Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Archaeological Report - Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Introducing the official SlideShare app

Stunning, full-screen experience for iPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Archaeological Report - Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)

682
views

Published on

The site at Mitchelstown 1 was discovered during archaeological investigations along the route of the Mitchelstown Relief Road. The site comprised three houses constructed in at least two phases, one …

The site at Mitchelstown 1 was discovered during archaeological investigations along the route of the Mitchelstown Relief Road. The site comprised three houses constructed in at least two phases, one of the houses having been cut by the other two. The houses were approximately 10m in diameter and were roughly D-shaped in plan, with entrances centrally located on the straight side, facing east. One of the houses showed clear evidence of having had an internal division in the form of a slot trench running between two structural postholes. The slot trench could have held a wattle wall separating the entrance area (approximately one-third of the floor area) from the remainder of the house.
Little evidence was found of the material culture or economy of the inhabitants of the Mitchelstown houses. No pottery was recovered from the site and the few lithics were undiagnostic.
The number of cereal grains recovered from the soil samples was too small to allow any interpretation of the economy or diet of the population. A striking aspect of the environmental material however was the large number of seeds of the Dock family. These are usually considered to be weed seeds brought into houses inadvertently along with cereals. However, that is unlikely here, given the paucity of cereal grains on the site, and it may be that Dock seeds were deliberately gathered as a food source. Parallels for this have been found in Britain and Denmark where Dock seeds have been found in the gut contents of bog bodies.
The Mitchelstown houses have numerous parallels among the growing numbers of Middle Bronze Age houses now being discovered in recent Irish excavations and add to the expanding settlement pattern of the period.


0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
682
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Eachtra JournalIssue 10 [ISSN 2009-2237] Archaeological Excavation Report 04E1072 - Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork Middle Bronze Age houses
  • 2. Archaeological Excavation Report,N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road,Mitchelstown,Co. Cork. January 2008Client: Cork County Council, National Roads Office, Richmond, Glanmire, Co. Cork.Licence No.: 04E1072 Contact details: The Forge, Innishannon, Co. Cork.Written by: Eamonn Cotter Tel.: 021 470 16 16 Fax: 021 470 16 28 E-mail: info@eachtra.ie Web Site: www.eachtra.ie
  • 3. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Table of Contents Non-Technical Summary.............................................................................................1 1 Introduction ........................................................................................................2 1.1 Site location .......................................................................................................2 1.2 Scope of the Project............................................................................................2 1.3 Circumstances of discovery ................................................................................3 1.4 Date and duration of excavation works ...............................................................3 1.5 Size and composition of the excavation team ......................................................3 2 Receiving Environment .......................................................................................3 2.1 The Natural Landscape ......................................................................................3 2.2 The Human Landscape ......................................................................................5 3 Original Research Framework ............................................................................ 10 4 Excavation Results ..............................................................................................11 4.1 Excavation Methodology ...................................................................................11 4.2 Stratigraphic Report ..........................................................................................11 4.3 Artefactual evidence ..........................................................................................15 4.4 Environmental evidence ....................................................................................15 4.5 Dating evidence ...........................................................................................17 5. Discussion & Interpretation ..................................................................................... 19 6 Conclusion .............................................................................................................20 7 Bibliography .......................................................................................................21 7.1 Other Sources ...................................................................................................23 8 Figures ................................................................................................................24 9 Plates .................................................................................................................. 33 Copyright Notice: Please note that all original information contained within this report, including all original drawings, photographs, text and all other printed matter deemed to be the writer’s, remains the property of the writer and Eachtra Archaeological Projects and so may not be reproduced or used in any form without the written consent of the writer or Eachtra Archaeological Projects.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ iii
  • 4. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 10 Appendix 1 Matrix .............................................................................................37 11 Appendix 2 Context Register ..............................................................................38 12 Appendix 3 Find Register .................................................................................. 100 13 Appendix 4 Plant remains report ....................................................................... 101 14 Appendix 5 Lithics Report & Catalogue ............................................................ 107 15 Appendix 6 Cremated Bone ............................................................................... 110 16 Appendix 7 Stones Catalogue ............................................................................ 111 17 Appendix 8 Archive Content.............................................................................. 112 18 Appendix 9 Dissemination Strategy ................................................................... 113 19 Appendix 10 Programme Schedule Dates & Deliveries ...................................... 114Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ iv
  • 5. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 List of Figures Figure 1 Portion of Discovery Map showing route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road. ..... 24 Figure 2 Portion of RMP sheets CO010 and CO019 showing route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road. .......................................................................................................................... 25 Figure 3 Portion of 1st edition OS maps sheets CO010 and CO019 showing Mitchelstown Demesne and the route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road................................................ 26 Figure 4 Route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road showing location of all archaeological sites. .............................................................................................................................. 27 Figure 5 Post excavation plan of Area A. ............................................................................... 28 Figure 6 Mid- excavation plan showing slot trench for House B (beige) cutting slot trench for House C (blue). ..................................................................................................................... 29 Figure 7 Post-excavation plan and section of isolated pit C.368 in Area B. ........................... 30 Figure 8 Cross sections through some of typical structural postholes on the site. .................. 31 Figure 9 Illustration of quern stones 04E1072:1:6, 04E1072:387:13 and 04E1072:529:24. ... 32 List of Plates Plate 1 Aerial view of Houses A, B and C from the north. .................................................... 33 Plate 2 Aerial view of Houses A, B and C from the west. ...................................................... 33 Plate 3 Detail of slot trench for wall of House A. .................................................................. 34 Plate 4 Detail of C252 hearth House C. ............................................................................... 34 Plate 5 View of quern stone 04E1072:1:6 (listed as 04 in quern stones plates of artefacts). ... 35 Plate 6 View of quern stone 04E1072:387:13 (listed as 07 in quern stones plates of artefacts).35 Plate 7 View of quern stone 04E1072:529:24 (listed as 06 in quern stones plates of artefacts).36 Plate 8 View of flint artefacts 04E1072:1:1, 04E1072:1:3, 04E1072:6:1, 04E1072:325:1 and 04E1072:450:1. ..................................................................................................................... 36Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ v
  • 6. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Non-Technical Summary This report details the results of an archaeological excavation undertaken by Eachtra Ar- chaeological Projects of a site on the route of the proposed N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road, on behalf of Cork County Council. The proposed bypass involves the construction of 4.5Km of the N8 from Cloonlough, south of Mitchelstown, to the junction of the R513 and the N8, north of Mitchelstown. Phase 1 of the project (archaeological testing of the route) was carried out in June, July and September 2004 under licences 04E0889-04E0892 issued by Department of the Environ- ment Heritage and Local Government (DoEHLG). The principal aim of this phase of the project was to test sites of archaeological potential identified in the EIS and geophysical sur- veying and to test for any previously unknown sites by a programme of centreline and offset testing. Phase 2 of the project (resolution) involved the resolution of all archaeological sites identified within the proposed road corridor prior to commencement of the construction of the bypass in order to avoid delays and costs during construction works. This phase of the project was carried out from September-December 2004 and excavations were conducted by two licensed directors under the management of a Senior Archaeologist. In total five sites were excavated during this phase of works and all excavations were carried out initially under separate li- cences issued by DoEHLG and subsequently under Ministerial Order. One of these sites, Mitchelstown 1, is the subject of this report. Mitchelstown 1 was identi- fied during phase 1 as a potential settlement site comprising a cluster of stakeholes and areas of burnt clay indicating a possible hearth. Archaeological resolution of this site commenced on August 3rd 2004 and was carried out by Eamonn Cotter under licence number 04E1072. Resolution of the site revealed three circular houses constructed in two phases. Each house was c. 10m in diameter and had an entrance facing east. Radiocarbon dating of charcoal samples from the site indicated a date range of c. 1490-1260 cal BC, placing them in the Middle Bronze Age.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 1
  • 7. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 1 Introduction 1.1 Site location This report details the results of the archaeological excavation of a site on the N8 Mitchel- stown Relief Road (MRR), County Cork. The site was located c.0.5 km northwest of Mitch- elstown, at National Grid Co-ordinates 180869,113639 at an elevation of 106m OD (Fig. 1). It is located in the townland of Mitchelstown, the Parish of Brigown and barony of Condons and Clangibbon. 1.2 Scope of the Project This Archaeological Services Project was carried out on behalf of Cork County Council, National Roads Design Office, Richmond, Glanmire, Co. Cork. This project was funded by the Irish Government under the National Development Plan, 2000-2006. The purpose of the Project was to conduct Archaeological Site Investigations within the lands made available for the scheme and to assess the nature and extent of any new or potential archaeological sites uncovered. Phase 1 of the project (archaeological testing of the route) was carried out in June, July and September 2004 under licences 04E0889-04E0892 issued by Department of the Environ- ment Heritage and Local Government (DoEHLG). The principal aim of this phase of the project was to test sites of archaeological potential identified in the EIS and geophysical sur- veying and to test for any previously unknown sites by a programme of centreline and offset testing. Phase 2 of the project (resolution) involved the resolution of all archaeological sites identified within the proposed road corridor prior to commencement of the construction of the bypass in order to avoid delays and costs during construction works. This phase of the project was carried out from September-December 2004 and excavations were conducted by two licensed directors under the management of a Senior Archaeologist. In total five sites were excavated during this phase of works and all excavations were carried out initially under separate li- cences issued by DoEHLG and subsequently under Ministerial Order (Fig. 4). Following completion of fieldwork a dissemination strategy was undertaken and submittedPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 2
  • 8. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 to the project archaeologist. A programme of post-excavation analysis was agreed and com- menced. A lecture on the preliminary findings was given to Mitchelstown Historical Society in May 2005 by the project and senior archaeologists. 1.3 Circumstances of discovery Archaeological testing in June 2004, under licence 04E0890, revealed a number of features of archaeological potential in the area, identified as a dense cluster of stakeholes and a possible hearth. The site was designated Mitchelstown 1. Topsoil stripping around these features was recommended, with full excavation of all features exposed. 1.4 Date and duration of excavation works Excavation commenced on August 3rd 2004, under Licence no. 04E1072, and continued for 8 weeks, ending on September 24th 2004. 1.5 Size and composition of the excavation team Team size averaged six people, including one director, one supervisor, two site assistants and two general operatives. 2 Receiving Environment 2.1 The Natural Landscape 2.1.1 Geology The geological structure of the East Cork area, in which the proposed road scheme is located, consists of east-west valleys (synclines) separated by intervening ridges (anticlines)1. The ma- 1 The following information on the geology of the area is taken from Sleeman A. G. and McConnell, B (1995) Geology of East Cork-~Waterford, Geological Survey of Ireland.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 3
  • 9. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 jor towns and smaller settlements are predominately located within the valleys and often at important river crossings. The ridges are comprised of sandstones and mudstones of the Devonian ‘Old Red Sandstone’, laid down 355-410 million years ago, while the valleys are floored by poorly exposed Carboniferous limestones laid down 290-355 million years ago. Mitchelstown is located in one of these valleys, known in geological terminology as the Mitchelstown Syncline. This is an extension of the Fermoy Syncline, which incorporates the Blackwater River valley. The Mitchelstown Syncline extends north-eastwards between the Galty and Knockmealdown mountain ranges into South Tipperary. The geology of the area is characterised by a succession of various Carboniferous Limestones known collectively as the Carrick-on-Suir and Mitchelstown Succession. Two of the formations which form this group are represented in the area of the present site. They are the O’Mahony’s Rock Forma- tion, composed of shallow water algal laminites, and the Rathronan Formation, composed of micrites, wackestones and cherts. The bedrock geology of the area is overlain by more recent Quaternary sediments mostly deposited by melting glaciers and ice sheets during the various alternating warm and cold phases in the period from 1.6 million years ago to 10,000 years ago. Quaternary deposits generally range from 3-4m in thickness but thicknesses of up to 60m are known in the Blackwater valley. The nature of these sediments depends on the origin of the ice sheets that deposited them. The deposits in the valley between Mitchelstown and Cahir contain mostly sandstone debris derived from higher ground to the north. 2.1.2 Soils and their uses The soils to the north of the Gradoge River to the west of Mitchelstown are characterised by a mix of acid brown earths, gleys and grey brown podzolics, which are derived from mixed sandstone and limestone glacial till while the underlying rock is Carboniferous limestone. The acid brown earths and gleys occur in the gently rolling valleys of Cork and Waterford mainly at altitudes of 0-75m (Gardiner 1980, 61). These soils have a wide use range and are suitable for tillage and grass production. The soils to the south of the Gradoge River are characterized by a mix of gleys and peaty gleys which are derived from glacial till of mixed sandstone-shale composition with a small admixture of limestone in places. They occur mostly at altitudes of 76m to 152m. These soils have a limited use range as they are poorly drained even on good slopes. They are best suited to grassland (ibid. 77-79). The land along the route is for the most part under pasture.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 4
  • 10. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 2.1.3 Topography (see Fig. 1) The topography of the Mitchelstown area comprises a broad plain running approximately east-west. The plain is dominated by the Galtee Mountains to the north, the Ballyhoura Mountains to the west and the Kilworth Mountains (the foothills of the Knockmealdown Mountains) to the south. It is drained mainly by the Funshion River which rises in the Galty mountains to the northeast and flows westwards to the north of Mitchelstown, before turn- ing southwards to join the Blackwater near Fermoy. The town itself is built on a plateau overlooking the Gradoge River, which rises in the north- ern slopes of the Kilworth mountains and flows westwards to join the Funshion 1.5Km west of the town. The route of the N8 Mitchelstown relief road (MRR) traverses the townlands of Cloonlough, Stag Park and Mitchelstown, to the south, west and north-west of the town. The southern part of the route initially runs westwards across the plateau at 125m OD before turning northwards, rising to 135m OD, then dropping sharply into the Gradoge valley at 80m OD. From there it rises north eastwards across the limestone ridge on the northern side of the val- ley at The archaeological site described in this report was located on the edge of a limestone plateau to the north of the Gradoge, overlooking the valley. 2.2 The Human Landscape 2.2.1 Archaeological Background There is a paucity of known archaeological sites within a 2 km radius of the route of the N8 MRR. Three prehistoric sites, fulachta fiadh (CO019-019, -020, -021) are recorded in Stagpark and Ballykearney within 100-500m of the route corridor. The site of Mitchelstown Castle (CO019-026), the associated demesne and the historic town of Mitchelstown (CO019- 149) are the principal medieval and post-medieval sites in the vicinity of the route corridor (Figs. 2 and 3).Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 5
  • 11. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 2.2.2 Mesolithic 7000 BC - 4000 BC The earliest known human settlement in Ireland dates from the Mesolithic period (c. 7000 BC - 4000 BC). In Munster, the majority of the evidence (flint scatters) for Mesolithic occu- pation has ‘come from the Blackwater valley in Co. Cork’ (Woodman 1989, 116). Flint scat- ters were recorded in the townlands of Ballynamona (CO018-099) and Wallstown (CO018- 100) on the northern and southern sides of the Awbeg river respectively c. 15km to the west of the route of the N8 MRR (Power et. al. 2000, 2). 2.2.3 Neolithic 4000 BC -2500 BC The Neolithic Period is characterised by the introduction of agriculture and the beginnings of the clearance of the woodlands. The population increased and became more sedentary in nature. Substantial Neolithic settlement sites have been recorded at Lough Gur, Co. Limer- ick and Cloghers, Co. Kerry. The material culture includes the manufacture of pottery, flint and stone arrowheads, scrapers, axes etc. The range of monuments types includes Megalithic tombs (court tombs, portal tombs, passage tombs and wedge tombs), single burial graves and stone circles. There is a paucity of evidence for Neolithic settlement sites in the south-west of Ireland, though recent archaeological investigation associated with infrastructural development has revealed new sites from that period in County Cork. The nearest known Neolithic house was excavated on the N8 Rathcormac-Fermoy in the townland of Gortore. The structure was dated to the Early Neolithic cal BC 3928-3655 (UB 6769). Further evidence of Neolithic activity was recorded at Fermoy and Curraghprevin, on the same road scheme. 2.2.4 Bronze Age 2000 BC -500 BC The Bronze Age is characterised by the introduction of metallurgy, the mining of copper ores and manufacture of copper, bronze and gold items. The range of burial site types includes, cist graves, pit and urn burials, cremation cemeteries, barrows, ring-ditches and wedge tombs. Stone circles and standing stones also date to the Bronze Age. Both enclosed and unenclosed settlement sites are known. The most prolific Bronze Age site type is the fulacht fiadh, of over 2,000 examples of which have been recorded in County Cork alone. These monuments survive as low mounds of charcoal rich black silt packed with heat-shattered stones and are generally situated close to a water source. In many cases, however, all that survives to thePermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 6
  • 12. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 present day are black spreads with fragments of shattered stones visible in ploughed fields. Fulachta fiadh are generally classified as ‘cooking places’, whereby stones were heated in a hearth and subsequently placed in a trough of water, the water continued to boil with the ad- dition of hot stones and wrapped food was cooked within the hot water. The trough eventu- ally filled with small stones, ash and charcoal that were removed and formed the basis of the familiar mound. The absence of animal remains and the scarcity of associated hearths have fuelled the debate in relation to the function of the sites. Other theories on their interpreta- tion include bathing and dyeing textiles together with the production of hot water and steam for curative purposes and sweat houses (Kelly 1989, 225). Waddell (1998, 177) suggests the semi-industrial purpose of using the boiling water for dipping hides as part of the preparation of the leather. There are few wedge tombs or stone circles known from north or east Cork. Two of the excep- tions are wedge tombs located at Labbacallee (CO027-086) and at Manning (CO027-091) both located c. 8 km south of the N8 MRR. Labbacallee is one of the largest wedge tombs in the country. The Bronze Age cemetery of Mitchelstowndown West, located 16 km to the north of the N8 MRR, contains 53 small barrows. Four of these were selected for excavation by the Discovery Programme (Daly et. al. 1992, 44). Until recently Bronze Age settlement sites were a rarity in North Cork, but recent excava- tions have altered the picture. A Bronze Age occupation site was recorded underlying the medieval ringfort Lisleagh I (CO027-158) c.3.5km to the south of the N8 MRR (Power et. al. 2000, 210). A house site was excavated at Killydonoghoe on the route of the N8 Glanmire- Watergrasshill Bypass (Sherlock, 2003). A large Bronze Age settlement site consisting of three enclosures and three circular houses was excavated in 2003 at Ballybrowney on the route of the N8 Rathcormac-Fermoy (Cotter 2004, 38). 2.2.5 Iron Age 500 BC – 400 AD At present, there is little evidence of a significant Iron Age presence in the Cork region. Set- tlement sites are few and far between as well as being difficult to identify (Woodman, 2000) while the material culture of this period is limited. Linear earthworks, which are believed to have marked tribal boundaries, are one of the most visible monuments of the period. Three separate stretches of one such boundary, the Claidh Dubh, have been recorded inPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 7
  • 13. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 County Cork. The longest stretch, c. 24 km extends from the Nagle Mountains, across the Blackwater valley and into the Ballyhoura Hills. The Claidh Dubh crosses the N73 c. 12km west of the N8 MRR. Radiocarbon dating following excavation of a section of it revealed it dated to some time before 100AD (Doody 1995, 23). Three of the five hillfort sites in Cork are located in North Cork (Power et al, 2000, 205). Caherdrinny is located at the western end of the Kilworth Mountains, c. 3 km to the south of the N8 MRR and Corrin is located at the eastern end of the Nagle Mountains c. 15 km to the south of the N8 MRR. A complex of monuments in Conva townland (c. 15 km to the southwest of the N8 MRR) was identified by aerial photography in the Blackwater Valley. Crop marks indicated three enclosures (CO034-7201, -7202, -7203) and a number of large pits (CO034-7204) possibly comprising a rectangular enclosure. The site was investigated in 1992 by Martin Doody of the Discovery Programme which involved geophysical prospection, topographic survey and trial excavation. Sections were dug through the three enclosures and through four of the large pits. Metal debris was discovered and radiocarbon dates indicated that the complex dated to the Iron Age/Early Medieval period. 2.2.6 Early Medieval 400 AD – 1000 AD The Early Medieval Period/Early Christian Period is characterized by the arrival of Christian- ity to Ireland. Early ecclesiastical sites in the vicinity of Mitchelstown are located at Brigown (CO019-030) to the immediate southeast, Kildrum (CO020-025) to the east, Aghacross (CO019-002) to the west, Labbamolagga (CO010-003) to the northwest and Killeenemer (CO19-092) to the southwest. The monastery of Brigown founded in the 7th century gives its name to the modern parish (Power 1996, 3). The characteristic monument type of the period was the ringfort, with estimates of between 30 and 50,000 illustrated on the first edition of the Ordnance Survey 6” maps of the 1840’s (Barry, 1987). As a result of continued research these monuments are ascribed a narrow date range between the 7th and 9th centuries AD. Although there are some very elaborate exam- ples of ringforts they often take the form of a simple earthen or stone enclosure and func- tioned as settlements for all classes of secular society (Stout, 1997). In the late 1980’s and early 1990’s a long-term research excavation of two ringforts was undertaken at Lisleagh c. 3.5km to the south of the route of the N8 MRR. Structural, domestic and industrial evidence was recorded at both sites. The Lisleagh I site was constructed in the early seventh century andPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 8
  • 14. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 was occupied into the ninth century AD (Monk 1995, 105-116). 2.2.7 Medieval 1000 AD – 1300 AD & Late Medieval 1300 AD -1500 AD The period is characterized by the arrival of the Anglo-Normans, who established numer- ous manors, towns and settlements to administer their extensive landholdings throughout Munster. The Brigown area was colonised by the St. Mitchel family who established the town which was eventually to bear their name (Nicholls 1993, 187), and which was listed as a mar- ket town in 1299 (O Brien 1993, 94). Nothing is known of the earliest castle in the area, but ruins surviving in the eighteenth century were said to be those of a castle that was destroyed in the wars of 1641 (Smith 1750, vol 1, 346). That castle was located on a limestone ridge on the southern bank of the Gradoge River, to the west of the modern town, and close to where the later castle (described below) was subsequently located. Some time after 1340 the area was acquired by the White Knights, a branch of the Norman Geraldine family (Nicholls, op. cit.). It subsequently passed into the hands of the Fentons in the early seventeenth century and, in the eighteenth, to the Earls of Kingston (Power 2000, 6). 2.2.8 Post-Medieval 1500 AD – 1800 AD In the second half of the eighteenth century Lord Kingsborough, the 2nd earl of Kingston, embarked on an ambitious programme of expansion. He demolished the old town and re- placed it with a new Georgian town laid out in a grid pattern, with two squares, new churches and new commercial and industrial buildings. The developments also included a new mansion near the site of the earlier castle, and an ex- tensive demesne extending to some 1240 acres, enclosed by a demesne wall (see Fig. 3). The wall was ‘six-and-a-quarter-mile long…between eight and ten feet in height’ (Power 1996, 24). All public roads that were located within the area of the demesne were closed and rerout- ed along the periphery of the wall. Entry to the demesne was gained through White Gate, Killacluig Gate and Limerick Gate, and the main entrance was at King Square in the town. Extensive works were undertaken within the area of the demesne which resulted in ‘a quad- rangle of buildings, a garden of five English acres surrounded by a wall, large conservatories and lavishly arranged gardens became part of the scene. Two artificial lakes were developed beneath the rockface on which the castle stood’ (ibid., 24). Several hundred acres of wood-Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 9
  • 15. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 land comprising of oak, ash, larch, beech and alder were planted within the demesne. In the early nineteenth century the third earl of Kingston demolished the Georgian house and had a magnificent neo-Gothic castellated mansion built in its place, designed by the well- known architects James and George Pain. The limestone buildings formed three sides of a courtyard and contained 80 stately rooms linked by a gallery 100 feet long, 22 feet wide and with a Gothic ceiling 33 feet high (Power 2000, 74). This building survived until it was burnt by Republican forces in 1922. The stone was bought by the Cistercian monks of Mount Melleray who used it to build a church. Subsequently the site of the castle and part of the demesne was purchased by Mitchelstown Co-op Creameries (later Dairygold Co-op), whose food production enterprises occupy the Castle site today. The remainder of the demesne was divided into farms, the town park and a golf course. 3 Original Research Framework The following issues will be addressed in this excavation report.  The construction date or date of initial site activity and the date of abandonment.  The absolute / relative chronology of site use in terms of phases and events.  The location of known contemporaneous and comparable sites.  The extent of the viable economic catchment area in terms of sources of water, food, raw materials, transportation routes etcPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 10
  • 16. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 4 Excavation Results 4.1 Excavation Methodology Two separate areas were excavated at Mitchelstown 1, Area A, measuring 31m x 26m and Area B, 170m to the southwest, measuring c. 10m x 8. Area A was the main area of archaeo- logical activity, while Area B comprised a single pit (Figs. 4, 5 and 7). Both areas were stripped of topsoil under archaeological supervision using a mechanical dig- ger fitted with a grading bucket. Spoil was moved by dumper and was stored on archaeologi- cally sterile areas within the limits of the site. All potential archaeological features exposed within the cutting were carefully cleaned and recorded (by plan, photographs, levels, feature sheets etc.) and excavated by hand. Each feature (cut feature, fill, layer, deposit, spread, built feature etc.) was assigned a Context number. All Contexts were numbered sequentially from 1 to infinity within each site; i.e. C12 represents feature 12. Where appropriate, soil samples and charcoal samples were taken in an effort to obtain a date and function for the various features. All finds were numbered according to the requirements of the National Museum of Ireland from 1 to infinity according to licence number and feature number; i.e. 04E1072:12:4 represents find number 4 within feature number 12 in Mitchelstown 1, which was excavated under licence number 04E1072. 4.2 Stratigraphic Report After removal of topsoil in Area A it was immediately apparent that a large number of ar- chaeological features were present, mainly postholes and stakeholes, forming at least two structures. The site was ultimately found to comprise of three circular houses, House A, House B and House C (Figs. 5, 6 and 8, Pls. 1, 2 ). House C was stratigraphically the earliest of the three, and was cut at its northern end by House A and at its southern end by House B. House A House A was a D-shaped structure measuring 9.8m N-S x 9.1.m E-W. The entrance was c. 1m wide and located in the centre of the eastern side, the straight façade of the ‘D’ plan.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 11
  • 17. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 The house was constructed of a series of nine postholes (C127, C45, C53, C37, C23, C31, C40, C63, and C135) forming a semi-circle. These would have held the main supporting posts for the structure. These postholes were, on average, 0.4m in diameter and 0.4m deep and were set 1.7m apart. A slot trench (C25 and its fill, C2) located 1.1m outside the postholes would have held the wall of the house, probably a post-and-wattle structure. This slot trench was generally 0.2m-0.25m wide and 0.1m-0.2m deep (Pl. 3), becoming shallower towards the west, and disappearing completely around the western side (it may have been present here originally and been removed by machinery of by modern agricultural work). On the eastern, straight facade, the slot trench was deeper and more substantial, particularly on either side of the entrance, suggesting the external wall on this side supported the roof, since no internal supporting posts were present on this side. House A appears to have been divided internally by a partition wall running north/south be- tween C127 and C135, the two postholes forming the termini of the semi-circular setting of postholes which formed the structural basis of the house. A shallow trench, C28, extending between those postholes and located 2.5m inside the entrance was most likely the foundation trench for this partition (Fig. 6). It was flanked on its eastern side by two further postholes, C140 and C200, which probably held supporting posts for this partition wall. To the east of the partition, immediately inside the entrance, another depression, C42, may represent the location of another entrance feature, possibly a wooden threshold. This depression measured 2.4m x 0.35m x 0.08m deep. It fill, C4, was a fine, crumbly black silt, possibly resulting from decayed wood. Two stakeholes (C412, C413) located on opposite sides of C42, may have held stakes or pegs which held the threshold in place. A small area of burnt clay (C74) near the centre of House A may mark the location of the hearth. House B House B was located 1.8m south of House A. Like House A it was a D-shaped structure, with its entrance facing east and located centrally on the straight façade of the ‘D’ plan. At 11m x 11m it was slightly larger than House A. The principal structural feature of the house was the semi-circle of postholes, C532, C432, C434, C405, C389, C404, C376, C399 and C378, with a probable tenth posthole between 404 and 376 in the southwest quadrant destroyed by a later field boundary ditch, C461. As with House A these postholes would have held the main roof supports, while the wall of the house, probably of stake-and-wattle construction, would have stood in the slot trench, C564, which was found outside the ring of postholes. In the case of House B the slot trench was found only around the northern half of the house. ItPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 12
  • 18. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 is unclear if it ever existed around the western side, but around the southern side it may have been destroyed by the construction of the later field boundary ditches C400 and C461. There was no evidence of any internal division within House B, nor was there any evidence of an internal hearth. A substantial hearth, C362, located between the structural postholes and the wall of House B is presumed to belong to House C, if not to a phase of activity pre- dating the houses. House C House C was stratigraphically earlier than both House A and House B. With its D-shaped plan it was almost identical to them in layout, with the exception that there was no evidence for an outer slot trench, though it is possible that such a slot trench did exist but was destroyed by the later activity involving the construction of Houses A and B. Again, the main structural element of the house was a semi-circular ring of postholes (C572, C173, C75, C86, C569, C571, C512, C379, C426, C493, and C574). The surviving evidence indicated it measured 10m x 10m, but it may have been slightly larger if, like the others, it had an outer slot trench which would have been located c. 1m outside the structural postholes. There is some evidence to suggest that House C had an internal division, like House A. Two pits, C250 and C502, are so symmetrically located in relation to the entrance and to the ring of structural postholes that they may be compared with postholes C140 and C200 in House A and regarded as representing an internal north/south dividing wall in the house. Both 250 and 502 are elongated pits and are quite shallow, at 0.12m-0.15m, but their shape may be the result of the uprooting of postholes during the destruction of House C to make way for Houses A and B. A substantial hearth located west of centre in House C may be assumed to have been contem- porary with it, though there is no definite evidence for this. The hearth, C362, comprised a pit measuring 1.26m x 0.72m and 0.15m deep. It’s fill, C252, comprised a thin layer of black silt on the surface, with a layer of oxidised sandy clay beneath, indicating intense burning within the pit. A posthole, C253, at the northeastern corner of the hearth may have been part of a spit structure over the hearth. Other Bronze Age features In addition to the features described above a significant number of other features was exca- vated on the site, in particular two clusters of stakeholes, Group A and Group B. Group A was a dense cluster of stakeholes occurring mainly between House A and house B, but ex- tending northwards and southwards into both houses. An area of scorched clay amongst thePermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 13
  • 19. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 stakeholes suggested this was an external cooking area and the stakeholes probably represent light temporary structures around the hearth. Since no obvious structural pattern could be observed in the stakeholes, it may be assumed that the structures were short-lived and fre- quently replaced, giving rise to the random pattern. Though it is thought unlikely that all these stakeholes were exactly contemporary with each other, it can, however, be assumed that as a group they are broadly contemporaneous. The stratigraphic evidence indicated that they were earlier than the houses. The second cluster of stakeholes, Group B, was located within House A and was confined to an area immediately east of C28, the internal partition wall. The fact that their distribution appears to respect C28 suggests they are contemporary with it and they are assumed to rep- resent some activity within the house. A number of other pits and postholes were excavated within the houses. Most of these could not with certainty be ascribed to any particular structure or period and their function re- mains unclear. Later and non-archaeological features Two parallel ditches, C440 and C461 ran east/west across the southern end of the site, cut- ting through the southern end of House B. Concentrations of stones and some modern rub- ble were noted in this area and it is likely that these ditches were part of a Post-Medieval field boundary in this area, possibly bordering a trackway leading to the gateway at the southwest corner of the field. Three geological features were also noted, C18 and C34 within House A and just outside its northeast corner, and a third immediately west of House B. The fill of these was similar to the topsoil and, in the case of C34, contained a quantity of loosely packed limestone boulders which appeared to have been dumped in the cavity. These features were geological ‘swallow- holes’, features common in limestone areas and caused by ground collapsing when the rock underneath is dissolved by acid in the water (Nevill 1974, 62). One further feature, C368, was also recorded (Fig. 7). This was an isolated pit located c. 100m southwest of the Bronze Age houses. It measured 1.15m x 1.15m x 0.3m deep with steep sides and flat base. Its function is uncertain and no other features were found in the vicinity.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 14
  • 20. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 4.3 Artefactual evidence Few artefacts were recovered during the excavation. No Bronze Age pottery was found. Six worked lithics were found (Pl. 8), including one piece of pointed limestone and five flints (see Appendix 5 for full report). Three of the flints were found in the topsoil, one in one of the cluster of stakeholes between House A and House B, and one in C502, a pit/possible post- hole, part of the structure of House C. The flints are regarded as undiagnostic, waste products from lithic reduction. The single limestone piece appears to be a deliberately created pin- or awl-like tool. Its dating is uncertain since it was found in the topsoil. Three fragment of saddle quern were also recovered (Fig. 9, Pl. 5-7). One (04E1072:529:24) was used as a packing stone in a posthole at the south side of the entrance to House C; an- other (04E1072:387:13) was found in C381, a pit/possible posthole within House B; the third (04E1072:1:6) was found in the topsoil. Two other artefacts were recovered. These were two minute gold-coloured fragments of what appeared to be a thin metal. One was found in the fill of C373, the posthole forming the south side of the entrance to House B, the other in the fill of C536, a posthole within House B. Both items have been identified by the National Museum of Ireland as being of a modern alloy. The occurrence of modern materials within these features was surprising, but it must be noted that both were truncated by C461, a Post-Medieval/Modern ditch, so that contamina- tion of the earlier features is possible. 4.4 Environmental evidence Thirty-five soil samples retained during the excavation were submitted for analysis, which was carried out by Penny Johnston (see Appendix 4 for details). Cereal remains from the site comprised four grains of barley and three of wheat, too small an assemblage to attempt any meaningful interpretation. The remarkable feature of the plant remains from the site was the unusually large volume of seeds of the Dock family. Whereas Dock seeds are usually thought of as weeds introduced inadvertently along with cereals, the paucity of cereal grains on this site makes that explanation unlikely. It is possible that the Dock seeds were a food product, as they have been found in the stomach contents of bogPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 15
  • 21. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 bodies. Table 1 Contextual information for environmental remains Sample No. Context No. Context Description Material recovered (Fill/Cut) Type (Quantity) House A 23 2/25 Fill of structural slot Weeds trench 42 2/25 12 3/28 Sill-beam trench for None internal partition 46 3/28 wall 20 4/42 Possible threshold Hazelnut (1), weeds (17) & cereal (2) 50 8/130 Pit, S side of house Weeds (17) & cereal (1) 7 14/20 Posthole within Weeds (1) house 27 15/45 Structural posthole, Weeds (1) N side of house 18 16/35 Pit, N side of house Weeds (66) 9 22/21 Posthole within Weed (1), Cereal (1) house 11 27/26 Structural posthole, Weeds S side of entrance 14 32/31 Structural posthole, Weeds (2), Grass (1) W side of house 28 50/53 Structural posthole, None NW side of house 31 54/55 Pit, NE corner of Weeds (22), Cereal (1) house 21 58/57 Stakehole, SW Weeds (19) corner of house 39 70/72 Posthole within Cereal (2) house House B 123 420/419 Structural posthole, None E side 100 371/373 Posthole, S side of Weeds (70), Cereals (1) entrance 103 374/376 Structural posthole, Weeds (8) S side of house 104 390/389 Structural posthole None W side of house 110 398/399 Structural posthole Weeds (1), Cereals (4), Grass (1) S side of house 119 414/415 Structural posthole, Weeds (2) N side of entrance 137 494/564 Fill of structural slot Weeds (3) trench 151 537/536 Posthole within Cereal (1) House CPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 16
  • 22. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 158 560/564 Fill of structural slot None trench House C 45 76/75 Structural posthole, Weeds N side. 47 85/86 Structural posthole, None NW side. 80 252/362 Fill of hearth None 86 253 Posthole on edge of Weeds (1) hearth 362 120 425/426 Structural posthole, None S side of house 144 514/527 Structural posthole, Weeds (39) S side of entrance Stakeholes-Group A 77 221 Stakehole None 79 246 Stakehole None 83 258 Stakehole None Other features 121 423/522 Pit within Houses Weeds (1) B/C. Probably earlier 4.5 Dating evidence As noted above (par. 4.3) no pottery was found on the excavation, so the dating and phasing of the features was dependant on radiocarbon dating and stratigraphic evidence. Table 2 Details of radiocarbon dates Lab. Code Sample material/Context Yrs BP Calibrated Dates 1 sigma 2 sigma UB-6771 Charcoal from C3, fill of slot 3122 +/- 37 1438-1378 BC 1493- 1475 BC trench for internal partition 1337-1321 BC 1462- 1305 BC wall, House A UB-6772 Charcoal from C246, 3077 +/- 39 1407- 1313 BC 1432- 1260 BC stakehole between Houses A 1227- 1223 BC and B UB-6773 Charcoal from C252, fill of 3057 +/- 38 1392- 1292 BC 1419- 1253 BC hearth, House C 1277- 1273 BC 1240- 1213 BC UB-6774 Charcoal from C494, fill of 3087 +/- 37 1412- 1369 BC 1431- 1267 BC structural slot trench, House 1358- 1315 BC BPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 17
  • 23. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 The radio carbon dates show that the site was occupied over a timespan of, at most, slightly less than 300 years, between 1500 and 1200 BC, with considerable overlap between the dif- ferent features. While it would, perhaps, be wrong to assign too specific a date to individual features on the basis of radiocarbon determinations which cover a broad span, the dates do suggest a chronological progression from House A to House B to House C, with the stakehole cluster broadly contemporary with Houses B and C. This phasing, however, contradicts the stratigraphic evidence, which clearly indicates that House C is the earliest of the three. Several pieces of stratigraphic evidence illustrate the relationship between the features. As can be seen in the mid-excavation plan in Fig. 6, C495, the slot trench for House B, clearly cuts C515, the trench for House C, showing that House C is the earlier of the two. Furthermore, numerous pieces of burnt clay were found in the fill of C495 around its northern side, close to C362. The latter was a hearth located near the centre of House C, and presumably belonging to it, and it is likely that material from the abandoned hearth became incorporated into C495 when House B was being built.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 18
  • 24. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 5. Discussion & Interpretation The site at Mitchelstown comprised of three Bronze Age houses, constructed in at least two phases. Each house was c. 10m in diameter and had an entrance facing east. Radiocarbon dating of charcoal samples from the site indicated a date range of c. 1490-1260 cal BC, placing them in the Middle Bronze Age. One notable feature of the houses was the internal division present in house A as a linear north-south slot trench with a posthole at each end, marking the location of an internal partition wall separating the area inside the entrance from the remainder of the house. This types of internal division appear to segregate the space, creating a front/back dichotomy. It could also be argued that this type of arrangement divided the structure into a ‘public’ and ‘private’ area, while also controlling the path of movement through the structure (Parker Pearson and Richards 1994a, 42-47). These issues may also be related to the types of activi- ties undertaken within the structure and the associated necessity to create a front/public area and a rear/private area. These types of structures and their spatial organisation have close parallels on other Irish sites. The Mitchelstown houses are similar in style and layout to houses of the same period excavated at Ballybrowney, Co. Cork (Cotter 2005). Structures B and C at Ballybrowney were somewhat smaller than the Mitchelstown houses, at c. 6m diameter, but also consisted of slot-trenches with a circle of internal post-holes, and with entrances defined by substantial post-holes and facing east. Excavations at Knocksaggart, Co. Clare produced evidence for two circular and one possible rectangular structures in close proximity (Hanley 2002, 32-3). One, Structure B, had a porch-like entrance to the south-east, similar to Structure D at Bal- lybrowney, and both Structures B and C at Knocksaggartt were internally partitioned by walls formed by single rows of stake-holes in a roughly north-north-east/south-south-west direction. A site at Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford comprised a sub-circular enclosure (with an ap- proximate diameter of 36 m) which surrounded a round house and associated occupation remains (McQuade, 2004). The radiocarbon and pottery dates from the site indicate a period of relatively short-lived occupation at this site in the Middle Bronze Age (1500-1000 BC), in particular covering the period 1400-1133 BC. The building at Knockhouse Lower consisted of an arc of postholes and a line of stakeholes at the southeast. Doody (2000) lists eighteen excavated houses dating to the Middle Bronze Age, of which thirteen were circular and five rectilinear, and notes a large range in the structural dimen-Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 19
  • 25. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 sions of the excavated examples. Since the publication of Doody’s work several more house sites with Middle Bronze Age dates have been excavated, e.g. Kilmurry North, Co. Wicklow (Ó Néill 2003), Cultragh, Co. Sligo (MacDonagh 2005), and Knockdomny Co. Westmeath (Hull in preparation). 6 Conclusion The site at Mitchelstown 1 was discovered during archaeological investigations along the route of the Mitchelstown Relief Road. The site comprised three houses constructed in at least two phases, one of the houses having been cut by the other two. The houses were approximately 10m in diameter and were roughly D-shaped in plan, with entrances centrally located on the straight side, facing east. One of the houses showed clear evidence of having had an inter- nal division in the form of a slot trench running between two structural postholes. The slot trench could have held a wattle wall separating the entrance area (approximately one-third of the floor area) from the remainder of the house. Little evidence was found of the material culture or economy of the inhabitants of the Mitch- elstown houses. No pottery was recovered from the site and the few lithics were undiagnostic. The number of cereal grains recovered from the soil samples was too small to allow any in- terpretation of the economy or diet of the population. A striking aspect of the environmental material however was the large number of seeds of the Dock family. These are usually con- sidered to be weed seeds brought into houses inadvertently along with cereals. However, that is unlikely here, given the paucity of cereal grains on the site, and it may be that Dock seeds were deliberately gathered as a food source. Parallels for this have been found in Britain and Denmark where Dock seeds have been found in the gut contents of bog bodies. The Mitchelstown houses have numerous parallels among the growing numbers of Middle Bronze Age houses now being discovered in recent Irish excavations and add to the expand- ing settlement pattern of the period.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 20
  • 26. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 7 Bibliography Barry, T.B. 1987 The Archaeology of Medieval Ireland, Routledge, London and New York. Buckley, V. 1990, ‘Experiments using a reconstructed fulacht with a variety of rock types: implications for the petro-morphology of fulachta fiadh’ in Buckley, V. (Ed.) Burnt Offerings: international contributions to Burnt Mound Archaeology, pp.170-172. Dublin. Cotter, E. (2005) Bronze Age Ballybrowney County Cork in Recent Archaeological Discoveries on National Road Schemes 2004 NRA. Daly, A., Grogan, E. (1992) Excavation of Four Barrows in Mitchelstowndown West, Knocklong, County Limerick. Discovery Programme Reports 1 pp44-60. Royal Irish Academy. Doody, M. (1995), ‘Ballyhoura Hills project’, Discovery Programme Reports 2, 12-44. Royal Irish Academy. Dublin. Doody, M. (1999), ‘Ballyhoura Hills project’, Discovery Programme Reports 5, 97-110. Royal Irish Academy. Dublin. Doody, M. 2000. ‘Bronze Age houses in Ireland’, in Desmond, A., Johnson, G., McCarthy, M., Sheehan, J. and Shee Twohig, E. New Agendas in Irish Prehistory. Bray, Wordwell. Hanley, K 2002 ’AR85/86, Knocksaggart’, in I Bennett (ed.) Excavations 2000 - summary accounts of archaeological excavations in Ireland, 32-3. Wordwell Ltd., Wicklow. Hull, G. (in preparation). ‘Excavation of a Bronze Age Round House at Knockdomny, Co. Westmeath’, Submitted to The Journal of Irish Archaeology. Kelly, M.J. (1989) Early Ireland An Introduction to Irish Prehistory. Cambridge University Press. MacDonagh, M. 2005. ‘Valley bottom and hilltop; 6,000 years of settlement along the route of the N4 Sligo Inner Relief Road’, pp. 9-23 in O’Sullivan, J. and Stanley, M. (eds.) Recent Archaeological Discoveries on National Road Schemes 2004. Dublin, NRA. McQuade, M. In Preparation. Archaeological Excavation of Pre-historic settlement sites at Knockhouse Lower and Carrickpherish, Co. Waterford, Submitted to Decies.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 21
  • 27. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Monk, M. 1995 A Tale of Two Ringforts Lisleagh I and II in Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society Vol.100 p105-116. Nevill, W E 1974 Geology and Ireland. Allen Figgis, Dublin. Nicholls, K. W. (1993) ‘The development of lordship in County Cork 1300-1600’, in Buttimer, C. G. and O Flanagan, P. (ed) Cork-History and Society, 157-212. Geography Publications. Dublin. NRA Archaeological Discoveries N8 Watergrasshill Bypass. NRA Archaeological Discoveries N8 Rathcormac Fermoy. O’Brien, A. F., 1993, ‘Politics, Economy and Society : The development of Cork and the Irish south-coast region c.1170 to c.1583’, in O’Flanagan, P. and Buttimer, C. (ed) Cork-History and Society , 83-156. Geography Publications. Dublin. Ó Néill, J. 2003. ‘Kilmurry North, Co. Wicklow (01E0572)’, in Bennet, I. (ed.) Excavations 2001. Bray, Wordwell. Parker Pearson, M. and Richards, C. 1994a. ‘Architecture and Order: Spatial Representation and Archaeology’, in M Parker Pearson and C Richards (eds). Architecture and Order, Approaches to Social Space, 38-72. Routledge, London. Power, D., Lane, S., and Byrne, E., Egan, U., Sleeman, M., with Cotter, E., Monk, J. (2000), Archaeological Inventory of County Cork, Volume 4: North Cork Parts I & II. Dublin. Power B., 2000 White Knights, Dark Earls. The Collins Press. Cork. Roche, H. and Grogan, E. 2005 The N8 Rathcormac-Fermoy Bypass. The Prehistoric Pottery. Unpublished Report for ACS Ltd. Sleeman A. G. and McConnell, B (1995) Geology of East Cork-~Waterford, Geological Survey of Ireland. Smith C., 1815 (2nd ed.) The ancient and present state of the county and city of Cork. Guy and Co. Ltd. Cork. Waddell, J. (1998) The Prehistoric Archaeology of Ireland. GUP. Galway.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 22
  • 28. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Woodman, P.C. (1989) ‘The mesolithic in Munster: a preliminary assessment’, in Bonsall, C (ed), The Mesolithic in Europe, 116-24. John Donald. Edinburgh. Woodman, P.C. (2000) ‘Hammers and Shoeboxes: New Agendas for Prehistory’ in New Agendas in Irish Prehistory. Papers in commemoration of Liz Anderson. Wordwell, 1-10. 7.1 Other Sources Record of Monuments and Places (RMP), Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, 7 Ely Place Upper, Dublin 2. Topographical Files of the National Museum of Ireland, Kildare Street, Dublin 2.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 23
  • 29. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 8 Figures Figure 1 Portion of Discovery Map showing route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 24
  • 30. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Legend Bronze Age Medieval Post-medieval 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1 04E1071 Mitchelstown 2 04E1121 Stagpark 2 04E1120 Stagpark 1 04E1119 Spagpark 3 Figure 2 Portion of RMP sheets CO010 and CO019 showing route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 25
  • 31. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Figure 3 Portion of 1st edition OS maps sheets CO010 and CO019 showing Mitchelstown Demesne and the route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 26
  • 32. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Area A Area B Figure 4 Route of the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road showing location of all archaeological sites.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 27
  • 33. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 159 N 138 161 56 34 35 95,120 105,120 45 55 25 D 127 53 D1 21 129 20 38 18 140 317 37 28 60 411 315 30 318 23 74 72 413 42 A 26 95,115 A1 B 200 31 B1 577 62 69 89 C 40 47 C1 75 63 46 E E1 57 F1 173 F 135 158 572 86 130 364 335 95,110 569 250 203 565 564 206 463 566 571 253 449 532 466 434 362 533 543 432 467 527 505 502 544 477 548 464 522 405 512 479 541 579 422 438 445 509 556 95,105 379 515 573 389 556 501 447 521 574 519 383 415 402 427 381 506 498 493 488 426 575 504 491 404 557 373 461 461 461 419 536 95,100 549 376 399 553 392 378 418 422 400 Legend 482 395 House A 400 482 House B House C 1m 0 5m Figure 5 Post excavation plan of Area A.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 28
  • 34. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 107,108 N 515 495 495 492 495 415 488 107,105 50 cm 0 50 cm Figure 6 Mid- excavation plan showing slot trench for House B (beige) cutting slot trench for House C (blue).Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 29
  • 35. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 N A A1 C.368 A A1 # # # # # # # # # # 366# # # # 367# # # C.368 50 cm 0 1m Figure 7 Post-excavation plan and section of isolated pit C.368 in Area B.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 30
  • 36. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 E E1 A A1 53 27 26 South Facing Section North Facing section of of cut 26 and fill 27 cut 53 B B1 F F1 32 33 31 57 South west facing section North west section of cut of cut 31 and fills 32 and 33 57 C C1 41 64 44 40 66 63 North facing section of cut 40 South facing section of cut and fills 41 and 44 63 and fills 64 and 66 50 cm 0 1m Figure 8 Cross sections through some of typical structural postholes on the site.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 31
  • 37. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 0mm 200mm 0mm 200mm 0mm 200mm Figure 9 Illustration of quern stones 04E1072:1:6, 04E1072:387:13 and 04E1072:529:24.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 32
  • 38. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 9 Plates Plate 1 Aerial view of Houses A, B and C from the north. Plate 2 Aerial view of Houses A, B and C from the west.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 33
  • 39. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Plate 3 Detail of slot trench for wall of House A. Plate 4 Detail of C252 hearth House C.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 34
  • 40. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Plate 5 View of quern stone 04E1072:1:6 (listed as 04 in quern stones plates of artefacts). Plate 6 View of quern stone 04E1072:387:13 (listed as 07 in quern stones plates of artefacts).Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 35
  • 41. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Plate 7 View of quern stone 04E1072:529:24 (listed as 06 in quern stones plates of artefacts). Plate 8 View of flint artefacts 04E1072:1:1, 04E1072:1:3, 04E1072:6:1, 04E1072:325:1 and 04E1072:450:1.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 36
  • 42. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 10 Appendix 1 Matrix Please see accompanying CD-ROM for matrix.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 37
  • 43. 04E1072 11 Appendix 2 Context Register Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 1 TOPSOIL 2 25 25 30,38 Silty sand. Frequent large and medium Fill of structural slot House A 3 Bulk soil: 23, stones. trench 26, 42 Char- coal: 25 3 28 93 97, 125 Gritty silt. Frequent medium stones Fill of internal slot House A 3 Bulk soil: 12, and occ. burnt stone trench C28 46 4 42 42 1 Dark brown/black silt. Occ. burnt Fill of internal slot House A 3 Bulk soil: 20 stone and charcoal inclusions trench C42 5 46 46 1 Dark brown silty sand. Frequent me- Burt pit fill within House A 2 Bulk soil: 21 dium stones and charcoal flecks House A Charcoal: 22Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 6 18 19 37 Non-archaeological Upper fill of geological sink hole. 1:flint Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road 7 Number cancelled 8 130 130 1 Silty sand. Occ medium stones, fre- Burnt pit fill within House A 2 Bulk soil: 50 quent charcoal inclusions House A Charcoal: 51, 57 9, 10, 11 NON-ARCHAEOLOGICAL 12 23 23 24 dark brown silt. packing stones at Packing fill of struc- House A 1 Bulk soil: 4 sides and base. tural posthole 13 NON-ARCHAEOLOGICAL 14 20 20 1 Dark brown sandy silt with packing Fill of internal double House A 3 Bulk soil: 7 stones; occ. charcoal inclusions posthole Charcoal:8 15 45 45 1 Dark grey/black silt with occ.stones Fill of structural House A 3 Bulk soil:27 and charcoal inclusions posthole 16 35 35 1 Dark grey/black, silt with occ small Fill of irregular House A 2 Bulk soil:18 stones and frequent charcoal inclusions (waste?) pit Charcoal: 1, 2 17 37 36 18 Dark grey/black, slightly gritty silt Upper fill of struc- House A 3 with frequent charcoal inclusions tural posthole38 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 44. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 18 6, 19 17 19 Non-archaeological Cut of sink hole ? 19 18 18 6 Non-archaeological Lower fill of sink ? Bulk soil/ hole Burnt bone: 3 20 14 Nat. 14 Sub-circular, 0.3m x 0.28m x 0.24m Cut of internal dou- House A 1 deep, steep sides and flat base ble posthole 21 22 Nat. 22 Sub-circular, 0.2m x 0.24m x 0.26m Cut of internal dou- House A 1 deep, steep sides and concave base ble posthole 22 21 21 1 Dark brown/grey, sandy silt with fre- Fill of internal double House A 3 Bulk soil: 9 quent charcoal inclusions posthole Charcoal: 10 23 12, Nat. 12 Sub-circular, 0.28m x 0.32m x 0.39m Cut of structural House A 1 24 deep, steep sides and flat base posthole 24 23 12 1 Dark brown, gritty silt with occ. char- Upper fill of struc- House A 3 Bulk soil: 6 coal inclusions tural postholePermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 25 2 34, 363? 2 Curving slot trench; 0.26m-o.55m Foundation slot House A 1 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road wide, max. depth 0.26m, steep sides trench for wall of and slightly concave base House A. 26 27 Nat. 27 Sub-circular, 0.27m x 0.29m x 0.44m Cut of entrance House A 1 deep, steep irregular sides and rounded posthole point base 27 26 26 1 Mid-brown/black, sandy silt with occ. Fill of entrance House A 3 Bulk soil: 11 packing stones at edges and frequent posthole charcoal inclusions-especially near base 28 3, 93 Nat. 93 Linear slot trench, 3.64m long x 0.24m Foundation slot House A 1 wide x 0.08m deep, steep sides and flat trench for internal irregular base dividing wall 29 30 30 1 Mid-brown/black, sandy silt with Fill of entrance House A 3 Bulk soil: 13 frequent charcoal inclusions posthole Charcoal: 16, 17 30 29 2 29 Circular posthole, 0.28m diameter x Cut of entrance House A 1 0.44m deep, steep sides and concave posthole base39 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 45. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 31 32, Nat. 33 Sub-circular, 0.36m x 0.41m x 0.41m Cut of structural House A 3 33 deep, very steep sides and flat and ir- posthole. regular base. 32 31 33 1 Dark brown, sandy silt with occ. char- Upper fill of struc- House A 3 Bulk soil: 14 coal inclusions. 0.26m deep tural posthole Charcoal: 15 33 31 31 32 Silty clay with occ. large packing Packing fill of struc- House A 1 stones and occ. charcoal inclusions. tural posthole 34 Nat. 25 Oval cut, 1m x 0.8m. Filled with dark Cut and fill of natu- House A ? brown silt. Excavated to 0.5m deep. ral sink hole 35 16 Nat. 16 Irregular oval pit, 1.2m x 0.5m x 0.16m Cut of pit for burnt House A 2 deep, steep sides and irregular base waste? 36 37 37 17 Dark brown, sandy clay with several Packing fill of struc- House A 1 large packing stones tural postholePermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 37 17, 36 Nat. 36 Sub-circular, 0.34m x 0.3m x 0.26m Cut of structural House A 1 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road deep, very steep sides and flat base posthole 38 39 2 39 Oval, 0.29m x 0.24m x 0.18m deep, Cut of possibly struc- House A 1 steep sides and slightly concave base tural posthole near entrance 39 38 38 1 Light black/brown, sandy silt with occ. Fill of possibly struc- House A 3 Bulk soil:19 packing stones and charcoal inclusions. tural posthole near entrance 40 41, Nat. 44 Sub-circular, 0.4m x 0.36m x 0.35m Cut of structural House A 1 44 deep, very steep sides and flat, irregular posthole base 41 40 44 1 Mid-grey/brown, sandy silt with occ Upper fill of struc- House A 3 Bulk soil:24 charcoal inclusions and sandy clay tural posthole patches. 0.11m deep 42 4 Nat. 4 Linear slot trench, 2.4m x 0.35m x Cut of slot/founda- House A 1 0.08m deep, vertical side to west, gen- tion trench for pos- tly sloping otherwise and flat base sible threshold 43 cancelled40 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 46. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 44 40 40 41, 47 Mid-brown/orange, gritty sandy clay Packing fill of struc- House A 1 with occ. medium packing stone and tural posthole occ. charcoal inclusions. 0.35m deep 45 15 Nat. 15 Sub-circular , 0.3m x 0.24m x 0.44m Cut of structural House A 1 deep, very steep sides and flat base posthole 46 5 496 5 Sub-triangular pit, 1.2m x 1.1m x Cut of irregular House A 2 0.13m deep, steep north side, irregular possible pit for burnt otherwise and irregular base waste? 47 48 44 48 Sub-circular, 0.18m diameter x 0.32m Cut of support stake- House A 1 deep with steep sides and pointed base hole for posthole 48 47 47 1 Light brown, fine silty sand with occ. Fill of support stake- House A 3 pebbles. hole for posthole 49 Nat. 1 or Light grey/black, clayey silt with occ. Linear burnt charcoal House A ?Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 25? charcoal inclusions. 0.5m x 0.11m x spread? Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road 0.2m deep 50 53 51 1 Dark grey/brown, silty sand with occ. Upper fill of struc- House A 3 Bulk soil: 28 small stones and frequent charcoal tural posthole inclusions. 0.35m deep 51 53 53 50 Light brown clayey sand with several Packing fill of struc- House A 1 Bulk soil: 29 large packing stones. 0.35m deep tural posthole 52 62 62 1 Dark brown/black sandy silt with occ. Fill of stakehole House A 3 Bulk soil: 30 medium burnt stones and frequent within slot trench 25 charcoal inclusions. 0.21m deep 53 50, Nat. 51 Sub-rectangular (circular at base), Cut of structural House A 1 51 0.4m x 0.29m x 0.5m deep, very steep posthole sides and flat base 54 55 55 125 Black silt with occ.l small stones and Fill of irregular pos- House A 2 Bulk soil: 31 frequent charcoal inclusions. 0.14m sible pit for burnt Charcoal: 33 deep waste?41 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 47. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 55 54 Nat. 54 Irregular oval pit, 1.09m x 0.59m x Cut of irregular House A 2 0.14m deep, steep sides and flat base possible pit for burnt waste? 56 NON-ARCHAEOLOGICAL Charcoal: 32 57 58 Nat. 58 Sub-circular , 0.15m x 0.18m x 0.36m Cut of stakehole asso- House A 1 deep with steep sides and pointed base ciated with structural posthole 40 58 57 57 1 Mid-brown gritty, clayey sand with Fill of stakehole asso- House A 3 Bulk soil: 34 occ. small pebbles. 0.36m deep ciated with structural posthole 40 59 60 60 25 Black/brown silt with occ. charcoal Fill of stakehole pre- House ? Bulk soil: 35 inclusions. 0.07m deep ceding construction A? of House A 60 59 Nat. 59 Oval 0.23m x 0.12m x 0.09m deep, Cut of stakehole pre- House ?Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ gradually sloping sides, but steeper at ceding construction A? Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road NE and slightly concave base of House A 61 NON-ARCHAEOLOGICAL House A 1 & 2: Charcoal :43 post-me- dieval pottery sherds 62 52 2 52 Oval , 0.16m x 0.11m x 0.21m deep, Cut of stakehole House A 1 steep sides and pointed base within slot trench 25 63 64, Nat. 66 Sub-circular, 0.4m x 0.35m x 0.36m Cut of structural House A 1 66 deep, very steep sides and flat base posthole 64 63 63 1 Mid-grey/brown clayey silt with occ. Upper fill of struc- House A 3 Bulk soil:38 medium stones and occ. charcoal tural posthole inclusions. 0.35m deep 65 Nat. 1 Dark grey/black, silty clay with fre- Non-arch. House A ? quent charcoal inclusions.42 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 48. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 66 63 63 64 Moderately compact, mid-brown/ Packing fill of struc- House A 1 orange, gritty sandy clay with several tural posthole large packing stones around the edge and occ. charcoal inclusions. 0.35m deep 67 No details Non-arch. House A 68 69 73 1 Mid-black/brown silty sand with occ. Upper fill of possibly House A 3 Bulk soil:36 small stones and frequent charcoal structural posthole in Charcoal: 37 inclusions. 0.18m deep slot trench 25 69 68, 2 73 Oval, 0.37m x 0.26m x 0.18m deep, Cut of possibly struc- House A 1 73 very steep sides and slightly concave tural posthole in slot base trench 25 70 72 71 1 Dark grey/black sandy silt with occ. Upper fill of internal House A 3 Bulk soil:39 small stones and frequent charcoal posthole Charcoal: 40Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ inclusions. 0.16m deep Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road 71 72 72 70 Light brow silty sand with several Packing fill of inter- House A 1 packing stones. 0.23m deep nal posthole 72 70,71 Nat. 71 Circular posthole, 0.3m diameter x Cut of internal House A 1 0.23m deep, very steep sides and flat posthole base 73 69 69 68 Mid-grey/brown/orange, silty sand Packing fill of pos- House A 1 Bulk soil:41 with frequent medium packing stones sibly structural post- at the edge and occ. charcoal inclu- hole in slot trench 25 sions. 0.18m deep 74 Nat. 1 Oval deposit, 0.3m x 0.2m NW/SE, Burnt clay spread/ House A 2 light brown/red clay patch-possible hearth 75 76, Nat. 77 Circular posthole, 0.42m x 0.45m Cut of structural House C 1 77 x 0.37m deep, very steep sides and posthole slightly concave and irregular base43 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 49. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 76 75 77 1 Dark brown, fine clayey silt with occ. Upper fill of struc- House C 3 Bulk soil:45 medium stones and occ. charcoal tural posthole inclusions. 0.22m deep 77 75 75 76, 78 Mid-orange/brown, fine clayey silt Packing fill of struc- House C 1 with frequent medium packing stones tural posthole and occ. small stones. 0.37m deep 78 79 77 79 Sub-circular, 0.08m x 0.1m x 0.23m Cut of supporting House C 1 deep, very steep sides and pointed base stakehole for posthole 75 79 78 78 1 Mid-brown sandy silt with occ. small Fill of supporting House C 3 pebbles. 0.23m deep stakehole for posthole 75 80 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.05m diam. x 0.1m Cut and fill of habi- House A 2 Bulk soil: 44 deep, very steep sides and pointed base. tation phase stake-Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ Mid-brown silty sand fill with occ. hole associated with Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road fragments of burnt stone possible hearth 74 81 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.04m-0.06m diam. X Cut and fill of habi- House A 2 0.1m deep, very steep sides and pointed tation phase stake- base. Mid-brown silty sand fill with hole associated with occ. fragments of burnt stone possible hearth 74 82 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.04m-0.06m diameter x Cut and fill of habi- House A 2 0.05m-0.1m deep, very steep sides and tation phase stake- pointed base. Mid-brown silty sand fill hole associated with with occ. fragments of burnt stone possible hearth 74 83 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.04m-0.06m diameter x Cut and fill of habi- House A 2 0.05m-0.1m deep, very steep sides and tation phase stake- pointed base. Mid-brown silty sand fill hole associated with with occ. fragments of burnt stone possible hearth 7444 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 50. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 84 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.04m-0.06m diameter x Cut and fill of habi- House A 2 0.05m-0.1m deep, very steep sides and tation phase stake- pointed base. Mid-brown silty sand fill hole associated with with occ. fragments of burnt stone possible hearth 74 85 86 Nat. 1 Light orange/brown sandy silt with Fill of structural House C 3 Bulk soil:47 occ. large and medium packing stones posthole (mainly in east of fill). 0.3m deep 86 85 Nat. 85 Oval, 0.4m x 0.35m x 0.3m deep, very Cut of structural House C 1 steep sides and slightly concave base posthole 87 88 Nat. 88 Sub-circular, 0.1m x 0.07m x 0.12m Cut of stakehole asso- House C 1 deep, very steep sides and pointed base ciated with structural posthole 75 88 87 87 1 Mid-brown fine clayey silt with very Fill of stakehole asso- House C 3Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ occ. charcoal inclusions and occ. tiny ciated with structural Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road pebbles. 0.12m deep posthole 75 89 90 2 90 Sub-circular, 0.17m x 0.15m x 0.12m Cut of stakehole in House A 1 deep with steep sides and concave base slot trench 25 90 89 89 1 Mid-orange/brown silty sand. 0.12m Fill of stakehole in House A 3 deep slot trench 25 91 92 Nat. 92 Sub-circular, 0.06m x 0.05m x 0.1m Cut of stakehole asso- House C 1 deep, very steep sides and pointed base ciated with structural posthole 75 92 91 91 1 Mid-brown fine silty sand with very Fill of stakehole asso- House C 3 occ. charcoal inclusions and occ. tiny ciated with structural pebbles. 0.1m deep posthole 75 93 28 28 3 Dark grey/brown silty clay with occ. Packing fill of inter- House A 1 small burnt stones. 0.05m deep nal slot trench 94 95 Nat. 95 Circular, 0.06m diameter x 0.12m Cut of stakehole asso- House C 1 deep, very steep sides and pointed base ciated with structural posthole 7545 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 51. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 95 94 94 1 Mid-brown fine clayey silt with occ. Fill of stakehole asso- House C 3 Bulk soil:49 pebbles and charcoal inclusions. 0.12m ciated with structural deep posthole 75 96 97 97 1 NON-ARCHAEOLOGICAL Charcoal: 48 97 96 3 96 NON-ARCHAEOLOGICAL Non-arch. Probable House A ? rabbit burrow at base of 28 98 99 Nat. 99 Circular, 0.05m diameter x 0.11m Cut of stakehole asso- House C 1 deep, very steep sides and pointed base ciated with structural posthole 75 99 98 99 1 Mid-brown silty sand fill with occ. Fill of stakehole asso- House C 3 tiny pebbles. 0.11m deep ciated with structural posthole 75 100 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.11m diameter x 0.275m Cut and fill of House A 1Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ deep, steep sides and blunt pointed stakehole associated Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road base. Mid-black/brown, silty sand fill with internal double with occ. charcoal inclusions posthole 20/21 101 159 159 1 No details Fill of linear trench House A ? NE of House A 102 103 Nat. 103 Circular, 0.07m diameter x 0.14m Cut of stakehole, group A 2 deep, very steep sides and pointed base 103 102 102 1 Dark brown fine clayey silt with occ. Fill of stakehole, 2 tiny pebbles and charcoal inclusions. group A 0.14m deep 104 105 Nat. 105 Circular, 0.06m diameter x 0.12m Cut of stakehole, group A 2 deep, very steep sides and pointed base 105 104 104 1 Mid-orange/brown, gritty silty sand, Fill of stakehole, 2 with occ. tiny pebbles. 0.12m deep group A 106 107 Nat. 107 Sub-circular, 0.08m x 0.06m x 0.11m Cut of stakehole, group A 2 deep with steep sides and pointed base46 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 52. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 107 106 106 1 Mid-orange/brown, silty sand, with Fill of stakehole, 2 occ. tiny pebbles. 0.11m deep group A 108 109 Nat. 109 Sub-circular, 0.05m x 0.07m x 0.11m Cut of stakehole, group A 2 deep with steep sides and pointed base 109 108 108 1 Mid-brown silty sand fill, with occ. Fill of stakehole, 2 tiny pebbles. 0.11m deep group A 110 No details Non-arch. 111 No details Non-arch. 112 113 Nat. 113 Circular, 0.07m diameter x 0.15m Cut of stakehole, group A 2 deep, steep sides and pointed base 113 112 112 1 Mid-brown silty sand fill, with occ. Fill of stakehole, 2 tiny pebbles. 0.15m deep group A 114 115 Nat. 115 Sub-circular, 0.05m x 0.06m x x 0.13m Cut of stakehole, group A 2Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ deep with steep sides and pointed base Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road 115 114 114 1 Mid-brown silty sand fill, with occ. Fill of stakehole, 2 Bulk soil: 53 tiny pebbles and very occ. charcoal group A inclusions. 0.13m deep 116 117 Nat. 117 Sub-circular, 0.12m x 0.15m x x 0.26m Cut of stakehole, group A 2 deep with steep sides and pointed base 117 116 116 1 Mid-brown silty sand fill, with occ. Fill of stakehole, 2 Bulk soil: 56 tiny pebbles. 0.26m deep group A 118 119 Nat. 119 Circular, 0.05m diameter x 0.09m Cut of stakehole, group A 2 deep, steep sides and pointed base 119 118 118 1 Mid-brown silty sand fill, with occ. Fill of stakehole, 2 tiny pebbles. 0.09m deep group A 120 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.13m x 0.1m x 0.24m Cut and fill of House A 2 deep with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole associated Dark brown, sandy silt with occ. char- with internal double coal inclusions posthole 20/2147 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 53. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 121 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.09m x 0.07m x 0.12m Cut and fill of House A 2 Charcoal: 52 deep with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole associated Dark brown, sandy silt with occ. char- with internal double coal inclusions posthole 20/21 122 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.07m diameter x 0.13m Cut and fill of House A 2 deep with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole associated Dark brown, sandy silt with occ. char- with internal double coal inclusions posthole 20/21 123 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.07m diameter x 0.1m deep Cut and fill of House A 2 with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole associated Dark brown, sandy silt with occ. char- with internal double coal inclusions posthole 20/21 124 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.08m x 0.06m x 0.16m Cut and fill of House A 2 deep with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole associatedPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ Dark brown, sandy silt with occ. char- with internal double Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road coal inclusions posthole 20/21 125 3, 54, 1 2.2m x 0.3m SE/NW x 0.04m deep Linear (possible House A ? 126 with gradually sloping sides and flat furrow) deposit base. Light brown sandy silt with occ. over-lying structural stones posthole 127 126 127 127 125 Light brown silty clay Fill of structural House A 3 Bulk soil:54 posthole 127 126 Nat. 126 Oval, 0.34m x 0.4m x 0.47m deep with Cut of structural House A 1 very steep sides and flat base sloping posthole down to the NE. Dark brown, sandy silt with occ. charcoal inclusions 128 129 129 1 Mid-brown silty sand fill, with occ. Fill of rabbit burrow? NON-ARCHAEOLOGICAL Bulk soil: 55 medium, frequent small and 1 large Linked to rabbit bur- stone . 0.24m deep row 97 129 128 Nat. 128 Sub-circular, 0.66m x 0.5m x 0.24m, Cut of rabbit burrow? NON-ARCHAEOLOGICAL steep sides and irregular base Linked to rabbit bur- row 9748 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 54. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 130 8 Nat. or 8 Irregular oval pit, 0.85m x 0.6m x Cut of irregular pit House A 2 2? 0.2m deep, gently sloping sides and for burnt waste? irregular base 131 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.07m x 0.08m x 0.16m Cut and fill of stake- House A 1 deep with steep sides and pointed base. hole in group M asso- Mid-brown silty sand fill. ciated with structural posthole 135 132 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.09m x 0.11m x 0.14m Cut and fill of stake- House A 2 deep with steep sides and pointed base. hole, group B Mid-brown silty sand fill 133 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.12m x 0.09m x 0.24m Cut fill of stakehole, House A 2 Bulk soil:59 deep with steep sides and pointed base. group B Mid-brown silty sand fill. 134 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.09m diameter x 0.18m deep Cut fill of stakehole, House A 2Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ with steep sides and pointed base. Mid- group B Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road brown silty sand fill. 135 136, Nat. 160 Sub-circular, 0.48m x 0.38m x 0.4m Cut of structural House A 1 160 deep with very steep sides and flat but posthole irregular base. Dark brown, sandy silt fill with occ. charcoal inclusions 136 135 160 1 Dark brown fine sandy clay, with occ. Upper fill of struc- House A 3 Bulk soil: 65 small and medium stones and 2 large tural posthole flat stones and occ. charcoal inclusions. 0.23m deep 137 138 138 1 No details Non-arch House A ? Bulk soil: 58 138 137 Nat. 137 No details Non-arch House A ? 139 140 156 1 Mid-black/brown sandy silt, with fre- Upper fill of struc- House A 3 Bulk soil:60 quent charcoal inclusions. 0.25m deep tural posthole 140 at north end of slot trench 2849 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 55. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 140 139, Nat. 156 Circular, 0.41m diameter x 0.24m Cut of structural House A 1 156 deep with steep sides and stepped base- posthole 140 at north deepest where fill 139 stood in section. end of slot trench 28 141 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.07m diameter x 0.15m Cut and fill of stake- House C 1 deep with steep sides and pointed base. hole in group C asso- Mid-brown silty sand fill with occ. ciated with structural tiny pebbles posthole 173 142 143 1 Circular, 0.06m diameter x 0.13m Cut and fill of double House C 1 or 2 deep with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in group C Mid-brown silty sand fill with occ. associated with struc- tiny pebbles tural posthole 173 143 Nat. 142 Sub-circular, 0.08m x 0.06m x 0.08m Cut and fill of double House C 1 deep with steep sides and irregular stakehole in group C base. Mid-brown silty sand fill with associated with struc-Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ occ. tiny pebbles and charcoal tural posthole 173 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road inclusions 144 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.09m diameter x 0.2m deep Cut and fill of stake- House A 1 Bulk soil:61 with steep sides and pointed base. Mid- hole in group M asso- brown silty sand fill with occ. tiny ciated with structural pebbles and charcoal inclusions posthole 135 145 Nat. 1 Sub-circular/irregular, 0.08m x 0.05m Cut and fill of stake- House C 1 x 0.1m deep with steep sides and hole in group C asso- pointed base. Mid-brown silty sand fill ciated with structural with occ. tiny pebbles posthole 173 146 Nat. 1 Rectangular, 0.06m x 0.45m x 0.185m Cut and fill of stake- House C 1 deep with very steep sides and flat hole in group C asso- base. Mid-brown silty sand fill. ciated with structural posthole 173 147 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.09m x 0.08m x 0.19m Cut and fill of stake- House C 1 deep with steep sides and pointed base. hole in group C asso- Mid-brown silty sand fill. ciated with structural posthole 17350 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 56. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 148 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.55m x 0.09m x 0.13m deep Cut and fill of stake- House C 1 with steep sides and pointed base. Mid- hole in group C asso- brown silty sand fill. ciated with structural posthole 173 149 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.05m x 0.07m x 0.18m Cut and fill of stake- House A 1 deep with steep sides and pointed base. hole in group M asso- Mid-brown silty sand fill with occ. ciated with structural tiny pebbles. posthole 135 150 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.08m diameter x 0.25m Cut and fill of stake- House A 1 deep with steep sides and pointed base. hole in group M asso- Mid-brown silty sand fill with occ. ciated with structural tiny pebbles. posthole 135 151 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.09m diameter x 0.2m deep Cut and fill of House A 2? with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in group D or CPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ Mid-brown silty sand fill with occ. associated with pit Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road tiny pebbles 130 152 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.06m x 0.08m x 0.17m deep Cut and fill of House A 2? with steep sides and pointed base. Mid- stakehole in group D or C brown silty sand fill. associated with pit 130 153 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.09m diameter x 0.2m deep Cut and fill of House A 2? with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in group D or C Mid-brown silty sand fill with occ. associated with pit tiny pebbles 130 154 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.06m x 0.08m x 0.18m deep Cut and fill of House A 2? with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in group D or C Mid-brown silty sand fill with occ. associated with pit tiny pebbles 130 155 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.06m x 0.07m x 0.11m deep Cut and fill of House A 2? with steep sides and pointed base. Mid- stakehole in group D or C brown silty sand fill associated with pit 13051 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 57. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 156 140 140 139 Moderately compact, mid-orange/ Packing fill of struc- House A 1 Bulk soil:62 brown, silty sand, with 8 medium tural posthole (packing) stones and frequent small stones . 0.23m deep 157 158 158 1 Mid-orange/brown silty sand with occ. Fill of stakehole in House A 2? Bulk soil:63 charcoal inclusions. 0.32m (possible habitation?) or C group E 158 Oval, 0.13m x 0.07m x 0.06m deep Cut of stakehole in House A 2? with vertical sides and pointed base. (possible habitation?) or C group E 159 Nat. 1 Linear, 6.5m x 0.5m x 0.06m deep, Cut and fill of prob- House A ? steep sides and flat base. Soft, light able furrow NE of brown, sandy silt with occ. stones House A 160 135 135 136, Mid-yellow/brown, gritty silty sand, Packing fill of struc- House A 1 8:split packing stone/sPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 176 with occ. large (packing) stones and tural posthole Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road occ. charcoal inclusions . 0.4m deep 161 Nat. 1 Irregular triangular pit, 0.9m x 0.58m Cut and fill of ir- House A ? Bulk soil: 64, x 0.38m deep, gently sloping sides but regular pit with burnt 66 vertical at NE flat base. Soft, light wood fill? brown, sandy clay silt fill with occ. burnt wood inclusions 162 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.06m x 0.07m x 0.19m deep Cut and fill of House A 2? Bulk soil: 67 with steep sides and blunt/rounded stakehole in (possible or C point base. habitation?) group E 163 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.1m x 0.08m x 0.22m deep Cut and fill of House A 2? Bulk soil: 68 with steep sides and pointed base. Mid- stakehole in (possible or C brown silty sand fill with occ. pebbles habitation?) group E and charcoal inclusions 164 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.08m diameter x 0.19m deep Cut and fill of House A 2? with steep sides and pointed base. Mid- stakehole in (possible or C brown silty sand fill habitation?) group E52 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 58. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 165 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.07m x 0.08m x 0.17m deep Cut and fill of House A 2? with steep sides and blunt pointed stakehole in (possible or C base. Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group E 166 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.06m diameter x 0.1m Cut and fill of House A 2? deep with steep sides and rounded stakehole in (possible or C point base. Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group E with occ. charcoal inclusions 167 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.06m x 0.08m x 0.17m deep Cut and fill of House A 2? with steep sides (slightly undercut) and stakehole in (possible or C rounded point base. Mid-brown silty habitation?) group E sand fill with occ. charcoal inclusions 168 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.09m x 0.085m x 0.18m Cut and fill of House A 2? Bulk soil: 69 deep with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in (possible or C habitation?) group EPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 169 Nat. 1 Sub-rectangular, 0.11m x 0.75m x Cut and fill of House A 2? Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road 0.17m deep with vertical sides and flat stakehole in (possible or C base. Mid-brown silty sand fill with habitation?) group E occ. charcoal inclusions 170 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.07m x 0.06m x 0.17m Cut and fill of House A 2? deep with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in (possible or C Mid-brown silty sand fill with occ. habitation?) group E charcoal inclusions 171 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.06m diameter x 0.13m Cut and fill of House A 2? deep with steep sides and rounded stakehole in (possible or C point base. Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group E with occ. charcoal inclusions 172 173 174 1 Dark brown, fine, clayey silt with occ. Upper fill of struc- House C 3 Bulk soil: 70 small stones and charcoal inclusions. tural posthole 0.21m deep 173 172, Nat. 174 Sub-circular posthole, 0.4m x 0.3m x Cut of structural House C 1 174 0.24m deep with very steep sides and posthole flat but irregular base53 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 59. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 174 173 173 172 Mid-orange/brown, gritty silty sand, Packing fill of struc- House C 1 with several medium (packing) stones, tural posthole occ. small stones and charcoal inclu- sions, 0.24m deep 175 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.06m diameter x 0.12m Cut and fill of House A 2? deep with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in group D or C Mid-brown silty sand fill associated with pit 130 176 160 1 Sub-circular, 0.07m diameter x 0.19m Cut and fill of stake- House A 1 deep with steep sides and rounded hole in group M asso- point base. Mid-brown silty sand fill ciated with structural posthole 135 177 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.06m x 0.08m x 0.13m deep Cut and fill of House A 2? with steep sides and rounded point stakehole in group D or CPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ base. Mid-brown silty sand fill with associated with pit Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road occ. tiny pebbles 130 178 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.07m x 0.1m x 0.13m deep with Cut and fill of stake- House A 1 steep sides and rounded point base. hole in group M asso- Mid-brown silty sand fill ciated with structural posthole 135 179 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.06m diameter x 0.18m deep Cut and fill of stake- House A 1 with steep sides and pointed base. Mid- hole in group M asso- brown silty sand fill ciated with structural posthole 135 180 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.05m x 0.04m x 0.08m Cut and fill of stake- House C 1 deep with very steep sides and pointed hole in group C asso- base. Mid-brown silty sand fill ciated with structural posthole 173 181 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.06m x 0.07m x 0.13m Cut and fill of stake- House C 1 deep with steep sides and pointed base. hole in group C asso- Mid-brown silty sand fill with occ. ciated with structural tiny pebbles posthole 17354 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 60. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 182 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.07m x 0.09m x 0.11m Cut and fill of stake- House C 1 deep with very steep sides and pointed hole in group C asso- base. Mid-brown silty sand fill with ciated with structural occ. tiny pebbles posthole 173 183 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.09m diameter x 0.13m Cut and fill of stake- House C 1 deep with steep sides and pointed base. hole in group C asso- Mid-brown silty sand fill ciated with structural posthole 173 184 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.07m x 0.06m x 0.16m deep Cut and fill of House C 2 with steep sides and rounded point stakehole in (possible base. Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group F 185 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.12m x 0.09m x 0.17m deep Cut and fill of House C 2 Bulk soil: 71 with steep and stepped sides and stakehole in (possible pointed base. Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group FPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ with occ. charcoal inclusions Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road 186 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.17m x 0.13m x 0.15m deep Cut and fill of House C 2 with steep sides and flat base. Mid- stakehole in (possible brown silty sand fill habitation?) group F 187 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.09m diameter x 0.18m deep Cut and fill of House C 2 with steep sides and pointed base. Mid- stakehole in (possible brown silty sand fill habitation?) group F 188 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.07m diameter x 0.12m deep Cut and fill of House C 2 with steep sides and pointed base. Mid- stakehole in (possible brown silty sand fill habitation?) group F 189 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.08m x 0.09m x 0.195m Cut and fill of House C 2 Bulk soil: 72 deep with very steep sides and pointed stakehole in (possible base. Mid-brown silty sand fill with habitation?) group F occ. tiny pebbles 190 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.075m diameter x 0.18m Cut and fill of House C 2 deep with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in (possible Mid-brown sandy silt fill with occ. habitation?) group F charcoal inclusions55 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 61. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 191 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.04m x 0.045m x 0.09m Cut and fill of House C 2 deep with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in (possible Mid-brown sandy silt fill habitation?) group F 192 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.06m diameter x 0.15m deep Cut and fill of House C 2 with steep sides and pointed base. Mid- stakehole in (possible brown silty sand fill habitation?) group F 193 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.075m x 0.055m x Cut and fill of House C 2 0.125m deep with steep sides and stakehole in (possible pointed base. Mid-brown sandy silt fill habitation?) group F 194 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.075m x 0.1m x 0.2m deep with Cut and fill of House C 2 steep and stepped sides and irregular stakehole in (possible pointed base. Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group F 195 Nat. 1 Sub-rectangular stakehole, 0.07m x Cut and fill of House C 2 Bulk soil: 74Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 0.11m x 0.175m deep with steep sides stakehole in (possible Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road and pointed base. Mid-brown silty habitation?) group F sand fill 196 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.06m x 0.07m x 0.17m Cut and fill of House C 2 deep with steep sides and rounded stakehole in (possible base. Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group F 197 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.05m x 0.07m x 0.13m deep Cut and fill of House C 2 Bulk soil: 75 with steep and stepped sides and stakehole in (possible rounded point base. Mid-brown silty habitation?) group F sand fill 198 Nat. 1 Sub-rectangular stakehole, 0.085m x Cut and fill of House C 2 0.095m x 0.26m deep with steep sides stakehole in (possible and blunt base. Mid-brown silty sand habitation?) group F fill56 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 62. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 199 Nat. 1 Irregular oval pit, 0.9m x 0.55m x Cut and fill of ir- House A 2 0.1m deep, gradually sloping sides and regular pit for burnt or C irregular base. Dark grey/black sandy waste? silt with occ. stones and occ. charcoal inclusions 200 201, Nat. 202 Irregular sub-circular posthole, 0.54m Cut of structural House A 1 202 x 0.38m x 0.38m deep with steep sides posthole and irregular base 201 200 202 1 Dark brown, fine clayey silt, with occ. Upper fill of struc- House A 3 Bulk soil: 73 small stones, 1 medium stone, occ. tural posthole charcoal inclusions and a charcoal con- centration near the surface. 0.1m deep 202 200 200 201 Moderately compact, mid-orange/ Packing fill of struc- House A 1 brown, gritty sandy clay, with several tural postholePermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ medium stones . 0.38m deep Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road 203 Nat. 1 Circular posthole, 0.21m diameter x Cut and fill of struc- House C 1 0.26m deep with steep sides and base tural posthole that slopes to the NE. Dark grey/black sandy silt with frequent small stones and fragments of heat shattered stone and several packing stones lining the edge of the cut 204 Nat. 1 No details Cut and fill of stake- House C ?1 hole associated with structural posthole 203 or pit 199 205 Nat. 1 No details Cut and fill of stake- House C ?1 hole associated with structural posthole 203 or pit 199 206 580, Nat. 581 Oval, 0.29m x 0.21 x 0.22m deep. Cut of structural House C 1 581 posthole57 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 63. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 207 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.05m diameter x 0.17m Cut and fill of House C 2? deep with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in (possible Mid-brown silty sand fill with occ. habitation?) group G tiny pebbles 208 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.05m x 0.06m x 0.1m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep and stepped sides and base stakehole in (possible inclined from E to W. Mid-brown silty habitation?) group G sand fill with occ. charcoal inclusions 209 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.05m diameter x 0.07m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and rounded point stakehole in (possible base. Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group G 210 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.08m diameter x 0.2m Cut and fill of double House C 2? deep with steep sides and rounded stakehole in (possible point base. Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group GPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ with occ. charcoal inclusions. Unclear Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road stratigraphy with 211 211 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.08m diameter x 0.21m Cut and fill of double House C 2? deep with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in (possible Mid-brown silty sand fill with occ. habitation?) group G tiny pebbles and charcoal inclusions. Unclear stratigraphy with 210 212 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.07m x 0.09m x 0.13m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and rounded point stakehole in (possible base inclined from N to S. Mid-brown habitation?) group G silty sand fill with occ. tiny pebbles 213 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.07m x 0.06m x 0.18m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and pointed base. Mid- stakehole in (possible brown silty sand fill habitation?) group G 214 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.06m x 0.05m x 0.12m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides flat base. Mid-brown stakehole in (possible silty sand fill with occ. tiny pebbles habitation?) group G58 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 64. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 215 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.06m x 0.07m x 0.13m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and pointed base. Mid- stakehole in (possible brown silty sand fill habitation?) group G 216 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.06m diameter x 0.08m Cut and fill of House C 2? deep with steep sides and rounded stakehole in (possible point base. Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group G 217 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.07m diameter x 0.16m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? Bulk soil: 76 with steep sides and pointed base. Mid- stakehole in (possible brown silty sand fill with occ. charcoal habitation?) group G inclusions 218 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.07m diameter x 0.11m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and rounded point stakehole in (possible base. Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group G 219 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.07m x 0.06m x 0.1m deep with Cut and fill of House C 2?Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ steep sides and flat base. Mid-brown stakehole in (possible Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road silty sand fill habitation?) group G 220 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.07m diameter x 0.07m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and flat base. Mid- stakehole in (possible brown silty sand fill with one stone habitation?) group G 221 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.07m x 0.08m x 0.18m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? Bulk soil: 77 with steep sides and pointed base stakehole in (possible inclined NE to SW. Mid-brown silty habitation?) group G sand fill with occ. charcoal inclusions 222 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.05m diameter x 0.07m Cut and fill of House C 2? deep with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in (possible Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group G 223 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.05m diameter x 0.08m Cut and fill of House C 2? deep with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in (possible Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group G59 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 65. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 224 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.08m diameter x 0.14m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and flat base. Mid- stakehole in (possible brown silty sand fill habitation?) group G 225 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.07m x 0.07m x 0.18m Cut and fill of House C 2? deep with steep and slightly under-cut stakehole in (possible sides and rounded base. Mid-brown habitation?) group G silty sand fill 226 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.095m x 0.1m x 0.12m Cut and fill of House C 2? deep with steep sides and irregular stakehole in (possible pointed base. Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group G 227 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.09m x 0.07m x 0.185m Cut and fill of House C 2? deep with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in (possible Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group G 228 Nat. 1 Irregular Sub-circular, 0.11m x 0.13m Cut and fill of double House C 2?Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ x 0.17m deep with steep sides and ir- stakehole in (possible Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road regular pointed base. Mid-brown silty habitation?) group G sand fill with occ. charcoal inclusions. Unclear stratigraphy with 229 229 Nat. 1 Irregular Sub-circular, 0.06m x 0.055m Cut and fill of double House C 2? x 0.12m deep with steep sides and ir- stakehole in (possible regular pointed base. Mid-brown silty habitation?) group G sand fill with occ. charcoal inclusions. Unclear stratigraphy with 228 230 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.075m x 0.08m x Cut and fill of House C 2? Bulk soil: 78 0.155m deep with steep sides and stakehole in (possible rounded base. Mid-brown silty sand habitation?) group G fill with occ. charcoal inclusions 231 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.1m diameter x 0.19m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and rounded point stakehole in (possible base inclined SW to NE. Mid-brown habitation?) group G silty sand fill60 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 66. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 232 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.1m diameter x 0.07m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and rounded point stakehole in (possible base. Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group G 233 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.075m diameter x 0.14m Cut and fill of House C 2? deep with steep sides and irregular flat stakehole in (possible base. Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group G 234 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.08m diameter x 0.12m Cut and fill of House C 2? deep with steep sides and rounded stakehole in (possible point base. Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group G 235 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.08m x 0.1m x 0.085m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and flat base. Mid- stakehole in (possible brown silty sand fill habitation?) group G 236 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.1m x 0.08m x 0.17m deep with Cut and fill of House C 2?Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ steep sides and rounded point base. stakehole in (possible Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group G 237 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.07m x 0.06m x 0.13m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and rounded point stakehole in (possible base inclined NE to SW. Mid-brown habitation?) group G silty sand fill 238 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.07m x 0.06m x 0.12m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and rounded point stakehole in (possible base. Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group G 239 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.1m x 0.09m x 0.17m deep with Cut and fill of House C 2? steep sides and rounded point base. stakehole in (possible Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group G 240 ? ? No details Fill of slot trench in House C ? House B 241 Nat. 1 Moderately compact, mid-orange/ Redeposited natural House C 1? brown, gritty, slightly silty sand, with bank on western edge frequent small stones. 1.8m x 0.7m x of linear slot/founda- 0.1m deep tion trench 4261 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 67. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 242 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.1m diameter x 0.14m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and rounded point stakehole in (possible base inclined NW to SE. Mid-brown habitation?) group G silty sand fill 243 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.07m x 0.06m x 0.16m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and pointed base. Mid- stakehole in (possible brown silty sand fill habitation?) group G 244 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.085m x 0.1m x 0.13m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and rounded point stakehole in (possible base. Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group G 245 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.06m x 0.05m x 0.14m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and pointed base. Mid- stakehole in (possible brown silty sand fill habitation?) group G 246 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.07m diameter x 0.27m Cut and fill of west House C 2? Bulk soil; 79Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ deep with steep sides and pointed section of triple Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road base. Mid-brown silty sand fill with stakehole in (possible occ. charcoal inclusions. Stratigraphy habitation?) group G unclear with 247, 248 247 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.06m diameter x 0.13m Cut and fill of south- House C 2? deep with steep sides and pointed base. ern section of triple Mid-brown silty sand fill. Stratigraphy stakehole in (possible unclear with 246, 248 habitation?) group G 248 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.13m diameter x 0.16m Cut and fill of east House C 2? deep with steep sides and pointed base section of triple inclined W to E. Mid-brown silty stakehole in (possible sand fill with occ. charcoal inclusions. habitation?) group G Stratigraphy unclear with 246, 247 249 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.07m x 0.09m x 0.14m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and pointed base stakehole in (possible inclined SW to NE. Mid-brown silty habitation?) group G sand fill62 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 68. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 250 Nat. 1 Rectangular, pit, 1.16m x 0.56m x Irregular rectangular House 2? 0.12m deep with gradually sloping pit? C? sides, except steep on the west side, and irregular concave base. Soft, grey/ black sandy silt occ. pieces of redepos- ited natural and burnt stones and occ. charcoal inclusions 251 241 1 Sub-circular, 0.15m x 0.14m x 0.24m Cut and fill of stakehole possibly ?1 or 2 deep with steep sides and pointed base. associated with entrance Mid-brown fine, silty sand with occ. tiny pebbles 252 362 362 253 Sub-circular spread,1.4m x 1.6m x Deposit burnt House C 2? Bulk soil: 80 0.14m. Soft, red, burnt sandy clay with material-possible occ. small stones. hearth?Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 253 252 1 Sub-rectangular (almost triangular at Possible posthole as- House B 2? Bulk soil: 86 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road base) posthole, 0.43m x 0.3m x 0.3m sociated with possible or C? Charcoal: 81 deep with very steep sides (stepped at hearth 252 NE side) and concave base 254 252 1 No details Stakehole associated House B 2? Charcoal: 82 with possible hearth or C? 252 255 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.08m diameter x 0.09m Cut and fill of House C 2? deep with steep sides and slightly stakehole in (possible concave base. Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group H with occ. tiny pebbles 256 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.06m diameter x 0.11m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and rounded point stakehole in (possible base inclined SW to NE. Mid-brown habitation?) group H silty sand fill 257 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.09m x 0.13m x 0.15m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and flat base. Mid- stakehole in (possible brown silty sand fill habitation?) group H63 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 69. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 258 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.07m diameter x 0.2m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? Bulk soil: 83 with steep sides and rounded base in- stakehole in (possible clined SW to NE. Loose, black/brown habitation?) group H silty sand with occ. charcoal inclusions 259 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.065m diameter x 0.13m Cut and fill of House C 2? deep with steep sides and rounded stakehole in (possible point base. Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group H 260 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.09m x 0.07m x 0.09m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and flat base. Mid- stakehole in (possible brown silty sand fill habitation?) group H 261 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.05m x 0.08m x 0.14m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and rounded point stakehole in (possible base. Mid-brown silty sand fill with habitation?) group H occ. tiny pebblesPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 262 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.1m x 0.12m x 0.19m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road with steep sides and flat base. Mid- stakehole in (possible brown silty sand fill with occ. charcoal habitation?) group H inclusions 263 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.1m x 0.08m SE/NW x 0.16m Cut and fill of House C 2? deep with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in (possible Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group H 264 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.1m x 0.07m SE/NW x 0.1m Cut and fill of House C 2? deep with steep sides and flat base. stakehole in (possible Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group H 265 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.07m x 0.06m SE/NW x Cut and fill of House C 2? 0.075m deep with steep sides and flat stakehole in (possible base. Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group H 266 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.07m diameter x 0.17m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and rounded point stakehole in (possible base. Mid-brown silty sand fill with habitation?) group H occ. charcoal inclusions64 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 70. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 267 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.06m diameter x 0.1m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and pointed base. Mid- stakehole in (possible brown silty sand fill habitation?) group H 268 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.125m x 0.13m x 0.14m Cut and fill of House C 2? Bulk soil :84 deep with steep sides and concave base. stakehole in (possible Mid-brown fine, silty sand with occ. habitation?) group H tiny pebbles 269 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.06m x 0.05m SE/NW x 0.12m Cut and fill of House C 2? deep with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in (possible Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group H 270 Nat. 1 Irregular Circular, 0.08m diameter Cut and fill of House C 2? Bulk soil: 85 x 0.13m deep with steep sides and stakehole in (possible rounded point base. Loose, black/ habitation?) group H brown silty sand with occ. charcoalPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ inclusions Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road 271 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.1m x 0.06m x 0.14m deep with Cut and fill of House C 2? steep sides and rounded point base. stakehole in (possible Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group H 272 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.05m diameter x 0.07m Cut and fill of House C 2? deep with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in (possible Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group H 273 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.06m x 0.08m SE/NW x 0.12m Cut and fill of House C 2? deep with steep sides and flat base. stakehole in (possible Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group H 274 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.07m diameter x 0.13m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and rounded point stakehole in (possible base inclined E to W. Mid-brown silty habitation?) group H sand fill 275 252 1 No details Stakehole associated House 2? with possible hearth C? 25265 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 71. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 276 252 1 No details Stakehole associated House 2? with possible hearth C? 252 277 252 1 No details Stakehole associated House 2? with possible hearth C? 252 278 252 1 No details Stakehole associated House 2? with possible hearth C? 252 279 252 1 No details Stakehole associated House 2? with possible hearth C? 252 280 252 1 No details Stakehole associated House 2? with possible hearth C?Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 252 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road 281 252 1 No details Stakehole associated House 2? with possible hearth C? 252 282 252 1 No details Stakehole associated House 2? with possible hearth C? 252 283 252 1 No details Stakehole associated House 2? with possible hearth C? 252 284 252 1 No details Stakehole associated House 2? with possible hearth C? 252 285 252 1 No details Stakehole associated House 2? with possible hearth C? 25266 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 72. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 286 252 1 No details Stakehole associated House 2? with possible hearth C? 252 287 252 1 No details Stakehole associated House 2? with possible hearth C? 252 288 252 1 No details Stakehole associated House 2? with possible hearth C? 252 289 252 1 No details Stakehole associated House 2? with possible hearth C? 252 290 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.08m diameter x 0.13m Cut and fill of House A ?1 or 2 deep with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in groupPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ Mid-brown silty sand fill I associated with Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road entrance 291 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.05m diameter x 0.15m deep Cut and fill of House A ?1 or 2 with steep sides and pointed base. Mid- stakehole in group brown silty sand fill I associated with entrance 292 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.08m x 0.07m x 0.16m Cut and fill of House A ?1 or 2 deep with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in group Mid-brown silty sand fill I associated with entrance 293 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.08m diameter x 0.16m deep Cut and fill of House A ?1 or 2 with steep sides and pointed base. Mid- stakehole in group brown silty sand fill I associated with entrance 294 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.1m x 0.09m x 0.18m Cut and fill of House A ?1 or 2 deep with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in group Mid-brown silty sand fill I associated with entrance67 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 73. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 295 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.11m diameter x 0.2m deep Cut and fill of House A ?1 or 2 with steep sides and pointed base. Mid- stakehole in group brown silty sand fill I associated with entrance 296 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.08m diameter x 0.16m deep Cut and fill of House A ?1 or 2 with steep sides and pointed base. Mid- stakehole in group brown silty sand fill I associated with entrance 297 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.07m diameter x 0.14m deep Cut and fill of House A ?1 or 2 with steep sides and pointed base. Mid- stakehole in group brown silty sand fill I associated with entrance 298 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.06m x 0.07m x 0.15m Cut and fill of House A ?1 or 2 deep with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in groupPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ Mid-brown silty sand fill I associated with Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road entrance 299 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.06m x 0.08m SE/NW x 0.13m Cut and fill of House A ?1 or 2 deep with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in group Mid-brown silty sand fill I associated with entrance 300 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.08m x 0.06m x 0.14m Cut and fill of House A ?1 or 2 deep with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in group Mid-brown silty sand fill I associated with entrance 301 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.08m x 0.07m x 0.16m Cut and fill of House A ?1 or 2 deep with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in group Mid-brown silty sand fill I associated with entrance 302 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.11m x 0.1m x 0.21m Cut and fill of House A ?1 or 2 deep with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in group Mid-grey/brown silty clay with occ. I associated with small stones entrance68 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 74. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 303 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.07m x 0.06m x 0.14m Cut and fill of House A ?1 or 2 deep with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in group Mid-brown silty sand fill I associated with entrance 304 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.1m x 0.08m x 0.16m Cut and fill of double House A ?1 or 2 Bulk soil: 87 deep with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in group Mid-brown silty sand fill with occ. I associated with charcoal inclusions. Stratigraphy of entrance 304/305 is unclear 305 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.07m x 0.08m x 0.12m Cut and fill of double House A ?1 or 2 deep with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in group Mid-brown silty sand fill. Stratigraphy I associated with of 304/305 is unclear entrance 306 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.07m diameter x 0.19m Cut and fill of double House A ?1 or 2Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ deep with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in group Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road Mid-brown silty sand fill. Stratigraphy I associated with of 306/307 is unclear entrance 307 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.08m diameter x 0.14m Cut and fill of double House A ?1 or 2 deep with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in group Mid-brown silty sand fill. Stratigraphy I associated with of 306/307 is unclear entrance 308 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.1m diameter x 0.21m deep Cut and fill of House A ?1 or 2 with steep sides and pointed base. Mid- stakehole in group brown silty sand fill I associated with entrance 309 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.1m x 0.07m x 0.19m Cut and fill of House A ?1 or 2 deep with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in group Mid-brown silty sand fill I associated with entrance69 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 75. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 310 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.09m x 0.07m x 0.13m Cut and fill of House A ?1 or 2 deep with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in group Mid-brown silty sand fill I associated with entrance 311 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.14m x 0.11m x 0.15m Cut and fill of House A ?1 or 2 deep with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in group Mid-brown silty sand fill I associated with entrance 312 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.07m diameter x 0.14m deep Cut and fill of House A ?1 or 2 with steep sides and pointed base. Mid- stakehole in group brown silty sand fill I associated with entrance 313 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.12m x 0.09m x 0.2m deep Cut and fill of House A ?1 or 2 with steep sides and pointed base. Mid- stakehole in groupPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ brown silty sand fill I associated with Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road entrance 314 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.09m x 0.12m x 0.17m deep Cut and fill of House A ?1 or 2 with steep sides and pointed base. Mid- stakehole in group brown silty sand fill I associated with entrance 315 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.14m x 0.19m x 0.17m deep Cut and fill of double House A ?1 or 2 with steep sides (irregular at north stakehole in group edge) and pointed base. Mid-brown I associated with silty sand fill. Stratigraphy of 315/316 entrance is unclear 316 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.09m x 0.11m x 0.29m deep Cut and fill of double House A ?1 or 2 with steep sides and pointed base. Mid- stakehole in group brown silty sand fill. Stratigraphy of I associated with 315/316 is unclear entrance70 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 76. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 317 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.22m x 0.17m x 0.37m Cut and fill of House A ?1 or 2 deep with steep sides (shallower to the stakehole in group east edge) and pointed base. Mid- I associated with brown silty sand fill entrance 318 319 Nat. 319 Circular posthole, 0.22m x 0.2m x Cut of structural House A 1 0.24m deep with very steep sides and posthole associated irregular base with entrance 319 318 319 1 Mid-brown fine, silty sand with Fill of structural House A 3 Bulk soil:107 frequent small and medium (packing) posthole associated stones and occ. charcoal inclusions with entrance 320 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.10m x 0.11m x 0.23m Cut and fill of House C 2? deep with steep sides and rounded stakehole in (possible base. Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group J 321 Nat. 1 Circular posthole, 0.12m diameter x Cut and fill of House C 2?Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 0.24m deep with very steep sides and stakehole in (possible Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road pointed base habitation?) group J 322 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.11m x 0.10m x 0.12m Cut and fill of House C 2? deep with steep sides and flat base. stakehole in (possible Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group J 323 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.075m x 0.06m x 0.155m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and rounded base. stakehole in (possible Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group J 324 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.065m x 0.07m x 0.12m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and rounded base. stakehole in (possible Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group J 325 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.06m x 0.055m x 0.13m Cut and fill of House C 2? 1: flint Bulk soil: 88 deep with steep sides and rounded stakehole in (possible flake base. Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group J 326 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.06m x 0.045m x 0.1m Cut and fill of House C 2? deep with steep sides and rounded stakehole in (possible base. Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group J71 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 77. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 327 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.12m x 0.13m x 0.14m Cut and fill of House C 2? deep with steep sides and rounded stakehole in (possible base. Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group J 328 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.15m x 0.13m x 0.13m Cut and fill of House C 2? Charcoal: 89 deep with steep sides and flat base. stakehole in (possible Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group J 329 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.115m x 0.13m x 0.115m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and flat base. Mid- stakehole in (possible brown silty sand fill habitation?) group J 330 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.08m x 0.07m x 0.16m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and rounded base. stakehole in (possible Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group J 331 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.07m x 0.08m x 0.17m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and rounded base. stakehole in (possiblePermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group J Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road 332 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.08m x 0.06m x 0.06m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and flat base. Mid- stakehole in (possible brown silty sand fill with occ. charcoal habitation?) group J inclusions 333 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.1m x 0.085m x 0.27m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and rounded base. stakehole in (possible Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group J 334 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.08m x 0.08m x 0.14m Cut and fill of House C 2? deep with steep sides and flat base. stakehole in (possible Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group J 335 336 Nat. 336 Sub-circular posthole, 0.2m x 0.22m Cut of internal/cen- House C 2? x 0.19m deep with steep sides and tral posthole within irregular, flat base. Mid-brown silty stakehole group J sand fill 336 335 335 1 Mid-brown/orange, silty sand with Fill of internal/cen- House C 2? occ. small and medium (packing?) tral posthole within stones and charcoal inclusions stakehole group J72 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 78. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 337 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.08m diameter x 0.15m Cut and fill of House C 2? Bulk soil: 91 deep with steep sides and rounded stakehole in (possible base. Loose, black/brown silty sand habitation?) group K with occ. tiny pebbles and charcoal inclusions 338 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.065m x 0.08m x 0.18m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and rounded base. stakehole in (possible Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group K 339 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.06m x 0.05m x 0.1m deep with Cut and fill of House C 2? steep sides and pointed base. Mid- stakehole in (possible brown silty sand fill habitation?) group K 340 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.08m x 0.14m x 0.15m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides (stepped at SE edge) stakehole in (possible and pointed base. Mid-brown silty habitation?) group KPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ sand fill with occ. tiny pebbles and Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road occ. charcoal inclusions 341 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.07m diameter x 0.12m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? Bulk soil: 92 with steep sides and rounded base. stakehole in (possible Loose, black/brown silty sand with habitation?) group K occ. charcoal inclusions 342 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.05m x 0.06m x 0.14m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and pointed base. Mid- stakehole in (possible brown silty sand fill with occ. tiny habitation?) group K pebble inclusions 343 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.05m diameter x 0.06m Cut and fill of House C 2? deep with steep sides and rounded stakehole in (possible base. Light brown silty sand habitation?) group K 344 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.08m x 0.06m x 0.18m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? Bulk soil: 93 with steep sides and rounded base. stakehole in (possible Mid-brown silty sand fill with occ. tiny habitation?) group K pebbles and occ. charcoal inclusions73 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 79. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 345 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.06m diameter x 0.17m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and rounded base. stakehole in (possible Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group K 346 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.07m diameter x 0.19m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and rounded base. stakehole in (possible Loose, black/brown silty sand with habitation?) group K occ. tiny pebbles and occ. charcoal inclusions 347 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.07m x 0.045m x 0.1m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and flat base. Mid- stakehole in (possible brown silty sand fill with occ. tiny habitation?) group K pebbles and occ. charcoal inclusions 348 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.045m diameter x 0.14m Cut and fill of House C 2? deep with steep sides and rounded stakehole in (possiblePermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ base. Light brown silty sand habitation?) group K Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road 349 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.06m diameter x 0.1m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and rounded base. stakehole in (possible Light brown silty sand with occ. pebble habitation?) group K inclusions 350 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.06m diameter x 0.17m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and rounded base. stakehole in (possible Light brown silty sand habitation?) group K 351 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.075m diameter x 0.11m Cut and fill of House C 2? deep with steep sides and rounded base stakehole in (possible inclined south to north. Light brown habitation?) group K silty sand with occ. pebble inclusions 352 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.06m x 0.05m x 0.13m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and rounded base. stakehole in (possible Light brown silty sand with occ. tiny habitation?) group K pebble inclusions74 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 80. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 353 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.07m diameter x 0.15m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and rounded base. stakehole in (possible Light brown silty sand habitation?) group K 354 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.07m diameter x 0.12m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? Bulk soil: 94 with steep sides and rounded base. stakehole in (possible Mid-brown silty sand fill with occ. habitation?) group K pebbles and occ. charcoal inclusions 355 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.08m x 0.06m x 0.14m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in (possible Light brown silty sand habitation?) group K 356 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.06m diameter x 0.1m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in (possible Light brown silty sand with occ. pebble habitation?) group K inclusionsPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 357 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.08m x 0.05m x 0.09m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road with steep sides and flat base. Light stakehole in (possible brown silty sand habitation?) group K 358 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.05m diameter x 0.085m Cut and fill of House C 2? deep with steep sides and rounded stakehole in (possible base. Light brown silty sand with occ. habitation?) group K pebbles and occ. charcoal inclusions 359 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.05m x 0.07m x 0.095m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? Bulk soil: 95 with steep sides and rounded base. stakehole in (possible Light brown silty sand with occ. peb- habitation?) group K bles and occ. charcoal inclusions 360 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.08m x 0.05m x 0.09m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and flat base. Light stakehole in (possible brown silty sand with occ. pebble habitation?) group K inclusions 361 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.08m diameter x 0.12m Cut and fill of House C 2? deep with steep sides and rounded stakehole in (possible base. Mid-brown silty sand fill habitation?) group K75 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 81. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 362 252 Nat. 252 Oval pit, 2.26m x 1.25m x 0.15m deep Pit cut- possible House B 2? with gradually sloping sides and flat hearth or C? base 363 364 365 25??? Loose, black/brown silty sand with 2 Upper fill of internal House C 3 Bulk soil: 90 large stones and occ. charcoal inclu- structural posthole sions. 0.28m deep. 364 363, Nat. 365 Oval, 0.31m x 0.55m x 0.28m deep Cut of internal struc- House C 1 365 with steep sides and concave base tural posthole 365 364 364 363 Mid-orange/brown silty sand with Packing fill of House C 1 Bulk soil: 96 12 medium packing stones in 3 tiers. internal structural 0.33m deep. posthole 366 368 367 1 Firm, black/brown clayey, occ. patches Upper fill of large pit Area B 2 Bulk soil: 97 of scorched earth (not burnt clay) and Charcoal: 98 frequent large charcoal pieces. 0.16mPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ deep. No evidence of in situ burning Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road 367 368 368 367 Firm, mottled, white/brown clayey Basal fill of large pit Area B 2 Charcoal: 98 silt with, occ. patches of scorched earth (not burnt clay) and frequent large charcoal pieces. 0.14m deep. No evidence of in situ burning 368 366, Nat. 367 Circular pit, 1.15m x 1.15m x 0.3m Isolated large pit Area B 1 367 deep with steep sides at south and east, cut-possible charcoal vertical at north and west, and flat base production pit 369 370 370 1 Firm, brown clayey silt with occ. small Fill of shallow pit House B? ? Charcoal: 99 stones and charcoal inclusions. 0.05m east of House B deep 370 369 Nat. 369 Oval, orientated pit, 0.39m x 0.28m Cut of shallow pit House B? ? x 0.09m deep with gradually sloping east of House B sides and concave base76 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 82. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 371 373 372 461 Loose, black, sandy silt with occ. Upper fill of struc- House B, 3 12: Bulk soil: 100 stones and occ. charcoal inclusions. tural posthole S side of modern 0.35m deep entrance frag- ment of foil 372 373 373 371 Moderately compact, light brown, Packing fill of structural posthole 1 sandy clay with frequent large packing stones. 0.4m deep 373 371, Nat. 372 Sub-circular posthole, 0.7m x 0.6m Cut of structural 1 372 x 0.4m deep with steep sides and flat posthole base 374 376 375 1 Mid-brown silty clay with occ. me- Upper fill of pit House B 2 Bulk soil: 103 dium stones and charcoal inclusions. 0.2m deepPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 375 376 376 374 Black/brown, silty clay with occ. small Lower fill of pit House B 2 Bulk soil: 101 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road stones and frequent charcoal inclu- sions. 0.24m deep 376 374, Nat. 375 Oval pit, 0.62m x 0.46m x 0.24m deep Cut of pit of un- House B 2 375 with gradually sloping sides to the known purpose east, steep sides to the west and south and vertical sides to the north and an irregular flat base 377 378 378 1 Moderately compact black/grey, clayey Fill of structural House 3 Bulk soil: 102 silt with frequent large packing stones posthole D? and occ. charcoal inclusions. 0.27m deep 378 377 Nat. 377 Sub-circular posthole, 0.4m x 0.4m x Cut of structural House 1 0.27m deep with vertical sides and flat posthole D? base 379 380, Nat. 386 Circular posthole, 0.5m diameter x Cut of structural House B 1 385, 0.36m deep with very steep sides and posthole 386 flat base77 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 83. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 380 379 385 1 Moderately compact dark brown/ Upper fill of struc- House B 3 black, silt with frequent small stones tural posthole and charcoal inclusions. 0.06m deep 381 382, Nat. 381 Circular posthole, 0.5m diameter x Cut of structural House B 1 387 0.33m deep with very steep sides and posthole flat base 382 381 387 1 Moderately compact dark brown/ Upper fill of struc- House B 3 black, silty sand with occ. small stones tural posthole and charcoal inclusions. 0.06m deep 383 384 Nat. 383 Sub-circular stone socket, 0.31m diam- Cut of stone socket House B 1 eter x 0.09m deep with irregular sides probably removed and irregular concave base during construction of 381 384 383 383 1 Moderately compact Mid-brown silty Fill of stone socket House B ?Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ sand fill with occ. small stones. 0.09m Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road deep 385 379 386 380 Compact Mid-brown silty sand fill Middle fill of struc- House B 1? with frequent packing stones and occ. tural posthole charcoal inclusions. 0.2m deep 386 379 379 385 Very compact dark brown, silty sand Lower /packing fill of House B 1 Bulk soil: 109 with frequent packing stones and occ. structural posthole charcoal inclusions. 0.16m deep 387 381 381 382 Compact Mid-brown silty sand fill Lower /packing fill of House B 1 13: Bulk soil: 108 with frequent packing stones and occ. structural posthole possible charcoal inclusions. 0.33m deep quern stone 388 389 389 390 Compact Mid-brown silty clay with Lower fill of struc- House B ? Bulk soil: 104 occ. large and small (packing?) stones tural posthole and charcoal inclusions. 0.39m deep78 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 84. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 389 388 Nat. 388 Oval, 0.68m x 0.52m x 0.39m deep Cut of structural House B 1 with vertical sides (stepped at north) posthole and irregular flat base 390 389 388 1 Mid-brown, clayey silt with frequent Upper fill of struc- House B 3 large and small (packing?) stones and tural posthole charcoal inclusions. 0.30m deep 391 392 392 400 Firm, mid grey/brown, clayey silt with Fill of posthole House 3 Bulk soil: 105 occ. small stones and frequent charcoal D? inclusions. 0.28m deep 392 391 Nat. 391 Sub-circular posthole, 0.26m x 0.27m Cut of posthole as- House 1 x 0.28m deep with steep sides, vertical sociated with nearby D? at north and gradually sloping at east, structural postholes and rounded point base 393 395 394 1 Dark brown, sandy clay with occ. Upper fill of probable House ? Bulk soil: 113Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ small stones. 0.08m deep tree-root activity D? Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road 394 395 395 393 Light brown, medium sand with occ. Lower fill of probable House ? Bulk soil: 114 small stones and charcoal inclusions. tree-root activity D? 0.34m deep 395 393, 400 394 Sub-circular tree-root cut, 0.55m x Cut of probable tree- House ? 394 0.5m x 0.45m deep with vertical sides root activity D? and slightly concave base 396 397 397 1 Mid-black/brown, silty sand with red Fill of structural House D 3 Bulk soil: 106, burnt fill at base, occ. medium and posthole- part of pos- or B? 118 large (packing?) stones and frequent sible entrance charcoal inclusions. 0.23m deep 397 396 414 396 Sub-circular posthole, 0.36m x 0.4m x Cut of structural House D 1 0.23m deep with irregular steep sides posthole- part of pos- or B? and slightly concave base with possible sible entrance signs of in situ burning79 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 85. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 398 399 399 1 Moderately compact, black/brown, Fill of structural House 3 Bulk soil: 110 sandy silt with occ. large packing posthole D? Charcoal: 111 stones and charcoal inclusions. 0.28m deep 399 398 Nat. 398 Oval, 0.4m x 0.50m x 0.27m deep with Cut of structural House 1 vertical sides and flat base posthole D? 400 391 1 Compact, Mid-brown silty clay with Modern spread- pos- South 1 occ. stones and concrete and rubber sible post-medieval extent of hosing fragment inclusions. 14m x 3m pathway site x 0.24m deep 401 402 402 1 Very compact, yellow/brown, silty clay Fill of pit House B 2 Bulk soil: 112 with occ. small stones. 0.06m deep 402 401 Nat. 401 Oval pit, 0.38m x 0.68m x 0.06m deep Cut of pit of un- House B 2 with gradually sloping sides, imper- known purposePermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ ceptible to north, and an irregular flat Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road base 403 404 404 1 Moderately compact, brown, clayey silt Fill of structural House B 3 Bulk soil: 115 with occ. large (packing?) stones and posthole or D? charcoal inclusions. 0.23m deep 404 403 Nat. 403 Sub-circular posthole, 0.5m x 0.43m Cut of structural House B 1 x 0.28m deep with vertical sides and posthole or D? irregular flat base 405 406 Nat. 406 Sub-circular posthole, 0.52m diameter Cut of structural House B 1 x 0.25m deep with near vertical sides posthole and irregular flat base 406 405 405 1 Moderately compact, brown, sandy silt Fill of structural House B 3 Bulk soil: 117 with frequent large packing stones and posthole occ. charcoal inclusions. 0.25m deep80 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 86. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 407 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.18m x 0.14m x 0.24m Cut and fill of struc- House A 1 Bulk soil: 116 deep with steep sides and pointed base. tural stakehole asso- Light brown/grey silty sand with occ. ciated with entrance tiny pebbles and charcoal inclusions (possible wind-break) 408 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.1m x 0.08m x 0.16m Cut and fill of struc- House A 1 deep with steep sides and pointed base. tural stakehole asso- Mid-brown silty sand fill ciated with entrance (possible wind-break) 409 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.06m x 0.1m x 0.1m Cut and fill of struc- House A 1 deep with steep sides and pointed base. tural stakehole asso- Mid-brown silty sand fill with occ. ciated with entrance pebbles (possible wind-break) 410 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.14m x 0.12m x 0.26m Cut and fill of struc- House A 1 deep with steep sides and pointed base. tural stakehole asso-Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ Mid-brown silty sand fill ciated with entrance Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road (possible wind-break) 411 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.1m x 0.11m x 0.17m Cut and fill of struc- House A 1 deep with steep sides and pointed base. tural stakehole asso- Mid-brown silty sand fill ciated with entrance (possible wind-break) 412 4 1 Sub-circular, 0.13m x 0.11m x 0.22m Cut and fill of struc- House A 1 deep with steep sides and pointed base. tural stakehole asso- Mid-brown silty sand fill with occ. ciated with entrance pebbles (possible wind-break) 413 4 1 Sub-circular, 0.1m x 0.07m x 0.12m Cut and fill of struc- House A 1 deep with steep sides and pointed base. tural stakehole asso- Mid-brown silty sand fill with occ. ciated with entrance pebbles (possible wind-break) 414 415 415 397 Mid-grey/brown, silty sand with occ. Fill of structural House B, 1 Bulk soil: 119 large packing stones (base lined with posthole associated N side of flat stones) and occ. charcoal inclu- with entrance entrance sions. 0.55m deep81 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 87. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 415 414 499 414 Oval, 0.6m x 0.98m x 0.55m deep with Cut of structural posthole associ- 1 vertical sides and flat base ated with entrance 416 418 417 1 Mid-brown sandy clay with occ. small Upper fill of probable House ? stones and frequent charcoal inclu- tree-root activity D? sions. 0.09m deep 417 418 418 416 Light brown, medium sand with occ. Lower fill of probable House ? small stones and charcoal inclusions. tree-root activity D? 0.19m deep 418 416, 400 417 Sub-circular tree-root cut, 0.44m x Cut of probable tree- House ? 417 0.44m x 0.19m deep with steep, irregu- root activity D? lar sides and slightly concave base 419 420, Nat. 421 Sub-circular posthole, 0.55m x 0.5m x Cut of structural House D 1 421 0.28m deep with steep sides, vertical posthole associated at east and west, and rounded/concave with entrancePermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ point base Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road 420 419 421 461 Dark brown/black, sandy silt with occ. Upper fill of struc- House D 1 Bulk soil: 123 burnt stones and frequent charcoal tural posthole associ- inclusions. 0.23m deep ated with entrance 421 419 419 420 Moderately compact, orange/brown, Packing fill of struc- House D 1 gritty, clayey sand with 3 large and tural posthole associ- occ. medium packing stones. 0.28m ated with entrance deep 422 423 Nat. 423 Sub-circular posthole, 0.55m diameter Cut of structural House B 1 x 0.23m deep with steep sides and flat posthole base 423 422 423 1 Compact, dark brown, sandy silt with Fill of structural House B 1 Bulk soil: 121 frequent packing stones and occ. char- posthole coal inclusions. 0.23m deep 424 427 427 426 Firm, mid-yellow/brown, silty clay Fill of pit House B 3 with occ. small stones and charcoal inclusions. 0.08m deep82 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 88. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 425 426 426 1 Dark brown, clayey silt with frequent Fill of structural House C 3 Bulk soil: 120 small, medium and large stones and posthole occ. charcoal inclusions. 0.32m deep 426 425 424 425 Oval, 0.56m x 0.38m x 0.32m deep Cut of structural House C 1 with vertical sides and flat base posthole 427 424 446 424 Oval pit, 1.3m x 1.05m x 0.07m deep Cut of pit of un- House B 1 with gradually sloping sides to the known purpose north and east, imperceptible to the west and south, and flat base 428 429 429 1 Moderately compact, light yellow/ Fill of possible shal- House B 1 brown, sandy silt with occ. small low pit or incomplete or D? stones. 0.13m deep posthole? Prob. Non- arch - not on plan 429 428 Nat. 428 Sub-circular posthole/pit, 0.45m x Cut of possible shal- House B 1Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 0.49m x 0.13m deep with vertical sides, low pit or incomplete or D? Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road but concave to the north, and flat base posthole? Prob. Non- inclined NW down to SE arch - not on plan 430 431 430 1 No details Fill of stakehole asso- House B 3 Bulk soil: 122 ciated with posthole or C? 449 431 430 Nat. 462 Circular, 0.08m diameter x 0.15m deep Cut of stakehole asso- House B 1 with steep sides and pointed base ciated with posthole or C? 449 432 433 Nat. 433 Soft, friable, mid-brown, gritty, silty Fill of structural House B 1 clay with occ. small and medium pack- posthole ing stones and occ. charcoal inclusions. 0.37m deep 433 432 433 1 Sub-circular posthole, 0.40m x 0.46m Cut of structural House B 1 x 0.37m deep with vertical sides, but posthole gradually sloping to the north, and flat base inclined south down to north83 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 89. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 434 435, 465 436 Sub-circular posthole, 0.51m diameter Cut of structural House B 1 436 x 0.42m deep with vertical sides and posthole flat base 435 434 435 1 Dark brown, sandy silt with frequent Upper fill of struc- House B 3 Bulk soil: 125 large stones and occ. charcoal inclu- tural posthole sions. 0.33m deep 436 434 434 435 Dark grey silt with occ. small stones Lower fill of struc- House B 3 Bulk soil: 126 and occ. charcoal inclusions. 0.09m tural posthole deep 437 438 438 1 Dark grey silty clay with occ. charcoal Fill of internal struc- House B 3 inclusions. 0.08m deep tural stakehole 438 437 Nat. 437 Circular, 0.085m diameter x 0.08m Cut of internal struc- House B 1 deep with vertical sides and rounded tural stakehole point basePermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 439 440 440 461 Moderately compact, brown, clayey Fill of structural House B 1 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road silt with occ. small and large stones. posthole or D? 0.26m deep 440 439 Nat. 439 Sub-circular posthole, 0.54m x 0.49m Cut of structural House B 1 x 0.26m deep with irregular sides and posthole or D? concave base 441 442 442 1 Mid-grey/brown, silty sand with 7 Fill of structural House B 1 Bulk soil:124 large packing stones and frequent char- posthole associated or D? Charcoal: 127 coal inclusions. 0.38m deep with entrance 442 441 499 441 Oval, 0.46m x 0.35m x 0.38m deep Cut of structural House B 1 with vertical sides and concave base posthole associated or D? with entrance 443 445 445, 508 444 Soft, mid-yellow/brown, silty clay with Packing fill of House B 1 Bulk soil: 138 occ. small stones and charcoal inclu- internal structural sions. 0.28m deep posthole84 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 90. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 444 445 443 447 Firm, black/brown, clayey silt with Upper fill of internal House B 3 14: Bulk soil: 129 occ. small stones and patches of burnt structural posthole burnt clay, frequent fragments of burnt bone, bone and occ. charcoal inclusions. 0.28m deep 445 443, Nat. 443 Sub-rectangular posthole, 0.59m x Cut of internal struc- House B 1 444 0.6m SE/NW x 0.3m deep with verti- tural posthole cal sides, steep at the east, and flat base 446 447 447 427 Firm, Mid-brown silty clay, with occ. Fill of pit House B 2? Bulk soil: 128 small stones and charcoal inclusions. 0.09m deep 447 446 444 446 Sub-square pit, 0.95m x 0.76m x Cut of pit of un- House B 2? 0.09m deep with gradually sloping known purpose sides, but imperceptible at the southPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ (truncated by 427), flat base Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road 448 449 449 1 Loose, black/brown, silty clay with Fill of structural House B 3 Bulk soil: 130 occ. packing stones and charcoal inclu- posthole or C? sions. 0.4m deep 449 448 462 448 Sub-circular posthole, 0.26m x 0.29m Cut of structural House B 1 x 0.4m deep with vertical sides and flat posthole or C? base 450 502 502 503 Mid-brown sandy, silty clay with occ. Fill of pit for burnt House B 2 1: flint Bulk soil: 139 small and medium stones and charcoal waste? flake inclusions. 0.15m deep 451 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.08m x 0.05m x 0.08m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and flat base stakehole in (possible habitation?) group M 452 Nat. 1 Sub-Oval, 0.07m x 0.13m x 0.23m Cut and fill of House C 2? deep with steep sides and rounded stakehole in (possible point base habitation?) group M85 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 91. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 453 Nat. 1 Sub-rectangular stakehole, 0.05m x Cut and fill of House C 2? 0.05m x 0.13m deep with steep sides stakehole in (possible and rounded point base habitation?) group M 454 Nat. 1 Sub-Oval, 0.09m x 0.06m x 0.08m Cut and fill of House C 2? deep with irregular, steep sides and stakehole in (possible pointed base habitation?) group M 455 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.06m x 0.05m x 0.12m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and rounded point stakehole in (possible base habitation?) group M 456 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.06m x 0.06m x 0.13m deep Cut and fill of House C 2? with steep sides and rounded point stakehole in (possible base habitation?) group M 457 Cancelled 458 CancelledPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 459 Cancelled Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road 460 Cancelled 461 583, 371, 420, 583 Linear ditch, circa 30m (extends out Cut of linear House B 1 584 439 with site) x 1.6m x ? Deep with irregu- 19th century field lar sloping sides and a flat base boundary 462 463 462 448 Mid-orange/brown, silty clay. 0.12m Fill of shallow pit House C 3 deep containing posthole 499 463 462 Nat. 462 Sub-circular pit, 0.9m x 0.7m x 0.12m Cut of shallow pit House C 1 deep with gradually sloping sides and containing posthole flat base 499 464 465 Nat. 465 Sub-circular pit, 1.01m diameter x Cut of pit contain- House B 1 0.22m deep with gradually sloping ing posthole 434 and sides and slightly concave base stakeholes 466, 467 46886 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 92. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 465 464 464 434, Mid-brown/grey, sandy silt with occ. Fill of pit containing House B 3 466, small and medium stones and charcoal posthole 434 and 467, inclusions. 0.22m deep stakeholes 466, 467 468 468 466 465 1 Circular, 0.1m diameter x 0.19m deep Cut and fill of stake- House B ? Bulk soil; 131 with steep sides and pointed base. hole associated with Loose, grey/brown sandy silt with occ. posthole 434 charcoal inclusions 467 465 1 Circular, 0.12m diameter x 0.27m Cut and fill of stake- House B ? Bulk soil: 132 deep with steep sides and pointed base. hole associated with Loose, grey/brown sandy silt with occ. posthole 434 charcoal inclusions 468 465 1 Circular, 0.14m diameter x 0.4m deep Cut and fill of stake- House B ? Bulk soil; 133 with steep sides and pointed base. hole associated withPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ Loose, grey/brown sandy silt with occ. posthole 434 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road charcoal inclusions 469 Cancelled 470 Cancelled Bulk soil; 130 471 Cancelled 472 462 1 Sub-circular, 0.13m x 0.15m x 0.2m Cut and fill of stake- House B 1 deep with vertical sides and pointed hole associated with or C? base posthole 449 473 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.06m x 0.04m x 0.1m Cut and fill of double House B 1 deep with steep sides and rounded stakehole in group or C? point base. Dark brown, silty sand N associated with with occ. charcoal inclusions posthole 533 474 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.07m x 0.08m x 0.16m Cut and fill of double House B 1 deep with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in group or C? Dark brown, silty sand with occ. char- N associated with coal inclusions posthole 53387 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 93. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 475 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.08m diameter x 0.12m Cut and fill of double House B 1 deep with steep sides and rounded stakehole in group or C? point base. Dark brown silty sand with N associated with occ. charcoal inclusions posthole 479 476 481 1 Circular, 0.06m diameter x 0.12m Cut and fill of House B 1 deep with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in group or C? Dark brown silty sand with occ. char- N associated with coal inclusions posthole 479 477 481 1 Circular, 0.08m diameter x 0.11m deep Cut and fill of House B 1 with steep sides and flat base. Dark stakehole in group or C? brown silty sand with occ. charcoal N associated with inclusions posthole 479 478 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.07m x 0.06m x 0.16m Cut and fill of House B ? deep with steep sides and rounded stakehole in group NPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ point base. Dark brown, silty sand associated with pit Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road with occ. charcoal inclusions 502 479 480, Nat. 481 Oval posthole with linear north Cut of structural House B 1 481 extension, 0.8m (min.) 1.15m (max.) x posthole 0.58m x 0.27m deep with steep sides at east and west, vertical at north and south, and flat base 480 479 481 1 Dark grey, fine, sandy silt with occ. Upper fill of struc- House B 3 Bulk soil: 143 medium stones and charcoal inclu- tural posthole sions. 0.25m deep 481 479 479 480, Moderately compact, pale orange, grit- Packing fill of struc- House B 1 476, ty, clayey sand with 4 large, “square” tural posthole 477, packing stones, occ. small stones and 486, charcoal inclusions. 0.27m deep 545 482 483 Nat. 483 Linear L-shaped furrow, 4m x 2.6m x Cut of modern House D 1 0.1m deep with gradually sloping sides plough furrow and flat base88 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 94. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 483 482 482 395, Mid-brown, medium sand with occ. Fill of modern House D 3 418 small stones and charcoal inclusions. plough furrow 0.1m deep 484 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.06m x 0.07m x 0.11m Cut and fill of stake- House B ? deep with steep sides and pointed base. hole associated with Light brown, sandy silt with occ. char- pit 502 coal inclusions 485 Nat. 1 Sub-circular, 0.09m x 0.07m x 0.12m Cut and fill of stake- House B ? deep with steep sides and pointed base. hole associated with Light brown, sandy silt with occ. char- pit 502 coal inclusions 486 481 1 Sub-circular, 0.06m x 0.05m x 0.12m Cut and fill of House B 1 deep with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in group or C? Dark brown, silty sand with occ. char- N associated withPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ coal inclusions posthole 543/479 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road 487 488 488 415 Mid-grey/brown, silty sand with fre- Fill of linear slot House B 3 Bulk Soil: 134 quent charcoal inclusions. 0.09m deep trench at entrance or D? 488 487 Nat. 487 Linear slot trench, 0.27m x 0.78m x Cut of linear slot House B 1 0.09m deep with gradually sloping trench at entrance or D? sides and irregular flat base (possible continua- tion of 495) 489 491 491 490 Moderately compact, brown, silty clay Lower fill of pit of House B 2 or 3 Bulk Soil: 135 with occ. stone inclusions. 0.15m deep unknown purpose 490 491 489 1 Moderately compact, black/grey, Upper fill of pit of House B 2 or 3 Bulk Soil: 136 silty clay with 2 large stones and occ. unknown purpose decayed stone and charcoal inclusions. 0.15m deep 491 489, Nat. 489 Irregular sub-circular pit, 0.52m x Cut of pit of un- House B 2 490 0.37m x 0.15m deep with irregular known purpose (pos- gradually sloping sides and irregular sibly non-arch.) concave base89 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 95. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 492 493 493 1 Mid-brown, clayey silt with frequent Fill of internal struc- House C 3 large stones. 0.45m deep tural posthole 493 492 Nat. 492 Sub-circular posthole, 0.41m x 0.43m Cut of internal struc- House C 1 x 0.45m deep with vertical sides and tural posthole flat base 494 564 560 1 Dark brown, sandy clay with occ. Upper fill of slot House B 3 Bulk Soil: 137 burnt stone and frequent charcoal trench of House B inclusions. 0.14m deep 495 Cancelled? House B Charcoal: 157 496 Nat. 46 No details Shallow spread House A ? 497 498 498 1 Mid-brown sandy silt with occ. char- Fill of stakehole asso- House B 1 coal inclusions. 0.23m deep ciated with posthole 493Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 498 497 Nat. 497 Sub-circular, 0.09m x 0.1m x 0.23m Cut of stakehole asso- House B 3 deep with vertical sides and pointed ciated with posthole Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road base 493 499 515 528 564 Mid-brown silty sand fill with occ. Upper fill of slot House D 3 large and medium stone inclusions. trench of House B 0.16m deep or D? 500 501 501 1 Mid-grey/brown, silty sand with Fill of shallow pit of House B 3 frequent small stone inclusions. 0.12m unknown purpose deep 501 500 Nat. 500 Sub-circular pit, 0.41m x 0.42m x Cut of shallow pit of House B ? 0.12m deep with stepped, shallow sides unknown purpose and irregular, flat base (possibly non-arch.) 502 503, 530 450 Oval pit, 1.35m x 0.65m x 0.15m deep Cut of pit for burnt House B ? 450 with shallow sides, but vertical at west, waste? and flat base 503 502 502 405 Loose, gritty, black/dark grey, sandy Charcoal rich fill of House B 3 Bulk soil: 140 silt with very frequent charcoal inclu- pit for burnt waste? sions. ?m deep90 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 96. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 504 559 Nat. 559 Sub-circular posthole, 0.36m x 0.28m Cut of structural House B 1 x 0.29m deep with steep sides, gradu- posthole ally sloping to west and north, and rounded point base 505 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.12m diameter x 0.23m Cut and fill of House B ? Bulk soil: 141 deep with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in group Dark brown silty sand with frequent N associated with charcoal inclusions posthole 479 506 507 Nat. 507 Oval, 0.44m x 0.32m x 0.32m deep Cut of structural House B 1 with steep sides and flat base posthole 507 506 506 518 Mid-orange/brown, sandy silt with Fill of structural House B 3 Bulk soil: 142 frequent small and medium stones and posthole occ. charcoal inclusions. 32m deep 508 509 509 1 Dark grey, silty clay with occ. charcoal Fill of stakehole asso- House B 3Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ inclusions. 18m deep ciated with posthole Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road 445 509 508 Nat. 508 Sub-circular, 0.95m x 0.095m x 0.18m Cut of stakehole asso- House B 1 deep with vertical sides and rounded ciated with posthole point base 445 510 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.05m diameter x 0.11m Cut and fill of House B ? deep with steep sides and pointed base. stakehole in group Dark brown, silty sand with occ. char- N associated with coal inclusions posthole 479 511 513 513 512 No details Lower fill of shal- House B ? low pit of unknown purpose (possibly non-arch.) 512 513 511 1 No details Upper of shallow pit House B ? of unknown purpose (possibly non-arch.)91 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 97. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 513 511, Nat. 511 No details Cut of shallow pit of House B ? 512 unknown purpose (possibly non-arch.) 514 527 527 1 Mid-grey/black, silty sand with 2 large Fill of structural House B 3 Bulk soil: 144 stones on edge forming western edge, posthole at entrance or D? Charcoal: 145 occ. small stones and frequent charcoal inclusions. 0.4m deep 515 528, Nat. 529 Linear slot trench, 3.95m x 0.65m x Cut of stone lined House D 1 529, 0.6 m deep with vertical sides and slot trench 499 slightly concave base 516 Not used 517 518 518 1 Mid-orange/brown, silty sand with Fill of stakehole asso- House B 3 frequent medium stone inclusions. ciated with posthole 0.37m deep 506Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 518 517 507 517 Circular, 0.14m x 0.13m x 0.37m deep Cut of stakehole asso- House B 1 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road with steep sides and rounded point ciated with posthole base 506 519 520 Nat. 520 Sub-Oval, 0.19m x 0.17m SE/NW x Cut of small post- House B 1 0.3m deep with steep sides, irregular to hole associated with east, and pointed base posthole 506 520 519 519 1 Mid-brown silty sand fill with occ. Fill of small posthole House B 3 small stone inclusions. 0.3m deep associated with post- hole 506 521 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.08m x 0.07m x 0.16m deep Cut of stakehole asso- House B 1 with steep sides and pointed base. Soft, ciated with postholes mid-orange/brown, silty sand. 506 and 519 522 523, Nat. 523 Sub-circular posthole/pit, 0.84m x Cut of possibly heav- House B 1 524 0.65m x 0.15m deep with gradually ily truncated posthole sloping sides, but imperceptible and or shallow pit irregular to west and SW, and flat base92 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 98. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 523 522 522 524, Moderately compact, orange/grey, Lower/packing fill House B 1? 544 gritty/coarse, clayey sand with occ. of possibly heavily large packing stones and occ. charcoal truncated posthole or inclusions. 0.15m deep shallow pit 524 522 523 1 Mid-grey/brown, fine, silty sand with Upper fill of possibly House B 3 Bulk soil: 147 occ. medium stone and occ. charcoal heavily truncated inclusions. 0.12m deep posthole or shallow pit 525 526 Nat. 526 No details Cut of pit of un- ? ? known purpose 526 525 525 1 No details Fill of pit of un- ? 3 Bulk soil: 146 known purpose 527 514 529 514 Triangular posthole, 0.32m x 0.4m Cut of structural House B 1 x 0.4m deep with vertical sides and posthole at entrance or D?Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ concave base Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road 528 515 529 499 Light orange/brown, sandy silt with Middle fill of stone House D 3 occ. large packing stone inclusions. lined slot trench 0.15m deep 529 515 515 527, Light brown, sandy silt with occ. large Lower fill of stone House D 3 24: 528 packing stones and large and medium lined slot trench quern stone inclusions. 0.25m deep stone 530 532 531 502 Dark brown/black, sandy silt with occ. Upper fill of struc- House B 3 Bulk soil: 148 small stone inclusions. 0.4m deep tural posthole Charcoal: 149 531 532 532 530 Moderately compact, light brown, Packing fill of struc- House B 1 sandy clay with occ. stone inclusions. tural posthole 0.41m deep 532 530, Nat. 531 Sub-circular posthole, 0.45m diameter Cut of structural House B 1 531 x 0.41m deep with steep sides and flat posthole base93 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 99. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 533 534, Nat. 535 Sub-circular posthole, 0.49m x 0.45m Cut of structural House B 1 535 x 0.19m deep with very steep sides and posthole irregular, flat base sloping south down to north 534 533 535 1 Mid-grey/brown, fine, clayey silt with Upper fill of struc- House B 3 Bulk soil: 150 occ. small stone and frequent charcoal tural posthole inclusions. 0.15m deep 535 533 533 534, Moderately compact, pale orange, Packing fill of struc- House B 1 542, sandy clay with occ. small and medium tural posthole 543 stone inclusions. 0.19m deep 536 537, Nat. 538 Sub-circular posthole, 1m x 0.7m x Cut of structural House B 1 536 0.45m deep with vertical sides and flat posthole or D? base 537 536 538 461 Dark brown/black, sandy silt with occ. Upper fill of struc- House B 1 modern Bulk soil: 151Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ small stone and very frequent charcoal tural posthole or D? frag- Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road inclusions. 0.27m deep ment of foil 538 536 536 537 Light brown, fine, sandy clay with Packing fill of struc- House B 3 Charcoal: 152 frequent small stone and occ. charcoal tural posthole or D? inclusions. 0.45m deep 539 541 540 1 No details Upper fill of internal House B 3 structural posthole 540 541 541 539 No details Packing fill of House B 1 internal structural posthole 541 539, Nat. 540 No details Cut of internal struc- House B 1 540 tural posthole 542 535 1 Circular, 0.07m diameter x 0.19m deep Cut and fill of sup- House B 1 with steep sides and rounded point porting stakehole of base. Mid-brown silty sand fill with posthole 533 occ. charcoal inclusions94 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 100. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 543 535 1 Circular, 0.09m diameter x 0.18m Cut and fill of sup- House B 1 deep with steep sides and pointed base. porting stakehole of Loose, pale brown, clayey sand posthole 533 544 523 1 Sub-circular, 0.1m x 0.08m x 0.19m Cut and fill of sup- House B 1 deep with steep sides and pointed base. porting stakehole of Mid-brown silty sand fill with occ. posthole 522 charcoal inclusions 545 481 1 Circular, 0.06m diameter x 0.1m deep Cut and fill of sup- House B 1 with steep sides and pointed base. Mid- porting stakehole of brown silty sand fill posthole 479 546 548 547 1 No details Upper fill of struc- House B 3 tural posthole/pit 547 548 548 546 No details Packing fill of struc- House B 1 23: ? Gold fragment tural posthole/pitPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 548 546, Nat. 547 No details Cut of structural House B 1 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road 547 posthole/pit 549 550, Nat. 550 Sub-circular posthole, 0.47m x 0.45m Cut of structural House D 1 551 x 0.4m deep with steep sides and ir- posthole regular, flat base. 550 549 549 551 Moderately compact, mid-brown, Packing fill of struc- House D 1 gritty, sandy clay with 7 large and tural posthole occ. medium packing stones and occ. charcoal inclusions. 0.4m deep 551 549 550 1 Dark grey/brown, sandy silt with occ. Upper fill of struc- House D 3 Bulk soil: 153 small stone, occ. charcoal “chunks” tural posthole Charcoal: 154 and frequent charcoal inclusions. 0.4m deep 552 556 555 1 Dark brown/black, sandy silt with occ. Upper fill of struc- House B 3 Bulk soil: 155 charcoal inclusions. 0.14m deep tural posthole95 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 101. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 553 554 553 1 Sub-circular posthole, 0.45m x 0.3m x Cut of structural House 1 0.22m deep with steep sides, steppped posthole D? or at south, and irregular, flat base modern path 554 553 Nat. 554 Mid-orange-brown sandy clay with Fill of structural House 3 Bulk soil: 156 occ. small and medium stones and occ. posthole D? or manganese inclusions. 0.22m deep modern path 555 556 556 552 Light brown sandy clay with 2 medium Packing fill of struc- House B 1 packing stones lining cut edge. 0.23m tural posthole deep 556 552, Nat. 555 Circular posthole, 0.3m diameter x Cut of structural House B 1 555 0.23m deep with steep sides and flat postholePermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ base Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road 557 558, 563 561 Sub-circular posthole, 0.36m x 0.3m Cut of structural House B 1 561 SE/NW x 0.2m deep with steep sides, posthole irregular at south, vertical at west and irregular, flat base. 558 557 561 1 Mid-grey/brown, gritty, silty sand with Fill of structural House B 3 Bulk soil: 159 occ. small stone and occ. charcoal posthole inclusions. 0.18m deep 559 504 504 1 Moderately compact, black/grey, silty Fill of structural House B 3 clay with frequent large and small posthole stones and occ. charcoal inclusions. 0.29m deep 560 564 564 494 Moderately compact, mid-orange/ Packing fill of slot House B 1 Bulk soil: 158 brown sandy clay with frequent frag- trench of House B ments of burnt clay. 0.2m deep96 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 102. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 561 557 557 558, Moderately compact, pale orange, Packing fill of struc- House B 1 562 gritty, sandy clay with 1 large and occ. tural posthole small and medium stone inclusions. 0.2m deep 562 561 1 Sub-circular, 0.15m x 0.08m x 0.18m Cut and fill of sup- House B 3 deep with steep sides and double porting (possibly pointed base. Dark grey/brown, silty double) stakehole of sand with occ. tiny stones and charcoal posthole 557 inclusions 563 Nat. 557, Moderately compact spread, mid- Possible floor surface House B 2 Bulk soil: 160 461 orange/brown, coarse, silty sand with occ. small stone inclusions. 0.04m deep 564 494, 499 560 Semi-circular trench, 0.3m wide x circa Cut of slot trench of House B 1Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 560 12m in length x 0.2m deep with steep House B Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road sides and irregular flat base 565 585 Nat. 585 Linear slot trench, 1.75m x 0.7m x 0.4 Cut of stone lined House D 1 m deep with very steep sides, irregular slot trench and vertical in places, and flat base 566 567 585 567 Sub-circular posthole, 0.6m x 0.55m x Cut of structural House D 1 0.55m deep with vertical sides, stepped posthole (possible at west, and flat base entrance) within slot trench 565 567 566 566 1 Mid-grey/brown, gritty, silty sand with Fill of structural House D 3 large, flat packing stones set 3 tiers posthole (possible deep against cut wall and frequent entrance) within slot charcoal inclusions. 0.55m deep trench 565 568 569 569 1 Mid-brown silty sand fill with several Fill of structural House C 3 large packing stone inclusions. 0.27m posthole deep97 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 103. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 569 568 Nat. 568 Oval, 0.36m x 0.43m x 0.27m deep Cut of structural House C 1 with vertical sides and irregular, flat posthole base 570 571 571 1 Mid-brown silty sand fill with several Fill of structural House 3 large packing stone inclusions. 0.25m posthole D? deep 571 570 Nat. 570 Sub-circular, 0.52m x 0.55m x 0.25m Cut of structural House 1 deep, steep sides, gradually sloping at posthole D? north, and concave base 572 586 Nat. 586 Circular posthole, 0.23m diameter x Cut of structural House C 1 0.24m deep posthole 573 587 Nat. 587 Sub-circular pit, 0.5m x 0.4m x 0.11m Cut of pit of un- House B 2 deep known purpose 574 Nat. 1 Oval, 0.4m x 0.28m x 0.38m deep. Cut and fill of struc- House C 1Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ Soft, light brown, sandy clay with tural posthole Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road frequent stone inclusions 575 588 Nat. 588 Oval, 0.3m x 0.2m x 0.2m deep Cut of structural House B 1 posthole 576 577 577 1 Mid-brown silty sand fill with occ. Fill of structural House A 3 large packing stone inclusions. 0.28m posthole deep 577 576 Nat. 576 Oval, 0.44m x 0.35m x 0.28m deep, Cut of structural House A 1 steep sides, gradually sloped at west, posthole and irregular, concave base 578 579 579 1 Mid-brown silty sand fill with occ. Fill of structural House B 3 Bulk soil: 161 large packing stone inclusions. 0.25m posthole deep 579 578 Nat. 578 D-shaped, 0.31m x 0.25m x 0.25m Cut of structural House B 1 deep with vertical sides and concave posthole base98 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 104. 04E1072 Context Fill of Filled Strat. Strat. Basic description Basic interpretation Structure Phase Artefacts Samples No. with Above Below 580 206 581 1 Black, sandy silt with occ. burnt stone Upper fill of struc- House C 3 fragment inclusions. 0.14m deep tural posthole 581 206 206 581 Light brown, clayey sand with small, Packing fill of struc- House C 1 flat packing stones set on edge. 0.22m tural posthole deep 582 Nat. 1 Circular, 0.055m diam., 0.13m deep; Cut and fill of House A 2? steep sides, pointed base. Mid-brown stakehole in (possible silty sand fill habitation?) group G 583 461 461 584 Soft, grey, silty clay with occ. stone Lower fill of 19th House B 3 inclusions century field boundary 584 461 583 1 Compact, light brown, sand with occ. Upper fill of 19th House B 3 pebble and frequent stone inclusions century field boundaryPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 585 565 565 566 No details, but fill/s are same/similar Fill of stone lined slot House D 3 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road as fills of 515 trench 586 572 572 1 No details Fill of structural House C 3 posthole 587 573 573 1 Dark brown, sandy silt Fill of pit of un- House B 3 known purpose 588 575 575 1 No details Fill of structural House B 3 posthole Nat. Compact, mid-orange/brown, ? sandy clay99 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 105. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 12 Appendix 3 Find Register NMI Material Description 04E1072:1:1 Flint Flake 04E1072:1:2 Limestone Awl or point 04E1072:1:3 Flint Flake 04E1072:1:5 Stone Worked Stone 04E1072:1:6 Stone Quern Stone Fragment 04E1072:6:1 Flint Flake 04E1072:61:1 Pottery Modern 04E1072:61:2 Pottery Modern 04E1072:160:8 Stone Split Packing Stones 04E1072:325:1 Flint Flake 04E1072:387:13 Stone Possible Quern Stone Fragment 04E1072:450:1 Flint Flake 04E1072:529:24 Stone Quern Stone FragmentPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 100
  • 106. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 13 Appendix 4 Plant remains report Charred plant remains from Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork (04E1072) By Penny Johnston 13.1 Introduction This report details the analysis of charred seeds from samples taken during excavation of a settlement site at Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork. No dateable artefacts were recovered during ex- cavation, but the three sub-circular houses were comparable to known roundhouses from the Middle to Late Bronze Age. The plant remains were predominantly from weed seeds but the small cereal assemblage (including primitive glume wheat and barley) is typical of material from Bronze Age sites. 13.2 Methodology The samples were collected on site as bulk soil and were processed using a simple flotation method. Each sample was saturated in water to allow carbonised plant material to float; this “flot” (the floating material) was then poured into a stack of geological sieves and trapped in the sieve meshes (the smallest measured 250µm). When all the carbonised material was collected the flot was then air-dried in paper-lined drying trays prior to storage in airtight plastic bags. The samples were scanned under low-powered magnification and the results are presented in Table 1 at the end of this report. Sorting and identification of the flots was car- ried out using a low-powered binocular microscope (magnification x10 to x40) and identified seeds were separated and stored in sealed glass phials. Nomenclature and taxonomic order follows Stace (1997), although in order to facilitate easy reading of this text the scientific names are included only in the table of identified seeds presented at the end of this report (Table 2). 13.3 Results Thirty-five samples were scanned and of these twenty-eight contained the charred remains of seeds, albeit in small quantities.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 101
  • 107. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 The samples from House A were C14 (SS7), C22 (SS9), C27 (SS11), C3 (SS12), C32 (SS14), C16 (SS18), C5 (SS21), C2 (SS23), C15 (SS27), C50 (SS28), C54 (SS31), C70 (SS39), C2 (SS42), C3 (SS46) and C8 (SS50). Nine of these contained charred seeds, including samples that were rich in the remains of weeds, in particular seeds from the Dock family. The iden- tifiable cereal grains were mostly from barley, but there was also chaff from a glume wheat (emmer or spelt) and there was a fragment of a wheat grain. The samples from House B were C.371 (S100), C374 (SS103), C388 (SS104), C398 (SS110), C414 (SS119), C420 (SS123), C494 (SS137), C537 (SS151) and C560 (SS158). The charred plant remains from this house were found in six samples and they included some large quan- tities of seeds from the Dock family, as well as indeterminate cereal grains. The samples from House C included C76 (SS45), C85 (SS47), C253 (SS80), C386 (SS109), C425 (SS120), C423 (SS121) and C514 (SS144). Only three of these contained charred seeds and there were no cereals from these deposits. The only plants found were some seeds from the Dock family and hazel nut shell fragments. Three samples were taken from stakeholes C221 (SS77), C246 (SS79) and C258 (SS83) but no seeds were found in these deposits. There were also two other samples that were from mis- cellaneous contexts; C4 (SS20) and C253 (SS86). One of these included weed seeds, hazel nut shell fragments and cereal grains. 13.4 Discussion The plant remains were predominantly weeds from the Dock Family; two hundred and fifty- five seeds of this type were recovered. Many have not been identified to genus or species level because they were either in a poor state of preservation and therefore further identification was impossible, or because these seeds have such a wide ecological platform that more de- tailed, time-consuming, identification was deemed unnecessary as it was unlikely to provide further information. Dock Family plants are hardy ruderals that colonise waste and dis- turbed ground, often growing in or around areas of human settlement. They can also grow as crop weeds, for example the seeds of Black bindweed (Fallopia convolvulus) which was found in some of the deposits at the site. This may explain the presence of some of the plant remains; they could have been brought to site as weeds associated with cereal crops. However, this is unlikely as they were not associated with crop-processing by-products (such as chaff fragments or other weed types). In addition, the Dock seeds were found in unusually large amounts, in particular given the paucity of other plant types, and they are spread throughout the contexts at the site. It is therefore possible that they were at the site because they were be- ing used as food. The seeds are edible and have been found in the gut contents of prehistoricPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 102
  • 108. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 bog bodies in Denmark and Britain. They may have become charred because they were be- ing roasted as a flavour enhancement: the cultivated buckwheat is a near relation and this is frequently roasted prior to cooking. Cereals from the samples included small amounts of barley and wheat. Where further iden- tification was possible it seems clear that these cereals were hulled varieties of barley and glume wheats (either emmer or spelt, most probably emmer as there are virtually no records of spelt in Ireland, where it does occur it is usually only as a stray find). There are only four grains of barley from the site and three of wheat; a discussion of their relative proportions and their economic and dietary importance is rendered void by the minute quantities that have been recovered. In general, both wheat and barley are recovered in Irish Early and Middle Bronze Age contexts, barley tends to be the most common cereal type recovered from the Late Bronze Age, although wheat is still found in small quantities. Although the plant remains assemblage from this site is quite small, it provided consider- ably more information about the site than the samples from a Bronze Age site at Stagpark I (04E1120), where the archaeology was interpreted as the ephemeral remains of settlement. No samples produced the remains of charred seeds. 13.5 Non-Technical Summary The samples from Mitchelstown 1 were predominantly weed seeds from the Dock Family. It is difficult to suggest plausible explanations for this unusual assemblage, there are no ethno- graphic parallels that could suggest why Dock Family seeds were more likely to come into contact with fire than any other types of seeds. However, we know that these seeds were used as food, and it is possible that these seeds were found in abundance at this site because they were collected as food. It is also possible that they were charred as a result of accidents during roasting, a possible means of flavour enhancement. The other seeds from the site included the remains of both wheat and barley grains although these were present in such small quantities that it was not possible to comment on their relative importance. Penny Johnston Thursday, 15 December 2005Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 103
  • 109. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 13.6 References Stace, C. A. 1997 New Flora of the British Isles (2nd edition) Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Table 1: Scanned Soil Samples from Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork (04E1072) Context S.S. No. Fraction Cereals Weeds Charcoal Nuts/Fruit Scanned stones 2 23 100% Present Present 2 42 100% Present 3 12 100% Present 3 46 100% Present 4 20 100% Present Present Present 8 50 100% Present Present Present 14 7 100% Present Present 15 27 100% Present Present 16 18 100% Present Present 22 9 100% Present Present Present 26 11 100% Present Present 32 14 100% Present Present 50 28 100% Present 54 31 100% Present Present Present 58 21 100% Present Present 70 39 100% Present Present 76 45 100% Present Present 85 47 100% Present Present 420 123 100% Present 221 77 100% Present 246 79 100% Present 252 80 100% Present 253 86 100% Present Present 258 83 100% Present 371 100 100% Present Present Present 374 103 100% Present Present 390 104 100% Present 398 110 100% Present Present Present 414 119 100% Present Present 423 121 100% Present Present 425 120 100% Present 494 137 100% Present Present 514 144 100% Present Present 537 151 100% Present Present 560 158 100% PresentPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 104
  • 110. 04E1072 Table 2: Charred Plant Remains from Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork (04E1072) Context 32 494 85 423 4 398 537 70 371 374 514 58 15 16 414 14 8 54 22 253 Sample 14 137 47 121 20 110 151 39 100 103 144 21 27 18 119 7 50 31 9 86 Hazel nut shell fragments (Cory- 2 1 1 lus avellana) Indeterminate nut shell fragment 2 Fat hen 1 (Chenopodium album) Indeterminate seeds from the Goosefoot 1 Family (Chenopodiaceae) Pale persicaria 2 1 1 2Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ (Persicaria lapathifolia) Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road Black bindweed 1 2 1 1 1 11 1 1 (Fallopia convolvulus) Probable Sheep’s sorrel 1 1 1 2 1 2 (Rumex cf acetosella) Indeterminate seeds from the Knotgrass/ 3 12 69 8 39 13 45 2 14 16 1 Dock Family (Polygonaceae) Cleavers 1 (Galium aparine) Indeterminate weed seeds 1 6 1 4 1105 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 111. 04E1072 Table 2: Charred Plant Remains from Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork (04E1072) Context 32 494 85 423 4 398 537 70 371 374 514 58 15 16 414 14 8 54 22 253 Sample 14 137 47 121 20 110 151 39 100 103 144 21 27 18 119 7 50 31 9 86 Hulled Barley grains 3 (Hordeum vulgare) Grains of indeterminate Barley 1 type (Hordeum species) Barley/Wheat grains (Hordeum/ 1 1 Triticum) Emmer/Spelt Wheat glume bases 1 (Triticum dicoccum/spelta)Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ Apical end from Wheat grains of 1 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road indeterminate type (Triticum species) Possible Wheat grain 1 (cf Triticum species) Indeterminate cereal grains (Ceralia) 1 1 1 Fragments of indeterminate cereal grains 1 (Ceralia) Indeterminate Grass seeds (Poaceae) 1 1106 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 112. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 14 Appendix 5 Lithics Report & Catalogue Lithics Finds Report for 04E1072 – Mitchelstown Introduction The lithic assemblage from Mitchelstown consists of 22 pieces, one is made of limestone, five of which are made of flint and 16 of a sedimentary rock similar to limestone. Condition: With the exception of 04E1072:1:3, all flints are in fresh worked condition. 04E1072:1:3 is worked and slightly rolled. The limestone lithic (04E1072:1:2) survives in reasonably fresh, complete condition.The remaining 16 pieces are all natural lithics which show no sign of working. Context: Flints 4E1072:1:1-3 were recovered from topsoil, 04E1072:6:1 from the House Site A, 04E1072:325:1 from a stakehole associated with House Site C and 04E1072:450:1 from a pit associated with House Site B. Technology: The knapped assemblage consists of four flint flakes (04E1072:1:1, 04E1072:1:3, 04E1072:325:1 and 04E1072:450:1) and one flint spall (04E1072:6:1). All flakes are likely to have been pro- duced on small flint pebbles. Flake 04E1072:450:1 has a crushed platform which could be seen as indicative for the possible use of a soft stone or antler hammer as a percussor. None of the flakes is modified and two retain portions of cortex. The spall (04E1072:6:1) appears to be the result of excessive force used during removal, possibly while the core rested on an anvil. The find 04E1072:1:2 is an awl-like or pin-like implement which was presumably shaped to a point through grinding.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 107
  • 113. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Dating: None of the lithics is diagnostic as regards their dating, but 04E1072:6:1, 04E1072:325:1 and 04E1072:450:1 are associated with House Sites A, C and B respectively therefore can be presumed to be contemporary. The find 04E1072:1:2 can be regarded as unusual and a dating on morphological or techno- logical grounds is not possible. However, it is conceivable that it is contemporaneous with the Bronze Age settlement site it was recovered from. Interpretation: It is likely that all the flints in this assemblage represent waste products from lithic reduction associated with the Bronze Age settlement as none of them shows any traces of use wear or modification through retouch. The single limestone lithic find from the excavation is an awl-like or pin-like implement which is associated with the excavated Bronze Age settlement, and therefore is probably to be dated to the Bronze Age.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 108
  • 114. 04E1072 Find No. Context Material Type Cond. Length Width Thickn. Complete Retouch Comment (mm) (mm) (mm) 04E1072:1:1 Topsoil Flint Flake Fresh 17 13 3 Yes No 04E1072:1:2 surface find Limestone Awl/ Fresh 25 5 3 Yes No Point 04E1072:1:3 Topsoil Flint Flake Rolled 17 17 5 Yes No 04E1072:6:1 House A Flint Spall Fresh 20 3 3 Yes No possibly one half of siret fracture 04E1072:325:1 Stakehole House C Flint Flake Fresh 30 16 4 Yes No 04E1072:450:1 Pit House B Flint Flake Fresh 23 11 6 No No distal missing; crushed platform 04E1072:450:2 Pit House B Limestone Chunk Natural 40 25 14 Yes No 04E1072:450:3 Pit House B Limestone Chunk Natural 19 12 11 Yes No 04E1072:450:4 Pit House B Limestone Chunk Natural 17 16 6 Yes No 04E1072:450:5 Pit House B Limestone Chunk Natural 15 11 6 Yes No 04E1072:450:6 Pit House B Limestone Chunk Natural 11 13 6 Yes No 04E1072:450:7 Pit House B Limestone Chunk Natural 15 11 5 Yes NoPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 04E1072:450:8 Pit House B Limestone Chunk Natural 19 11 8 Yes No Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road 04E1072:450:9 Pit House B Limestone Chunk Natural 10 8 5 Yes No 04E1072:450:10 Pit House B Limestone Chunk Natural 13 10 7 Yes No 04E1072:450:11 Pit House B Limestone Chunk Natural 12 10 4 Yes No 04E1072:450:12 Pit House B Limestone Chunk Natural 10 9 9 Yes No 04E1072:450:13 Pit House B Limestone Chunk Natural 10 8 6 Yes No 04E1072:450:14 Pit House B Limestone Chunk Natural 10 6 6 Yes No 04E1072:450:15 Pit House B Limestone Spall Natural 13 6 3 Yes No 04E1072:450:16 Pit House B Limestone Chunk Natural 8 6 5 Yes No 04E1072:450:17 Pit House B Limestone Spall Natural 7 4 2 Yes No109 ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237
  • 115. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 15 Appendix 6 Cremated Bone A Short Note on the Cremated Skeletal Remains from Mitchelstown, Co. Cork (04E1072) Linda Fibiger BA (Hons) MSc MIAI November 2005 Only one sample was submitted for analysis. It included a single bone fragment, measuring 1.3 cm in maximum length and weighing less than one gram. The greyish-white colour of the remains indicated that they had been thoroughly burned. The bone was not diagnostic and could therefore not be positively identified as either animal or human bone. C19 - Sample 3 Number of fragments: 1 Weight: < 1 g Size: 1.4 cm Colour: Greyish-White Identification: Cortical bonePermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 110
  • 116. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 16 Appendix 7 Stones Catalogue Mitchelstown N8 04E1072 Stones Catologue Non-Rotary Quern Stone (04E1072:529:24) L. 421mm., Br. 310mm., W. 198mm. Portion of a sub-circular shaped stone. Concave faced. Non-Rotary Quern Stone (04E1072:1:6) L. 430mm., Br. 254mm., W. 110mm. Half part of a oval-shaped quern. Concave faced with polished upper surface. Possible Quern Stone (04E1072:387:13) L. 254mm., Br. 185mm., W. 40mm. Sub-rectan- gular flat-faced fragment, with a rounded side and smooth/polished upper surface. Worked Stone? (04E1072:1:5) L. 112mm., Br. 86mm., W. 44mm. Rectangular shaped sand- stone, slightly hollowed on the top. Probably natural. Packing Stones (04E1072:160:8) L. 198mm., Br. 133mm., W. 62mm. Sandstone deliber- ately split in two parts and used for packing a post-hole. Rectangular in shape, shrinks with a concave bend on one of the long sides. Packing Stone (04E1072:421:21) L. 280mm., Br. 255mm., W. 130mm. Sandstone used for packing a post-hole. Sub-rectangular in shape, slightly rounded on the edge, with an irregular surface.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 111
  • 117. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 17 Appendix 8 Archive Content Summary account of site archive 04E1072 Type Description Quantity Notes Contexts Area A Validated contexts from excavation Area B Area C Plans 1:100 plan (sheets) 1:50 plan (sheets) 1:20 plan (sheets) Sections 1:20 sections and profiles (Sheets) Matrices Photographs Registers Context Photograph Drawing Finds 1 SamplesPermalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 112
  • 118. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 18 Appendix 9 Dissemination Strategy 04E1072 Publications Excavations 2004 Text submitted January 2004 Publication pending NRA publication Text submitted February 2006 Publication pending Presentation Lecture given to Mitchelstown and Mallow Historical May & October 2005 Societies Overview of the Scheme was given to the IAI conference Jun-05 in Cork It is the right of Cork County Council (the Council) to fulfil some or all of the stated publication require- ments, either in part or in full, should it so decide, and that copyright is aggisned to the Council in order that it may make such information available to the public. It is the right of Cork County Council (the Council) to fulfil some or all of the stated presentation re- quirements, either in part or in full, should it so decide.Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 113
  • 119. 04E1072 Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork - N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road ISSUE 10: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 19 Appendix 10 Programme Schedule Dates & Deliveries 04E1072 Phase 1 testing June 2004 Phase 2 resolution Duration of excavation 3rd August-14th September 2004 Phase 3 post-excavation Postex Assessment & Stragegy Document submitted to Cork County Council March 2005 Interim Excavation Report Report submitted to Cork County Council August 2005 Final Excavation Report Report submitted to Cork County Council December 2007 Publications Excavations 2004 Summary submitted January 2005 NRA Monography Summary submitted to Cork County Council February 2006Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e1072-mitchelstown1/ 114