligned northwest/southeast, oc-curred between 97 m and 101 m east. The ditch cutting in this area is 13 m in length andextends beneath the southern excavation limit. The northern segment occurs between 96 75
  • 86. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort m and 93 m east and extends for 5 m displaying a similar alignment before meeting the northern excavation limit. Ditch cut C.452 had a gradual break of slope at top and base, the sides were smooth and sloped gently. Its base was sub-rectangular in plan and concave in profile. The southern segment of ditch C.452 occurs 1 m west of kiln C.291. C.453 was comprised of soft mid brown sandy silt with occasional inclusions of fine and coarse sub-angular pebbles and small sub-angular stones. There were moderate inclu- sions of medium sub-angular pebbles and medium and large sub-angular stones. There were no artefacts recovered from the ditch’s single fill (C.453). Curvilinear ditch C.452 potentially represents part of a field enclosing system dating from the medieval period. Two ditch segments have been aligned in plan to form ditch C.452. Due to the curvilinear nature of other proposed medieval ditches at Park 1, nota- bly field enclosing ditches C.168, C.1007 and C.2112, the alignment is considered to be a reasonable action. The appropriateness of the alignment is reiterated by disturbances to the surface on the proposed line of the ditch between 105 m and 115 m north. Any evi- dence of archaeological remains in this area has long since been destroyed. Segments of the excavated sections had also suffered some disturbance. Perhaps the inclusion of large stone in the fill might indicate the use of cladding on a now destroyed bank. Linear ditch C.476 was located at 100 m east 95 m north and occurred approximately 4 m east and parallel to ditch C.474. It was aligned northwest/southeast. There was a gradual break of slope at top and base. Both sides were smooth and sloped gently. The base was sub-rectangular in plan and concave in profile. There had been a considerable amount of surface disturbance in the surrounding area. The single fill, C.477, of ditch C.476 comprised of soft mid brown sandy silt with moderate inclusions of fine sub-angular pebbles and occasional inclusions of medium and coarse sub-angular pebbles. Some small, medium and large sub-angular stones were also included. No artefacts were recovered. Ditch C.476 is potentially associated with medieval ditches C.474 and C.452. It was only identified over a short distance, 4 m, but potentially transversed the site when newly constructed. Due to the soft sandy nature of the soil in the area, upkeep and repair of field boundaries might have been a priority. Perhaps C.476 is related to such activities. This is particularly relevant, as kiln C.291, occurring only 5 m directly to the west, may have caused extra traffic on the boundary bank, necessitating frequent repairs. Two ditch segments have been aligned in plan to form ditch C.474. Both the northern and southern segments are aligned parallel to, and occur 0.7 m east of, ditch C.452. The northern segment measured 5 m in length and the southern segment 11 m. Both ditch segments are curvilinear in plan and extend beneath their respective excavation limits. There is a gradual break of slope at the top and base. The sides were smooth and sloped gently. The base was sub-rectangular in plan and concave in profile. Disturbance was noted to the excavated segments. C.475, single fill of ditch C.474 comprised of soft mid brown sandy silt with moderate inclusions of fine sub-angular pebbles and occasional inclusions of medium and coarse76
  • 87. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/sub-angular pebbles. There were also small, medium and large sub-angular stone inclu-sions. A chunk of natural flint was also recovered from the fill. Ditch C.474 is associated with curvilinear medieval ditch C.452. It may have beenoriginally dug as a support to the boundary or during a period of repairs to ditch C.452.It is hardly a drain, as the dry sandy nature of the soil in the vicinity would not haverequired special drainage features. The single fills of all three ditches, C.452, C.476 andC.474 are very similar. This is to be expected, as with the exception of the stone inclu-sions, the fills represent the natural sandy topsoil in the area. Slightly curvilinear ditch C.168 is aligned northwest/southeast between 188 m and207 m east. The ditch did not entirely transverse the site, approximately a 4 m span wasmissing from its southern tip but the northern end ran beneath the excavation limit.There was a sharp break of slope at the top. Its east side was irregular with a gentle slopeand the west side was concave with a steep slope. The base was concave in profile. Therewere no stratigraphic relationships recorded with any other features on the site. Single ditch fill C.167 was a compact mid brownish yellow silty sand with occasionalinclusions of sub-angular and sub-rounded stones, and also frequent inclusions of fine,medium and coarse pebbles and small stones. No artefacts were recovered from C.167. Ditch C.168, in common with similarly aligned linear and curvilinear features atPark 1 potentially served as a field boundary. Cultivation furrows from Groups 2C and2D both respect this boundary and are therefore potentially contemporary. The missingsegment at the ditch’s southern tip possibly represents a gap or exit / entry point. But incommon with proposed exit / entry point of early modern ditch C.598 of Group 4, therewas no evidence to suggest the occurrence of gate-posts. Ditch C.157 occurs between 252 m 243 m east, aligned northwest/southeast, approxi-mately 45 m east of ditch C.168. It is slightly curvilinear in plan, in common with othermedieval ditches at Park 1, notably C.452, C.1007 and C.2112. The southern excavatedsegment extends beneath the site limit. But the northern end of C.157 turns in a north-easterly direction approximately 3 m inside the northern boundary. It then runs beneaththe baulk. The break of slope at the top was gradual to sharp. Its sides were smooth toconvex in shape and had a gentle to moderate slope. The break of slope at base was gradualand concave in profile. Ditch C.157 was truncated by cultivation furrow C.1043 of Sub-group 2G and by early modern ditch C.151 (Figure 5). A basal fill, C.156, extended 16 m, it comprised of loose light brownish grey sand. Asecond basal fill, C.1098, comprised of loose black silty sand with occasional inclusionsof coarse sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles, and small sub-angular and sub-roundedstones. There were moderate inclusions of grain flecks. A sample of this cereal has re-turned a 13th century date. Root activity was recorded in this basal fill. A minor sandybasal fill, C.219, was noted to extend for 1 m at 247 m east. Upper fill C.162 was a loosemid brownish grey sand with occasional inclusions of charcoal flecks. This fill extendedover the ditch’s excavated length. Ditch C.157 served as a field boundary and is likely to belong to the same field systemas ditch C.168. Only two medieval ditches are truncated by cultivation furrows (C.157 77
  • 88. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort and C.1001). It is therefore evident that cultivation was being practiced at Park 1 follow- ing the period in which the boundary ditches were functioning. It is also noteworthy that root activity was recorded in the same context that produced the dated cereal. Ditch C.1001 is similarly aligned to ditch C.157 and is located approximately 5 m to the east. Both ditches run parallel to each other. The ditch was linear in plan and the sides were smooth and sloped gently. Its base was flat in profile. It is truncated by pit cut C.1052, from which a high charcoal content was recovered by sieving, and was also trun- cated by furrow C.1057. Single fill C.1000 was an indurated mid brown silty sand. There were no artefacts recovered from its single fill (C.1000). It is unlikely that both ditch C.157 and ditch C.1001 are contemporary and serv- ing the same function i.e. field boundaries. However, as both features are truncated by cultivation furrows (C.1043 and C.1057), it is probable that both were constructed prior to a period of re-adjustment in agricultural practices at Park 1. Is it feasible that ditches C.157 and C.1001 served as the boundaries of a passage way or access route? There is no reason to suggest that, in common with ditch C.157, ditch C.1001 does not date from the medieval period. Ditch C.1007 is aligned in a northwest/southeast direction, curving slightly towards the west (see Plate 7). It is located approximately 25 m east of medieval ditch C.157. There was a gradual break of slope at top and base. The sides were concave and sloped moder- ately. Its base was concave in profile. Ditch C.1007 was truncated by pit C.1013 but it had no stratigraphical relationship to pit cut C.1059 (both of Group 10Q). Basal fill C.1006 was a compact mid brownish grey silty sand, from which a possible quartzite quern stone fragment and a quartzite rubbing stone were recovered. Both have been dated to the Bronze Age. The upper fill, C.1056, was a compact mid greyish brown sand, which occurred along the southern 10 m of the ditch. Ditch C.1007 is again related to the medieval field system boundary ditches which intermittently transverse the excavated area at Park 1. Due to the probable medieval dat- ing of the field system, it is likely that the quern fragment and rubbing stone recovered from ditch fill C.1007 are intrusive. Curvilinear ditch C.2112 is aligned in a slightly northwest/southeast direction. The curving nature of the feature is more pronounced that that of all other ditches at Park 1. It is located approximately 55 m east of ditch C.1007. The break of slope on top and base was gradual. Its sides are moderate and concave and the base was flat in profile. It was truncated by modern feature C.2114. The primary fill, C.2111 comprised of loose light greyish sand with occasional me- dium pebbles. This shallow fill extends over 27 m of the ditch’s 32 m length and is likely to have resulted from initial slumping following the ditch’s original excavation. Basal fill C.2110 was comprised of compact mid greenish sand with occasional pebbles. A specialist report has identified a cow tibia and two cattle teeth along with 16 large mammal frag- ments and six medium mammal fragments recovered from C.2110. A metal fragment was also recovered. Secondary fill, C.2109, occurred only at the southern end of the ditch; it78
  • 89. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/was comprised of compact, light brownish grey silty sand. A high level of charcoal wasrecovered from this fill by sieving. Minor secondary fill C.2151 was a black silty sand. andupper fill, C.2108, which extended along the entire ditch, comprised of mid-brown siltysand. C.2112 served as field boundary ditch. It is part of the medieval field system at Park.The number of domestic cattle bones recovered from the basal fill, C.2110, confirm thepractice of cattle rearing / dairying at Park or in the vicinity.Medieval Ditch Sub Group C: ‘D or L’ shaped ditch cut Filled by Subgroup DFeature Context Length Width Depth Filled by contextDitch 297 34.5 m 2.6 m 1m 362 373 296 358 356 372 363 473Medieval Ditch Subgroup C Filled by Subgroup D An L shaped ditch, both arms of which extended beyond the southern site boundary,occurred within the road take between 151 m and 178 m east (see figure 8 & Plate 6). Thetotal excavated length measured 34.5 m and enclosed approximately 104 square metres.There was a gradual break of slope at the top and base. The ditch’s sides were concaveand sloped steeply. Its base was concave in profile. Overall, the ditch cutting might bedescribed as ‘V shaped’. No features were revealed within the enclosed area. Basal fills C.473 and C.363 are probably due to slumping when the ditch was original-ly cut or following an unidentified re-cutting. The principal basal fill, C.372 occurs overthe greater part of the ditch cut. It is also likely the result of slumping, indicated by itssandy silt composition. Secondary fills C.356 and C.358 might be the result of slumpingfrom a destroyed bank, particularly C.358, as it occurs throughout most of the excavatedditch. Charcoal from this context produced a 7th century date. C.356 occurs only on thecurvilinear northern ditch side. Tertiary fill C.296 is found throughout the ditch and maybe the result of purpose backfilling, indicated by its sandy clay composition. Upper fillC.373 is again comprised of sandy clay, probably resulting from backfilling, and upperfill, C.362, a sandy subsoil, occurs only at the eastern extremity of the ditch. No artefactswere recovered from the excavation of the ditch fills. C.297 represents the northern segment of a potential enclosure, the southern evidencefor which probably extends beyond the excavation limit. The ditch is deeper and moresubstantial than those that functioned as field boundaries. But because of the very softsandy nature of the subsoil, it was probably difficult to maintain. A bank constructed ofthis subsoil, C.2, would undoubtedly need reinforcement. There was no evidence to sug-gest a palisade. It is probable that the evidence for such a structure disappeared with thedestruction of an associated bank. 79
  • 90. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Group 6: Two Potential Drying Kilns Potential Kilns Subgroup A and C Filled by Subgroups B and D Subgroup No. Description Context No. Subgroup A 1 Probable kiln C.1002 Subgroup B 2 Fills of Subgroup A C.1003 C.1004 Subgroup C 1 Potential kiln C.545=C.519 Subgroup D Fill of Subgroup C C.518 Potential Kiln Subgroups A and B Filled by Subgroups B and C Potential Kiln cut C.1002 was severely truncated by early modern ditch C.47. It meas- ured 0.4 m by 0.3 m by 0.38 m in depth. The preserved remnants of the feature were sub- circular in plan. The break of slope at top was gradual on the north and east and sharp on the south and west. Its north side was concave and sloped moderately; the south side was concave and sloped vertically. On the east, the side was concave and sloped gently. Its west side was undercut and sloped vertically. The break of slope at the base was gradual; the feature’s base was sub-circular in plan and concave in profile. The upper fill, C.1003, comprised of compact black sand. There were occasional in- clusions of medium sub-angular pebbles and moderate inclusions of fine sub-angular pebbles, small sub-angular stones, charcoal flecks and frequent inclusions of small char- coal pieces. Occasional cereal grains were recorded in the fill. The basal fill (C.1004) comprised of compact yellowish grey sand. There were occasional inclusions of fine and medium sub-angular pebbles, small sub-angular stones and small charcoal pieces. It is possible that this feature represented a small drying kiln, although no stone lining or burnt clay was recorded at the base. Proposed kiln C.545 occurred at 397 m east, approximately 2 m west of early modern ditch C.524. The feature was 8 shaped in plan. Its sides were steep and irregular on the northeast; steep and smooth elsewhere. The break of slope base is imperceptible on south- west and northwest and gradual on northeast and southeast. The base is 8 shaped in plan and concave in profile. The fill (C.518) of proposed kiln C.545 (= C.519) comprised of a firm mid greyish brown clayey silt with frequent medium and coarse angular and sub-angular pebble in- clusions. There were also occasional small angular and sub-angular stones. This fill pro- duced a high charcoal count from sieving. The excavator considered, what were originally thought to be two separate but adjoin- ing pits (C.545 and C.519) to share a single fill. This confirms that both of the proposed chambers are contemporary. But a high charcoal return from the fill need not necessarily indicate the feature’s function. Many archaeological features contain varying amounts of charcoal unrelated to use. There was no evidence of burning within the cut. But the key- hole shape is obvious in plan and the bowls and flu are noticeable in profile. Is it possible that the feature was excavated by children imitating their elders? A kiln (C.514) was lo- cated approximately 27 m to the southeast. This feature is perhaps associated with nearby pit C.517 of Group 10W, the single fill (C.516) of which suggests no particular function.80
  • 91. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/Group 7: Three Drying KilnsDrying Kilns Subgroups A, D and F, Hearths Subgroup B, and Fills Subgroups C, E and GSubgroup No. Description Context No.Subgroup A 1 Keyhole kiln C.291Subgroup B 3 Hearths in C291 C.448 C.380 C.368Subgroup C 23 Fills of Keyhole C.449 C.472 C.314 C.311 C.469 C.471 kiln C.408 C.401 C.402 C.403 C.302 C.351 C.346 C.337 C.303 C.294 C.278 C.290 C.381 C.480Subgroup D 1 Dumbell Kiln C.514Subgroup E 6 Fills of dumbbell kiln C.515 C.536 C.537 C.538 C.559 C.570Subgroup F Second keyhole kiln C.2180Subgroup G 9 Fills of kiln C.2180 C.2181 C.2183 C.2198 C.2199 C.2200 C.2204 C.2206 C.2207Kiln Subgroups A, D and F, Hearths Subgroup B, and Fills Subgroups C, E and G A dumb-bell type drying kiln (C.291) was uncovered between 95 m and 100 meast, close to the southern site boundary (see figure 7). This feature had been dug directlyinto C.2 subsoil and the cut did not extend into C. 479 (glacial till underlying C.2).Measurements were a maximum of 7.1 m, aligned north/south, 2.3 m east/west and amaximum of 1.3 in depth. The northern bowl was narrower than the southern bowl at 1.8m. The cut showed a sharp break of slope at the top and base. Its sides were irregular andsloped steeply to vertically. Its base was irregular in plan and flat in profile. A shallow hearth cut (C.448) was noted in the base of the southern bowl. This cut(C.448) did not post-date any kiln fill. Perhaps it was inserted following an initial cleanoutor, following construction, was inserted to deepen the original cut (C.291). It measured1.2 m east/west by 0.75 m north/south and was 0.05 m in depth. Cut C.448 was filledby a black silty sand containing a moderate amount of small and medium sized charcoalflecks (C.449). Burning had occurred within the hearth, which was indicated by the red-dish burned subsoil. No finds were recovered from the fill (C.449). In theory, withoutstratigraphic proof, the hearth (C.448) could have been inserted prior to the constructionof the stone flu lining (C.469), maybe to cook during construction or to test the draft. Single coursed rough angular and sub-angular field stone (C.469) was placed alongboth sides of the flu connecting the bowls. These were preserved in situ towards the north-ern end. They extended 1.4 m at both sides and individual stones measured up to 0.4 mmaximum size. It is possible that stone had been removed from other parts of the kiln fol-lowing abandonment and reused elsewhere. Stone was not easily available on the site dueto the sandy nature of the soil. The scarcity of immediately available stone is supported bythe re-use of rotary quern fragments in a kiln (C.514, fill C.537) some 300 m to the east.However, much of the stone from the flu lining showed evidence of heat shattering anddecomposition. 81
  • 92. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Three basal fills (C.314, C.472, and C.471) related to kiln activities. C.472, com- pacted reddish sandy clay was heat affected and occurred only at the base of the southern bowl. It was possibly laid as a clean layer prior to initial firing. C.314 overlay C.472 and continued as a basal fill along the flu and into the northern bowl above C.471. Fill C.314 contained frequent charcoal flecks, burnt bone, 39 fragments of unburned bone, only five of which were large to suggest that they belonged to sheep/goat or pig. A 7th to 9th century date has been returned from radiocarbon testing of the cereal. Burnt bone was also recovered from fill C.471, which was very soft and shallow, mixed in colour, and contained frequent charcoal flecks and a moderate amount of small charcoal. Both fills C.314 and C.471 possibly resulted from raking or cleaning during the early stages of kiln activities. There is no evidence to suggest that the burnt bone inclusions are anything other than refuse from cooking. Other basal and secondary fills (C.408, C.401, C.403, and C.402) are possibly associ- ated with slumping of the sides. All occur in the northern bowl only. C.408 had slumped from the western side and C.403 from the eastern side. C.401 is of similar sandy silt com- position but more substantial. Secondary fill C.402 was again of similar composition but contains moderate pebble and small stone inclusions. Perhaps the reason why slumping was noted in the northern bowl but not in the southern example is that it was abandoned earlier and the southern bowl continued in use for some other purpose. But as there is no direct stratigraphic relationship between these four slumping fills and charcoal spread C.436 (C.436 overlay C.471 only), it is possible that the kiln continued in use without be- ing cleaned. But if substantial fill C.302 (covering C.403, C.402, C.311, C.436), which is spread throughout the kiln cut (C.291) is correctly interpreted as a decided backfill, then slumping contexts (C.408, C.401, C.403, C.402) are roughly contemporary with the final drying activities of the kiln and charcoal deposit (C.436) is not related to kiln dry- ing activities. The charcoal deposit (C.436) showed no evidence of raking or attempted removal and remained in situ. Secondary fill C.311 occurs only above C.314. It is comprised of dark grayish black silty sand and is potentially the result of raking or cleaning of the flu towards the south- ern bowl. It may represent the final partial fill associated with drying activities prior to the purposeful backfilling of C.302. Included in the backfill (C.302) debris was an early medieval burnt quartzite hone stone. Although there were no artefacts recovered from the kiln fills relating to its period of initial productivity, an iron ring, possibly from a bridle was also found in backfilling C.302. Both C.303 and C.337 are interpreted as partial backfilling of the southern bowl. C.351 likely belongs to the same filling process, but had become scorched by subsequent burning above the flu area. A hearth (C.368), measuring 0.8 m by 0.3 m by 0.12 m in depth, was later cut into backfill C.351, barely clipping C.302. This had been contained by a group of stones (C.480), each up to 0.2 m diameter in size, the remnants of which was preserved on the northern side. The hearth was filled (C.367) by a black silty sand with frequent flecks and moderate charcoal inclusions. A metal knife blade was recovered from this hearth deposit.82
  • 93. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/Fallen stone (C.346), which perhaps had originally formed a low chimney like structureextending upwards from the stone hearth container (C.480), was spread locally above thehearth fill (C.367), the stone enclosure (C.480) and backfill C.302. Final phase backfilling of the kiln is represented by C.294, which extends throughoutthe cut. It is a substantial fill up to 0.38 m in depth. Subsequent fills (C.278, C.290) aresilty and probably naturally formed. A later hearth (C.380) was inserted into C.294 (see Plate 5). It measured 0.9 m by 0.47m and was 0.22 m in depth. Its basal fill (C.382) showed evidence of in situ burning. Theupper fill (C.381) was silty in composition and probably natural. Initial observations indicate that during this feature’s period of production it was setin level dry land, immediately west of a field boundary (C.452) and possibly associatedwith a cultivation system represented by cultivation furrows of Group 2A. Approximately7 m west of the kiln, driven post holes of Group 8E and stakeholes of Group 9I, poten-tially represent a cover or enclosure associated with kiln C.291, perhaps with the storageof grain. During harvest time the prevailing winds are from the southwest. A westernlocation for storage would help to prevent the accidental ignition of chaff, straw or grainduring kiln firing. Specialist analysis of kiln fill C.314 confirmed the presence of cereal. Kiln C.291was primary used for the drying of corn. Layers of burnt materials are clearly lined andit seems that little effort was made to undertake cleaning. Perhaps it was not used over aprolonged period of time, maybe the draft was faulty or the location was inconvenient.It is noteworthy that kiln C.2180 was aligned in an east/west direction, rather that theroughly north/south alignment of kiln C.291. Kiln cut C.514 was located between 422 m and 417 m east, approximately 6 mnorth of the southern site boundary, aligned northwest/southeast (see figure 11). Thefeature is dumbbell-shaped with rounded corners and measured 5.2 m by 2.5 m by 0.49in depth. The break of slope on top was sharp. Its sides were moderate and concave onthe north; vertical and smooth on the east and west; steep and concave on the south. Thebreak of slope at the base was sharp on the east and west and gradual on the north andsouth. Its base was dumbbell-shaped in plan and flat in profile. Kiln C.514 consisted oftwo chambers and a flue. The southern chamber showed no evidence of burning and waslined with large stones, many of which remained in situ. Large stones also lined the flu,which had a burned base. The northern chamber was lined with smaller stones and filledwith a charcoal-rich material. There was no direct evidence to suggest the kiln’s function. The primary fill, C.538, represents the original stone lining constructed within thecut. Although many stones had been removed and some had fallen, others had remainedin situ, especially on the southern end and along the flu. Stones varied in size from 0.2 mto 0.6 m and some showed evidence of heat shattering. Except for approximately 0.7 mat the northern end, the original outline of the stone lining was preserved (see Plate 12). Basal fill C.515 measured 3.22 m by 2.3 m by 0.32 m in depth and occurred only onthe northern end of the kiln cut, occupying the bowl and part of the flu. It comprised ofblack firm silt with occasional large sub-angular stone inclusions. These were potentially 83
  • 94. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort taken from the original kiln structure and deposited with the back filling of the cut. It is possible that they originally protruded above ground making their removal necessary. The re-use of stone on the site again supports the theory that stone was not readily available on the Park site during its period of occupancy. Moderate charcoal flecks and occasional small pieces of charcoal were also included in the fill. The second basal fill, C.537, occu- pied the southern end of the kiln cut (C.514), it partially overlay C.515 and also extended into the flu. It measured 2.54 m by 1.9 m and 0.49 m deep, making it the depth of the cut at that point. The fill comprised of firm clayey silt with frequent pebble and small to medium stone. A burnt quartzite quern stone fragment fragments was among the bigger stone inclusions in the fill. The fragment has been dated to the Bronze Age so is probably an intrusion. Burnt bone was also recovered from the same fill (C.537) and also a moder- ate amount of charcoal flecks and small charcoal pieces. There was not as much burning evidence as occurred in C.515. It is likely that the occurrence of burnt bone is related to cooking. Both basal fills are likely to be the result of purpose back filling. Secondary fill C.536 extends above both basal fills in the flu area. It measured 0.31 m in depth and comprised of silty clay with small charcoal and charcoal fleck inclusions. Burnt bone was also recovered. Above it, and extending north, lay a stone deposit, C.570. These angular and sub-angular stones each measured approximately 0.2 m to 0.4 m in diameter. They are likely to have been part of the original kiln lining, accounting for the destruction of the kiln lining in this area. The uppermost fill, C.559, is an alluvial deposit and is likely to have occurred naturally, filling the depression following backfilling. C.514 represents a kiln, probably used for corn drying. A 16th – 17th century date has been returned from charcoal recovered from the basal fill, C.544, of early modern ditch C.543, located immediately adjacent to kiln C.514. It is probable that the charcoal’s origin is associated with the kiln. Keyhole kiln C.2180 was located between 326 m and 333 m east, adjacent to the northern perimeter of the excavated area. It was oriented in a general east/west direction and measured 5.78 m by 3.92 m and was 1 m in depth (see figures 12 & 13). The feature was well preserved when discovered. Most of the stone lining was in situ and the flu lintels still extended 1.15 m east to west, partially covering the passageway. The flu itself meas- ured between 0.6 m and 0.7 m in width, the lintels were not particularly big, the largest measuring 0.3 in width by 1 m in length. Kiln C.2180 was excavated and recorded using a single context excavation method. The stratigraphy of the fills may be followed through Figures 12a – 11j The primary fill of kiln cut C.2180 consisted of stone lining (C.2198), which occurred in both the eastern and western chambers and extended along the length of the flu (the context number includes the lintels above the flu area: see Plate 13). The eastern chamber was built of roughly coursed field stone, individual examples measuring up to 0.2 m by 0.7 m. This chamber was particularly well built and preserved (see Plate 14). There was no definite evidence of any inbuilt features to facilitate matting. But due to the coursed nature of the work, it is proposed that there would have been no difficulty in inserting supports along the stone. Two upstanding stones, approximately 1 m in height stood en-84
  • 95. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/trance to the flu (Figures 12a and 12b). But construction of the flu itself and of the west-ern bowl was somewhat rougher and the stone much heavier. Two of the largest examplesof stone in this area measured 1.1 m by 0.9 m and 1.3 m by 0.7 m. It was also evident thatsome destruction of the western bowl had occurred. Many of the upper stones had beendisplaced, possibly by modern agricultural activity. During excavation it was noted thatthe stone did not appear to be particularly heat affected. Basal fill C.2183 occurred immediately west of the flu. It consisted of soft reddishorange clayey silt. Moderate inclusions of medium sized charcoal pieces and frequentsmall pieces and charcoal flecks were found during excavation. This fill extended for 2.6m east/west and fills a 0.2 m deep depression in the kiln cut. It is probable that the contextrepresents the point of initial firing prior to a drying process. A second basil fill, C.2205,overlay C.2183 and extended throughout the cutting. It was 0.2 m in depth and consistedof sandy silt mixed with burnt material. Secondary fill C.2204 covers the entire kiln cut and is up to 0.45 m in depth. Al-though occasional charcoal flecks were noted in the sandy fill, there was no evidence ofburning or scorching throughout. This is likely to have been a purposely placed backfillfollowing kiln abandonment. Animal bone was recovered from the fill. C.2206 representsa small stone dump or perhaps stone fallen from the lining at the western end of the kilnoverlying C.2204. Upper fills C.2200 and C.2207 represent a stage when perhaps the kiln was left aban-doned without being entirely backfilled. Both were very silty and perhaps occurred natu-rally over time. Animal bone was also recovered from C.2200. Final backfilling is evidentfrom uppermost deposits C.2181 and C.2199. A moderate amount of stone was spreadthroughout both fills. C.2180 represents a drying kiln. It was probably used for corn drying and is relatedto the usual agricultural activities for which there is evidence throughout the excavatedarea at Park. The kiln might also be related to early modern ditch C.2114 of Group 4C,which possibly served as an enclosing yard, and burnt features C.2146, C.2148 and P.2123of Group 10Y.Group 8: Postholes and potential structuresPosthole Subgroups A, C, E, G, I, K, M, O, Q, S, U and W, and Posthole Fill Subgroups B, D, F, H, J, L, N, P, R, T, V and XSubgroup Description Context No.No.Subgroup A 2 Postholes C.90 C.241Subgroup B Fills of Sub- C.91 C.240 group ASubgroup C 4 Postholes C.178 C.184 C.189 C.210Subgroup D Fills of Sub- C.177 C.185 C.190 C.208 C.216 group CSubgroup E 4 Postholes C.385 C.393 C.411 C.404 85
  • 96. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Subgroup F Fills of Sub- C.386 C.394 C.412 C.405 group E Subgroup G 5 Postholes C.400 C.397 C.389 C.410 C.390 Subgroup H Fills of Sub- C.399 C.398 C.387 C.409 C.388 group G Subgroup I 4 Postholes C.199 C.198 C.1063 C.1105 Subgroup J Fills of Sub- C.201 C.200 C.1064 C.1106 group I Subgroup K 5 Postholes C.2060 C.2097 C.2107 C.2033 C.2074 Subgroup L Fills of Sub- C.2061 C.2098 C.2106 C.2058 C.2073 group K Subgroup M 5 Postholes C.2175 C.2190 C.2191 C.2167 C.2196 Subgroup N Fills of Sub- C.2176 C.2189 C.2192 C.2168 C.2197 group M Subgroup O 3 Postholes C.2142 C.2169 C.2171 Subgroup P Fills on Sub- C.2143 C.2170 C.2172 group O Subgroup Q 2 Postholes C.250 C.265 Subgroup R Fills of Sub- C.246 C.264 group Q Subgroup S 3 Postholes C.68 C.214 C.1041 Subgroup T Fills of Sub- C.67 C.213 C.1042 group S Subgroup U 10 Postholes C.267 C.192 C.2208 C.1075 C.331 C.2136 C.585 C.1113 C.2187 C.609 Subgroup V Fill of Sub- C.266 C.188 C.2209 C.1076 C.124 C.2137 C.586 group U C.1114 C.2188 C.610 Subgroup 2 postholes C.45 C.73 W Subgroup X Fills of Sub- C.44 C.72 group W Posthole subgroups Posthole evidence at Park suggested that examples were driven rather than packed. Only substantial postholes C.210 and C.267 were found to contain a packing or post pad (C.216 and C.266). This is possibly due to the relatively soft nature of the sandy soil. Per- haps postholes were dug, posts placed and the holes backfilled with the natural sandy soil making the insertion of pads un-necessary. But many excavated examples record potential packing stone as inclusions in the fills. Differences between stake and postholes at Park 1 have been based on dimensions, rather than on evidence of post and packing. Many of the examples conform to the definition ‘driven post’. Structure 1 (features from Group 8A and 8B) Driven posthole C.90 was oval in plan with rounded corners. It was associated with stake- holes in Group 9A which formed a sub-circular plan approximately 5 m in diameter, with posthole C.90 situated 1 m to the west. This potential structure is being termed Structure 1. Posthole C.90 measured 0.32 m by 0.18 m by 0.15 m in depth. C.91, the single fill of C.90 was a loose mid blackish brown sand. A high charcoal count was recovered from the fill by sieving. C.240, single fill of C.241 comprised of a very soft mid brown silty86
  • 97. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/clay with occasional inclusions of sub-angular, sub-rounded and rounded pebbles. Noartefacts were recovered from the fills.Structure 2 (features from Group 8A and 8B)Driven posthole C.241 is set 20 m west of C.90 amid stakeholes of Group 9C (see Plate16). In this instance the stakeholes do not form a clear pattern but are potentially a windbreak. Posthole C.241 was circular in plan with a sharp break of slope at top. The sideswere smooth and sloped vertically. The break of slope at base was gradual and the basewas circular in plan and concave in profile. Dimensions were 0.27 by 0.27 by 0.3 in depth.This potential structure is being termed Structure 2 (see Figure 5a).Structure 3 (Group 8C and 8D)Four substantial postholes C.178, C.184, C.189 and C.210 were identified 8 m northwestof Structure 1. Dimensions measured between 0.25 m and 0.6 m. The four postholes forman arc in plan with the opening facing west. This group is associated with pit C.143 andperhaps pits C.186 and C.207. This potential structure is being termed Structure 3 (seeFigure 5a). C.177, single fill of C. 178 was a loose blackish brown silty sand. A high charcoalcount was recovered by sieving. Single fill C.185 of C.184 was a very soft mid brownishblack sandy silt with occasional inclusions of fine and medium pebbles. Large sub-angularstones and small charcoal pieces were also included in the fill. Single fill C.190 of postholeC.189 was similar again in texture and also included charcoal. There were two fills of C.210, The upper fill, C.208 comprised of soft mid brownsandy silt with moderate inclusions of fine rounded and medium and coarse angular peb-bles and occasional inclusions of medium sub-rounded stone. The basal fill, C.216, com-prised of soft light greyish brown sandy silt with moderate inclusions of fine and mediumangular pebbles and small and medium angular stones. These postholes potentially served as a substantial windbreak. The inclusion of me-dium and large stones in fills C.216 and C.185 potentially indicate the use of post pads.These postholes of seem to be focused on pit C.143 (Group 10C).Structure 4 (Group 8E and 8F)Four substantial postholes, C.385, C.393, C.404 and C.411 were located between 5 mand 15 m west of kiln C.291 close to the southern extremity of the excavated area. Threeform a linear pattern with the fourth, C.411, offset towards the south. Dimensions werebetween 0.7 m and 0.34 m. Depths were a maximum of 0.23 m. This potential structureis being termed Structure 4. All four single fills are described as being comprised of loose to soft silty sand withvarying degrees of grey and brownish colour and altering amounts of pebble inclusions.However, it is significant that all four fills also record large sub-angular stone inclusions. These postholes potentially represent a substantial rectangular structure; the southernextent is likely to extend beyond the southern limits of the excavation. Stakeholes from 87
  • 98. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Group 9I are probably associated with the structure. Proximity to the kiln (C.291) might suggest a storage barn. It is probable that these postholes at one time contained post pads, perhaps they became loosened due to the soft sandy texture of the soil and thereby mixed with their respective fills. Structure 5 (Group 8G and 8H) A group of five postholes C.400, C.397, C.389, C.410 and C.390 occur between 108 m east and 116 m east within 5 m of the excavation’s northern limit. This group is located approximately 10 m northwest of Structure 2. The postholes form an opaque sub-linear pattern, extending approximately over 8 m. They are substantial, dimensions ranging from 0.34 m to 0.5 m and up to 0.24 m in depth. This potential structure is being termed Structure 5 (see Figure 5a). The linear plan of these postholes suggests a narrow structure or perhaps a barrier or division. All these postholes contained a single fill. With the exception of C.387, which is de- scribed as compact mid greyish brown sand, the remaining fills are comprised of loose mid greyish brown, or mid orange brown sand with varying degrees of included sub angular and angular pebble and small stone. There were no large stone, which might have indicated the use of post pads. No artefacts were recovered from the fills. Structure 6 (Group 8M and 8N) Five postholes, C.2175, 2190, 2191, 2167 and C.2196 were located between 348 m east and 358 m east. In plan, the features form a sub-oval pattern. All the features were substantial, measuring in diameter from 0.62 m to 0.38 m and up to 0.49 m in depth, the shallowest being C.2167 at 0.12 m deep. These are being termed Structure 6 (see Figure 5b). All are single fills and very similar in texture. The fills are comprised of loose mid brown or grayish sand with occasional to frequent inclusions of sub-rounded and sub- angular pebbles. Both C.2176 and C.2168 returned high counts of charcoal from sieving. There is no stratigraphic relationship between these postholes and any other feature on the site. With the exception of C.2167, the shallowest posthole, which is set on the western limit of the this group, none of the others are less than 0.4 m in depth, therefore capable of supporting a structure. In common with identified Structures 1, 2, 3 and 5, there is no evidence of cultivation furrows in the area. It is conceivable that these post- holes represent a structure, perhaps a windbreak. Summary of evidence associated with Structures 1-3 and 5 There were no cultivation furrows recorded in the area occupied by Structures 1, 2, 3 and 5. This area was potentially allocated to domestic and industrial activities and perhaps associated with enclosing ditch C.297. Perhaps the absence of larger stone from the fills, had they been used as post pads, might indicate the temporary function of the structure.88
  • 99. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/Miscellaneous postholes (Group 8I, 8J, 8K and 8L)Four postholes, C.199, C.1063, c.198 and C.1105 represented Group 8I. Three of thesewere located, aligned northwest/southeast in plan, between 257 m and 267 m east. Thefourth posthole, C.198 was set approximately 1.5 m east of C.199. The features occur be-tween medieval ditches C.157 and C.1007. The 3 main postholes are substantial, measur-ing between 0.24 m and 0.3 m in diameter and up to 0.37 m in depth. C.198, set to theeast is less so at 0.13 m in diameter and 0.17 m in depth. All these postholes contained single fills. C.202 and C.200 were simply comprised ofloose black sand. A high charcoal count was recovered from the latter by sieving. C.1106comprised of weakly cemented mid yellowish brown stony sand with moderate inclusionsof small rounded stones and C.1064 was a loose greyish black sand with frequent inclu-sions of small stones and moderate inclusions of small charcoal pieces. There is no stratigraphic relationship between postholes of Group 8I and any otherfeatures on site. The postholes could represent a field fence from any time period. But asthey are set amid medieval activity they potentially represent a sub division of land or afield fence contemporary with the field system. The occurrence of charcoal is probably notrelevant; it was likely to have entered the fills at a later date. If the posts were burned insitu, it is probable that the full extent of the timber involved would be preserved. Five postholes, C.2060, C.2097, 2107, 2033 and C.2074 were noted to form a sub-linear plan in a northwest/southeast direction between 303 m and 309 m east. They ex-tend across the site. All are reasonably substantial, the largest being C.2060 at 0.44 m indiameter and 0.8 m in depth. The smallest is C.2033 at 0.15 m in diameter and 0.24 m indepth. These all had single fills. C2061 comprised of loose mid brown silty sand with oc-casional fine sub-rounded pebble inclusions. The remaining examples comprised of loosevarying gray and brown shades of sand with no inclusions. No artefacts were recoveredduring the excavation of these fills. None of these postholes are stratigraphically related to other features in the area. It isreasonable to suggest that in common with postholes of Group 8I, postholes of Group 8Kalso form a sub-division to the contemporary field system. Subdivision of a field system ismore likely to indicate animal husbandary rather than cultivation. Postholes cut into the base of a burnt pit (Group 8O and 8P) Three driven postholes were located in association with pit C.2124. Both postholeC.2169 and C.2171 were driven into the pit base. C.2142 was located immediately east ofthe pit. Posthole measurements ranged from 0.18 m to 0.15 m and between 0.16 m and0.06 m in depth. The fills of these postholes are similar and comprised of loose mid grey-ish brown silty sand with occasional inclusions of fine and medium sub-rounded pebbles.There were no artefacts recovered from these features. The burnt basal fill (C.2157) of pit C.2124, into which two of the postholes were cut,suggests an association with domestic or related cooking or heating activities. There wasno burning evidence associated with the posthole fills, all seemed to contain the normalsandy soil found adjacent to the features. 89
  • 100. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Postholes associated with a hearth and with Structures 1, 2, 3 and 5 (Group 8Q and 8R) Two postholes, C.250 and C.265 were located between 150 m east and 155 m east 10 m directly north of Structure 2. They are set approximately 2 m apart and 2 m north of hearth C.239. Both are similar in dimensions at 0.27 m / 0.28 m in diameter and 0.15 m / 0.17 m in depth. Single fill C.246 comprised of loose dark greyish black silty sand with occasional in- clusions of fine and medium sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles and small sub-angular stones. Single fill C.264 comprised of soft mid brown silty sand with moderate inclusions of fine and medium sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles and occasional inclusions of small sub-angular and sub-rounded stones. A high charcoal count was returned by sieving. Both postholes are potentially associated with hearth C.239 and with Structures 1, 2, 3 and 5 in the locality. Postholes that respect the alignment of ditches (Group 8S and 8T) Three postholes, C.68, C.214 and C.1041 form a linear north/south alignment between 234 m east and 237 m east approximately 3 – 5 m west of ditch C.47. The postholes are substantial, measuring between 0.42 m and 0.26 m in diameter and up to 0.4 m in depth, C.1041 being the shallowest at 0.13 m deep. There was no stratigraphic relationship be- tween postholes of Group 8S and other features on the site. Fill C.67, of posthole C.68, comprised of compact mid orange brown silty sand with moderate inclusions of medium and coarse sub-angular pebbles. C.213, fill of posthole C.214, was an indurated dark brownish black stony sand and C.1042, fill of posthole C.1041 comprised of loose mid brown grey silty sand with moderate inclusions of me- dium sub-rounded pebbles. There were no artefacts recovered from the fills. Postholes of Group 8S appear to respect the alignment of ditch C.47. But they also respect the alignment of medieval field boundary ditch C.157. In common with Groups 8I and 8K, postholes of Group 8S potentially represent a sub division of the medieval field system. Isolated postholes (Group 8U and 8V) Ten isolated postholes have been included in Subgroup U, C.267, C.192, C.2208, C.1075, C.331, C.2136, C.585, C.1113, C.2187 and C.609 None are obviously related and they oc- cur spread throughout the excavated area. Posthole C.267 occurs directly approximately 2 m north of enclosing medieval ditch C.297. The posthole was substantial measuring 0.6 m in diameter by 0.5 m in depth. A stone post pad was recorded within the fill (C.266). A potential hearth, C.269, occurs 2 m southeast of C.267. No other features occurred in the general area. Posthole C.192 occurred in isolation at 208 m east, approximately 3 m northwest of hearth C.4 from which iron slag and a stone base was recovered (fill C.3). The posthole measured 0.29 m in diameter by 0.21 m in depth.90
  • 101. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/ Posthole C.2208 occurred in association with drying kiln C.2180 and pit C.2158. Itmeasured 0.18 m in diameter by 0.17 m in depth. Posthole C.1075 occurred in isolation at 277 m east, 5 m south of hearth C.59. It wasa substantial posthole measuring 0.4 m in diameter by 0.3 m in depth. It occurred besidethe modern farm access roadway linking the fields at either side of the excavated areas atPark 1. Posthole C.331 occurs at 267 m east in association with pit C.39 from which 2 quartzrubbing stones dated to the Bronze Age, a hone stone and 3 quern stone fragments wererecovered (fill C.38). The posthole measured 0.22 m in diameter by 0.75 m in depth. Posthole C.2136 occurs 4 m south of kiln C.2180. It appears in relative isolation butperhaps similar features were destroyed by the cutting on modern ditch C.2114. Posthole C585 occurs in isolation at 374 m east approximately 1.5 m south of thenorthern excavation limit. It measured 0.35 m in diameter and was 0.4 m deep. Posthole C.1113 occurs at 255 m east. It measured 0.35 m by 0.22 m by 0.23 m indepth. It is potentially associated with pit C.1101 of pit Group 8Q. Potential posthole C.2187 occurred in isolation at 338 m east. It measured 0.24 m indiameter and was 0.32 m in depth. Two large stones were recorded as inclusions in thesingle fill (C.2188). There are no associations. Potential posthole C.609 occurred at 387 m east, 3 m north of early modern ditchC.605. The feature measured 0.46 m by 0.4 m by 0.38 m in depth. A large stone, 0.4 indiameter was included in the single fill (C.610). Of the ten listed isolated postholes, only two seem to have potential associations, post-hole C.1113 may be associated with pit C.1101 of Group 8Q and posthole C.267 may beassociated with L shaped medieval ditch C.297 and possible hearth C.269. A stone post-pad was recorded on the base of C.267; however, large stones were recorded as inclusionsin the single fills (C.610 and C.2188) of C609 and C.2187. Perhaps these stones served asimilar purpose.Postholes related to pits in Group 10O (Group 8W and 8X)Two potential postholes C.45 and C.73 occurred at 256 m and 252 m east. Measurementswere 0.35 and 0.39 in diameter and depths were up to 0.2 m. Both posthole single fills, C.44 and C.72, comprised of brown sand with occasionalinclusions of variously shaped pebbles. There were no artefacts recovered from the fills. Both features are potentially related to pits C.1048, C.155, C.180 and C.119 of Group10O. They are also in close proximity to burnt feature C.70 of pit Group 16D. 91
  • 102. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Group 9: Stakeholes Subgroups A, C, E, G, I, K and M and Stakehole Fill Subgroups B, D, F, H, J and N Subgroup Description Context No. No. Subgroup A 10 Stakeholes C.174 C.145 C.152 C.22 C.53 C.165 C.164 C.129 C159 C.161 Subgroup B Fills of Subgroup A C.173 C.144 C.153 C.21 C.54 C.166 C.163 C.128 C.158 C.160 Subgroup C 12 Stakeholes C.260 C.261 C.262 C.263 C.279 C.280 C.281 C.282 C.283 C.284 C.285 C.422 Subgroup D Fills of Subgroup C C.259 C.423 Subgroup E 5 Stakeholes C.435 C.438 C.440 C.442 C.447 Subgroup F Fills of Subgroup E C.434 C.437 C.439 C.441 C.446 Subgroup G 1 Stakehole C.117 Subgroup H Fills of Subgroup G C.101 Subgroup I 2 Stakeholes C.431 C.433 Subgroup J Fills of Subgroup J C.430 C.432 Subgroup K 2 Isolated stakeholes C.468 C.2078 Subgroup L Fills of Subgroup K C.465 C.2079 Subgroup M 3 Stakeholes C.1065 C.1083 C.1073 Subgroup N Fills of Subgroup M C.1066 C.1084 C.1074 Stakehole subgroups Stakeholes associated with Structure 1 (Group 9A and 9B) Ten stakeholes were identified, C.174, C.145, C.152, C.22, C.53, C.165, C.164, C.129, C.159 and C.161, associated with posthole C.90 of postholes Group 8A. The diameters of the stakeholes ranged between 0.21 m and 0.1 m, depths varied between 0.23 m and 0.12 m. The fills are typically described as being loose blackish brown pebbly / silty / sand. Charcoal was found in six fills from these stakeholes (C.173, C.153, C.21, C.54, C.158 and C.160). A charcoal sample from C.21 has been submitted for carbon dating but did not contain a sufficient amount of charcoal for dating. These stakeholes, in association with posthole C.90 of posthole (Group 8A), form a sub-circular structure approximately 5 m in diameter. These stakeholes are substan- tial enough to hold an upright timber supporting a roofed structure. They represent the ground plan of Structure 1. Stakeholes associated with Structure 2 (Group 9C and 9D) Twelve stakeholes (C.260, C.261, C.262, C.263, C.279, C.280, C.281, C.282, C.283, C.284, C.285 and C.422) were associated with posthole C.241 (Group 8A). The dimen- sions of the stakeholes ranged from 0.18 m to 0.08 m and depths were up to a maximum of 0.13 m. With the exception of stakehole C.422, all other of these stakeholes have been allocated the same fill context number, C.259, which was comprised of loose mid brown- ish grey silty sand with occasional inclusions of charcoal flecks. Fill C.423 was a loose92
  • 103. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/greyish brown sand. No artefacts were recovered from the fills. This cluster of stakeholes,in association with posthole C.241, represents light structure or windbreak Structure 2.Stakeholes associated with Structure 7 (Group 9E and 9F)A sub-linear cluster of 5 stakeholes, C.435, C.438, C.440, C.442 and c.447 were set be-tween 111 m east and 114 m east close to the southern extremity of the excavated area.The fills of these stakeholes typically comprised loose greyish brown silty sand with oc-casional to frequent pebble inclusions. There was no charcoal or artefacts recovered. In plan this linear feature was aligned northeast/southwest with one stakehole, C.447,offset to the south. Dimensions varied between 0.05 m and 0.11 m in diameter. Depthswere up to a maximum of 0.22 m. It is possible that other associated examples extendbeyond the southern boundary of the excavated area. Stakeholes of Subgroup E are beingtermed Structure 7 (see Figure 5a). Were this stakehole cluster to represent a light struc-ture it would be expected that the corner stakehole, C.435, be the most substantial, whichit was, at a diameter of 0.11 m and a depth of 0.22 m. It is potentially a light structureor windbreak and, in common with the other proposed structures in the area, it may beassociated with enclosing ditch C.297. It is also located in the same general area as Struc-tures 1, 2, 3, and 5.Isolated stakeholes (Group 9G and 9H, Group 9K and 9L and features from Group 9K and 9L)Stakehole C.117 occurred in isolation at 262m east and was found to truncate a secondaryfill, C.99, of pit C.36 Group 10Q. The stakehole measured 0.15 m in diameter by 0.12 min depth. Single fill C.101 of stakehole C.117 comprised of loose mid brown sand. Char-coal and seed was recovered from a fill (C.35) of pit C.36. It is probable that stakeholeC.117 is associated with domestic or agricultural activities linked to the pit. Stakehole C.2078 is located at 305 m east immediately southeast of pit C.2041. Itsdiameter was 0.09 and it measured 0.14 in depth. The fill C.2079 was a soft brown sandysilt with pebble inclusions. This stakehole C.2078 was potentially associated with activi-ties linked to pit C.2041. Occasional small charcoal pieces and charcoal flecks were re-corded in the fills of pit C.2041 but no in situ burning.Stakeholes associated with Structure 4 (Group 9I and 9J)Two stakeholes, C.431 and C.433, were located immediately north of posthole C.404 ofStructure 4. Diameters were from 0.15 m and 0.09 m, depths were 0.08 m and 0.07 m.Both fills C.430 and C.432 were comprised of loose blackish brown silty sand with oc-casional inclusions of fine pebbles. Stakeholes of Group 9I are potentially associated withGroup 8E postholes of Structure 4.Stakeholes associated with Structure 5 (features from Group 9K and 9L)Stakeholes C.468 and C.2078 were isolated, with stakehole C.468 occuring in semi iso-lation at 102 m east and approximately 8 m west of Group 9G postholes of Structure 5.The stakehole measured 0.13 m in diameter and was 0.17 m in depth. The fill C.465 was 93
  • 104. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort comprised of loose greyish brown sand. Although stakehole C.468 occurred in semi-iso- lation, it is within the seemingly uncultivated area, east of medieval ditch C.452, in which Structures 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 occur. The feature is potentially associated with Structure 5. Stakeholes associated with pits (Group 9M and 9N) Three stakeholes, C.1065, C.1083 and C.1073 were located 253 m to 254 m east. They measure between 0.14 m and 0.04 m in diameter and up to 0.24 m in depth. All three fills were comprised of varying mixtures of brown silt and sand, with C.1066 containing pebble inclusions. Both were naturally filled by silting and a mixture of natural C.2 in the locality. All three stakeholes of Group 9M are potentially associated with activities centred on pits C.1018 and C.1079 of Group 10Q. Both pits contained fills with a high charcoal content (C.1019 and C.1080). Group 10: Pits Subgroups A, C, E, G, I, K, M, O, Q, S, U, W and Y and Fill Subgroups B, D, F, H, J, L, N, P, R, T, V, X and Z Subgroup Description Context No. No. Subgroup A 5 Pits C.318 C.325 C.316 C.341 C.2184 Subgroup B Fills of Sub- C.313 C.324 C.312 C.330 C.419 C.352 C.366 group A C.369 C.370 C.467 C.371 C.478 C.560 C.575 Subgroup C 7 Pits C.230 C.228 C.204 C.211 C.227 C.242 C.143 Subgroup D Fills of Sub- C.225 C.223 C.205 C.212 C.226 C.224 C.138 group C Subgroup E 3 Shallow pits C.305 C.62 C.18 Subgroup F Fills of Sub- C.295 C.306 C.307 C.61 C.89 C.17 C.40 group E C.41 Subgroup G 6 Pits C.2085 C.2158 C.2134 C.2124 C.2138 C.2174 Subgroup Fills of Sub- C.2086 C.2159 C.2135 C.2125 C.2157 C.2139 C.2173 H group G C.2177 C.2185 C.2186 C.406 Subgroup I 3 Pits C.24 C.55 C.130 Subgroup J Fills of Sub- C.23 C.56 C.105 C.106 C.107 C.120 C.108 group I Subgroup K 5 Pits C.567 C.530 C.532 C.540 C.550 Subgroup L Fills of Sub- C.566 C.531 C.534 C.535 C.533 C.539 C.551 group K Subgroup 3 Pits C.2102 C.2104 C.2100 M Subgroup N Fills of Sub- C.2103 C.2105 C.2101 group M Subgroup 0 4 Pits C.155 C.180 C.119 C.1048 Subgroup P Fills of Sub- C.154 C.179 C.191 C.118 C.1047 group O Subgroup 20 Pits between C.1009 C.1067 C.1050 C.109 C.1052 C.1013 C.1101 Q94
  • 105. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/Subgroup Description Context No.No. 250 m and 275 C.1089 C.1018 C.1030 C.1079 C.33 C.36 C.182 m east C.1091 C.39 C.48 C.57 C.1059 C.149Subgroup R Fills of Sub- C.1008 C.1068 C.1051 C.1069 C.1070 C.110 C.131 group Q C.132 C.133 C.134 C.135 C.1053 C.93 C.1102 C.1090 C.1095 C.1019 C.1020 C.1023 C.1025 C.1026 C.1027 C.1028 C.1029 C.1024 C.1080 C.1081 C.1082 C.32 C.75 C.76 C.77 C.78 C.79 C.80 C.35 C.97 C.98 C.99 C.100 C.181 C.193 C.194 C.1092 C.1096 C.1097 C.1107 C.1108 C.38 C.37 C.49 C.50 C.51 C.52 C.58 C.87 C.94 C.95 C.1060 C.146 C.1012Subgroup S 7 Pits between C.6 C.83 C.26 C.28 C.8 C.11 C.14 200E and 225ESubgroup T Fills of Sub- C.5 C.31 C.82 C.25 C.27 C.7 C.12 group S C.13Subgroup U 14 Pits between C.2017 C.2030 C.2083 C.2013 C.2041 C.2011 C.2048 300E and 318E C.2044 C.2027 C.2022 C.2063 C.2094 C.2003 C.2071Subgroup V Fills of Sub- C.2004 C.2031 C.2059 C.2084 C.2095 C.2096 C.2014 group U C.2042 C.2052 C.2053 C.2054 C.2055 C.2012 C.2019 C.2049 C.2045 C.2081 C.2082 C.2099 C.2015 C.2025 C.2026 C.2018 C.2062 C.2070 C.2093 C.2016 C.2072Subgroup 10 Isolated pits C.1039 C.517 C.505 C.611 C.563 C.2178 C.546W C.112 C.598 C.293Subgroup X Fills of Sub- C.547 C.516 C.1040 C.612 C.562 C.577 C.2179 group W C.2182 C.111 C.504 C.597 C.308 C.309 C.292Subgroup Y Burnt pit/spread C.501 C.513 C.2146 C.2148 C.2123 C.59 C.86Subgroup Z Fills of Sub- C.500 C.520 C.2147 C.60 C.85 C.84 C.92 group YPit subgroupsLarge pit C.341 (Group 10A and 10B)A large pit, C.341, was set in the northwestern extremity of the excavated area. It meas-ured 2 m by 1.55 m by 1.22 m in depth. The feature was sub-rectangular in plan withsquare corners. There was a gradual break of slope at top; the sides were irregular andsloped steeply. The break of slope at base was sharp and the base was irregular in plan andflat in profile. Some disturbance had occurred in the area due to the construction of thefarm access passage way and the adjacent farmhouse/yard enclosing wall. Basal fill C.478 comprised of compact mid greyish brown silty sand with moder-ate inclusions of fine and medium pebbles and occasional inclusions of charcoal flecks. 95
  • 106. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Secondary fill C.371 was a soft dark black sandy silt with frequent inclusions of small, and medium charcoal pieces. Animal bone was also recovered from this fill. C.467 was a soft mid reddish brown sandy silt with moderate inclusions of fine and medium angular pebbles. These three fills represent the original activities associated with the pit, they were covered by C.575, which was re-deposited natural C.2 sand from the vicinity. C.370, a soft mid blackish brown sandy silt, together with C.369, a similar but more compact fill were then deposited before another re-deposit C.560, of C.2 natural slumped from the sides. It is probable that C.366 filled the centre cavity resulting from the slump- ing. This fill comprised of compact mid greyish brown pebbly sand with frequent inclu- sions of fine, medium and coarse pebbles. There is evidence from the slumping of natural C.2 into pit C.341 (re-deposited as C.560) that the original pit had fallen into disuse before being partially re-cut (C.2184). This re-cut truncated pit fills C.560, C.370, C.369 and C.366. It is from the basal fill (C.352) of the re-cut that slag, a possible iron artefact, animal bone, burnt bone and charcoal was recovered. Specialist examination has determined that the slag is residual. However its occurrence confirms that metal working was being prac- ticed in the vicinity during the 8th century, as charcoal from this fill has been dated to the 8th century. The two upper fills, C.419 and C.330 were silty and likely to have formed naturally (see Figure 6). Pit C.341 also produced the largest identifiable collection of animal bone from the Park 1 site. These have been identified as cattle, sheep and a possible horse. The bone assemblage was recovered from C.371, before the re-cut, and C.352, after the re-cut. It is unlikely that there was a large time lapse, if any, between both cuttings of pit C.341. The soft nature of the sandy subsoil makes it prone to slumping, especially during a wet season. Slumping of the sides was continually noted through the archaeological excava- tion of these shallow pits following rain. However, the occurrence of burnt bone as well as un-burnt animal bone, accompanied by charcoal suggests that the pits might have had a domestic rather than industrial function. Three pits from Group 10A and 10B Three pits C.318, C.325 and C.316 were located in the northwestern extremity of the excavated area in close proximity to pit C.341. Their dimensions ranged from 0.49 m to 0.38 m in diameter and from 0.06 to 0.11 m in depth. All 3 pits contained single fills. All three pits were filled by soft mid brown sandy silt with occasional to moderate inclusions of fine, medium and coarse sub-angular pebbles, small, medium and large sub-angular stones. Charcoal was recovered from the fill (C.312) of C.316 by sieving. Although there are no stratigraphic links between pit C.314 and pits C.318, C.325 and C.316, the occurrence of charcoal in the fill (C.312) of C.316 suggests a potential link. However, these three pits are set approximately 15 m northwest of cremation pit C.272. This pit (C.272) contained a token cremation burial dating from the middle Bronze Age. It is understood that token burials occur without evidence of actual bone deposition dur- ing the later Bronze Age, and as late Bronze Age pottery was recovered from pit C.24,96
  • 107. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/located 85 m directly east of these pits, interpretation as to the function of pits C.318,C.314 and C.312, must remain open. Cluster of five pits (Group 10C and 10D) A cluster of five pits, C.230, C.211, C.204, C.242 and C.227 were set in close proxim-ity to a large pit, C.228, at approximately 140 m east. The cluster occurred 2 m northeastof Structure 3 and 6 m northwest of Structure 1. The larger pit, C.228, measured 1.07 mby 1.04 by 0.34 m in depth. Dimensions of the smaller pits ranged between 0.44 m and0.25 m, depths were between 0.19 m and 0.03 m. Pit C.143, the seventh pit of this subgroup, was set immediately west of Structure 3.It seemed the focal point of the postholes from Group 8C, representing Structure 3. Itmeasured 1.31 m by 1 m by 0.21 m in depth. Each pit had a single fill; all the fills are reasonably similar, containing loose or softsandy silts and silty sands of various blackish, brownish and grayish shades. Only C.138,fill of pit C.143 was compact. Again, all the fills contained varying degrees of fine sub-an-gular and angular pebbles and small stones. Charcoal was recovered from the fill (C.212)of C.211 and C.205, fill of C.204. Burnt clay was also included in the same fill. Chertdebitage was recovered from the fill (C.223) of C.228. The inclusion of chert debitage in the fill (C.223) of pit C.228 does not indicate a date.But it does indicate knapping activity in the vicinity during an unknown period. Thedebitage is possibly intrusive. The occurrence of the pit cluster in close proximity to Struc-tures 1 and 3 may suggest some association and that they are perhaps contemporary. It isalso noteworthy that pits of Group 10C occur in an area devoid of cultivation evidence,and together with the structures, might indicate that this area was reserved for domesticand/or industrial activity.Three pits (Group 10E and 10F)Three pits, C.305, C.62 and C.18 were located between 137 m east and 147 m east. Theyoccurred south of Structures 1 and 3. C.18 was the largest at 1.2 m by 0.8 m in diameterand 0.29 m in depth. The smallest, pit C.62, measured 0.59 m in diameter by 0.17 m deep. The basal fill, C.307, of pit C.305 was a compact dark brown clayey sand with occa-sional inclusions of fine sub-angular pebbles. Secondary fill C.295 was similar but black-ish and contained charcoal. sand. Upper fill, C.306, was loose mid orange brown sandwith frequent inclusions of fine and medium sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles andmoderate inclusions of coarse sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles. C.61, the basal fill of pit C.62 was a soft dark brownish black sandy silt. The upperfill, C.89, the upper fill, was soft dark greyish brown sandy silt with occasional inclusionsof fine pebbles. The basal fill, C.41,of pit C.18, comprised of a soft mid greyish brown sandy silt withmoderate inclusions of small pebble and stones. C.40, the secondary fill produced char-coal and the upper fill, C.17, was formed by silting. There was no evidence regarding the function of pits in Group 10E. But they arelocated within the uncultivated area in proximity to Structures 1, 2 and 3 and also to 97
  • 108. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort enclosing ditch C.297. They are potentially related to domestic and/or industrial activities contemporary with use of the structures and enclosure. Six pits around kiln C.2180 (Group 10G and 10H) There were six pits set within 10 m of kiln C.2180. Four pits C.2085, C.2158, 2124, and C.2138 were substantial and varied between 2 m and 0.94 m in diameter. Depths ranged from 0.39 m to 0.18. A fifth pit C.2134 was smaller at 0.3 m by 0.23 m in diameter by 0.1 m deep. All five were located to the west and south of the kiln. The upper fill, C.2125, of pit C.2124 is truncated by cultivation furrow C.2121 (see Figure 15). Pits C.2085 is truncated by cultivation furrow C.2087. Pit C.2158 is truncated by cultivation furrow C.2165 and pit C.2138 is truncated by cultivation furrow C.2144 (from Group 2K). Pits C.2124 and C.2138 are associated with postholes of Group 8O. Pits C.2124 and C.2158 were recorded as having a burnt base. The sixth pit, C. 2174 occurred east of the kiln (C.2180). It measured 1.87 m by 1.11 m in diameter by 0.38 m in depth. Its four fills, C.2173, C.2177, C2185 and C.2186 did not provide evidence of the pit’s function. The western tip of pit secondary fill (C.2186), which extends to the surface at that point, is truncated by linear feature C2203 of Group 13, the pit cut, C.2174, seems barely impinged upon. Based on the stratigraphy it is evident that at least four of the six pits, C.2085, C.2158, C.2124 and C.2138 pre-date Group 2K cultivation furrows. Although all features in the vicinity are potentially roughly contemporary, there is no evidence to determine the time gap involved. The same is relevant to the interpretation of pit C.2174. The exact relationship with linear feature C.2203 is unclear but from the available evidence, it probably pre-dates linear feature. There are few other stratigraphically linked archaeological features in the immediate vicinity. Three pits (Group 10I and 10J) with inclusions of Late Bronze Age pottery, possibly associated with Structure 1 Three pits, C.24, C.55 and C.130, were located immediately north of Structure 1. The largest of the pits, C.130 measured 1.5 m by 0.5 m by 0.5 m in depth. It contained a single fill (C.108), which comprised loose mid brown clayey sand with frequent inclusions of medium and coarse pebbles and was truncated by pit C.55. The pit C.55 was filled by C.107, a compact light pink grey sand with frequent inclu- sions of fine, medium and coarse sub-angular, sub-rounded and rounded pebbles. Sec- ondary fills C.56 and C.106 are somewhat similar, being variations of sand and silt but differing in consistency. Charcoal was recovered by sieving from secondary fill C.120. Upper fill, C.105, was likely the result of silting. Pit C.24 was oval in plan with rounded corners and measured 1.2 m by 0.88 m by 0.2 m in depth. There was a gradual break of slope at top and base, the sides were con- cave and sloped gently and the base was oval in plan and concave in profile. The single fill, C.23, of pit C.24 was comprised of loose light to mid yellowish brown pebbly/stony/98
  • 109. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/silty sand. There were moderate inclusions of fine, medium and coarse sub-rounded androunded pebbles and large sub-angular and sub-rounded stones, and frequent inclusionsof small and medium sub-angular and sub-rounded stones. Pottery sherds dated to theLate Bronze Age were recovered from the fill.Cluster of five pits (Group 10K and 10L)A cluster of five pits C.567, C.530, C.532, C.540 and C.550, occurred at approximately 410m east, between 8 m to 10 m west of kiln C.514 and five to 10 m inside the southern exca-vation limit. Pit C.550 was the largest at 1.17 m by 0.35, but shallowest at 0.11 m in depth.The smallest, but deepest, was C.532 at 0.32 m by 0.3 m by 0.22 m in depth. 0.32 m. The single fill C.566 of pit C.567 was a compact light brown silty sand with moderatefine, medium and coarse sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles. It also contained occa-sional small sub-angular and sub-rounded stones. Single fills C.533 of pit C.532, fill C.539of pit C.540 and fill C.551 of pit C.550 were very similar, varying only on shades of sandysilt / silty sand. Pit C.530 contained three fills, the basal fill, C.534, was a soft mid orange brown siltwith moderate inclusions of fine and medium and coarse sub-rounded pebbles. The upperfill, C.531 was again silty, probably naturally deposited. Fill C.535 was small, measuringonly 0.16 m by 0.08 m by 0.04 m in depth, it partially overlay C.531 and comprised ofa firm dark brown silt from which charcoal was recovered. There was no in situ burningrecorded within the pits and no artefacts were recovered. There is no information aboutthe function of the pit.Three pits (Group 10M and 10N) possibly associated with cultivation furrowsA tight cluster of 3 pits, C.2102, C.2104 and C.2100, was located at 323 m east, approxi-mately 2–4 m east of medieval ditch C.2112. Measurements were between 0.65 m and0.89 m in diameter and up a maximum of 0.23 m in depth. Each pit had a single fill,C.2103, C.2105 and C.2100, but none returned evidence of the pits’ original function. Allwere comprised of sand / silty sand with moderate to occasional inclusions of pebble andsmall stone. Root damage was noted to C.2105, fill of C.2104. A considerable disturbance, associated with probable tree bowl C.2195, occurred im-mediately east of these pits. The pits were found on the same alignment as the cultivationfurrow C.2087 (Group 2K). It is stratigraphically possible that the pits and tree bowl areassociated and that all are linked to a clearance post-dating the cultivation system.Substantial pits (Group 10O and 10P)Four pits C.155, C.180, C.119 and C.1048 occurred between 250 m and 253 m east. Thepits were substantial, measuring between 0.75 m and 0.55 m in diameter and up to 0.37m in depth. The pit cluster is potentially associated with postholes C.45 and C.73 (Group8W) and with a burnt pit (C.71 from Group 16C) possibly non-archaeological. How-ever, the only reason to assume an association is because all these features were found inclose proximity to one another. Pits C.119 and C.180 are truncated by cultivation furrow 99
  • 110. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort C.1057 and pit C.1048 is truncated by cultivation furrow C.1045 (Group 2G).In com- mon with other areas of the site that provided evidence of cultivation, the pits pre-date the cultivation furrows. Scattered pits to the east of the site (Group 10Q and 10R) This group of 20 scattered pits (C.1009, C.1067, C.1050, C.109, C.1052, C.1101, C.1089, C.1018, C.1030, C.1079, C.33, C.36, C.182, C.1091, C.39, C.48, C.57, C.1059, C.149 and C.1013) was located at the east of the site, there was no obvious pattern in their layout apart from the fact that they were confined within a 25 m expanse from east to west. Pit from Group 10O were also found in this area but were comparatively isolated and were potentially associated with postholes (see above). The isolated pit C.1039 of Group 10W occurs some 8 m to the west and no other pits occur within 34 m east. Medieval ditches C.157, C.1001 and C.1007 also occupy the same area. Of the twenty pits five (C.149, C.1009, C.1013, C.1052 and C.1059) are tentatively suggested to be other than pits in the strict sense. C.1009 is large, measuring 0.74 m by 0.26 m but only 0.12 m deep. C.1013, c.149, C.1059 and C.1052 vary between 0.62 m and 0.3 m in diameter but the deepest examples, C.1013 and C.1059 are only 0.18 m in depth. C.1052 also truncates medieval ditch C.1001. All five pits had single fills, C.146, C.1008, C.1012, C.1053 and C1060, and no artefacts were recovered from any during excavations. Pit C.1067 is truncated by pit C.1050. Although both are large, 0.99 m and 1.7 m in diameter respectively, both are shallow at 0.18 m and 0.19 m. Iron slag was recovered from the upper fill (C.1051) of pit C.1050. There was no evidence of burning within the pit. Pits C.109, C.1018, C.1030 and C.1079 occur in close proximity. All are substantial and measure between 1.5 m and 0.53 m in diameter. Both C.109 and C.1018 are in excess of 0.6 m in depth and C.1079’s depth in 0.3 m. Six fills, C.110, C.131, C.132, C.133, C.134 and C.135, were recorded in C.109 but all were sandy soil with the usual small pebble and stone inclusions. A burnt quartzite rubbing stone was recovered from the upper fill (C.110). A secondary fill of C.1018, (C.1020), was scorched. Pit C.1030, measuring 0.7 m in diameter, is cut into the fills of pit C.1018 thus truncating fills C.1025, C.1023, C.1027 and C.1020. Pits C.1018 and C.1030 are related to stakeholes of Group 9M. Pits C.1101 and C.1089 occur in close proximity. Both are substantial, measuring 1.2 m by 0.9 m by 0.35 m and 1.26 m by 0.95 m by 0.4 m depth. Charcoal was recorded in the basal fill (C.1095) of pit C.1089. Pits C.33, C.36 and C.182 occur in close proximity to each other. Pit C.36 is the most substantial measuring 1.91 m by 1.42 m by 0.56 m in depth. Pit C.33 was circular meas- uring 1.1 m in diameter by 0.4 m in depth. C.182 was the smallest measuring 0.55 m by 0.5 m by 0.2 m deep. Each pit contained several fills but only fill C.35, the upper fill of pit C.36, produced seed and charcoal. A secondary fill, C.99, of pit C.36 is truncated by stakehole C.117 (Group 9G). A large stone occurred in pit C.182. It is probably unrelated to the pit’s original function and was deposited as an inclusion in the basal fill (C.194). Pit C.1091 is the most southerly of these pits. It measured 1.5 m by 1.3 m by 0.47 m in depth. Charcoal was recovered from a secondary fill (C.1097).100
  • 111. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/ Pit C.39, occurred on the eastern side of medieval ditch C.1007. Although shallow at0.17 m, it measured 3.24 m in length by 2.68 m in width (see Plate 8). There were two fills,the basal fill, C.93, was comprised of compact mid greyish brown sand with no inclusions.The upper fill, C.38, was a compact dark greyish black sand. There were moderate inclu-sions of fine angular and sub-rounded pebbles and also some larger pebbles and moderateangular stones. Three adult cattle teeth and charcoal was recovered from the upper fill(C.38). The charcoal has been dated to the 13th–14th century. Finds within the same up-per fill consisted of two burnt quartzite rubbing stones, dated to the Bronze Age, a burntquartzite hone stone dated to the early medieval period, and three burnt quartzite quernstone fragments dated to the medieval. It was associated with posthole C.331 (Group 8U). Pits C.48 and C.57 also occurred on the eastern side of medieval ditch C.1007, 8 mto 10 m south of pit C.39. Dimensions were 0.85 m by 0.7 m by 0.21 m in depth and 0.92by 0.85 by 0.34 m respectively. A quern stone fragment was recovered from the basal fill(C.87) of pit C.57. Charcoal and seed was recovered from the basal fill (C.52) and second-ary fill (C.51) of pit C.48. Charcoal was recovered from the same pit’s upper fill (C.37). A lot of activity was centred on this area. Medieval ditch C.1001 was truncated bypit C.1052 and medieval ditch C.1007 was truncated by pit C.1013. But roughly contem-porary dates (13th– 14th century) dates have been returned from a basal fill (C.1098) ofmedieval ditch C.157 and from the upper fill (C.38) of pit C.39.Group 10S and 10TA total of seven pits (C.6, C.83, C.26, C.28, C.8, C.11 and C.14) were located between200 m east and 225 m east. Pits C.26 and C.28 occur in close proximity. Both pits areshallow, being only 0.1 m in depth. Pit C.26 is truncated by cultivation furrow C.1093of Group 2E. It contained a single fill (C.25) that comprised loose dark brown black sandwith occasional inclusions of fine sub-angular and medium sub-rounded pebbles andsmall sub-angular stones. Pit C.6 is also shallow and it measured 0.91 m in length by 0.81 m in width and 0.12m in depth. It had a gradual break of slope at top and base and the sides were smooth andsloped gently. Its base was sub-circular in plan and concave in profile. C. 31, the basalfill of pit C.6, comprised of a weakly cemented dark greyish brown sand with moderateinclusions of fine angular pebbles, from which charcoal and seed was recovered. The up-per fill, C.5, was a spongy dark greyish black sandy peat, which included charcoal and aportion of a sheep/goat pelvis bone. Pit C.83 was also substantial at 0.61 m by 0.58 m but only 0.16 m in depth. The sin-gle fill (C.82) of this pit was a loose dark grey sand with inclusions of small sub-angularstones. A cow tooth, iron slag and charcoal were recovered from this fill. The featurewas set immediately south of hearth C.4 (Group 11A), in which slag, iron and the stonehearth base was found. It was oval in plan, with a gradual break of slope at top. The sideswere concave and sloped gently. The break of slope at base was imperceptible. Pits C.8, C.11 and C.14, range from 0.35 m to 0.24 m in diameter. Depths range from0.14 m to the deepest of the group, C.11 at 0.3 m. The single fill (C.7) of pit C.8 was a 101
  • 112. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort loose mid brown/black sand with moderate inclusions of fine sub-rounded pebbles and occasional inclusions of medium sub-rounded pebbles. The single fill (C.13) of pit C.14 was described as compact light white sand. Seed and charcoal was recovered from the single fill (C.12) of pit C.11. Large and deep pits (Group 10U and 10V) A total of fourteen large and deep pits (C.2030, C.2083, C.2013, C.2041, C.2011, C.2048, C.2044, C.2027, C.2022, C.2063, C.2094, C.2071, C.2017 and C.2003) were located in the east of the site. Six pits occur in close proximity, three of which, C.2063, C.2094 and 2017 are trun- cated by cultivation furrow C.2029 (Group 2I). These three pits are substantial and range in dimensions from 1.21 m to 1.13 m in diameter. Depths are between 0.56 m and 0.29 m. None of the pit bases showed evidence of burning, and there were no artefacts or an indication of the pits’ function recovered from any of the fills. The three other potentially associated pits (C.2048, C.2044 and C.2022) were also large. Pit C.2044 measured 1.8 m by 1.43 m by 0.52 m in depth. A flat stone was found in the upper fill, C.2045. A probable animal burrow, C.2046, truncated the upper (C.2045) and secondary fill (C.2081). There was no evidence recovered to indicate the pit’s func- tion. Pit C. 2022 measured 1.05 m by 1 m by 0.3 m in depth. Large stones were included in the pit’s single fill (C.2018). Pit C.2048 was the smallest at 0.67 m by 0.55 m by 0.29 m in depth. A flat stone was located on the base. In common with the other pits, there was no evidence of burning and no indication to indicate the pit’s original function. Pit C.2003 measures 0.7 m by 0.6 m by 0.5 m in depth. It is truncated by cultiva- tion furrow C.2007 (Group 2I). There was no indication of its function recovered from the pit’s single fill (C.2004). Pit C.2017 was shallow at 0.15 m but measured 1 m by 0.71 m. Again there was no indication of its function evident from its topsoil-like single fill (C.2016). Pits C.2041 measured 1.25 m by 1 m by 0.45 m, but again, none of its five fills (C.2042, C.2052 and C.2053, C.2054 and C.2055) indicate the pit’s function. Pit C.2011 measured 1.7 m by 0.73 m by 0.34 m and it was oval in plan and the break of slope top was sharp. All sides were steep and concave and the break of slope base was gradual. The base was oval and concave in profile. The upper fill, C.2012, comprised of loose dark greyish black pebbly sand with occasional medium angular and moderate coarse sub-angular pebbles. Occasional medium angular stones and charcoal flecks were also included. The basal fill, C.2019, was somewhat similar but included finer stones and charcoal. Some burning was also evident. A cereal sample taken from the upper pit fill, C.2012 returned a 13th–14th century date. Pit C.2071 measured 1.13 m by 0.06 m by 0.33 m in depth. It was the most south- erly example of the group and occurred just inside the excavation limit. The single fill (C.2072) was blackened and it may have been a refuse pit. Pit C.2013 measured 0.98 m by 0.67 m by 0.15 m and it occurred in close proximity to hearth C.2006. Pit C.2083 measured 1.55 m by 1 m by 0.35 m in depth. Three fills were recorded in the feature C.2044, C.2095 and C.2096 but were considered to have been102
  • 113. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/disturbed, possibly by small animal activity. It was also suggested that the pit was possiblyused for the disposal of refuse. Pit C.2030 occurred 3 m inside the northern extremity of the site. It was a substantialpit measuring 1.24 m by 0.92 m by 0.33 m in depth. The break of slope on top was sharp,the sides were moderate and concave on northeast and southeast; steep and undercut onthe southwest; vertical and smooth on the northwest. The break of slope base was imper-ceptible. The base was flat in profile. Charcoal was recovered from the upper fill, C.2031,and a burnt quartzite hone stone, dated to the early medieval period, was recovered fromthe basal fill, C.2059. There was no evidence of burning within the pit. It is evident from the stratigraphy that at least three pits of the pits from this group(10U) pre-date cultivation furrows of Group 2I. But there is little direct evidence leadingto any definite conclusion regarding the pits’ functions. But many of the pits are care-fully dug. They are also deep and potentially relate to domestic or agricultural activitieson the site.Isolated pits (Group 10W)This group comprised nine isolated pits (C.517, C.611, C.563, C.2178, C.112, C.293,C.546, C.505 and C.1039) and apart from pit C.2178, none are obviously associated withother feature types. Many of the isolated pits are potentially related to domestic disposal. Pit C.517 occurs in semi-isolation. It measured 1 m by 0.98 m by 0.3 m in depth. Itis located 3 m west of proposed kiln C.519. There was no evidence to suggest its functionfrom its single sandy soil fill (C.516). Pit C.611 occurred at 382 m east immediately east of early modern ditch C.603. Itmeasured 0.4 m by 0.31 m by 0.2 m in depth. Although the single fill (C.612) is black-ened, there was no evidence of charcoal returned from sieving. A large pit, C.563 occurred at 402 m east between early modern ditches C.524 andC.543. It measured 1.7 m by 1.3 m by 0.35 m in depth. The upper fill, C.562, consisted ofa soft dark greyish brown sandy silt with occasional fine and medium pebbles inclusionsand moderate charcoal flecks. The basal fill, C.577, was charcoal rich and occurred abovea burnt base. Pit C.2178 is located at 337 m east in close proximity to potential posthole C. 2187(Group 8U). It measures 0.84 by 0.53 by 0.24 in depth. There were two fills, C.2179 andC.2182 but no evidence of the pit’s function. Pit C.112 is located at 331 m east, approximately 3 m west of posthole C214 of (Group8S). It measures 0.66 m by 0.31 m by 0.24 m in depth. It was obviously a well dug regularpit but its single fill (C.111) provided no evidence of its function. Pit C.293 was located at 95 m east, 3 m northwest of kiln C.291. The feature meas-ured 0.75 m by 0.5 m by 0.25 m in depth. Three fills were recorded, C.292, C.308 andC.309. It is probable that a considerable amount of iron panning had occurred in the pitcut. There was no evidence of burning. 103
  • 114. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Pit C.546 occurred in isolation at 437 m east, approximately 3 m inside the excava- tion limit. The pit was large, measuring 1.8 m by 1.3 m by 0.31 in depth. Charcoal was recovered from its single fill, C.547. Pit C.505 occurred at 506 m east. It was large and circular measuring 1.3 m in diam- eter but shallow at 0.15 m. Iron panning occurred at the base of the single fill (C.504). Pit C.1039 occurred at 243 m east of ditch C.43. It occurs immediately adjacent to early modern ditch C.43. The single fill of C.43, C.42, partially covered C.1040, fill of pit C.1039. The pit measured 0.71 m by 0.57 m by 0.23 m in depth. There was a gradual break of slope at top and base. Its sides were concave and sloped moderately. The base was sub-circular in plan and concave in profile. Its single fill, C.1040, comprised of loose, dark black silty sand with frequent inclusions of large sub-angular stones and large charcoal pieces. A burnt quartzite quern stone fragment, dated to the medieval period, was recov- ered from its single fill, C.1040. Shallow and burnt pits (features from Group 10Y and 10X) Shallow and burnt pits (C.501, C.513, C.59 and C.86) were classified as part of Group 10Y. Pit C. 501 measured 1 m by 0.7 m but was only 0.03 m in depth. It was semi-isolated and located at 487 m east, away from other activities. Its single fill (C.500) did produce a low charcoal return. Pit C.513 occurred at 513 m east and measured 3.16 m by 2.67 m by 0.26 m in depth. There was evidence of burning at the pit base. Its single fill, C.520, was a soft dark greyish black silty sand. A moderate amount of pebbles and small pieces of charcoal of charcoal were included in the fill. Both pits C.501 and C.513 probably represent the remains of vegetation burning from an unknown period but are more than likely modern. Pit C.59 occurred in relative isolation. It was a large but shallow pit at 1.29 m by 0.76 m by 0.04 m in depth. Its single fill (C.60) returned a high charcoal content. Shallow pit C.59 is also probably related to field clearance, as is pit C.86. Pit C.86 was located at 240 m east, directly beneath the northern limit of the excava- tion, making excavation difficult. The basal fill, C.92, comprised of burn sand. This was probably burnt natural. A high charcoal content was recovered from sieving of a second- ary fill, C.85.The feature was not fully excavated. Pits located to the south of kiln C.2180 (features from Group 10Y and 10X) Another three pits (C.2146, C.2148 and C.2123) comprised shallow scorched deposits on the surface. They are located 1 m to 4 m directly south of kiln C.2180. The pit C.2146 measured 2.1 m by 1.1 m. by only 0.08 m in depth. It was irregular in plan with indis- cernible breaks of slope at top and base. All sides were irregular and sloped gently. The base was irregular in plan and concave in profile. Burnt materials were recorded in the fill, C.2147. Feature C.2146 is truncated by proposed early modern ditch C.2114 (see Plate 15). Another pit/deposit C.2123 measured 1.7 m by 0.8 m and was truncated by cultiva- tion furrow C.2121. The third example, C.2148, measured 0.47 m by 0.38 m. Neither are strictly pits but shallow spreads of burnt clay.104
  • 115. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/ C.2146, c.2148 and C.2132 are potentially related to the practice of ‘paning and burn-ing’. Probably originating during the early modern period, the practice of removing sod,piling and burning, continued in Ireland up to the mid 19th century. Its purpose was toproduce fertilizer. Often the result of such practices needed to be dried for storage and/orspreading. Kiln C.2180 occurs in close proximity.Group 11: HearthsSubgroup A Hearths and Subgroup B FillsSubgroup Description Context No.No.Subgroup A Hearths C.4 C.127 C.239 C.269 C.2006 C.561Subgroup B Fill of subgroup A C.3 C.126 C.169 C170 C.171 C.238 C.243 C.245 C.249 C.257 C.268 C.273 C.274 C.2005 C.2020 C.564 C.582Hearth subgroups Hearth C.4 was aligned east-west and measured 0.98 m by 0.33 m by 0.12 m in depth.It was located 1 m north of pit C.83 (Group 10S) the fill of which (C.82) also producedslag. The hearth was roughly 8-shaped in plan. There was a gradual break of slope at top;the sides were concave and sloped gently. There was evidence of scorching in the naturalsubsoil. There were two chambers, with one used as a hearth. It contained a single fill(C.3) of loose dark grey sand with small sub-angular stone inclusions. There were frequentinclusions of medium and small charcoal pieces. Iron slag was also identified on a base offlat stones, which potentially indicate iron working in situ. Hearth C.4 was located between medieval ditches C.168 and C.157. The hearth is inclose proximity to cultivation furrows, particularly to furrow C.1087 (Group 2E). It isexpected that contemporary industrial activity would be concentrated in or close to somestructure or perhaps close to enclosing ditch C.297. But hearth C.4 is located 60 m east ofthe nearest structure and 40 m east of the enclosing ditch (C.297). Neither pit C.83 norhearth C.4 has been destroyed by cultivation in an intensely tilled area so therefore thefeature may post-date the cultivation system. Hearth C.127 was located directly inside the northern excavation limit, approximate-ly 14 m northeast of hearth C.4. Measurements are 1.43 m by 1.26 m by 0.3 m in depth.The break of slope at top was sharp on the north, east, northeast and northwest andgradual elsewhere. Its sides were stepped and sloped steeply. The break of slope at the basewas gradual. Its base was sub-circular in plan and flat in profile. It showed substantialevidence of burning. The feature is truncated by furrow C.1010 (see Figure 17). The basal fill, C.171 was a soft dark brownish black clayey silt. Frequent inclusions ofsmall pieces were recorded on site. A middle fill C.170 was a compact mid greyish brownsilty sand and the next middle fill C.126 comprised of a firm dark yellowish brown sandyclay, with moderate inclusions of medium sub-angular pebbles and frequent inclusions ofcharcoal flecks and small pieces. The upper fill, C.169, was a compact mid greyish brown 105
  • 116. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort clayey sand with moderate inclusions of medium and coarse sub-angular pebbles and charcoal flecks. No artefacts were recovered from the fills Although no evidence of industrial or domestic activity was recovered from the fills (C.126, C.169, C.170 and C.171) of hearth C.127, there is ample evidence, from the scorched subsoil and charcoal rich fill, of intense burning within the feature. In common with hearth C.4, it is located some distance from any of the proposed structures and the medieval enclosing ditch C.297. Cultivation furrows in this part of the Park 1 site are deemed to be contemporary with the medieval field system. But as hearth C.127 is trun- cated by a cultivation furrow (C.1010) it may pre-date this particular field system. Hearth C.239 was set 122 m east and 4 m inside the northern limit of the excavated area. It was found 5 m east of Structure 5 and 8 m north of Structure 2 and it measured 1.77 m by 1.2 m by 0.35 m in depth. Sub-rectangular in plan, with rounded corners, there was a sharp break of slope at top. Its sides were smooth and sloped vertically on the southwest and steeply elsewhere. The break of slope at the base was gradual; its base was sub-rectangular in plan and flat in profile. The basal fill, C.249, comprised of burnt clay, this was covered by C.245, a charcoal rich fill. Re-deposited natural (C.243) covered the charcoal, which in turn was covered by another charcoal rich fill, C.257. Stratigraphic evidence demonstrates that this hearth C.239 was re-used on at least one occasion. Its lo- cation in the general vicinity of Structures 2, 3 and 5 suggest that they are contemporary. Hearth C.269 was located at 168 m east and 1 m north of enclosing ditch C.297. It was sub-circular with a diameter of 0.6 m and was 0.4 m in depth. Its west side was stepped and sloped gently, the east side was concave and sloped steeply, and the north and south sides were concave and sloped moderately. The break of slope at base was gradual. The base was flat in profile. The upper fill C.268 was a compact mid greyish brown clayey sand. Secondary fill C.273 was a loose dark brownish black sand. Of the three recorded fills, only the basal fill, C.274 showed evidence of burning. There was no direct evidence to suggest the function of hearth C.269 but its location in close proximity to enclosing ditch C.297 and to posthole C.267 may indicate that they are associated. Hearth C.2006 was located approximately 12 m west of medieval ditch C.2112. It measured 1.16 m by 1.1 m by 0.16 m in depth. The break of slope on top and base was gradual. Its sides are gentle and concave, the base was concave in profile. A charcoal rich fill, C.2020, was set beneath an alluvial fill, C.2005. Hearth C.2006 is set in semi-isolation. It is suggested that, in common with other hearths (C.4 and C.127) located in this area, where cultivation furrows are also found, that the hearths pre-date the cultivation system. Hearth C.561 was located 1 m south of the northern excavation limit and approxi- mately 15 m northeast of early modern ditch C.453. The pit measured 0.58 m by 0.7 m and was 0.15 m in depth. The break of slope on top and base was gradual; its sides were gentle and smooth. The base was sub-circular in plan and concave in profile. Slag and charcoal was recovered from upper fill C.564, which was a firm dark black sandy silt with occasional fine and medium sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles inclusions. Moderate flecks and medium pieces of charcoal were also present. There were occasional small and106
  • 117. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/frequent large pieces of charcoal also. The basal fill, C.582, described as mid reddish or-ange sand is probably burnt natural; indicating that intense heat had occurred within thecit. The feature has been described by specialist Dr Young, as a good example of an ironsmelting furnace. It was truncated by cultivation furrow C.583 (Group 2O).Group 12: Modern Agricultural FeaturesSubgroups A, C and E and Fill Subgroups B and CSubgroup No. Description Context No.Subgroup A Cattle feeder C.607 depressionSubgroup B Fill of Subgroup A C.608Subgroup C 4 Modern driven posts C.580 C.526 C.521 C.587Subgroup D Fills of Subgroup S C.581 C.527 C.522 C.588Subgroup E 1 Modern service pole C.2118 C.2092 C.2091Modern agriculture subgroups C.607 represents an approximately 2 m circular depression resulting from the placingof a modern tubular metal cattle feeder. The depression partly covered early modern ditchC.605. A row of postholes were identified running parallel to and immediately west of mod-ern ditch C.503. Following the excavation of postholes C.580, C.526, C.521, a modern ma-chine cut post stump with modern barbed wire attached was found at the base of C.587. C.2188, represent the base of a modern service pole. C.2092 and C.2091 represent thecut and fill of the feature. Animal bone was recovered from the fill (C.2091) All features of Group 13 and Subgroups A, B, C, D and E are associated with recentevents on the site at Park.Group 13: Linear FeatureSubgroup A Linear Feature and Subgroup B Fill Subgroup No. Description Context No. Subgroup A 1 linear feature C.2203 Subgroup B Fill C.2032Linear feature subgroups A linear feature, C.2203 extended in a north to south direction for 17 m. It measured0.26 m wide by 0.04 m in depth. It truncated a secondary fill (C.2186) of pit C.2174,which extends to the surface on the eastern side of the pit. It was originally thought thatC.2203 represented a cultivation furrow but there are no similar furrows in the immedi-ate vicinity and a roughly corresponding feature appears on the first edition OS maps.This feature extends southwards outside the limits of the excavation. 107
  • 118. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Group 14: Cremation Pit Cremation Feature Subgroup A and Fill Subgroup B Subgroup No. Description Context No. Subgroup A 1 Cremation pit C.272 Subgroup B Fill of Subgroup A C.271 Cremation pit subgroulps One cremation pit (C.272, see Plate 3) was excavated at this site. It was set in the midst of cultivation furrows of Group 2A. There was no stratigraphic relationship with any other feature. The pit was oval in plan and measured 0.76 m by 0.52 m by 0.37 m in depth. The break of slope on top was sharp on the northern, western and southwestern sides. It was gradual elsewhere. The eastern side was stepped and sloped gently. The north, south and west sides were smooth and sloped vertically. Break of slope at base was sharp; the base was circular in plan and concave in profile. The single fill, C.271, was a loose dark brownish black silty sand. There were fre- quent inclusions of fine and medium rounded and coarse sub-rounded pebbles. Small sub-rounded stones, bone and charcoal flecks were also recovered in moderate quantities. Moderate inclusions of medium sub-rounded and large sub-angular stones, medium and large bone pieces and small charcoal pieces were also recovered. There were occasional inclusions of medium and large charcoal pieces. Specialist analysis of the recovered bone determined it to be cremated and belonging to a human adult. Radiocarbon dating of a sample has placed the cremation at 1300–1118 BC, during the Middle Bronze Age. The locality in which the C.272 cremation was identified was thoroughly searched for accompanying cremated burials but nothing was found. Due to the close proximity of cultivation furrows in the vicinity it is possible that similar features had been destroyed. The finding of a Middle Bronze Age cremation burial at Park 1 firmly confirms human activity on the site more than 3000 years ago. Group 15: Tree Bowl / Root and Animal Burrows Tree Bowl / Root Disturbance / Animal Burrow Subgroups A and C and Subgroup B Fills Subgroup Description Context No. No. Subgroup A Tree / root pit / C.20 C.512 C.102 C.2126 C.2051 C.2076 C.207 bowl C.186 C.244 C.252 C.375 C.376 C.392 C.360 C.552 C.591 C.229 C.10 C.64 C.139 C.175 C.197 C.202 C.360 C.374 C.376 C.392 C.407 C.425 C.460 C.2037 C.2024 C.2056 C.2066 C.2117 C.2140 C.2195108
  • 119. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/ Subgroup Description Context No. No. Subgroup B Fills of Subgroup C.19 C.88 C.511 C.96 C.2127 C.2043 C.234 A C.206 C.187 C.251 C.253 C.254 C.255 C.256 C.374 C.377 C.391 C.395 C.396 C.407 C.359 C.553 C.565 C.578 C.2023 C.9 C.63 C.140 C.141 C.142 C.176 C.183 C.203 C.344 C.345 C.359 C.375 C.377 C.391 C.395 C.396 C.406 C.417 C.416 C.424 C.428 C.456 C.457 C.458 C.459 C.466 C.553 C.565 C.578 C.591 C.2023 C.2038 C.2039 C.2040 C.2036 C.2050 C.2057 C.2067 C.2116 C.2128 C.2129 C.2130 C.2131 C.2141 C.2149 C.2150 C.2194 C.2077 C.221 C.233 Subgroup C Animal burrow/ C.445 C.429 C.2046 roots Subgroup D Fills of Subgroup C.427 C.426 C.2047 CTree bowl, root activity and animal burrow subgroups Thirty-seven features at Park 1 were deemed to result from the removal or otherwise oftrees, shrubs and roots. The features are spread across the site and are not confined to anyparticular area. Charcoal was recovered by sieving from three of the features, C.20, C.512and C.102. A natural chunk of quartz crystal was found in a fill (C.19) of tree root bowlC.20. Many of the features are not large and are only indicative of small shrub growth. It is probable that the sandy nature and colour of the subsoil at Park increased thevisibility of all past disturbances. Blackish irregular linear or pit-like features, often disap-pearing beneath the surface, were all investigated. Trees and even small shrubs growing on soft sandy soil need to send down tap rootsto secure their balance. This may explain why so many features at Park seem to resemblethis process. There was no indication of the period to which the features belonged. Theypotentially span the period of site occupation. According to Scannell and Synnott (1987),oak, ash, hawthorn and aspen are the most common trees in the North Tipperary area. C.445 and C.429 were found to be related to small animal burrowing. Both featureswere located at 153 m east, directly west of medieval ditch C.297. Animal burrow C.2046truncated a secondary fill (C.2081) of pit C.2044. Evidence of burrowing was foundthroughout the site but was usually recognized as such and not archaeologically recorded. 109
  • 120. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Group 16: Natural Hollows, Non Archaeological and Void Numbers Natural Hollow, Non-Archaeological and Void Subgroups A, C and E and Fill Subgroups B and D Subgroup Description Context No. No. Subgroup A Natural hollows C.16 C.30 C.81 C.136 C.277 C.287 C.320 C.384 C.461 C.528 C.541 C.555 C.568 C.592 C.1049 C.2064 C.2069 C.2080 C.2120 C.2132 C.2193 C.571 C.2089 C.103 Subgroup B Fills of Subgroup A C.15 C.29 C.34 C.74 C.137 C.275 C.276 C.286 C.288 C.289 C.304 C.317 C.319 C.383 C.462 C.529 C.542 C.556 C.569 C.2065 C.2068 C.2075 C.2119 C.2133 C.572 C.579 C.2090 C.104 Subgroup C Non archaeological C.66 C.123 C.196 C.215 C.232 C.235 C.299 C.301 C.323 C.329 C.339 C.343 C.347 C.354 C.148 C.593 C.147 C.71 Subgroup D Fills of Subgroup C C.65 C.69 C.121 C.122 C.125 C.172 C.195 C.209 C.217 C.218 C.220 C.222 C.231 C.236 C.237 C.298 C.300 C.310 C.315 C.328 C.327 C.326 C.338 C.342 C.354 C.348 C.355 C.420 C.415 C.594 C.148 C.70 Subgroup E Void numbers C.113 C.114 C.115 C.322 C.333 C.324 C.325 C.326 C.353 C.357 C.361 C.378 C.379 C.413 C.414 C.421 C.443 C.444 C.463 C.464 C.470 C.548 C.549 C.601 C.575 C.576 C.589 C.590 Natural, non-archaeological and void numbers sub-groups Twenty-four recorded features were deemed to be natural hollows in the subsoil (C.2). These were generally shallow depressions of varying dimensions filled with topsoil. Eighteen features at Park were deemed to be non-archaeological following excavation. Included are light root disturbance and colour variations in the sandy subsoil.110
  • 121. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/Appendix 4: Stone ToolsBy Anne CareyTwelve stones were examined from Park 1, as part of the stone tool specialist analy-sis. They comprised ten rotary quern fragments, one whet stone and one saddle quern.The rotary quern was represented in largely fragmented form but three of the stones aredecorated. Rotary querns are generally represented in the find inventories of medieval sites in Ire-land and throughout Europe. In terms of their occurrence and use in Ireland, the rotaryquern was introduced from the first or second century A.D. (Caulfield 1969, 61). Some work that has been carried out on rotary quernstones in Ireland (Bennett andElton 1898, Curwen 1937, Caulfield 1966 and 1969) and the results are valuable espe-cially in their dating and typological discussions. In terms of technological innovation,the rotary quern represents a significant departure from earlier grain processing methods.Previously a to- and -fro grinding motion was employed, where the grain was placed ona broad lower stone and crushed, and ground to flour by a smaller hand held rubbingstone. The most common implement employed for carrying out this process was the sad-dle quern, known from agricultural communities as early as 7000 B.C. in the Near East.The introduction in the Iron Age of the rotary quern, with its revolving upper stone, wasto have far reaching implications for the processing of grain, although the adoption ofthe new technology did not see the immediate dispatch of the less advanced quern. Theywere to work simultaneously, sometimes on the same sites, as at Cahercommaun andBallinderry 2 for a short period (Connolly 1994, 32). The rotary principle, employed in both the rotary quern and the mill, involves thecrushing of grain between two circular stones, with the upper one revolving upon thelower. The upper stone was perforated centrally and it was through a spindle (originallywooden but later with metal components), set in the lower stone and fitted into the cen-tral perforation of the upper stone, that the mechanism was securely linked. Much workhas been done on the classification of rotary querns. Three main types of rotary quernhave been identified (Caulfield 1966). These are beehive, disc and pot querns. The standards of dressing on quernstones varies considerably. Some are exquisitelyfinished with added decoration of either secular or religious significance, while othersare neatly finished but quite plain. The preparation and maintenance of the grindingsurfaces was of greatest priority. The grinding surfaces had to be rough in order to grindeffectively and this was done by pecking the surfaces giving random pockmarks. Con-tinual use wore down the working surfaces, giving a smooth finish, which necessitated are-pecking, though many stones still retain a smooth/worn strip around the outer edge ofthe grinding surface. Decorated stones are known throughout the country and are preserved in many arte-fact collections. They are also known from excavation contexts with dates ranging fromthe thirteenth to the seventeenth centuries. The reasons why quernstones were inscribed 111
  • 122. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort with cross shapes appears not to be merely decorative but to be related to restrictions on milling among the tenants of medieval monasteries or manors. A tax was exacted from the tenants, who were obliged to bring their grain to be ground at the local watermill and raids to discover unauthorized private querns were carried out. Any querns discovered would be either broken or brought to the monastery. A cross inscribed quern indicated the quern was in the ownership of the monastery. The rotary querns from Park 1 had sustained much damage, to the extent that the diameters of the grinding stones could not be estimated. The working surfaces survive on all of the stones, though in a fractured state in some examples. Nine of the stones are up- per stones of Disc C type and central perforations are preserved in five of these. Handle holes survive in two examples, though the most interesting of the stones in two fragments (Park 1 E3659:1:9 and 10) has one complete handle hole and two incomplete handle holes apparently on the ‘3’, ‘6’, ‘9’, ‘12’ axis. There is also a cross shaped decoration on this quern. Two other stones bear incised lines though it is unclear what the complete pattern would have been. One lower stone of a Disc C quern survives in a fractured state. The dressing of the stone is uniformly simple, random pockmarking. A fine example of a saddle quern was also examined. The saddle quern precedes the rotary quern in dating and their use did not overlap notably, with the saddle quern quickly being replaced by the more technologically advanced rotary quern. The artifact examined followed the established pattern of a plain simply executed grinding stone. The example was intact. It appears that it was deliberately dressed and shaped on its sides. The dressing of the working/grinding surfaces of the stone was very simple. The stone wasn’t significantly worn (30mm depth) and the grinding surface was quite smooth, with random pockmarks. A simple whet stone is also among the assemblage. Disc Querns The disc quern was first introduced to Ireland in the first or second century A.D. and continued in use until modern times. It has a widespread distribution. This type of ro- tary quern consists of two flat, thin circular discs of large diameter. The upper and lower stones are further subdivided on two bases. The first relates to the spindle setting in the lower stone. The spindle setting can be a complete perforation, where the lower stone is bored through completely, or it can be a socket, that holds the spindle on which the upper stone revolves. The second subdivision concerns the handle-hole in the upper stone, of which three types have been identified. The first, called Disc A, has an angled perfora- tion from the top of the stone to the side, which would possibly have been strung through with rope. The second type is called Disc B, with a socket bored partly into the upper surface into which a handle would have loosely fitted. The third type is Disc C, where the handle-hole is a complete perforation into which a handle would have been fixed.112
  • 123. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/Whet StonesWhet stones are hard, medium or fine grained stones used for sharpening or honing tools.A distinction is sometimes made between a whet stone and a hone, on the basis that ahone is used for fine sharpening and they are almost exclusively fine grained stones. Theycan also be perforated to allow them to be hung on a belt. Though the occurrence on sitesin Ireland of whet stones and hones has not been the subject of much study, they havebeen mentioned in finds inventories over a wide period and sharpening tools in generalcan be numerous on medieval sites in particular. The geology of the stone is important inthe choice of a stone, though re-used roof tiles have also been utilised as whet stones, andportability of the stone was probably also a factor.Saddle QuernsSaddle querns have been found on an interesting range of archaeological sites in Irelandfrom the Neolithic to the Iron Age. There is nothing predictable about their occurrencein Ireland and their presence on some site types is as curious as their absence from others.This is all the more interesting when it is considered that saddle querns occur in abun-dance all over the world as part of the agricultural tool kit. A number of factors may haveaffected the picture in Ireland. In the past excavators did not always distinguish betweena ‘quern’ and a ‘mill’, considering these terms to be interchangeable (Bennett and Elton1898, 135). Also, querns from excavated contexts were not always included in the pub-lished reports and when they were, they were given only cursory attention. The increasednumber of sites excavated in recent years has yielded a significant number of saddle quernsand consequently a more complete picture is emerging of the use, distribution and dateof these stone tools. The first evidence for the use of saddle querns in Ireland comes from the Neolithicperiod. Excavations at the Neolithic house at Ballygalley, Co. Antrim yielded nine saddlequerns, with three from definite Neolithic contexts. The excavation record of the BronzeAge, particularly the Late Bronze Age, shows a marked increase in the instances of saddlequerns from a variety of sites. Saddle querns were most numerous from crannog sites,particularly Lough Eskragh, Co. Tyrone, which yielded thirty seven querns, but theywere also associated with a Late Bronze Age house at Carrigillihy, Co. Cork (O’Kelly,1951, 69-86). There is some but limited evidence of their occurrence on Iron Age sites.The distribution of saddle querns in Ireland is mainly an eastern one, though there is alsoan interesting coastal occurrence. It is perhaps an inevitable element of artefact study that the finest examples oftenbelonged to private collections from the nineteenth and early twentieth century. This iscertainly true of saddle querns and no excavated example has to date been as impressivelydressed as those seen in the antiquarian’s collections. These collections, currently housedin both the National Museum of Ireland and the Ulster Museum in Belfast, are oftenlacking in provenance details and rarely record the context of the discovery, thereby being 113
  • 124. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort of limited use in distribution or dating. The saddle quern itself is an unreliable chrono- logical indicator, given its long period of use and instances of later re-use. Catalogue Park 1 E3659, C 1, Find 11 Rotary quern fragement. Roughly square shaped fragment of the upper stone of a rotary quern. The working surface is flat and well dressed with neat pockmarks and the top is roughly dressed. No original sides survive. A portion of the central perforation survives as a well dressed, broad arc. Dimension: Diameter: Inestimatable. L 140mm, Wth 160mm, Th 40mm. Park 1 E3659, C 515, Find 1 Possible rotary quern fragement. Roughly triangular shaped fragment possibly of the upper stone of a rotary quern. The working surface is extensively fractured and no origi- nal part survives. The top and the sides of the stone appear roughly dressed. Dimension: Diameter: Inestimatable. L 160mm, Wth 150mm, Th 80mm. Park 1 E3659, C 536, Find 1 Rotary quern fragement. Roughly square shaped fragment of the upper stone of a ro- tary quern. The working surface is slightly concave and well dressed with neat pockmarks and the top and sides are roughly dressed. A portion of the central perforation survives as a well dressed, broad arc. Dimension: Diameter: Inestimatable. L 230mm, Wth 210mm, Th 50mm. Park 1 E3659, C 537, Find 2 Rotary quern fragement. Roughly triangular shaped fragment of the upper stone of a rotary quern. The working surface is flat and well dressed with neat pockmarks and the top and sides are well dressed. There are two incised curved lines on the upper surface, dividing the area. Dimension: Diameter: Inestimatable. L 260mm, Wth 140mm, Th 50mm. Park 1 E3659, C 515, Find 2 Rotary quern fragement. Irregular shaped fragment possibly of the upper stone of a rotary quern. The working surface is fractured but more than half of the original sur- vives. It is mainly flat and well dressed with neat pockmarks, rising to the outer rim. The top and sides are rough and fractured, with some dressing surviving along one side. Dimension: Diameter: Inestimatable. L 220mm, Wth 110mm, Th 40mm. Park 1 E3659, C 515, Find 3114
  • 125. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/ Rotary quern fragement. Roughly triangular shaped fragment of the upper stone ofa rotary quern. The working surface is flat and well dressed with neat pockmarks andthe top is well dressed, with a curving incised line cutting across the surface. No originalsides survive. A portion of the central perforation survives as a well dressed, broad arc.Dimension: Diameter: Inestimatable. L 140mm, Wth 150mm, Th 50mm. Park 1 E3659, C 502, Find 1 Rotary quern fragement. Roughly triangular shaped highly fractured fragment of theupper stone of a rotary quern. The working surface is rough and does not display muchwear. The top of the stone is generally rough, with a smooth section adjacent to the cen-tral perforation, a portion of which survives as a well dressed arc. A tiny portion of anoriginal side survives, well dressed and smooth. Dimension: Diameter: Inestimatable. L140mm, Wth 190mm, Th 50mm. Park 1 E3659, C 537, Find 3 Rotary quern fragement. Roughly triangular shaped fragment of the upper stone of arotary quern. The working surface is flat and worn with deep pockmarks, possibly frommineral weathering, with some wear sheen along the outer edge. The top and sides areconvex and roughly dressed, with the handle hole (Diam. 40Mm, Depth 40mm) surviv-ing as an incomplete perforation. A portion of the central perforation survives as a broadarc. Dimension: Diameter: Inestimatable. L 180mm, Wth 310mm, Th 50mm. Park 1 E3659, C 1, Find9 and 10 Rotary quern fragment. Roughly half of the upper stone of a rotary quern, in twoparts. The working surface is extensively fractured on one of the fragments and survivesas a flat and well dressed surface adjacent to the central perforation, which survives as awell dressed, broad arc defined by a raised rim on the upper surface. The other fragmenthas a well preserved working surface, which is flat, well dressed and displaying wear sheenadjacent to the outer rim. The top and sides are roughly dressed and show mineral weath-ering. Curving lines in relief survive on this surface, describing a simple cross shape,though they are weathered in common with the rest of the upper surface. The handlehole survives, as do two possible other handle holes (Diameter of each 40mm, Depth40mm). Dimension: Diameter: 470mm, Th 70mm. Park 1 E3659, C 87, Find 1 Rotary quern fragment. Large irregular shaped fragment of the lower stone of a ro-tary quern. The working surface is flat and well dressed with neat pockmarks and somewear sheen along the outer edge. It rises to the central perforation. The central perfora-tion (40mm, Depth 110mm) survives intact as a well dressed perforation of hour glassshape.The base and sides are rough and it appears no original sides survive. Dimension:Diameter: Inestimatable. L 444mm, Wth 300mm, Th 80mm. 115
  • 126. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Park 1 E3659, C 2198, Find 1 Whetstone. Roughly rectangular shaped stone. The working surface is flat with diagonal incised lines, also extending to one of the sides. No other markings or wear noted. Dimension: L 480mm, Wth 200mm, Th 80mm. Park 1 E3659, C 1006, Find 3 Saddle quern. Trapezoidal shaped saddle quern. The upper surface comprises a well dressed and smooth concave working surface (Dimensions L 380mm Wth 255mm, Depth 30mm) and a smooth top. The sides are rough and the base is flat and smooth. Dimen- sion: L 490mm, Wth 245mm, Th 60mm. Bibliography BENNETT, R. and ELTON, J. (1898) The History of Corn Milling, Vols. I and II, London. CAULFIELD, S. (1966) The Rotary Quern in Ireland. Unpublished PhD. Thesis, N.U.I., Dublin. CAULFIELD, S. (1969) ‘Some Quernstones in Private Possession in Co. Kerry’, JKAHS. Vol. 2, 59-73. CONNOLLY, A. (1994) ‘Saddle Querns in Ireland’, Ulster Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 57, 26-36. CURWEN, E.C. (1937) ‘Querns’, Antiquity Vol. 11, 129-51. O’KELLY, M. (1951) ‘An Early Bronze Age ringfort at Carrigillihy, Co. Cork’, JCHAS 56, 69-86.116
  • 127. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/Appendix 5: Lithics reportby Farina SternkeIntroductionTwenty-four lithic finds from the archaeological investigations of a multi-period site atPark 1, Co. Tipperary were presented for analysis (Table 1). The finds are associated witha possible circular house with associated pits, hearths, post holes and stake holes as well asa number of kilns, metalworking pits and medieval ditches.MethodologyAll lithic artefacts are examined visually and catalogued using Microsoft Excel. The fol-lowing details are recorded for each artefact which measures at least 2 cm in length orwidth: context information, raw material type, artefact type, the presence of cortex, arte-fact condition, length, with and thickness measurements, fragmentation and the type ofretouch (where applicable). The technological criteria recorded are based on the terminol-ogy and technology presented in Inizan et al. 1999. The general typological and morpho-logical classifications are based on Woodman et al. 2006. Struck lithics smaller than 2 cmare classed as debitage and not analysed further, unless they represent pieces of techno-logical or typological significance, e.g. cores etc. The same is done with natural chunks.QuantificationThe lithics are three flaked pieces of flint, one flaked piece of chert and eighteen modifiedpieces of quartzite (Table 1). In addition, one natural chunk of flint and one natural pieceof quartz crystal were also presented for analysis. Twenty-one artefacts are larger than 2 cm in length and width were therefore recordedin detail.ProvenanceThe lithic artefacts were recovered from the topsoil and various pit, ditch and kiln fills.Condition:Three lithics (E3659:1:1-3) survive in patinated condition and bear the remnants of cortex.The remaining eighteen artefacts are all burnt. Sixteen of these artefacts are incomplete(Table 1).Technology/Morphology:The artefacts are three flakes, one piece of debitage and eighteen various macro tools. 117
  • 128. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Thickn. (mm) Find Number Length (mm) Width (mm) Condition Complete Material Retouch Context Cortex Type E3659:1:1 1 Flint Flake Yes Patinated 24 36 9 Yes No E3659:1:2 1 Flint Flake Yes Patinated 35 34 10 Yes No E3659:1:3 1 Flint Flake Yes Patinated 45 43 13 Yes No E3659:1:5 1 Quartzite Rubbing Stone Burnt 46 43 42 No No E3659:1:6 1 Quartzite Rubbing Stone Burnt 120 44 45 Yes No E3659:1:7 1 Quartzite Rubbing Stone Burnt 81 42 37 Yes No E3659:1:8 2 Quartzite Quern Stone Burnt 266 86 35 No No Fragment E3659:19:1 19 Quartz Natural Chunk Crystal E3659:38:1 38 Quartzite Rubbing Stone Burnt 104 56 46 No No E3659:38:2 38 Quartzite Rubbing Stone Burnt 73 45 47 No No E3659:38:3 38 QuartziteHone Stone Burnt 75 57 30 No No E3659:38:4 38 QuartziteQuern Stone Burnt 118 83 68 No No Fragment E3659:38:5 38 Quartzite Quern Stone Burnt 226 154 51 No No Fragment E3659:38:6 38 Quartzite Quern Stone Burnt 247 195 81 No No Fragment E3659:46:2 46 Quartzite Hone Stone Burnt 137 43 42 No No E3659:110:1 110 Quartzite Rubbing Stone Burnt 77 75 58 No No E3659:223:1 223 Chert Debitage E3659:302:2 302 Quartzite Hone Stone Burnt 120 73 33 No No E3659:475:1 475 Flint Natural Chunk E3659:537:1 537 Quartzite Quern Stone Burnt 133 112 69 No No Fragment? E3659:1006:1 1006 Quartzite Quern Stone Burnt 118 111 58 No No Fragment? E3659:1006:2 1006 Quartzite Rubbing Stone Burnt 268 155 101 No No E3659:1040:1 1040 Quartzite Quern Stone Burnt 195 143 76 No No Fragment E3659:2059:1 2059 Quartzite Hone Stone? Burnt 127 35 23 No No Table 1 Composition of the Lithic Assemblage from Park 1 (E3659) (refits are shown in red) Flakes The three flakes ((E3659:1:1-3) ) in the assemblage are all made of flint and refit into parts of a nodule. The flakes appear to have been produced using the bipolar-on-an-anvil method. The flint is of poor quality and may have been already weakened by frost. The flakes measure between 24 mm and 45 mm long (Fig. 1) and date to the Early Bronze Age period (O’Hare 2005).118
  • 129. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/ 220 200 180 160 140 Width (mm) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 Length (mm) Flake Hone Stone Rubbing Stone Quern Stone FragmentFigure 1 Dimensions (mm) of the Assemblage Components from Park 1 (E3659)DebitageThe presence of one piece of chert debitage (E3659:223:1) suggests that knapping/toolresharpening may have taken place at the site.Macro Tools:A total of eighteen macro tools were recovered during the excavations. They are all madeof quartzite and can be divided into three groups: four hone stones, seven rubbing stonesand seven quern stone fragments. Unfortunately, no detailed research into the use of macro tools, particularly rubbingand hammer stones, in Irish prehistory has so far been undertaken.Hone StonesThree hone stones (E3659:38:3, E3659:46:2 and E3659:302:2) and another possible exam-ple (E3659:2059:1) were identified in the assemblage. With the exception of one example,all hone stones are elongated and rectangular in shape and are flattened and smoothenedon at least three sides with one or two heavily worn edges. Artefact E3659:46:2 is anunusual conical, elongated hone stone which is smoothened on its entire circumference. The hone stones measure between 75 mm and 137 mm long (Fig. 1). Hone stonesare associated with the re-sharpening of metal tools. These examples appear to be highlystandardized in size and shape and most likely date the Early Medieval period. 119
  • 130. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Rubbing Stones The seven rubbing stones (E3659:1-7, E3659:38:1-2, E3659:110:1 and E3659:1006:2) are flattened and smoothened on at least one side/surface. Some of the rubbing stones are most likely associated with food production, e.g. manos. Rubbing stone E3659:1006:2 appears to be a large mano. It is loaf shaped and heavily smoothened and flattened on one side. It measures 268 mm long, 155 mm wide and 101 mm thick. The other rubbing stones measure between 46 mm and 120 mm long (Fig. 1). Many of the rubbing stone are probably Bronze Age in date. Quern Stone Fragments Five burnt quern stone fragments (E3659:1:8, E3659:38:4-6 and E3659:1040:1) and two further possible examples (E3659:537:1 and E3659:1006:1) were recovered at the site. Three quern stone fragments (E3659:1:8, E3659:38:5 and E3659:1040:1) derive from ro- tary examples. Two quern fragments (E3659:38:4 and E3659:1040:1) derive from the same rotary quern stone, but are not direct refits. The o quern stone fragments measure between 118 mm and 266 mm long (Fig. 1). The rotary quern stone fragments date to the medieval period, while the two possible quern stone fragments (E3659:537:1 and E3659:1006:1) are most likely Bronze Age in date. Dating: The assemblage has to be regarded typologically and technologically as a palimpsest in- cluding Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age and medieval elements. It can therefore be divided into two groups: (1) the three flakes, some of the rubbing stones and the two possible quern stone fragments appear to date to the Bronze Age; and the hone stones and remaining quern stone fragments including the rotary quern stone fragments date to the medieval period. Conservation Lithics do not require specific conversation, but should be stored in a dry, stable environ- ment. Preferably, each lithic should be bagged separately and contact with other lithics should be avoided, so as to prevent damage and breakage, in particular edge damage which could later be misinterpreted as retouch. Larger and heavier items are best kept in individual boxes to avoid crushing of smaller assemblage pieces. Comparative Material A similar assemblage was recovered at the nearby site of Drumbaun 2 (3912), Co. Offaly.120
  • 131. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/SummaryThe lithic finds from the archaeological excavation at Park 1, Co. Tipperary are threeflaked pieces of flint, one flaked piece of chert and eighteen modified pieces of quartzite.In addition, one natural chunk of flint and one natural piece of quartz crystal were alsopresented for analysis. The assemblage contains three flint flakes, a piece of chert debitage, four hone stones,seven rubbing stones and up to seven quern stone fragments. The assemblage is technologically and typologically diagnostic and comprises arte-facts from the Bronze Age (the flakes and some of the rubbing stones) and the medievalperiod (the hones stones and rotary quern stone fragments). The presence of the three flakes and one piece of debitage suggests that a limited lithicproduction took place at the site during the Early Bronze Age. This site makes a moderate contribution to the evidence for prehistoric and medievalsettlement and land use in Co. Tipperary.BibliographyInizan, M.-L., M. Reduron-Ballinger, H. Roche and J. Tixier 1999. Technology and Terminology of Knapped Stone 5. CREP, Nanterre.O’Hare, M. B., 2005. The Bronze Age Lithics of Ireland. Unpublished PhD Thesis. Queen’s University of Belfast.Woodman, P. C., Finlay, N. and E. Anderson, 2006. The Archaeology of a Collection: The Keiller-Knowles Collection of the National Museum of Ireland. National Museum of Ireland Monograph Series 2. Wordwell, Bray. 121
  • 132. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Appendix 6: Pottery report Helen Roche and Eoin Grogan Late Bronze Age flat-based coarse vessels The site produced a small assemblage of 49 sherds (4 rim-, 2 base-angle, 20 bodysherds and 23 fragments; total weight: 505g) representing two Late Bronze Age vessels (c. 1100– 800 BC). All sherds were recovered from pit C. 24 (see Table 1). Vessel 1 had a flat inward sloping rim and the rim of Vessel 2 was in-turned but the top surface was missing. The medium thick-walled fabric ranges from 9.0mm to 15.9 thick, is generally well-fired and hard with a medium to high content of inclusions. The exterior surfaces are weathered and rough to touch with small cavities present on both surfaces of Vessel 1. Slight traces of carbonised residue are present on the interior surface of Vessel 2 suggesting a domestic function. Vessel Type Feature Context Rim Base Body Frags Weight 1 Late Bronze Age Pit (C. 24) 23 3 2 19 22 468g 2 Late Bronze Age Pit (C. 24) 23 1 - 1 1 37g Total 4 2 20 23 505g Table 1� Prehistoric pottery details from Park 1 (E3659) Discussion This small assemblage with its possible association with a round house is an important ad- dition to our understanding of settlement distribution in this area of north Munster during the Late Bronze Age. Although this type of pottery has a very wide distribution throughout the country (Grogan and Roche 2010, 42) it is not commonly found in north Munster. Small assemblages have been found at Ballynamona 2, Co. Cork, prior to the construction of the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown Bypass (Roche and Grogan 2009) and at Hughes’ Lot-East site 25, Co. Tipperary, on the N8 Cashel Bypass (Grogan and Roche 2007). Large assemblages were found on several domestic sites at Lough Gur (Ó Ríordáin 1954; Grogan and Eogan 1987; Cleary 1995) and more recent discoveries include the enclosed settlement at Chancellorsland, Co. Tipperary (Doody 2008), a cemetery at Kilbane, Co. Limerick, and the hillfort at Mooghaun, Co. Clare (Grogan and Roche 2004; Grogan 2005). Assemblages were also found on the Late Bronze Age lakeshore settlements at Ballinderry 2 and Clonfinlough, Co. Offaly, and Knocknalappa, Co. Clare (Raftery 1942; Moloney et al. 1993, 42–47, 129–131; Grogan et al. 1999). Dates from sev- eral sites indicate that this pottery was in use from c. 1100–800 BC.122
  • 133. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/ReferencesCleary, R. 1995 Later Bronze Age Settlement and Prehistoric Burials, Lough Gur, Co. Limerick, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 95C, 1–92.Doody, M. 2008 The Ballyhoura Hills Project. Discovery Programme Monograph 7, The Discovery Programme/ Wordwell, Bray.Grogan, E. 2005 Appendix C. The pottery from Mooghaun South. In E. Grogan The later prehistoric landscape of south-east Clare, 317–28. Discovery Programme Monograph 6, Volume 1, The Discovery Programme/ Wordwell, Bray.Grogan, E. and Eogan, G. 1987 Lough Gur excavations by Seán P. Ó Ríordáin: further Neolithic and Beaker habitations on Knockadoon, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 87C, 299–506.Grogan, E., O’Sullivan, A., O’Carroll F. and Hagen, I. 1999 Knocknalappa, Co. Clare: a reappraisal, Discovery Programme Reports 6, 111–23, The Discovery Programme/ Royal Irish Academy, Dublin.Grogan, E. and Roche, H. 2004 The prehistoric pottery from Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick. Unpublished Report for Eachtra Archaeology Ltd.Grogan, E. and Roche, H. 2007 The prehistoric pottery from the N8 Cashel Bypass, Co. Tipperary. Unpublished Report for The National Roads Authority.Grogan, E. and Roche, H. 2010 Clay and fire: the development and distribution of pottery traditions in prehistoric Ireland. In M. Stanley, E. Danaher and J. Eogan (eds), Creative Minds: production, manufacturing and invention in ancient Ireland, 27–45. National Roads Authority, Monograph 7, Dublin.Moloney, A. Jennings, D., Keane, M. and McDermott, C. 1993 Excavations at Clonfinlough County Offaly, Irish Archaeological Wetland Unit Transactions 2, Office of Public Works/University College Dublin, Dublin.Ó Ríordáin, S.P. 1954 Lough Gur Excavations: Neolithic and Bronze Age Houses on Knockadoon, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 56C, 297–459.Raftery, J. 1942 Knocknalappa crannóg, Co. Clare. North Munster Antiquarian Journal 3, 53–72.Roche and Grogan 2009 The prehistoric pottery from Ballynamona 2, Co. Cork. Unpublished Report for Eachtra Archaeological Projects. 123
  • 134. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Catalogue The excavation number E3659 is omitted throughout; only the deposit number followed by the find number is included. Where the pottery is listed in the catalogue the context numbers are in bold: e.g. bodysherds: 23:1. Sherd numbers incorporating a forward slash indicates joining sherds, e.g. 24/26. The colour reference refers to the outer surface/core/inner surface, e.g. orange/grey/black. The thickness refers to an average dimension; where relevant a thickness range is indicated. Vessel numbers have been allocated to pottery where some estimation of the form of the pot is possible, or where the detailed evidence of featured sherds (e.g. rims, shoulders) or the fabric indicates separate vessels. Late Bronze Age Vessels Vessel 1. Represented by three rimsherds 23:1/12, 2, 11, two base-angle fragments 23:13, 17, nineteen bodysherds 23:3, 4, 6–10, 14–16, 18–23, 25–27 and twenty two fragments (all 23:28). Flat inward sloping rim. Medium thick-walled, hard, well-fired fabric with a medium content of inclusions (≤ 5.1mm). The exterior surface is weathered and pitted, small cavi- ties are present on both surface. The exterior surface is weathered away on some sherds. Colour: orange/grey/orange-grey. Thickness: 10.1–15.9mm. Weight: 468g. Vessel 2. Represented by a sherd from just below the rim 23:5, a bodysherd 23:24 and a fragment 23:28. In-turned rim, the tip is missing. Medium thick-walled, hard, coarse fabric with a high content of inclusions (≤ 11.6mm). The exterior surface is weathered and rough to touch and inclusions protrude. Slight traces of carbonised matter are present on the interior surface. Colour: orange-brown/black/orange-black. Thickness: 9.0–10.7mm. Weight: 37g.124
  • 135. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/Appendix 7: Animal bonesAnimal bones were recovered from a variety of the excavated features at Park 1 datingvariously to the early medieval, medieval and post-medieval periods. Sample sizes are ex-tremely small however and the quantities involved do not allow for a detailed assessmentof diet and economy in any of the periods represented. For the early medieval period, small amounts of animal bone were recovered fromthe fills of two pits and a kiln all of which were in use sometime between the seventhand the ninth centuries. The secondary fill (C314) of the kiln (C291) produced 39 com-minuted fragments of bones none of which are determinate to species. Five fragments aresufficiently large to suggest they originated from a medium-sized animal such as sheep/goat or pig; the remainder of the bones are too fragmented to be placed even into a sizecategory. An early medieval pit (C341) produced the largest identifiable sample of animalbones from the site. Two secondary fills (C352 and C371) of this pit collectively yielded35 animal bones of which 16 could be taken to species level. Eleven adult cattle bonesare present with identified elements comprising teeth, metatarsus, femur, humerus andskull. The single sheep bone is identified as a fragmented tooth from an adult individualand pig is attested from two fragments of a femur and a tooth, all elements belongingto an individual over two years of age at slaughter. The remainder of the sample consistsof three fragments of bone from a large-sized animal such as cow or horse, 16 fragmentsfrom medium-sized livestock animals and one bone is indeterminate to either species orsize grouping. The medieval features identified at the site produced very small quantities of bone.A portion of a cow tibia was recovered from the secondary fill (C536) of a keyhole kiln(C514). A cow mandible was found n the secondary fill (C2204) of kiln (C2180) and thisbelongs to an adult individual with all the molars and permanent premolars erupted andin heavy wear. The basal fill (C2110) of a medieval ditch (C2112) contained a cow tibiaand two cattle teeth along with 16 large mammal fragments and six medium mammalfragments. The basal fill (C595) of another ditch (C543) contained one cow tooth. Animal bones were also found in small amounts in the fills of three late medieval pits.A portion of a sheep/goat pelvis was found in the upper fill (C5) of a small pit (C6). Threeadult cattle teeth were recovered from the upper fill (C38) of a larger pit (C39) and a cowtooth was found in the fill (C82) of a third pit (C83). A modern posthole (C2092) produced one single cow tooth. The limited quantities of animal bones recovered during the excavations at Park 1 arepresumed to represent domestic refuse consisting of bone fragments from the slaughterand consumption of animals during the various periods of occupation at the site. Samplesizes from all the excavated areas are small and aside from documenting the presence ofthe three main livestock animals little else of economic value can be extrapolated fromthe data. 125
  • 136. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Appendix 8: Archaeometallurgy Report by Tim Young Abstract The assemblage includes a total of 12.8kg of examined material. In-situ archaeometallur- gical residues were confined to two areas of the site. Towards the centre, feature c4 was an unusual stone floored smithing hearth. This was associated by unusual flowed slags which would normally be identified as being from iron smelting, but in this case they probably originated in a reaction between the slag and sandstone flags. In the east of the area an isolated pit is interpreted as the rather truncated basal pit of a slagpit iron smelting furnace. Its large diameter raisse the possibility that it may be relatively early. Post-medieval ditches in Area 2 yielded three certain or possible smithing hearth cakes. Pits in Area 1 yielded one certain and one possible pieces of residual iron smelting slag Methods All investigated materials were examined visually, using a low-powered lens where neces- sary. All items were logged to a database (Table 1). As an evaluation, the materials were not subjected to any high-magnification optical inspection, nor to any other form of in- strumental analysis. The identifications of materials in this report are therefore necessarily limited and must be regarded as provisional. Results Description of the residues Iron-smelting slag The assemblage from fill c564 provides a good collection of the various residues found in the base of the basal pit of a slagpit iron smelting furnace. At a fine grain-size there are small droplets of slag (coffee bean spheroids) and other blebby slags, which often grade into the sinter-like material, which is probably a mixture of small particles of slag with debris that has fallen through the furnace during smelting (charcoal fines, small ore par- ticles...). Larger pieces of slag are mainly flowed slags, forming substantial prills and flows, often forming moulds around large wood or charcoal fragments. Slags which would normally be identified as smelting slags were recovered from hearth fill c3, but there are good reasons for believing that in this instance these flows were the result of reaction between the smithing slags and the sandstone hearth base.126
  • 137. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/ An isolated lump of smelting slag was recovered from pit c341 (fill c342). This wasfrom the area of slag accumulation at the foot of the blowing wall in a non-slag tappingslagpit furnace. It was present in this pit merely as residual material. A similar occurrence of dense slightly weathered slag was a block of dense slag fromfill c1051 of pit c1050. This was of uncertain origin but was very dense and slightly curved,suggesting it may have been a burr (the zone of slag-wall interaction just below the blow-hole) from smelting furnaceIron-smithing slagThe focus of smithing residues from the site is the hearth c4. This hearth shows evidencefor having been constructed with a sloping floor formed of sandstone flags. The westernend of the main flagstone shows a smooth surface where it has been eroded by reactionsin the direct blast from the tuyère. In front of the zone eroded by the blast, the sandstonehas been eaten away through reaction with the iron slag and a substantial smithing hearthcake-like mass now remains embedded with a deep hollow on the surface of the stone.The mass is fairly even texture with just a single possible internal chill line. The uppermostpart of the cake becomes more granular, with much fine-grained charcoal, but it is likelythe very top surface of the cake has been worn away and it was originally smoother, as ispreserved in some areas. Associated small slag pieces are mainly within-hearth materials: small scale flows andother slags which formed within the fuel bed. The strange flow slags, including a longgreenish cylinder , that are associated with this fill appear similar to smelting slags, butit is possible that they are unusual slags formed by the fluxing reaction between the ironslags and the sandstone flagstone. The fill of hearth c4, context c3, also yielded a single concretion containing hammer-scale. This suggests that the context may have contained hammerscale, but unfortunatelythis was not identified by the sampling strategy employed. Three pieces which may have all been SHCs were recovered from post-medieval ditch-es in area 2 (contexts c525, c560, and c606). The piece from c525 (670g) was a difficultpiece to interpret and was either a small SHC fused to an earlier example which had notbeen cleared from the hearth, or it was a single larger SHC deformed when hot. Fill c560produced a dense piece of slag (360g), with the shape of a well-formed SHC, but the ac-creted sediment completely hid the slag within. That from context c606 was a 120g frag-ment from an SHC, heavily accreted with sand.Oxidised fired clayA single sherd of oxidised clay with a slightly vitrified gently convex surface from fill c82may be from the side of a tuyère.Other materialsA single small piece of fired clay from fill c82 is very unusual. It is a triangular sectionedprism 13 by 8 mm by 40 mm in length. Two faces at an angle of 70 degrees are appar- 127
  • 138. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort ently vitrified and impregnated by shiny iron oxides. This piece is either clay impregnated by secondary iron oxides from decay of an iron object, or the clay was used to cover the surface of a piece of iron while it was heated. Distribution of the residues The residues occurred in several cut features across the site, described here from SW to NE. In area 1, slag was reported from early medieval feature cut c341, fill c352, but much of this proved to be weathered limestone blocks, plus a small concretion on some cor- roded iron, but there was one substantial block of iron. This was a very weathered dense block from foot of the pit in a slagpit iron smelting furnace and was likely to have been residual in this context. Pit c293 (fill c292) yielded a single 1g slag bleb and the remainder of the 1774g sample was a natural iron-manganese pan cementing a sandy gravel. Hearth c4, fill c3, was an interesting metallurgical feature, at least in part a smithing hearth. The general fill of the feature (samples 1 & 6) contained a variety of materials including a large amount of material with the appearance of a sinter and coated with a very dark secondary oxide coating (probably rich in manganese). This was accompanied by several fragments of large dense brittle flows. These either showed charcoal moulds or were circular in section indicating flow through the fuel bed of a hearth or furnace. These materials would all normally be interpretable as iron smelting residues from a non slag- tapping slagpit type of furnace. The same context (sample 2) also yielded some concretions around weathering iron, one of which contained a substantial amount of hammerscale. The western component of the pit (which was overall 0.98m x 0.33m x0.12m and had a figure of eight shape in plan) was floored with stone, with the western extremity having a particularly large stone slab into which a cake of slag was fused (see above). This and the occurrence of the hammerscale are indicative of smithing (blowing a smelting furnace from a tuyère right at the base would not work). There are several possible interpretations of feature c4: - Firstly, it might be a simple structure with a western stone-floored smithing hearth and a larger working hollow to the east. The hollow was filled with a variety of materi- als upon disuse. It is possible that the reaction between the slag and the sandstone floor might have been able to produce a well-fluxed slag able to flow and to generate the prills found. A stone floored hearth at Parknahown 5, Co. Laois (Young 2009b) was associated with internal lobed, flowed sheets of slag. - Secondly, it is possible that the figure of eight structure represents two separate features – a smithing hearth and a furnace base, that were not differentiated during excavation. - Thirdly, it is conceivable that the figure of eight structure is that of a smelting fur- nace (compare for instance the example from Derrinsallagh 4, Co. Laois; Young 2008f), partially reused by the smithing hearth.128
  • 139. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/ Unfortunately, the nature of the field observation and recording do not permit dis-crimination with certainty between these possibilities. On balance, an interpretation ofthe unusual slag assemblage as having been generated by the reaction between slag andsandstone in a smithing hearth is preferred. The adjacent pit c83 (0.61m by 0.58m and 0.16m deep) yielded a small assemblage ofresides from a charcoal rich deposit. The residues are rather indeterminate within-hearthor within-furnace blebs and other materials, together with a small sherd probably from atuyère and a small fragment of heat altered clay of uncertain origin, but just possibly as-sociated with some sort of heat treatment of an iron artefact. These materials are almostcertainly from smithing, although they too might be a mixed assemblage. Pit c1050 (fill c1051) produced a single weathered dense slag block. This might havebeen part of a dense SHC or possibly the dense slag from the area below the blowhole inan iron smelting furnace (the burr). The weathering on this isolated piece suggests it mayhave been residual. In Area 2 three isolated single slag finds from fills c525, c560, and c606 all from pos-sible post-medieval ditches were all of probable SHCs. Finally, pit c561 (fill c564) yielded 900g of flow slags and sinters, the typical pit floorassemblage of a slagpit iron smelting furnace. The pit is recorded as being 0.7m by 0.58mand 0.15m deep, but a more accurate gauge of the working dimensions of the pit canprobably be made from the dimensions of the fill, c564, given as 0.58m diameter by 0.15mdeep. It is most likely that the pit is the basal pit of the slagpit furnace, rather than beingmerely a pit in which the residues accumulated. If this is so then the large diameter of thepit is striking.InterpretationThe site includes three distinct features which may be associated with metallurgical activ-ity (pits c4, c83, c561). Interpretation of these features is not straightforward. The stone-floored hearth in pit c4 is unusual. If the SHC forms low in such a hearthit may react with and fuse to the stones and make cleaning the hearth very difficult – orperhaps impossible without replacing the stone lining. Another unusual stone hearth,though not of quite the same morphology, was recorded at Gortnahown 2 (Young 2009e)and also at Parknahown 5 (Young 2009b), both of early medieval age. The reason why such a structure would be used is difficult to answer, but it is possiblethat the intention was to form the SHC much higher in the hearth, but the position ofthe tuyère became altered, became too low and the ensuing SHC generation was similarlytoo low in the hearth. Since the slab was inclined, it may be that with a fresh tuyère thehotzone was far enough out into the hearth that the slag did not reach the sandstone,however, with use the tuyère shortened, and the air blast entered the hearth immediatelyadjacent to the margin of the stone slab, causing slag generation in the location found,and the hearth would have needed to be refloored or abandoned. 129
  • 140. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort For pit c561 an interpretation as the basal pit of a smelting furnace seems likely, but the diameter of the pit is unusually large. Most slagpit furnaces of working diameters of >0.45m have been associated with furnaces that have been dated to 5th-1st century BC. The following sites have given evidence for large diameter furnaces within this period Ballydavid AR26 (Co. Tipperary), six furnaces with slagpit diameters >0.40m. Associated 14C dates suggest a date in the 3rd-1st centuries BC. An apparent 8th-5th century BC date for the isolated furnace c157 is suscpiciously early. (Young 2009c) Cherryville 12 (Co. Kildare): 320-200 cal. BC. Four slagpits 0.45 - 0.50m diameter. (Young 2008a) Cloncollig (Co Offaly): the pit (007) is described as being 0.57 x 0.60m and 0.32m deep. A 14C date on oak charcoal from the basal layer of the furnace gave a date of 261 – 94 cal. BC (Young 2008b) Clonrud 4 (Co. Laois): the working dimensions of the two slagpits (0.41m x 0.39m and 0.46m x 0.41m) are moderately large. Two dates suggest 4th-1st centuries BC (Young 2008e) Leap 1 (Co Laois): F007 has a diameter of 0.40m. It is not directly dated, but there are earlier Iron Age 14C dates from adjacent features (Young 2009a) Lismore-Bushfield 1 (Co. Laois): a cluster of 5 furnaces with diameters >0.40m. Furnace 3 gave a 14C date on alder charcoal of cal. 90BC to AD80. (Young 2008d) Milltown/Ballynamorahan AR3 (Co. Kilkenny): a complex furnace structure, possibly with a central working hollow linking two furnaces with frontal arches, 0.45x0.55m and 0.40x0.50m; 1st century BC / 1st century AD (Young 2009d) Morrett D (Co. Laois): 170 cal. BC- 30 cal. AD and 770-410 cal. BC for charcoal pits, 370-110 cal. BC and 400-200 cal. BC for ring ditches. (Young 2005) Newrath Site 35 (Co. Kilkenny): 400-200 cal. BC and 350-40 cal. BC (Eogan pers. comm. 2006) Similar furnaces are known from the following sites, for which there is no direct dat- ing, but for which an early age is suspected: Adamstown 1 (Co. Waterford): Slagpit :0.53 x 0.47m and 0.15m surviving depth with 18.3kg of in-situ residues. Furnace undated but associated with Bronze Age features (Young 2006b).130
  • 141. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/Ballykeoghan AR9 (Co. Kilkenny), 2 slagpits, one 0.45m in diameter with 18.3kg of in-situ residues, the other 0.40x0.50x0.10m (undated) (Young 2009f)Derryvorrigan 1(Co. Laois): this site appears to have furnaces with working diameters ofapproximately 0.40m (Young 2008c).Tullyallen 6 (Co. Louth): slagpit: 0.47 x 0.50m and 0.18m deep with 17.5kg of in-situresidues. (Young 2003) Early medieval furnaces of this size range are known from:Gortnahown 2, co. Cork ([c548] - 0.48 x 0.46 x 0.28m; [c566] - 0.52 x 0.40 x 0.30m; [c703]- 0.52 x 0.44 x 0.19m; possibly 5th-7th centuries AD; Young 2009e)Carrigoran, Co. Clare, a furnace with a diameter of 0.50m dated to the late 9th – early11th centuries AD (Young 2006a). Some later medieval examples seem to be relatively large, but in general are poorlyknown. They comprise examples without deeply sunken basal pits and with frontal archesto facilitate slag (and bloom?) removal. These are therefore quite distinct from the isolatedsingle pit as seen at Park 1. Further dating of the example at Park 1 is therefore desirable, if possible.Evaluation of potentialThe occurrence of iron smelting at Park 1 comprises a rather limited suite of coeval resi-dues and as such is not a priority for further analytical investigation. The smithing remains at Park 1 are unusual, because of the interaction with the stonefloor of the hearth. Further analysis could usefully be employed to examine the relation-ship of the materials here and to confirm whether the large flows are indeed from thesmithing hearth, or whether they are from a phase of smelting in or around this structure.However, such analysis would be unlikely to alter the main interpretation of the site. Accordingly no further analysis is recommended at this time, although the material issufficiently significant to be worthy of retention for possible analysis in the future. 131
  • 142. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort References YOUNG, T.P. 2003. Evaluation of slag from Tullyallen 6, Co. Louth (00E00944). Geoarch Report 2003/10. 2pp. + 2 figs. YOUNG, T.P. 2005. Evaluation of archaeometallurgical residues from the Heath- Mayfield N7 development (03E0151, 03E0966, 03E0461, 03E0603, 03E0633, 03E0679, 03E0602, 03E0635). GeoArch Report 2005/12. 28pp. YOUNG, T.P. 2006a. Evaluation of archaeometallurgical residues from Carrigoran, Co. Clare (98E0338). GeoArch Report 2005/18. 12pp. YOUNG, T.P. 2006b. Evaluation of archaeometallurgical residues from sites on the N25, Co. Waterford (Woodstown 6, Adamstown 1,2,3). GeoArch Report 2006/15. 38pp. YOUNG, T.P. 2008a. Archaeometallurgical residues from Cherryville Site 12, Kildare Bypass. 01E0955 GeoArch Report 2007/24. 33pp YOUNG, T.P. 2008b. Evaluation of metallurgical residues from Cloncollig 2, Co. Offaly, NTB06, A033/E2850137. GeoArch Report 2008/09. 4pp YOUNG, T.P. 2008c. Evaluation of Archaeometallurgical residues from the M7/M8 Contract 2: Derryvorrigan 1 (E2193). GeoArch Report 2008/26. YOUNG, T.P. 2008d. Evaluation of Archaeometallurgical residues from the M7/M8 Contract 2: Lismore-Bushfield 1 (E2220). GeoArch Report 2008/27. YOUNG, T.P. 2008e. Evaluation of Archaeometallurgical residues from the M7/M8 Contract 3: Clonrud 4 (E2167). GeoArch Report 2008/30. YOUNG, T.P. 2008f. M7/M8 Contract 2. Detailed recording of furnace C397, Derrinsallagh 4 (E2180), GeoArch Report 2008/34. YOUNG, T.P. 2009a. Evaluation of archaeometallurgical residues from the M7/M8 Contract 1: Leap 1 (E2131) GeoArch Report 2009/03 YOUNG, T.P. 2009b. Evaluation of Archaeometallurgical residues from the M7/M8 Contract 1: Parknahown 5 (E2170). GeoArch Report 2009/21. 21pp. YOUNG, T.P. 2009c. Evaluation of archaeometallurgical residues from the M8/N8 Cullahill-Cashel: Ballydavid AR26 (E2370), GeoArch Report 2009/30, 7 pp.132
  • 143. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/YOUNG, T.P. 2009d. Evaluation of archaeometallurgical residues from the N9/ N10 Waterford-Kilcullen, Site 3-5, Milltown/ Ballynamorohan, Co. Kilkenny (E2499), GeoArch Report 2009/38, 12 pp.YOUNG, T.P. 2009e. Evaluation of archaeometallurgical residues from the N8 Fermoy- Mitchelstown, Gortnahown 2, Co. Cork, (E2426). GeoArch Report 2009/41, 49 pp.YOUNG, T.P. 2009f. Evaluation of archaeometallurgical residues from the N9/N10 Waterford-Kilcullen, Site 6-9, Ballykeoghan, Co. Kilkenny (E2500), GeoArch Report 2009/49, 3 pp. 133
  • 144. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Table 1: summary catalogue by context� Weights in gram� con- sam- notes weight no description text ple 3 1 cut 4 302 17 dense brittle flows, mainly large, slightly greenish, some around large charcoal, some more circular cross-sectioned 92 12 fragments of dense slag in poor flows, with dull irregular surfaces- possibly coated in the sinter? 36 1 sintery material, coated in botryoidal dark cements 60 1 dimpled basal crust overlain by granular material 16 1 weathered sintery material with accreted sediment 3 2 4 42 2 2 pieces of accretion on probably iron. One is very rich in charcoal debris, the other is extremely rich in flake hammerscale 3 6 108 c40 mainly sintery irregular particles with heavy black botryoidal overgrowth. 1 piece good dense brittle flow, 1 poor flow and 1 blebby lining slag of vitrified sandstone pebbles bound by small amount of iron slag 3 13 3510 1 block 230x190mm with slag fused onto sandstone slab, with hole eroded in slab below slag. Smooth raised lip of slagged stone at one end then SHC-like slag mass 195x190mm, up to 40mm thick in centre, fused to stone on base, diamond shaped smooth blown patch 50mm long at proximal end then smooth to irregular top distally. lots of fine charcoal (dust almost) dispersed within top layer of cake, but possibly originally more of the top was smooth. upper part of blown lip of sandstone is black, lower part is brown. lip also has slight raised “tidemark”. If this, and the slag top were horizontal, then the stone slab was originally 50mm thick and dipped about 30 degrees into the hearth. 3 13? 2490 7 6 large stones from hearth base, 1 with some adhering slag, 1 loose piece of slag sheet with central voids and polished surfaces 82 43 208 bulk mixed materials, almost half is dense slag with spiky or blebby forms, probably one third appears to be concreted sediment on iron, there are a few pieces of lining slag and one sherd possibly from a tuyère margin. The most interesting piece is a wedge of fired clay 13x8x32mm with two faces iron rich and highly polished - suggestive of metal contact. These meet at a discontinuous apex with an angle of 70 degrees, where the apex is missing the area between looks as if at reached vitrifica- tion and flowed slightly. The vitrification extends in about 2mm - inside that the clay is pale and appears unaltered 292 3 1 of2 1355 bulk natural Fe-Mn pan of sandy gravel with some charcoal 292 3 2 of 2 418 c155 natural sandy/gravelly Fe-Mn pan 1 1 small dark slag bleb 352 5 1095 2 weathered limestone blocks134
  • 145. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/con- sam- notes weight no descriptiontext ple352 4 cut 366 1 large dense block of amalgamated flow slag. Has apparent 341 sediment contacts on two parts of what appears to be the top face - so may have formed at the foot of the blowing wall in a hollow cut back into the wall? Chilled flow lobe surfaces almost entirely etched off - so probably residual352 274 6 1 concretion on now hollow artefact, c20x5x1.5mm, unclear if rest of concretion houses another piece of iron - if so this would be thin sheet, roughly 20x20mm525 3 cut 670 1 (bro- dense slag block of complex shape. Probably broken when hot, 524 ken in so microdimpled base now fragmented onto several surface. 2) Some smooth lobate areas are likely to be the original top. Most likely a strongly deformed SHC – alternatively it is a small SHC (100x90x30mm) grown on top of a previous simi- lar one oriented vertically)560 1 cut 360 1 95x70x45mm, vesicular slag block encrusted in accretion 543 dominated by fine charcoal, also some quartz-rich pebbles. Probably an SHC inside this - but impossible to be certain564 2 cut 442 20 fresh dark flow slag, much in quite large prills 561 334 12 charcoal-rich slags grading to poor flow slags564 542 retent 100 many natural gravel 550 c350? well preserved fines, mainly flows around small charcoal, grading into fused ash and possibly sinter. Often coated in sec- ondary Mn oxides, flows mainly dense small shiny, grades into duller, often vesicular blebby slags and into sinter. The sinter is bound by a pale glassy fuel ash slag, rare coffee beans606 4 cut 120 1 irregular shaped slag with dimpled base and charcoal rich core 605 - heavily concreted in sandy sediment. Probably part of a small SHC1051 100 cut 164 1 dense slag piece - possible from lower part of thick SHC or 1050 from a burr, variably vesicular, some smooth internal surfaces (rather like some subdivisions with the c3 cake), looks worn, so may be residual 135
  • 146. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Appendix 9: Plant remains By Penny Johnston Introduction This report details the results of plant remains analysis from samples taken during excava- tions at Park 1, Co. Tipperary. The site comprised a burnt mound, evidence for prehistoric occupation and five possible corn drying kilns. Methodology The samples were collected on site as bulk soil and were processed using machine-as- sisted floatation (following guidelines in Pearsall 2000). The floating material (or ‘flot’) from each sample was collected in a stack of geological sieves (the smallest mesh size was 250mm). The results of preliminary scanning are presented in Tables 1 and 2 at the end of this report. Scanning revealed that 84% of the samples contained plant remains, but these were generally found only in small amounts. Only a portion of these could be examined within the constraints of our budget and because of this, 19 of the richest samples were selected for full analysis. Identification was carried out under low-powered magnification (x 10 to x 40) using a binocular microscope. The results are presented in Tables 3 and 4 at the end of this report. Nomenclature and taxonomic order follows Stace (1997). Results The plant remains from Park 1 included a large assemblage of cereal grains and quite a significant quantity of weed seeds. The cereals were predominantly identified as oat (Fig- ure 1), most of these being taken from deposits within the corn drying kilns. Oat was the most common cereal type found in samples from all the different context types. Although oats are sometimes found in prehistoric deposits, the introduction of cultivated oats is often seen as a feature of the early historic period, or the very end of the prehistoric period (Johnston 2007, 70). Oats identified from early historic sites in Ireland include the cultivated variety (Avena sativa), wild oats (A. fatua) and the bristle pointed oats (A. strigosa/brevis) (Monk 1985/6). The oat floret base is required in order to distin- guish between wild and cultivated varieties of oat in archaeobotanical assemblages but these were generally not present in the samples. However, the predominance of oat grains in the samples from this site indicates that most of the oat grains are from a cultivated crop.136
  • 147. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/ % cereal composition Wheat 5% Rye 0% Barley 17% Oat 78%Figure 1: Percentage cereal composition in all Park 1 samples Most of the wheat from Park 1 was identified as a naked wheat. Naked wheats donot have hulls that adhere to the grain and because of this they are easier to process thanhulled wheat (Nesbitt 2001, 41). Naked wheats include bread wheat (Triticum aestivum),macaroni wheat (T. durum), rivet wheat (T. turgidum) and club wheat (T. compactum). Asmall quantity of bread wheat rachis internodes were identified from some of the depositsfrom Park 1 and it is likely that most of the naked wheat grains from this site were breadwheat. This type of wheat is not usually considered common in Irish archaeobotanicaldeposits until the medieval period, although it has been recorded at some Irish Neolithicsites (McClatchie et al. 2009, 3). At Park 1, naked wheat was only recovered in largeamounts (i.e. greater than 100 grains) in the kiln C.1002, from Area 1. The types of barley found in Park 1 deposits included grains from both the naked andthe hulled varieties, although hulled grains were much more common. Hulled grains arequite difficult to process since the husks are fused to the grain, making them difficult toremove. This is often the most common type of barley grain found in Irish archaeobo-tanical deposits (Monk 1991). Barley was recovered in large amounts (i.e. more than 100grains) in three samples from Park 1. These included two pit fills (C.2011 and C.2158) andone ditch fill (C.543) from Area 2 and the results indicate that most barley from this sitewas associated with activity at Area 2. A small quantity of rye was found in the deposits from Park 1. Rye is not commonlyfound in Irish crop deposits until the medieval period (more often in the later medievalperiod). Even then it tends to occur in such small amounts that it seems that they aremore likely to represent weeds of the crop, rather than the crop itself. This certainly ap- 137
  • 148. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort pears to be the case at Park 1 where the small amounts of rye grains found suggests that they were probably incidental. Contexts and areas The samples that were richest in seeds and cereals were taken from kilns, a hollow, ditches and pits. The samples from ditches and pits produced similar assemblages, with large portions of oats, quite significant portions barley and much small percentages of wheat. The samples from kilns and a hollow were quite different. Although these also had large portions of oats, oat was almost the only cereal in the hollow (small portions of barley and rye were also found) and in the kilns there were significant portions of wheat and a much smaller portion of barley (see Figure 2). % cereal composition in different context types 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Kilns Hollows Ditches Pits Oat Barley Rye Wheat Figure 2: Percentage cereal composition in different context types at Park 1 The richest samples (with more than 100 cereal items) were obtained from two kilns (C.291 and C.1002), a pit (C.1039) and a ditch (C.157) in Area 1 and from a ditch (C.543), two pits (C.2011 and C.2158) and a hollow (C.2126) in Area 2. In general, wheat was found in greater amounts in Area 1, and barley was more common in Area 2 (Figure 3). In Area 1 wheat was the only significant type of cereal apart from oat. Most of these wheat grains were obtained from a single kiln (C.1002). In Area 2, barley was a significant cereal in the total assemblage. Unlike at Area 1, the kiln from this area was not a significant contributor to the cereal graph. In fact it was the pits and ditches that influenced the plant remains graph from this part of the site. In ad- dition, they were from contexts that were spread across the entire area of excavation, not merely from one small group of features in one area of the site.138
  • 149. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/Figure 3: Percentage cereal composition from Area 1 and Area 2�Plant remains from corn drying kilnsDrying kilns were used in the uncertain weather of the Irish harvest to finish ripening ofcrops and to prepare them for storage, as well as being used prior to milling in order to en-sure that the grains were hard enough to be ground into flour. Early medieval writers wereaware of the value of kiln drying; a story of Cainnech’s monks at Clonbroney relates howtheir task of crop processing was made more difficult by the rain, as they did not have theservices of anyone who could build and use a kiln (Ó Cróinín 1995). However, there wasa danger of the harvest going up in flames, and archaeobotanical evidence suggests thataccidental conflagrations that destroyed both the kiln and crops were relatively common,although destruction of kiln contents is listed as one of the “black husbandries” in earlymedieval texts (Kelly 1998). The benefit from kiln drying must have offset this danger;scientific experiments suggest that drying grain will increase the amount of harvest avail-able as food by between ten and twenty percent (Bala 1997). The use of crop drying kilnsmust therefore have boosted the amount of harvest that could be stored over the winter,this benefit outweighing the danger of occasional fires. As a consequence, drying kilnswere probably relatively frequent features of the Irish landscape, used repeatedly untilother technological innovation took over. 139
  • 150. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort They were certainly relatively common at Park 1, where five kilns and possible kilns were excavated (C.291, C.514, C.545/C.519, C.1002 and C.2180). Rich plant remains were recovered from only two kilns C.291 and C.1002 in Area 2. A smaller quantity of plant remains was recovered from the kiln C.2180 in Area 2. The results from both of the rich kilns showed that oat was the most common cereal type at both kilns, but that the relative proportions of wheat and barley in each kiln were quite different (Figure 4). The graph for the kiln from Area 2 is quite different, as a large portion of the samples from this kiln were identified as barley. However, the overall cereal counts from this kiln included just 22 identifiable cereal grains and this low amount means that the graph for this kiln is perhaps misrepresentative. % cereal composition in kilns from Areas 1 & 2 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Area 1 Kiln 291 Area 1 Kiln 1002 Area 2 Kiln 2180 Oat Barley Rye Wheat Figure 4: percentage cereal composition in kiln samples from Park 1 Weeds Weeds were recovered in abundance (more than 50 seeds) in five samples from Area 1 (kilns C.291 and C.1002, pits C.1018 and C.1039 and ditch C.157) and two samples from Area 2 (from the hollow C.2127 and from the pit C.2158). Weeds were particularly com- mon in the sample from the pit C.1018 in Area 1. The most common weed seeds were from the grasses (Poaceae), thistle/daisy seeds (Asteraceae) and seeds from the dock/knot- grass family (Polygonaceae), common weeds that often grown in association with cereals.140
  • 151. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/ 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Kiln 291 Kiln 1002 Pit 1018 Pit 1039 Ditch 157 Hollow Pit 2158 2126 Ranunculaceae Caryophyllaceae Chenopodiaceae Polygonaceae Brassicaceae Rosaceae Fabaceae Linaceae Lamiaceae Plantaginaceae Rubiaceae Asteraceae Cyperaceae PoaceaeFigure 5: Wild plants from the samples richest in weed seedsNon-technical summaryThe plant remains from Park 1 indicated that oat was the most cereal type present. Wheatand barley were also found, but in less significant quantities than oat. Wheat was morecommon than barley in samples from Area 1, whereas barley was more common thanwheat in samples from Area 2. Rye was also recovered in very small amounts and it doesnot appear to have been a major crop. Many of the richest samples from Park 1 were fromcorn drying kilns and there were some subtle differences in the plant remains assemblagesfrom the different kilns. Weeds were also found in abundance in some samples, most ofthese were identified as common arable weeds. 141
  • 152. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort References Bala, B. K. 1997 Drying and Storage of Cereal Grains. New Hampshire, Science Publishers. Kelly, F. 1998 Early Irish farming. Dublin, Institute for Advanced Studies. Johnston, P. 2007 ‘Analysis of carbonised plant remains’, pp. 70–79 in Grogan, E., O’Donnell, L. and Johnston, P. The Bronze Age Landscapes of the Pipeline to the West. Bray, Wordwell. McClatchie, M., Whitehouse, N., Schulting, R., Bogaard, A. and Barratt, P. 2009 ‘Cultivating societies: new insights into agriculture in Neolithic Ireland’, in Stanley, M., Danaher, E. and Eogan, J. (eds) Dining and Dwelling. Dublin, National Roads Authority. National Roads Authority Monograph Series No. 6. Monk, M. 1991 ‘The archaeobotanical evidence for field crop plants in early historic Ireland’, pp.315–328 in Renfrew, J.M. (ed.) New Light on Early Farming: recent developments in palaeobotany. Edinburgh, Edinburgh University press. Monk, M. 1985/1986 Evidence from macroscopic plant remains for crop husbandry in prehistoric and early historic Ireland: A review. Journal of Irish Archaeology 3, 31–36. Nesbitt, M. 2001 ‘Wheat evolution: integrating archaeological and biological evidence,’ in Wheat taxonomy: the legacy of John Percival, vol. 3, Linnean, Special Issue. Edited by P. D. S. Caligari and P. E. Brandham, pp. 37-59. London: Linnean Society. Ó Cróinín, D. 1995 Early Medieval Ireland. Dublin, The Longman press. Pearsall, D. 2000 Paleoethnobotany: a Handbook of Procedures. New York, Academic Press. Stace, C. 1997 New Flora of the British Isles. (2nd Edition) Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.142
  • 153. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/Table 1: Assessment of plant remains Area 1Table 1: Assessment of plant remains Park 1 (E3659)Sample Context Charcoal Seeds % scanned1 25 H L 503 5 L Absent 106 3 H L 1007 21 H L 10012 40 H L 10015 38 H L 5022 60 H L 5025 72 H M 10029 87 M M 10019 54 H L 10030 19 H L 10031 88 H L 10032 91 H Absent 5037 51 H M 10034 37 H H 5046 190 H L 10043 82 H L 5049 85 H L 5061 111 M L 10062 105 H Absent 10067 126 H L 3070 138 H L 5081 118 H L 10085 131 H Absent 10093 158 H L 10094 160 H M 10099 173 H L 100101 177 H Absent 100102 185 H L 100106 179 H L 100112 200 H Absent 100115 205 H Absent 100119 212 H M 100132 240 M L 100135 245 H L 35144 257 H Absent 50146 264 H L 100152 273 H Absent 50163 302 H H 100160 292 L L 100164 295 H L 100167 311 H H 100171 312 H M 100182 351 H L 100191 362 M L 100197 367 H L 100212 381 H H 100 143
  • 154. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Table 1: Assessment of plant remains Park 1 (E3659) Sample Context Charcoal Seeds % scanned 219 358 H L 100 224 363 H L 100 251 314 H M 50 271a 152 H L 50 271b 151 H L 50 274 352 H L 50 286 436 L Absent 50 308 371 H L 15 500 162 H M 100 514 1019 M H 100 517 1040 H H 50 528 1053 H L 100 530 1064 H Absent 100 544 1095 H L 100 547 1097 H M 100 549 1108 H L 50 552 1098 H H 30144
  • 155. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/Table 2: Assessment of plant remains Area 2Table 2: Assessment of plant remains Park 1 (E3659)Sample Context Charcoal Seeds % scanned1 2012 M H 10020 2031 H H 10030 2052 H H 10041 2072 H L 10059 2096 H H 10063 2109 H H 10073 2151 H M 10085 2168 H M 10088 2159 H H 1090 2176 H Absent 100105 2127 H H 100109 2135 M H 100121 2183 H H 100500 500 H L 20502 504 H L 25505 511 H L 15507 515 H M 100509 520 H L 50513 518 H L 100516 537 L L 100520 535 H Absent 100523 547 H Absent 20527 554 M M 100530 544 H H 50538 577 H Absent 10542 564 H L 75544 584 H M 50 145
  • 156. 146 Table 3: Weeds and wild plants (charred seeds) from Park 1 Context 31 212 302 311 314 544 1003 1019 1040 1098 2012 2019 2052 2096 2109 2127 2135 2159 2183 Sample 20 381 163 167 251 530 505 514 517 552 1 5 30 59 63 105 109 88 121 Meadow/Creeping Buttercup (Ranunculus acris/repens L.) 1 1 Hazelnut shell fragments (Corylus avellana L.) 1 1 12 12 2 Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) kernels 3 Indeterminate nut shell fragments 8 Corn Spurrey (Spergula arvensis L.) 1 1 2 iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 Corncockle fragments (Agrostemma githago L.) 1 Indeterminate seeds from the pink family (Caryophyllaceae) 2 7 1 6 Indeterminate seeds from the goosefoot family 2 1 6 54 2 14 1 (Chenopodiaceae) Probable Sheep’s sorrel (Rumex cf acetosella L.) 8 1 11 1 1 1 Balck bindweed (Fallopia convolvulus (L.) Á Löve) 1 2 4 2 4 1 2 5 2 1 5 1 Indeterminate seeds from the Knotgrass family 2 2 3 7 2 6 74 1 20 1 5 2 1 (Polygonaceae) Wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) capsule 1 2 2 14 4 2 1 1 1 1 Bramble: blackberry drubes (Rubus fructicosus L.) 1 Blackthorn: sloe stones (Prunus spinosa L.) 1 Pear/Apple pips (Pyrus L./Malus Mill.) fragments 5 Indeterminate seeds from the Legume family (Fabaceae) 1 2 17 3 4 9 1 1 1 1 7 2 Flax seed fragments (Linum L. species) 1 Possible Selfheal (cf Prunella vulgaris) 2 Hemp-nettle (Galeopsis L. species) 1 1 1 2 1 Plantain (Plantago L. species) 1 10 2 18 2 11 1 2 Cleavers (Galium aparine L.) 1 10 1 1 Nipplewort (Lapsana communis L.) 22 4 2 3 8 Probable Corn Marigold (Chrysanthemum cf segetum L.) 1 9 9 1 Indeterminate seeds from the daisy family (Asteraceae) 38 1 8 Indeterminate seeds from the sedge family (Cyperaceae) 1 1 5 1 Indeterminate grass seeds (Poaceae) 4 11 6 5 16 55 65 1 7 1 15 24 4 Indeterminate weed seeds 3 2 5 12 3 11 16 12 5 4 5 archaEological Excavation rEPort Indeterminate berry fragments 1
  • 157. Table 4: Cereals (charred grains and associated items) from Park 1 Context 31 212 302 311 314 544 1003 1019 1040 1098 2012 2019 2052 2096 2109 2127 2135 2159 2183 Sample 20 381 163 167 251 530 505 514 517 552 1 5 30 59 63 105 109 88 121 Park 1-E3659 Oat grains (Avena L. species) 11 16 14 78 30 947 52 741 224 30 261 3 2 24 196 16 1427 10 Possible oat grains (cf Avena species) 12 280 8 7 Hulled Barley grains (Hordeum vulgare L.) 4 2 226 15 12 21 412 1 168 Naked Barley grains (Hordeum vulgare L.) 1 Barley rachis internodes (6-row) 2 Barley grains of indeterminate species (Hor- 1 1 3 40 9 17 2 deum species) Rye grains (Secale cereale) 3 Possible rye grains (cf Secale cereale) 1 2 2 3 Possible Rye rachis internodes (cf Secale cereale) 2 Naked wheat (Triticum aestivum L./turgidum 1 164 10 18 1 6 4 Desf./durum L.) Probable naked wheat (Triticum cf aestivum L./ 1 4 3 5 5 2 turgidum Desf./durum L.) Bread wheat rachis internodes (Triticum aesti- 9 1 vum L.) Wheat grains (Triticum L. species) 1 2 6 2 8 1 6 6 1 4 6 6 Indeterminate cereal grains 4 2 5 24 139 240 35 235 38 255 2 8 7 7 3 212 5 Rachis internodes from indeterminate cereals 1 1 3 Straw culm nodes 6 2 25 12 21 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/147
  • 158. Appendix 10: Osteoarchaeological Report by Linda G. Lynch Abstract This report details the osteoarchaeological analysis of human cremated bone recovered from one of a number of features excavated at Park 1, Co. Tipperary by Eachtra Archaeo- logical Projects (E number E3659). Cremated bone was recovered from five of the numer- ous features that were excavated. Human cremains were identified from just one of these features: the other samples of cremains comprised animal bones. The human remains were from a single, probable adult, individual. At just 49g the human cremains comprise only a tiny portion of the original cremation. It is unknown what was done with the main volume of cremains. Osteological Terms Used A number of basic terms are used frequently in osteo-archaeology and these are outlined below. The definitions are taken from White and Folkens (1991, 28-35) and Bass (1995, 319-321). Figure 1� Annotated diagram showing main skeletal elements (after Mays 1998, 2, fig� 1�1)148
  • 159. http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/Directions - GeneralSuperior - toward the head of the body.Inferior - opposite of superior, body parts away from the head.Anterior - toward the front of the body.Posterior - opposite of anterior, toward the back of the individual.Medial - toward the midline of the body.Lateral - opposite of medial, away from the midline of the body.Proximal - nearest the axial skeleton, usually used for long bones.Distal - opposite of proximal, furthest from the axial skeleton.Palmar - relating to the hand, the palm sidePlantar - relating to the foot, towards the sole of the footDorsal - relating to the hand and foot, the back of the hand, the top side of the footExternal - outer.Internal - opposite of external, inside.Endocranial - inner surface of the cranial vault.Ectocranial - outer surface of the cranial vault.Direction - TeethMesial - toward the point on the midline where the central incisors contact each other.Distal - opposite of mesial.Lingual - toward the tongue.Labial - opposite of lingual, toward the lips.Buccal - opposite of lingual, toward the cheeks.Incisal - the biting surface of the tooth.Occlusal - the chewing surface of the tooth.General bone features/termsProcess - a bony eminence.Eminence -a bony projection, usually not as prominent as a process.Spine - generally a long, thinner, sharper process than an eminence.Tuberosity - a large, usually roughened eminence of variable shape, often the site of aligament attachment.Tubercle - a small, usually roughened eminence, often a site of a ligament attachment.Trochanters - two large, prominent, blunt, rugose processes found on the distal femur.Malleolus - a rounded protuberance adjacent to the ankle joint.Boss - a smooth round broad eminence.Articulation - an area in which adjacent bones are in contact at a joint.Condyle - a rounded articular process.Epicondyle - a non-articular projection adjacent to a condyle.Head - a large, rounded, usually articular end of a bone.Shaft or diaphysis - the long, straight section between the ends of a long bone. 149
  • 160. Epiphysis - usually the end portion or extremity of a long bone which is expanded for articulation. Neck - the section of a bone between the head and the shaft. Torus - a bony thickening. Ridge - a linear bony elevation, often roughened. Crest - a prominent, usually sharp and thin ridge of bone. Line - a raised linear surface, not as thick as a torus or as sharp as a crest. Facet - a small articular surface, or tooth contact. Metaphysis – a line of junction between epiphysis and diaphysis. Osteoblastic - process of bone formation Osteoclastic - process of bone resorption Other osteological terms C1-C7 – cervical vertebrae (neck) numbered from 1-7. CEJ – cemento-enamel junction, junction of crown of tooth and root. DJD – degenerative joint disease. T1-T12 – thoracic vertebrae (torso) numbered 1-12. TMJ – tempromandibular joint, joint of lower jaw. L1-L5 – lumbar vertebrae (lower back) numbered 1-5. S1-S5 – sacral vertebrae (in between left and right pelvis) numbered 1-5. Introduction Background to Project Excavations at Park 1, Co. Tipperary were undertaken by Eachtra Archaeological Projects under Contract 1 of the N7 national road scheme (E number E3659). The site is multi- period. The earliest phase of activity appeared to be represented by a concentration of pits, post-holes and stake-holes in the western area of the site. The site extended over a total distance of c. 450m (Eachtra Archaeological Projects, pers. comm.). Cremated bone was recovered from five of the features: four were animal in origin while one was human. Scope of Study This report details the analysis of the human cremated bone recovered from one of the numerous features that were excavated at Park 1. Animal bone was identified in four other features. While those samples will be referred to, this report deals with the actual analysis of the human cremains only. The materials and methods utilised in this study are described in Section 1.3 and Section 1.4 respectively. The results of the analysis are described in Section 2, while a synthesis and discussion are provided in Section 3.150
  • 161. http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/MaterialsThe cremated bone recovered from Park 1 was processed and separated from the soilmatrix by the client and forwarded to the writer for analysis. The actual weight of bonerecovered is detailed in Section 2. In all instances the volume of cremated bone recoveredwas low. The single sample of human cremains was the largest of all of the cremated bonesamples recovered.MethodsThe fragments of cremated human bone were identified and analysed to determine theminimum number of individuals (MNIs). Where possible the age-at-death and sex of theindividual/s was determined. No pathological lesions or dental diseases were observed onthe fragments. All of the cremated bone was weighed, the condition of the fragments was described,and the sizes of the fragments recovered were examined. These processes allow for theexamination of a cremation deposit in terms of methods of cremation and possible associ-ated ritual. Any percentages have been rounded off to one decimal place. All of the raw osteological data on the human cremains recovered from Park 1 arehoused with the writer. The cremains will be returned to the client, and the curation willbe determined by the National Museum of Ireland.2. AnalysisA summary of the cremains recovered from Park 1 is provided in Table 1.Sample No./Nos Context No. Weight (g) No. of frags Identification80 124OR9 <1 9 Probable animal151 271 49 217 Human170 314* 19 76 Animal251 314* 27 46 Animal312 471* 8 23 Animal274 352 13 28 Animal bones and teeth 516 537 10 23 Probable animalTable 1� Summary of identification of cremains from Park 1 (* c�314 and c�471 were fills of a kiln c�291)Pit c.272 (fill c.271, sample 151)A total of 49g or 217 fragments of cremains was recovered from the fill c.271 of pit c.272.All of the cremains appear human in origin. It was possible to positively identify 33g or67.3% of the total sample to bone type. A summary of the identified elements is providedin Table 2.Main Skeletal Division Identified Skeletal Elements Total weight (g)Cranium and mandible Six cranial vault fragments 1 151
  • 162. Torso - 0 Limbs 56 unidentified long bone shaft fragments 32 Unidentified fragments - 16 Total 49 Table 2� List of identified human cremains in pit c�272 There is no evidence of duplication of skeletal elements, and neither is there any indi- cation of other individuals of different ages-at-death in the sample, such as a child and an adult. The cremains are those of a single, probable adult, individual. It was not possible to determine a more accurate age-at-death, and it was not possible to determine the sex of the individual. No dental conditions and/or skeletal pathological lesions were present on the cremains. The largest fragment was from a long bone and it measured 32.47mm in length. The cremains were generally all white in colour. Concentric fracturing was present in the long bone fragments. 3. Synthesis and Discussion Summary of Analysis Cremains were recovered from five of the features that were excavated at Park 1. Four of these contained animal bone, while the human cremains were identified in one pit. The latter comprised just 49g of bone and represented at least one probable adult individual. It was not possible to determine the sex of this individual and no skeletal pathological lesions were present on the bones. The fragments were all white in colour and concentric fractures were present. Discussion Human cremains were recovered from just one of the numerous features that were exca- vated at the large multiperiod site at Park 1. The remains were those of a single, probable adult, individual. The sample was just 49g in weight. Modern research indicates that the weight of the cremated remains of an adult individual may range from between 1600g and 3500g (McKinley 1989). Clearly then, 49g is not representative of the complete cre- mains of an adult. A number of factors need to be considered when assessing the disparity between the actual weight of bone recovered and the expected weight of the cremains of an adult individual. The cremains were scientifically excavated and recovered, therefore loss of bones during the excavation and post-excavation stage may be dismissed. It is pos- sible that a significant volume of bone has disintegrated in the soil through time. How- ever, studies have indicated that – primarily through changes in the chemical properties of bone during the cremation process – cremated bone tends to survive very well in most soils, including acidic environments (Mays 1998, 209). The question then arises as to whether this sample of cremains was removed from a primary, larger cremation sample or152
  • 163. http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/was only selected body-parts cremated to begin with. Unfortunately, given the very smallsize of the sample it is not possible to assess this in any more detail. Although the volume of bone recovered is very small concentric fractures were visibleon a number of long bone fragments. The types of fractures may only occur during thecremation of a body or body parts were fleshed at the time of cremation (see Correia 1997).Thus, although it is not possible to determine if a complete body or selected body partswere cremated, it is possible to confirm that they were fleshed at the time of cremation. Finally, all of the fragments of bone were white in colour. This indicates that theremains were completely cremated. Studies have indicated that complete cremation is at-tained at pyre temperatures of between 654OC and 1200OC (after Mays 1998). It also in-dicates that the society that undertook the cremation were very familiar with the process.4. ConclusionsHuman cremains were recovered from just one of the numerous features that were exca-vated at Park 1. The partial remains of this well-cremated adult were interred in a pit. Thebulk of the cremains – assuming that a complete body was cremated – were deposited orutilised in some other manner, of which there was no evidence in the large area that wasexcavated. Radio-carbon dating and on-going post-excavation works on other aspects willadd to out understanding of this single deposit of human cremains. 153
  • 164. 5. References Bass, W. M. 1995 Human Osteology. A Laboratory and Field Manual. 4th ed. Columbia: Missouri Archaeological Society. Correia, P. M. M. 1997 ‘Fire Modification of Bone: A Review of the Literature’, in W. D. Haglund & M. H. Sorg (eds), Forensic Taphonomy: The Postmortem Fate of Human Remains, 275-94. Boca Raton: CRC Press. Mays, S. 1998 The Archaeology of Human Bones. London: Routledge. McKinley, J. I. 1989 ‘Cremations, expectations, methodologies, and realities’, in C. A. Roberts, F. Lee & J. Bintliff (eds), Burial Archaeology. Current Research, Methods, and Developments, 65-76. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports 211 (British Series). White, T. D. & P. A. Folkens 1991 Human Osteology. San Diego: Academic Press.154
  • 165. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/Appendix 11: Geophysical Report1 Introduction to the SitesEarthsound Archaeological Geophysics were commissioned by Eachtra ArchaeologicalProjects to execute a series of geophysical surveys over pre-selected sites located outside theC.P.O. boundary of the new N7 Road Scheme. The survey areas were located adjacent tosites containing archaeological remains that were excavated within the C.P.O. boundaryand extend beyond it. The new N7 road development extends from the eastern edge of the present N7Nenagh Bypass and ties into the M7 / M8 Portlaoise-Castletown Scheme. The new de-velopment terminates south of Borris-in-Ossory. The scheme in total covers a length of35 km and the work undertaken for this report comprised of land adjacent to Contract 1(Clashnevin to Castleroan), a 17.1 km section of the road located on the western half ofthe overall development. The bedrock geology along the scheme consists of a mixture of greywacke, siltstone,sandstone and mudstone all of which are suitable for magnetic susceptibility and mag-netic gradiometer geophysical surveys. However, the majority of archaeological featureswere magnetically very weak, which reflects a poor contrast between the fill of cut mate-rials and the parent geology. Magnetic susceptibility data were also generally very weak. Permissions to undertake the geophysical surveys were obtained from the Departmentof the Environment, Heritage and Local Government (License R179). The geophysicalsurvey was requested to assess the extent of the archaeological remains located outsidethe C.P.O. boundary. All sites were assessed using magnetic gradiometer and magneticsusceptibility surveys with the exception of Drumbaun 2 where high vegetation preventedthe use of the magnetic susceptibility meter.Park 1Located within the townland of Park, the northwest corner of the site (Figure 1) lies atOrdnance Survey of Ireland Irish National Grid (ING) Reference E199594 N181017. Thesite is located on either side of the N7 C.P.O. boundary, adjacent to Chainage 8100-8500. Fieldwork was conducted on the 14th November 2008 in cold and wet weather. Park is situated on level well drained ground which overlooks the River Ollatrim. Atthe time of survey the site was under short pasture which was ideal for geophysical survey.Approximately 100 m to the east a fulacht fiadh was located during archaeological exca-vation. The excavation at Park 1 revealed a multiperiod site. The earliest phase of activityappeared to be represented by a concentration of pits, post-holes and stake-holes in thewestern area of the site. The site extended over a distance of c.450m. Also revealed on thesite were kilns, metalworking activity, several ditches and a number of hearths and pits(Eachtra 2008e). 155
  • 166. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Aims & Objectives The geophysical survey was requested to assess the extent of the archaeological remains located outside the C.P.O. boundary. Specific objectives were to: • Assess the extent and location of the archaeological remains associated with those uncovered in the excavation • Determine the presence or absence other associated archaeological features A meth- odology was developed to allow multiple techniques to systematically investigate the site. Detailed magnetic gradiometer and magnetic susceptibility surveys were carried out within the survey area. These techniques have been used in commercial and research ar- chaeological projects for many years and are considered the most appropriate techniques for a detailed investigation of the underlying archaeology (Clarke 1996, Scollar et al. 1990). Where possible, the use of multiple geophysical techniques allows a greater con- fidence to be placed in the interpretation of detected anomalies, which is especially useful on small sites such as this. Their combined application can be used to determine the geom- etry, compositional material and the extent of an archaeological target. 2 Methodology The fieldwork was carried out by J. Bonsall, D. Jones and H. Gimson of Earthsound Ar- chaeological Geophysics. A magnetic gradiometer survey was carried out using two Geoscan Research FM256 fluxgate gradiometers. Two pairs of sensors were mounted on a CF6 carry frame. A magnetic susceptibility survey was carried out using a Bartington MS2 Magnetic Susceptibility meter and MS2D search loop interfaced with a Trimble Pro-XRS Differ- ential GPS. A rectangular grid was laid out using a Trimble Pro-XRS Differential Global Position- ing System (see Technical Appendix 2), and divided in to 40 × 40 m sub-grids for the gradiometer survey. Magnetic Gradiometer Survey The survey was undertaken along lines parallel to the sub-grid edges, walking approxi- mately south to north, starting in the southwest corner of each grid. Subsequent lines were surveyed in alternate directions (‘zigzag’). Data were recorded using an FM256 at a spatial resolution of 1 m intervals between traverses and 0.25 m intervals along those lines. The instrument was positioned facing north, parallel to the Earth’s magnetic field, to allow increased geo-magnetic resolution. The instrument was set to a recording sensitivity of 0.1 nT. Prior to the beginning of the survey and after the completion of every two sub-grids, the electronic and mechanical setup of the instrument were examined and calibrated as necessary over a common refer- ence point. The magnetic drift from zero was not logged.156
  • 167. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/ Data were collected automatically using an internal sample trigger while the opera-tor walked at a constant pace along the traverse. The data were stored in an internaldata logger and downloaded to a field computer using Geoscan Research Geoplot v.3.00asoftware.Data ProcessingPreliminary Data TreatmentThe data were pre-processed in Geoplot 3.00. Spurious high intensity anomalies, com-monly statistical outliers, are referred to as geophysical ‘spikes’. In magnetic data, an ‘ironspike’ is a response to a buried ferrous object, often in the topsoil. Iron spikes are generally not removed in geophysical data;although often modern in origin, they can be indicative of archaeological material. Theraw data contained some poorly matched sub-grids, caused by the internal drift of thefluxgate gradiometer and the gradual misalignment of the fluxgate sensors between cali-bration episodes. To compensate for this, a zero mean traverse (ZMT) function was em-ployed. The use of ZMT alters data to adjust the mean of each traverse to zero by increas-ing or decreasing data as necessary. This alters the statistical properties of the data to givea uniformly bipolar background, centred around zero. Post-ZMT plots were comparedwith raw data to analyse the potential removal of geophysical anomalies along the line ofa traverse.Further ProcessingNo further processing functions were applied due to the high quality of the data collec-tion. A low pass Gaussian filter was applied, reducing the variability of the data whilstimproving the visibility of weak archaeological features. This also had a smoothing effecton the data. A sine wave interpolation function was applied to provide a smooth, aestheti-cally pleasing image for presentation. For a given point x, the contribution of adjacentreadings to the interpolated point is given by the function sinc (x) = sin πx/πx (Scollar1990). This function is used as a sliding window along each transect, resulting in an inter-polated image, expanding the resolution of the data from 1 m x 0.25 m to 0.5 m x 0.125m. This function was chosen as giving a clearer interpolated image than linear interpola-tion (which assumes a direct linear change between each point) or bicubic interpolation(taking the surrounding sixteen values into account).Graphical DisplayPre-processed data are displayed in XY traceplot format in Figures 2, 7, 10, 15, and 20. AnXY traceplot presents the data logged on each traverse as a single line with each succes-sive traverse incremented on the Y-axis to produce a stacked plot. The data have not beenclipped at –3 and +3 nT. The main advantage of this display option is that the full rangeof data can be viewed, dependent on the clip, so that the ‘shape’ of individual anomaliescan be discerned and potential archaeological anomalies differentiated from iron ‘spikes’. Processed data are shown in Greyscale format in Figures 3, 8, 11, 16 and 21. The grey-scale plot presents data as pixels on a linear grey shaded scale, increasing or decreasing 157
  • 168. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort dependent on the values of the maximum and minimum clip. The magnetic gradiometer data have been clipped at –2 (white) and +2 nT (black). Data values beyond the clip limits are shown as ‘pure’ black or white. The main advantage of this display option is that the data can be viewed as a base map. An interpretation plot is presented in Figures 4, 9, 12, 17 and 22. Magnetic Susceptibility Survey A geophysical grid baseline was not established for the Magnetic Susceptibility survey; a Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) data logger, a Trimble TSC1, displayed a graphical representation of the survey area, with traverses spaced every 5 m. The graphi- cal representation was utilised by the geophysicists to navigate and collect data points at predetermined intervals. The topsoil volume magnetic susceptibility survey was undertaken along lines parallel to the survey grids, walking approximately south to north. Subsequent lines were sur- veyed in alternate directions (‘zigzag’). Data were recorded at a spatial resolution of 5m intervals between traverses and 5m intervals along those lines. The MS2 was set to a recording sensitivity of 1 SI unit to obtain (infinite) volume specific magnetic susceptibility (Volume MS or κ). When measured in SI units, the data is expressed as 1 x 10-5 κ. The MS-DGPS recorded northing and easting within the Irish National Grid to a minimum accuracy of ±1 m, and altitude to an accuracy of ±2 m. Prior to surveying each survey station, the MS2 was calibrated according to the man- ufacturers guidelines, by ‘zeroing’ whilst holding the sensor approximately 3 m in the air. The positive and negative data presented in this report are the κ value of the survey area compared to the κ value of the air, being, theoretically, zero. Data were collected and stored automatically in the TSC1 data logger by using a push button trigger on the MS2. The geophysicists walked at a constant pace along each traverse, pausing only briefly at each survey station to obtain a measurement of magnetic susceptibility. The data were downloaded to a field computer using Trimble Pathfinder Office 2.9 software. Data Processing Preliminary Data Treatment The data were exported from Pathfinder Office 2.9 to Microsoft Excel. The Excel data were gridded in xyz format as northing, easting and κ, using Golden Software Surfer 8.00. Further Processing A natural neighbour interpolation function was applied to the data to provide a smooth, aesthetically pleasing image for presentation. No further processing functions were ap- plied due to the high quality of the data collection. Graphical Display Contour plots can be shaded to emphasise particular regions between lines. Processed data are shown in interpolated colourscale contour plot format in Figures 5, 13, 18 and 23.158
  • 169. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/The colourscale plot presents data as pixels on a linear colour shaded scale, increasing ordecreasing dependent on the values of the maximum and minimum clip. The geophysicaldata have not been clipped. The main advantage of this display option is that the data canbe viewed as a base map. A disadvantage is that the interpolation process can exaggerateisolated high or low data (this is noticeable over areas where no data has been collected,e.g. in the space occupied by a field boundary); to compensate for this, each survey sta-tion has been marked by a small black dot, creating a point cloud, to an accuracy of ±1m, so that exaggeration between points can be visualised. An interpretation plot of themagnetic susceptibility data is presented in Figures 6, 14, 19 and 24.Reporting, Mapping & ArchivingThe geophysical survey and report follow the recommendations outlined in the EnglishHeritage Guidelines (David et al. 2008) and IFA Paper No. 6 (Gaffney et al. 2002) as aminimum standard. The conditions of the Detection Licence issued by the LicensingSection of the Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government requirea copy of this report. Geophysical data, figures and text are archived following the recommendations of theArchaeology Data Service (Schmidt 2001). Field boundaries were mapped and drawn based upon data gathered by the DGPS.Technical information on the equipment used, data processing and methodology aregiven in Appendix 1. Appendix 2 details the survey geo-referencing information and Ap-pendix 3 describes the composition and location of the archive.3 Results & DiscussionThe interpretation figures should not be looked at in isolation but in conjunction withthe relevant discussion section and with the information contained in the Appendices.Features are numbered in the relevant figures listed below [G1=gradiometer anomalies,M1=magnetic susceptibility anomalies] and are described and interpreted within the text. In magnetic gradiometer data, a dipolar anomaly or ‘iron spike’ is a response to buriedferrous objects, often in the topsoil. Iron spikes generally are not removed in geophysicaldata, although often modern in origin, they can be indicative of archaeological material.Magnetic Gradiometer SurveyFigure 20 – Pre-processed Magnetic Gradiometer Data Figure 21 – Magnetic Gradiom-eter Data Figure 22 – Magnetic Gradiometer Interpretation The survey area containssome old field boundaries marked on the modern OS map, which do not appear withinthe field. Anomaly [G32] is a curvilinear possible ditch which is located on the eastern edgeof the survey area. Measuring 36 m in length this anomaly extends beyond the surveyarea and is difficult to characterise, however its curvilinear nature suggests that it mightbe archaeological or could be associated with the adjacent field boundary. There is a gen- 159
  • 170. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort eral level of disturbance against the eastern edge of the survey area, generated by a field boundary, a cattle feeding station and a possible access route (see anomaly G34, below). Anomaly [G33] is a weakly magnetic arcing ditch which extends northwards beyond the survey area. This anomaly may be bounding another area of archaeological interest associated with the archaeological remains revealed during the excavation. Anomaly [G34] is a linear area of highly magnetic material which extends 198 m, along the length of the survey area. This anomaly represents a relict field boundary once present on the site. This boundary although no longer extant is shown on the OS maps of the area implying that its destruction is relatively modern. The anomaly is characterised by large amounts of ferrous material, which probably represents debris or infill from the destruction of the boundary. Anomaly [G35] represents a relict field boundary. It would have joined G34 at a right angle forming a field system. Like G34, this anomaly is also characterised by frequent ferrous responses, representing metal debris or infill associated with the destruction of the field boundary. An extension of the field boundary was revealed in the excavation to the south. Anomaly [G36] extends from G35 and runs parallel to G34. This anomaly does not contain the highly magnetic material present in G34 and G35 but it is likely that this anomaly represents the southern edge to a field system comprised of G34/G35/G36 and possibly G32. Anomaly [G37] consists of two parallel linear ditches which extend from the western edge of the survey area for a length of 65 m, and are spaced 24 m apart. These ditches appear to join up in an arcing semi-circular feature, creating an anomaly with a total length of 180 m. This anomaly has a moderate magnetic signature. The typology of the ditched feature in plan resembles a “finger-shaped” response, suggestive of a prehistoric cursus-type feature, although this is only a tentative interpretation. Such a monument would certainly complement the multiperiod nature of the site as seen in the archaeologi- cal excavation results. The “finger-shaped” response is located to the north of the main zone of archaeological activity identified in the excavation and is likely to continue west beyond the survey area. Anomaly [G38] is an area of plough furrows. The presence of this agricultural activity may have impacted the underlying archaeology, especially effecting anomaly G37. Sur- veys could not be undertaken in the southern survey area at this time due to the presence of a tulip crop. The survey area is expected to be available from June 2009. Magnetic Susceptibility Survey Figure 23 – Magnetic Susceptibility Data Figure 24 – Magnetic Susceptibility Interpre- tation The ditched anomalies identified in the magnetic gradiometer data have been su- perimposed upon the magnetic susceptibility data in order to gauge the responses within their wider setting. The magnetic susceptibility data at Park 1 are the strongest encoun- tered within this report, with a mean response of 10 SI units, the data can be split in to two populations which fall on either side of an old field boundary, as revealed in both160
  • 171. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/the excavation and as magnetic gradiometer anomaly G35. Magnetic susceptibility datato the east of the old field boundary generally fall between 0 to 14 SI units, whilst onthe western side the data range between 10 to 25 SI units, with a particularly strong zonereaching as high as 341 SI units. Anomaly [M9] is an area of raised magnetic susceptibility values which run from theedge of the excavation across the survey area. This area measures up to 55m in width andis likely to represent archaeological activity associated with the kilns and enclosure ditchesrevealed in the excavation results. [M10] represents consistently high magnetic susceptibility values over a 5 x 5 m area,on the western side of the site within anomaly M9. The processing software used hascontoured the responses to approximate a circle and surrounding values, though weaker,are still very strong. These responses are not spurious and reflect the presence of metal orfired material over a reasonably sized area. The responses occur to the south of the “finger-shaped” anomaly in the magnetic gradiometer data (G37), and are not associated withany particular deposits or anomalies. This could imply that the origin of the responsesare in the topsoil, possibly indicating the presence of a ploughed out feature or deposit,perhaps associated with the kilns identified in the excavation. Anomaly [M11] is an area of lower magnetic susceptibility values which is located tothe east of M9. Surveys could not be undertaken in the southern survey area at this timedue to the presence of a tulip crop. The survey area is expected to be available from June2009.4 ConclusionAchievement of ObjectivesThe geophysical surveys have assessed land adjacent to archaeologically significant siteswhich were identified within the C.P.O boundary of the new road. The magnetic gradi-ometer surveys have identified and mapped possible archaeological remains within theseareas which will help to enhance the interpretation of the sites’ extent and composition.The magnetic susceptibility survey across the sites was useful in that it reinforced certaintrends identified in the magnetic gradiometer data.Summary of ResultsA possible boundary ditch was identified as well as series of linear isolated and intercon-necting possible ditches. The remains of a “finger-shaped” ditch, which could be inter-preted as a cursus monument, were also identified on the western edge of the survey area.Surveys could not be undertaken in the southern survey area of Park 1 due to the presenceof a tulip crop. The survey area is expected to be available from June 2009. 161
  • 172. iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEPort Recommendations The “finger-shaped” ditch is worthy of further investigation. Earth resistance could be used in the first instance to confirm that it represents a ditch to determine if the feature could represent a cursus monument as suggested. The feature appears to continue further westwards adjacent to the CPO boundary and this should be confirmed also. Tests indi- cate that the site would respond better to 0.5m traverse intervals, rather than 1m intervals for any future magnetic gradiometer survey. Dissemination The results of this survey were submitted to Eachtra Archaeological Projects. Earthsound will ensure that copies will be forwarded to the Department of the Environment, Herit- age and Local Government and the National Museum of Ireland in compliance with the Licence agreement. 5 Acknowledgements Fieldwork: James Bonsall BA (Hons) MSc PIFA Daniel Jones MA Heather Gimson BA (Hons) MSc MIAI Report: Heather Gimson, James Bonsall Graphics: Heather Gimson162
  • 173. Park 1-E3659 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3659-park1-co-tipperary/6 BibliographyClark, A.J. 1996 Seeing Beneath the Soil, London, BatsfordDavid, A. Linford, N. & Linford, P. 2008 Geophysical Survey in Archaeological Field Evaluation, Second Edition, English HeritageEachtra 2008a Busherstown Preliminary Archaeological Report, N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme, Unpublished Archaeological Report by Eachtra Archaeological ProjectsEachtra 2008b Drumbaun 2 Preliminary Archaeological Report, N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme, Unpublished Archaeological Report by Eachtra Archaeological ProjectsEachtra 2008c Drumroe 1 Preliminary Archaeological Report, N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme, Unpublished Archaeological Report by Eachtra Archaeological ProjectsEachtra 2008d Killeisk 1 Preliminary Archaeological Report, N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme, Unpublished Archaeological Report by Eachtra Archaeological ProjectsEachtra 2008e Park 1 Preliminary Archaeological Report, N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme, Unpublished Archaeological Report by Eachtra Archaeological ProjectsGaffney, C., Gater, J. & Ovenden, S. 2002 The use of Geophysical Techniques in Archaeological Evaluations, IFA Paper No. 6, Institute of Field ArchaeologistsSchmidt, A. 2001 Geophysical Data in Archaeology: A Guide to Good Practice, Archaeology Data Service, Oxford, OxbowScollar, I., Tabbagh, A., Hesse, A. And Herzog, I. 1990 Archaeological Prospecting and Remote Sensing, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Topics in Remote Sensing Vol. 2The following texts are referenced in the Technical Appendix:Walker, R. 2000 Geoplot Version 3.00 for Windows, Instruction Manual, Version 1.2, Clayton, West Yorkshire 163