Eachtra JournalIssue 14                                                      [ISSN 2009-2237]                  Archaeologi...
Archaeological Excavation Report,Knockhouse Lower, Co. WaterfordDate August 2006Client:            IDA Ireland            ...
Table of Contents   1	      Introduction.....................................................................................
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                                          Knockhouse Lower, Co W...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                                           Knockhouse Lower, Co ...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                   Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford     03E1033   ...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                   Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford   03E1033     ...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                   Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford     03E1033   ...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                   Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford   03E1033     ...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                   Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford   03E1033     ...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                   Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford   03E1033     ...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                   Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford   03E1033     ...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                   Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford   03E1033     ...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                   Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford     03E1033   ...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                   Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford   03E1033     ...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                   Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford   03E1033     ...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                   Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford   03E1033     ...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                   Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford   03E1033     ...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                   Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford     03E1033   ...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                   Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford   03E1033     ...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                   Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford   03E1033     ...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                   Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford   03E1033     ...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                   Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford   03E1033     ...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                                       Knockhouse Lower, Co Wate...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                   Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford    03E1033    ...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                             Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford   03...
Northern Entrance                                                                                                         ...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                          Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford   03E10...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                   Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford            03E...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                   Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford    03E1033    ...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                   Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford               ...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                   Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford   03E1033     ...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                       Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford   03E1033 ...
10	    Appendices                                                                             10.1	 Context Register      ...
Context Number Grid    Type                                 Dimensions (lxbxd)   Description                              ...
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)

1,103 views
997 views

Published on

The site consisted of a sub-circular enclosure with a diameter of approximately 36 m; it was initially identified as a crop mark on an aerial photograph, with no trace at ground level. Three sides of the enclosure were formed by two ditches (recorded as the ‘east ditch’ and the ‘west ditch’). The fourth side was characterised by large pits/postholes and slot trenches which probably continued the line of the enclosure, despite the absence of a ditch. The enclosure surrounded a Bronze Age settlement site, with a sub-circular post and stake-built structure excavated near the centre of the enclosed area and an ancillary structure to the west. This report details the results of excavation at the site and the descriptions are broken down into context complexes: the enclosure, the internal structure, the ancillary building, other internal features and external features.

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,103
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
7
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Archaeological Report - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (Ireland)

  1. 1. Eachtra JournalIssue 14 [ISSN 2009-2237] Archaeological Excavation Report 03E1033 - Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford Sub-circular enclosure and Bronze Age settlement site
  2. 2. Archaeological Excavation Report,Knockhouse Lower, Co. WaterfordDate August 2006Client: IDA Ireland c/o John Norris Malone O’Regan Consulting Engineers Catherine Street WaterfordLicence No.: 03E1033Licensee: Áine Richardson Contact details: The Forge, Innishannon, Co. CorkWritten by: Penny Johnston Tel: 021 470 16 16 Fax: 021 470 16 28 E-mail: info@eachtra.ie Web Site: www.eachtra.ie
  3. 3. Table of Contents 1 Introduction........................................................................................................1 2 Development site location and topography..........................................................1 3 Archaeological and historical background. ..........................................................1 . 4 Results.................................................................................................................2 4.1 Enclosure......................................................................................................2 4.2 East ditch......................................................................................................2 4.3 West ditch.....................................................................................................4 4.4 Remaining enclosing elements.......................................................................5 4.5 Possible entrances to the enclosure.................................................................6 4.6 Circular structure with hearth . ....................................................................6 4.7 Postholes.......................................................................................................7 4.8 Stakeholes ....................................................................................................8 4.9 Associated stakeholes, postholes and pits.......................................................9 4.10 The central area within the structure............................................................10 4.11 A possible ancillary structure........................................................................10 4.12 Other features within the enclosure..............................................................10 4.13 External features..........................................................................................11 . 5 Discussion.......................................................................................................... 12 6 Conclusions........................................................................................................ 16 7 Bibliography....................................................................................................... 17 8 Figures................................................................................................................ 19 9 Plates..................................................................................................................26 10 Appendices.........................................................................................................29 10.1 Context Register. .........................................................................................29 . 10.2 Finds Register. .............................................................................................81 . 10.3 Charcoal Identification Report....................................................................103 10.4 Prehistoric Pottery Report...........................................................................104Copyright Notice: Please note that all original information contained within this report, includingall original drawings, photographs, text and all other printed matter deemed to be the writer’s,remains the property of the writer and Eachtra Archaeological Projects and so may not be reproducedor used in any form without the written consent of the writer or Eachtra Archaeological Projects. iii
  4. 4. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford 03E1033 10.4.1 The pottery................................................................................................. 104 10.4.2 Catalogue of vessels..................................................................................... 107 10.4.3 Discussion................................................................................................... 116 10.4.4 Summary and conclusions.......................................................................... 120 . 10.4.5 Appendix 1................................................................................................. 121 10.4.6 Bibliography................................................................................................ 127 10.5 Radiocarbon Results...................................................................................130 . 10.6 Plant Remains Report.................................................................................131 10.6.1 Introduction. .............................................................................................. 131 . 10.6.2 Methodology.............................................................................................. 131 . 10.6.3 Results........................................................................................................ 131 10.6.4 Discussion................................................................................................... 133 10.6.5 Non-Technical Summary............................................................................ 134 10.6.6 References................................................................................................... 134 iv
  5. 5. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford 03E1033 List of Figures Figure 1: Discovery map with location of site. .......................................................................................19 . FigurFigure 2: RMP with location of site.............................................................................................. 20 Figure 3: Site location with area of development marked.......................................................................21 Figure 4: Site plan showing enclosure and associated features................................................................22 Figure 5: Round house showing all cut features.....................................................................................23 Figure 6: Round house showing postpipes and outlining the arc of the structure . ............................... 24 Figure 7: Possible ancillary structure .....................................................................................................25 List of Plates Plate 1: Plate 1 Post-excavation of site showing the enclosure.................................................................26 Plate 2: Collapsed bank material within the west ditch..........................................................................27 Plate 3: Post-excavation of the round house. ..........................................................................................27 . Plate 4: Post-excavation of pipe C.473 . ................................................................................................28 Plate 5: In situ shot of pottery fragments within the ditch fills prior to excavation.................................28http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/03e1033-knockhouse-lower-co-waterford/ v
  6. 6. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford 03E1033 1 Introduction IDA Ireland owns a 65 acre site in Knockhouse Lower, approximately 3 km west of Waterford City. This site is zoned for industrial development. One known archaeological site (Record of Monuments and Places WA00675), an enclosure, is located in the centre of the site, on the western side. This monu- ment is visible as a crop mark on an aerial photograph (Ordnance Survey AP 9859, Roll 95, Print 24), but there is no trace at ground level (Moore 1999, 20). Associated with the enclosure is a field system, (RMP WA00677), also identified from aerial photography. The enclosure was excavated between July and October of 2003. It consisted of two ditches which formed three sides of a sub-circular enclosure. The fourth side exhibited some structural remains that may have continued the line of the enclosure, but no ditch was uncovered. The interior of the enclosure produced evidence of a round house, partial remains of a possible ancillary building, and a series of pits and stakeholes. 2 Development site location and topography The site is located on the outskirts of Waterford, c. 3 km west of the city (Figures 1 & 2). The river Suir is situated c. 1.25 km northwest of the site. The site is low lying, as is much of the county, and lies approximately 10.5 km north of the sea. 3 Archaeological and historical background The archaeological heritage of County Waterford is rich and varied. The earliest identified sites in the county include lithic scatters along the southern stretch of the River Barrow dating to the Early and Late Mesolithic as well as the Neolithic (Zvelebil et al. 1996). Neolithic (c.4000BC-2400BC) settlement evidence was uncovered at Ahanaglogh c. 18 km to the southwest of Knockhouse Lower (Tierney 2005; Tierney et al. 2002), and two rectangular Early Neolithic house sites were excavated c. 3.5 km to the north, at Granny, Co. Kilkenny (Hughes 2005). Megalithic tombs, representing ceremonial and burial practices in the Neolithic, have been identified at Gaulstown, Knockeen and Ballinadud (portal tombs) to the south of Knockhouse Lower and a pas- sage tomb is located to the southeast at Harristown (Moore 1999). Beaker settlement, which characterizes the change over from the Late Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age (around 2500 BC) is also known from the county, with two settlement sites excavated at Ahana- glogh (Tierney et al 2002). Several burnt mounds, the typical and ubiquitous Bronze Age site type, have been excavated in the county, with a series of dated examples from the route of the N25 Kilmac- thomas by-pass producing a notable concentration of early Bronze Age dates (Ibid.). Burnt mounds have also been identified in the townland of Knockhouse Lower (Russell 2003). Other evidence for Bronze Age (c. 2500-500 BC) activity in the county includes settlement and ritual monuments in the Comeragh Mountains (Moore 1995). Within the immediate area around this site there have been ex- cavations of Neolithic, Middle and Late Bronze Age settlement activity in Knockhouse Lower and a Middle Bronze Age pit and posthole site in the neighboring townland of Carrickpherish (McQuade in preparation). To the northwest of the Knockhouse Lower enclosure there is a ringfort (Figure 3) andhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/03e1033-knockhouse-lower-co-waterford/ 1
  7. 7. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford 03E1033 further to the north (Figure 2) there is a standing stone at Gibbethill (RMP WA009:015). 4 Results The site (Figure 4) consisted of a sub-circular enclosure with a diameter of approximately 36 m; it was initially identified as a crop mark on an aerial photograph, with no trace at ground level. Three sides of the enclosure were formed by two ditches (recorded as the ‘east ditch’ and the ‘west ditch’). The fourth side was characterised by large pits/postholes and slot trenches which probably continued the line of the enclosure, despite the absence of a ditch. The enclosure surrounded a Bronze Age settlement site, with a sub-circular post and stake-built structure excavated near the centre of the enclosed area and an ancillary structure to the west. This report details the results of excavation at the site and the de- scriptions are broken down into context complexes: the enclosure, the internal structure, the ancillary building, other internal features and external features. 4.1 Enclosure The sub-circular enclosure survived as two portions of a ditch (‘east ditch’ and ‘west ditch’) with a possible entrance to the north. These two ditches are contemporaneous; both contained the same type of pottery and had broadly similar phases and fills. No ditch was found at the fourth side of the en- closure, to the south, but other features such as pits, postholes and stakeholes (e.g C.24, C.43, C.90, C.121, C.145, C.168, C.177, C.181, C.196, C. 457, C.461, C.579, C.628, C.631 and C.633) continued the line of the ditch and indicated that despite the absence of a ditch the area was probably enclosed. The total circumference of the enclosure was approximately 120 m, with a diameter of roughly 36 m (Plate 1). 4.2 East ditch The east ditch (C.427) was curvilinear and extended for a total length of 40 m. It was on average 1.4 m wide, with an average depth of 0.6 m. It curved at the northeast and extended towards the west to form a small part of the northern side of the enclosure. It also curved slightly at the southeast before terminating. There were nineteen fills within the primary ditch (C.427) these were C.375, C.376, C.391, C.402, C.406, C.412, C.413, C.415, C.416, C.417, C.418, C.425, C.431, C.435, C.438, C.439, C.443, C.450 and C.451. They included gravel fills (C.406), deposits that resulted from natural silting (C.418 and C.451), as well as deliberate dumping (C.450, C.402 and C.425), re-deposited subsoil (C. 376, C.412 and C.417), collapsed bank material (C.375, C.415, C.416 and C.443) and several other deposits of unknown origin that accumulated in the ditch during its use (C.413, C.431, C.435, C.438, C.439 and C.450). The earliest fills within this ditch appeared to be the result of both natural silting (e.g. C.418 and C.451) and deliberate dumping (for example a charcoal rich deposit such as C.450, and deposits with large quantities of ceramic fragments like C.402, a deposit of silty clay with 34 ceramic pieces (Finds 03E1033:402:1-34) that included base, body and rim sherds of Pot 9 (Appendix 4).http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/03e1033-knockhouse-lower-co-waterford/ 2
  8. 8. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford 03E1033 Along the western edge of the ditch there was a substantial layer of re-deposited subsoil that contained frequent amounts of large stones (e.g. C.375, C.376, C.443). This appeared to be the remains of a low internal bank that had either slumped into the ditch or been deliberately pushed in. The recovery of this material along the western part of the ditch indicates that the bank probably stood on the inside rather than the outside of the enclosure and the evidence of slippage demonstrated that the bank was not particularly stable. Further indicators that it was unstable may perhaps come from the large stones that were found within some backfilled deposits of bank material (C.375 and C.443); the stone may have been used as a revetment to help keep the bank in place. The earliest fills and the backfilling of the east ditch were recut at least once (Cuts C.347, C.401 and C.426), showing evidence for repeated use and maintenance of the site despite episodes of slumping and deliberate backfilling. At 0.6 m in depth, the original ditch was slightly deeper than any of the partial recut ditches (these ranged in depth from 0.39 m to 0.55 m). In addition, the recut ditch did not run for the entire length of the enclosure; where the east ditch began to turn at the northeast (towards the west) there was no evidence of a recut. Recut C.347 ran between the southeastern and northeastern corners of the ditch and contained several deposits, including two main fills (C.317 and C.395). At its centre they overlapped slightly, with C.317 overlying (and therefore post-dating) C.395. C.317 was the sole fill of the recut for most of its southern half while C.395 was the sole fill of the recut for most of its northern half. Towards the northern end of the recut ditch C.395 was underlain by several fills, the earliest (lowest) was C.419, a deposit of stony clay with charcoal inclusions and ceramic sherds from Pot 1. It was overlain by C.414, a clayey silt with charcoal flecks. Above this was C.399, a silty clay which also contained several sherds of pottery from Pot 1 (Finds 03E1033:399:1-188) and produced oak charcoal (Appendix 6) that returned a Middle Bronze Age radiocarbon date of cal BC 1400-1133 (Appendix 5). Overlying the dumped deposits that accumulated within the refill were several shallow layers that comprised the upper ditch fills (C.208, C.259, C.261, C.273, C.274, C.285, C.302 and C.303). Two of these (C.259 and C.208) were at its southern terminal. C.259 and C.302 were the uppermost fills. C.259 was underlain by C.208, which was rich in charcoal. These deposits may represent a deliber- ate back-filling episode, perhaps in order to level the ground surface. They were underlain by C.261, C.273, C.274 and C.285, all similar fills with occasional charcoal inclusions. C.302 lay over C.303, which in turn overlay C.317, one of the main fills of the recut. The absence of silting layers within the recut ditches is an indicator of two things; firstly that the recut was not open for a very long time, as there was no time for natural silting to occur, and secondly it is a potential indicator that the ditch was deliberately backfilled. The fact that the fills within the recut ditch did not accumulate gradually along the line of the base of the ditch but were deposited as distinct dumps of material, from north to south, also suggests deliberate deposition. Mixed within the fills of the recut ditch were pottery sherds from the same vessels as sherds found in the fills of the primary ditch. For example, sherds of the same vessel (Pot 1) were recovered fromhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/03e1033-knockhouse-lower-co-waterford/ 3
  9. 9. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford 03E1033 contexts within the recut ditch (C.395 and C.419) and from the primary ditch fill (C.431) and sherds from Pot 9 were found within the recut (C.375) and in the basal fill of the original ditch (C.402). In most cases the sherds from the same pottery vessels were found within a limited spatial area; e.g. de- spite the fact that sherds from Pot 1 were located within both primary and recut ditch fills, they were all found within three adjacent 5 m2 grid squares. Within C.399 almost two hundred pottery sherds were found in the same location rather than being dispersed throughout the fill. This suggests that the original deposition of pottery sherds was within the first ditch; the vessels were evidently disturbed by the recutting of the ditch and were redistributed throughout the fills of this second ditch later. 4.3 West ditch The ‘west’ ditch (C.447) formed the majority of the northern side of the enclosure, and all of the west- ern side. It had two broad curves at the northwest and the southwest and it terminated at the south- west. The west ditch extended for a total circumference of 100.2 m. It contained eight fills (C.436, C.437, C.441, C.444, C.449, C.458, C.459 and C.460) in the primary ditch. At the northern end of this ditch the primary ditch cut was filled by two basal fills C.460 and C.449, and several overlying deposits (C.436, C.437, C.444, C.458 and C.459) all clays and silts with moder- ate charcoal inclusions that probably accumulated as the enclosure was occupied. Of the upper fills, only C.436 and C.444 contained pottery sherds (03E1033:436:2-8 and 03E1033:444:1-3). At the southern terminal of the ditch there was a sterile layer of re-deposited subsoil (C.441) that may have slumped or been deliberately backfilled. Like the eastern ditch, the west ditch had been recut (C.440) and there were six fills within this part of the recut ditch (C.420, C.429, C.430, C.432, C.433 and C.448). C.440 was a recut of the west ditch, found only at its southern terminal. It was a linear cut that mea- sured 1.8 m northwest-southeast, was 0.8 m wide and 0.15 m deep. It had rounded corners at the northwest and southeast. This recut was not visible as a separate cut in any other part of the ditch. It was filled by a sequence of deposits (C.420, C.429, C.430, C.432, C.433 and C.448). The basal fill of the recut was C.432, a firm silty clay which contained frequent large stones, possibly part of a stone re- vetment from a dismantled bank. This deposit was overlain by a layer of re-deposited subsoil/collapsed bank material (C.429) which resembled deposits found elsewhere within the ditch (e.g. collapsed bank material in C.441, which was the fill of the primary ditch in this area of the site). Above this there was a series of smaller deposits (C.420, C.430, C.433 and C.448), some of which (e.g. C.433 and C.430), resembled C.429 and may also represent re-deposited/collapsed bank material. C.420 also contained large stones that may be remnants of bank revetments. This suggests that there was an internal bank within this side of the ditch, similar to the evidence retrieved from the east ditch. This was apparent along the inside (eastern edge) of the ditch for most of its length (Plate 2). However, there was no evi- dence of bank material at the northern part of the enclosure (orientated east-west), perhaps because it was destroyed by a later (second) recutting of the ditch (C.505). Evidence of a second recut (C.505) was only available in some parts of the ditch: C.505 extended fromhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/03e1033-knockhouse-lower-co-waterford/ 4
  10. 10. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford 03E1033 the northeastern terminal of the ditch to approximately 6 m short of the southwestern end of the ditch. It was filled by C.436 (similar in nature to C.317 and C.395, the main fills of the recut in the east ditch). This deposit was the only fill removed from much of the length of the ditch where it ran east- west. This is either because the ditch was very shallow at this point so that the recut removed the entire original fill of the primary ditch, or because the recut extended beyond the limit of the original ditch, and that therefore there were no earlier fills to remove. The ditch was extremely shallow at this point, probably because the underlying bedrock was close to the surface and excavating a ditch would have been difficult. Close to the northern terminal of the ditch a hollow-based arrowhead was recovered from the fill of this late recut. Pottery from the west ditch occurred along most of its length from the eastern side of the northwest corner to the southwest corner. There were hundreds of sherds, all identified as the same type as that recovered from the east ditch. However, it was absent along the northwestern curve of the ditch. The dearth of pottery in this area corresponds to the area of a recut ditch (C.440) suggesting that the ab- sence of pottery is due to disturbance caused by later activity at the ditch. Most of the ceramic fragments from this ditch were found in C.460 and C.449. In C.460 the material included ceramic sherds from Pots 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16. The analysis of the vessel types indicated that a small thick-walled bowl (Pot 13), a large, straight-sided vessel with thin layers of charred material on the external surface (Pot 14) and a large urn (Pot 16) were included in the assemblage (Appendix 4). Pottery from C.449 was identified as material from Pot 16 and sherds from the same vessel were found in the overlying deposit (C.444) and in primary fills of the ditch C.447 (C.436, C.456 and C.460) and also in the fill (C.461) of a pit the was cut into the subsoil south of the ditch (C.456). This pit continued the line of the ditch beyond its southern terminal and the recovery of related pottery vessels strengthens the suggestion that it was part of a structure that continued the enclosure beyond the ditch terminals to the south. 4.4 Remaining enclosing elements Close to the southeastern ditch terminal (of eastern ditch C.427) there were a series of linear features and postholes that continued the line of the ditch and probably indicate that this area was also en- closed despite the absence of a ditch. A row of three pits/postholes (C.121, C.145 and C.90) follow a similar arc to that of the ditch. The first of these postholes (C.121) was located c. 5.1 m southwest of the southern terminal of ditch C.427. It measured 0.74 m by 0.6 m. A further c. 3 m to the southwest was another large posthole/pit (C.145) that measured 1.1 m by 0.54 m, and another c. 3.5 m to the southwest again was the third posthole (C.90) which measured 0.62 m by 0.5 m. This enclosure was supplemented by an internal line of slot trenches (C.24 and C. 181), a post (C.43) and stakeholes (C.168, C.177 and C.196). Approxi- mately 4 m from the southern terminal of the east ditch there was a linear cut (C.24); its remaining dimensions were 1.5 m in length by 0.3 m wide and it is possible that this linear represented the base of a foundation trench. At its western end it was cut by a large oval posthole (C.43) that measured 0.73 m long and 0.51 m wide. These features were probably related to C.181, a stone-lined founda-http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/03e1033-knockhouse-lower-co-waterford/ 5
  11. 11. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford 03E1033 tion trench, found less than 1 m to the west of C.43. It measured 1.72 m long by 0.24 m wide. The three stakeholes were discovered southwest of C.181, along the same arc as the slot trenches C.24 and C.181). This double arc of features partially filled the gap between the southern terminals of the east and west ditches. There was an average space of c.2.5 m between the main cut features that continued the line of this east ditch and they extended beyond the ditch terminal for at least 12.3 m. Postholes (C.631 and C.633) and pits (C.628, C.461 and C.457) were also found close to the southern terminal of the west ditch. These continued the line of the ditch for 5.1 m and it is likely that they acted as additional enclosing elements, similar to the features excavated at the terminal of the east ditch. However, this evidence for an additional enclosing element did not extend much more than 5 m beyond the limit of the ditch terminal and the central area between the two ditches had few additional signs of structural remains. The bedrock was high at this point and it may have prevented a more sub- stantial structure from being built. 4.5 Possible entrances to the enclosure There were two possible entrances to the enclosure; one to the northeast and the other to the south- west. The northeastern entrance occurred between the terminals of the east and west ditches and was c. 2.7 m wide. No archaeological features were excavated in between these and therefore it was assumed that this was used as an entranceway for the settlement. There was also a gap in the enclosure to the southwest; at 7.1 m wide it was considerably larger than the northeastern entrance. The bedrock was very high at the southern part of the site and this may partially explain why no archaeological features were excavated in the area. That there was an entranceway at this point, as well as at the north, is also a possibility. The collection of features around the southern part of the enclosure, both internal and external, indicates general activity in the area, perhaps the kind to be expected near an entrance. By contrast there is no suggestion of this type of activity near the northeastern entrance. Two entrances at Bronze Age enclosure sites is an unusual occurrence, but it is a known feature of at some sites: a recently excavated example occurred at Enclosure 1, Ballybrowney 1, Co. Cork, where there was an entrance at the northeast and another at the southeast, both were c. 1 m wide (Cotter 2005). 4.6 Circular structure with hearth Towards the centre of the enclosure there was a series of stakeholes and postholes arranged in a circle around a central area of fire reddened clay (Figure 5, Plate 3). It measured c. 9 m in length (northeast- southwest) and 8 m in width (northwest-southeast). The western wall of the structure was approxi- mately 8 m from the west ditch. Most of the arc of the structure was defined by a series of pits and postholes, which became flattened to the southeast, where it was stake-built. A possible entrance-way was located in this part of the wall, facing southeast and towards the part of the enclosure where no ditch was found. The structure (Figures 5 & 6) was composed of eight postholes (C.504, C.503, C.594, C.636, C.661, C.660, C.569 and C.555) and four large stakeholes/driven posts (C.616, C.577, C.548 and C.546). The average size of the postholes was 0.49 m by 0.45 m and the average postpipe size was 0.28 m by 0.23 m. They were not always evenly spaced, but the average distance between the postholes was c. 3 m. There were several outlying post and stakeholes that were probably structuralhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/03e1033-knockhouse-lower-co-waterford/ 6
  12. 12. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford 03E1033 (C.567, C.572, C.600, C.605, C.609 and C.614) and a series of five pits (C.475, C.519, C.525, C. 529 and C.552) that lined the arc of the structure may also originally have had a structural function. Many of the postholes with postpipes were well preserved because there was evidence for burning in situ; it is possible that the pits found along the line of the house were originally structural features that avoided burning and were therefore not as clearly preserved as the postholes and postpipes. 4.7 Postholes A large posthole (C.504) was situated at the southwest corner of the structure. The posthole itself was circular with a diameter of approximately 0.47 m and a depth of 0.17 m. It was truncated by a test trench that was opened before the commencement of open plan excavation and it is possible that be- tween 0.05 m and 0.10 m of the archaeological deposits were removed. There were three fills within the posthole; C.472 was a rectangular post, (0.32 m long (north-south), 0.23 m wide and 0.16 m deep), that burned in situ. The wood charcoal present was identified as oak (Appendix 6) which returned a Middle Bronze Age radiocarbon date of cal BC 1450-1303 (Appendix 5). A sample from this deposit also produced high quantities of naked barley grains (Appendix 7). The posthole had two packing fills (C.497 and C.498), and a postpipe (C.473, Plate 4) that contained two fills: the post (C.472) burnt in situ and was surrounded by a deposit of fire reddened clay (C.496) which probably burned while the post was on fire. C.498 was re-deposited subsoil that was used to pack the post into place. It overlay a charcoal stained deposit of re-deposited subsoil (C.497) which was probably also used as a packing fill. C.504 was 2.30 m southwest of the first stakehole in the straight wall at the southeast of the structure (C.548) and 2.5 m southeast of the next posthole (C.503). C.503 was situated at the southwestern portion of the structure, between two postholes (C.504, 2.50 m to the southeast and C.594, 4 m north-northwest). It was 0.52 m long (northeast-southwest), 0.49 m wide and 0.20 m deep. There were three fills within the posthole, one was a packing fill that held the original post in place (C.502). The void left by the post was 0.35 m long (north-south), 0.32 m wide and 0.17 m deep. It was rectangular in shape and reflected the shape of the original post, indicating that it was similar to the post (C.472) that was found within the posthole C.504, nearby. The void was filled by two charcoal rich fills (C.499 and C.500); unlike in C.504 these do not appear to have been the original post that was burnt in situ. C.594 was rectangular in plan and 0.49 m long (northwest-southeast), 0.42 m wide and 0.20 m deep. Within C.594 there was a posthole fill (C.593) and a postpipe (C.592) with two fills (C.586 and C.603). The fills of the postpipe were cut by a later stakehole (C.590, filled by C.591). The postpipe indicated that the original post was sub-rectangular and measured 0.27 m long (northwest-southeast), 0.18 m wide and 0.20 m deep. The fills within the postpipe consisted mainly of the decomposed re- mains of the post (C.608) and material that silted up in the gap left by the post as it rotted (C.586). This indicates that the post within C.594 probably decomposed in situ. Two more features, C.636 and C.661, were situated 2 m northeast of C.594. C.636 was 0.60 m long (east-west), 0.50 m wide and 0.30 m deep and oval in plan. Within it were a posthole/packing fill (C.635) and a postpipe (C.557) with a single fill (C.556). The postpipe was 0.28 m long (northeast-http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/03e1033-knockhouse-lower-co-waterford/ 7
  13. 13. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford 03E1033 southwest), 0.20 m wide and 0.20 m deep. It was oval in shape and had an uneven base, with depres- sions at southwest and northeast, possibly the bases of two separate posts. Both of these posts had been removed, apparently at the same time, and the hole filled with surrounding sediment (C.556). Situated just 0.25 m to the northwest of C.636 was a possible posthole C.661 which measured 0.52 m long (north-south), 0.40 m wide and 0.20 m deep. The dimensions were similar to the other postholes excavated within the structure but it was unlike them in that there was no evidence for a postpipe. It was filled by three deposits (C.654, C.655 and C.656). The edges of the posthole were lined by a deposit of burnt clay (C.656). A sixth posthole, C.660, was situated 1.85 m northeast of C.661. The posthole was sub-circular with a diameter of approximately 0.45 m, and was 0.17 m deep. It was filled by a packing fill (C.659), with a postpipe (C.658) that contained one deposit (C.657). The post appeared to have been removed in antiquity. The post-pipe (C.658) was oval in shape and measured 0.21 m long (east-west), 0.17 m wide and 0.11 m deep. Lying 1.9 m east of C.660 was a seventh posthole, C.569. It was sub-circular in plan with a diameter of 0.46 m and a depth of 0.22 m and it contained a packing fill (C.568) and a post-pipe (C.566) that was sub-circular in plan with a diameter of 0.29 m and a depth of 0.15 m. The postpipe was filled by C.542, which appeared to be similar to the surrounding sediment, and probably filled the void when the post was removed in antiquity. The pattern of deposition in this posthole was very similar to that exhibited in C.660 and C.661. The final posthole, C.555, was situated 4.10 m southeast of C.569. It was sub-circular with a diameter of approximately 0.42 m and it was 0.17 m deep. It cut a larger pit, C.579. It contained a packing fill (C.554) and a postpipe (C.541), which was oval in shape and measured 0.30 m long (southwest-north- east), 0.22 m wide and 0.19 m deep. Two post-pipe fills were apparent, C.526 and C.539; the first fill (C.526) was charcoal rich and represented a burned in situ post. This was partially charred at the top and it decayed further after burning, leaving a deposit (C.539) that was silty in nature and appeared to be the rotted in situ remains of the base of the post. 4.8 Stakeholes The straight line of stakeholes ran from posthole C.504 and C.555. It covered a gap that was 8.1 m wide, filled by a row (4.3 m in length) of four stakeholes. C.616 was situated 1.55 m south of C.555, and was the first in a line of four stakeholes. The stakehole was circular in plan with a diameter of 0.25 m. It was 0.10 m deep, but may have been truncated by test excavations carried out in early 2003. It was filled with C.615, a silty clay that resembled the sur- rounding sediment and probably filled the gap left when the stake was removed in antiquity. The second stakehole, C.577, was situated 0.50 m southwest of C.616. It was sub-circular, had a maxi- mum length of 0.26 m and depth of 0.17 m and it was filled by C.576. Again, the stake appeared to have been deliberately removed in antiquity.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/03e1033-knockhouse-lower-co-waterford/ 8
  14. 14. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford 03E1033 C.546 was the third stakehole and was situated 2.50 m southwest of C.577. It was circular in plan with a diameter of 0.21 m and a depth of 0.19 m. It was filled with C.544 and C.545. The former appears to have been a capping layer, while the latter formed the main fill of the stakehole. A sample from this fill produced high quantities of cereal grains, in particular grains of naked barley and some emmer wheat (Appendix 7). The final stakehole (C.548) was situated 0.46 m southwest of C.546. The stake appeared to have been removed in antiquity and the hole filled with surrounding sediment (C.547). The stakehole was circu- lar in plan with a diameter of 0.21 m and a depth of 0.19 m. 4.9 Associated stakeholes, postholes and pits There were several outlying post/stakeholes (C.600, C.605, C.609 and C.614) just outside the stake- built part of the structure, near the entrance. The nearest one was c. 1 m from the line of the structure and the furthest away was c. 4 m. On average these measured 0.26 m in length, 0.195 m in width and 0.1 m in depth. They were not arranged in a pattern, but they may have acted as pegging if the wall or door of the structure was made of hide or textile. C.572, a posthole (0.53 m long x 0.41 m wide and 0.33 m deep) was found outside the structure wall at the southwest, 1.9 m to the south-southeast of posthole C.503 and 1.6 m to the southwest of posthole C.504. In total it was c. 1m from the line of the structure. If it served as roof support this suggests that the overhang from the roof was considerable. A large stakehole (C.567) was situated 0.30 m northeast of C.569 (a posthole located within the arc of the structure, at the north-northeast). C.567 was 0.28 m in diameter, had a depth of 0.17 m and was filled by C.611. It leaned towards the southwest and therefore may have acted as a support for the post that was in C.569. Several pits of unknown function were situated along the line of the structure in areas where walls or wall supports would be expected. Because of the shape of the cuts or the sequence of the deposits these were interpreted as pits rather than postholes although their exact function remains unknown. Despite the fact that they were morphologically different from the postholes excavated, they may originally have acted as structural elements. In between postholes C.503 and C.504 there were two pits (C.529 and C.525). C.529 was located 0.6 m to the southeast of C.503. It was a sub-circular pit that cut the subsoil, and was filled by a single clayey silt deposit with charcoal flecks (C.528). It measured 0.7 m x 0.62 m x 0.3 m. C.525 was another pit located 0.44 m to the east-southeast of pit C.529 and 0.3 m west of posthole C.504. C.525 was a sub-circular pit filled by a sandy clay deposit with charcoal flecks (C.524); it measured 0.73 m x 0.69 m x 0.38 m. Another pit (C.475) was found along the arc of the structure towards the north; it was 0.2 m to the east of C.660 and 0.8 m to the southwest of C.569 and, like the pits C.529 and C.525, it followed the line of the structure. It had an oval cut with rounded corners, a silty clay fill (C.474) and it measuredhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/03e1033-knockhouse-lower-co-waterford/ 9
  15. 15. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford 03E1033 0.94 m east-west x 0.42 m x 0.14 m. Situated 1.65 m southeast of C.569 was another ambiguous feature, C.552. It was situated in the likeli- est position to be occupied by another posthole, but had unusual fills and was interpreted as a pit. It measured 0.6 m in diameter and 0.16 m deep. It contained five fills (C.551, C.538, C.537, C.532 and C.527) and a stakehole (C.550) was cut into one of the fills. The pit was truncated by another pit C.519 which had seven fills (C.480, C.481, C.482, C.483, C.484, C.513 and C.514) and it measured 0.34 m in diameter and was 0.28 m deep. 4.10 The central area within the structure The central area consisted of intensely burned subsoil covering an area that measured 0.32 m in di- ameter. This was probably a hearth and it was surrounded by eleven small stakeholes (C.479, C.486, C.487, C.491, C.492, C.494, C.510, C.512, C.521, C.523 and C.588). The largest of the stakeholes were C.479 (0.19 m by 0.16 m x 0.12 m) and C.512 (0.21 m x 0.13 m x 0.09 m). The remaining stakeholes measured on average 0.12 m x 0.08 m x 0.1 m. They were not arranged in any pattern and probably represent haphazard insertion of stakes, as they were required, around a central hearth. The area of activity around and including the hearth measured 1.22 m in length (north-northwest - south-southeast) x 1 m across. There were two outlying stakeholes (C.589 and C.587) that were found between 0.7 and 0.9 m to the southwest of the burnt clay. 4.11 A possible ancillary structure Approximately 3 or 4 m west of the house there was a group of features; small pits (C.320 and C.570) stakeholes (C.318, C.332, C.344, C.352, C.353, C.363, C.364, C.531, C.583 and C.585), postholes (C.338 and C.508) and a plank-hole (C.518). Stakes in stakeholes C.344 and C.332 evidently leaned in towards one another and they may have been propped up against one another. This group of features were arranged in a rough ‘L’-shape near various spreads of clay, for example C.344, C.332 and C.353 cut into and surrounded the perimeter of a spread of light grey clay. These spread may have represented occupation surfaces and this stake and post formation suggests that this was the partial remains of a small or anciliary structure associated with the round house. One of the posts (C.564, postpipe within C.570) appears to have burnt in situ and the remains of an upright plank (C.518), with a charcoal rich fill, may also have been burnt in situ. Northwest of this concentration of activity a medium-sized pit (C.649) was excavated. It was 0.66 m in diameter and circular in plan and it contained charred plant material that was burnt in situ. It had two fills with moderate charcoal inclusions and a concentration of cereal grains, in particular glume wheats (such as emmer) and naked barley (Appendix 7). The plant material was similar in composi- tion and preservation to the material found within the structure. The similarities may suggest that the anomalous cut features represent another structure that was associated with domestic or agricultural activities including crop storage. 4.12 Other features within the enclosure T here was another area of archaeological activity within the eastern part of the enclosure, where sev-http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/03e1033-knockhouse-lower-co-waterford/ 10
  16. 16. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford 03E1033 eral excavated features (e.g pit C.649, slot trench C.394, posthole C.233, a series of intercutting pits and many stakeholes) were clustered together. The archaeological remains did not form any coherent pattern and reflect anomalous areas of archaeological activity within the enclosure. Roughly 11 m north of the southern terminal of the east ditch, c. 0.2 m inside the east ditch, there was a posthole C.233 (c. 0.2 m in diameter), which was approximately 0.2 m west of several inter-cutting pits (C.287, C.296, C.297, C.313, C.322 and C.381) that were found near the ditch. In the area to the west and south of this there was a scatter of isolated stakeholes (C.212, C.221, C.230, C.238 and C.358) and approximately 1.5 m to the north there was a slot trench that protruded from the ditch (C.394) and projected westwards for c. 1.3 m, terminating in a pit (C.389). The pit was recut (C.369) suggesting repair/reuse. 4.13 External features The area outside the enclosure was also characterised by intermittent archaeological activity. The most intensive traces were excavated at the southern end of the enclosure. Near the southern terminal of the East ditch there were two pits outside the ditch; C.398 was 1 m east of the ditch and C.400 was 0.6 m further east again. Approximately 7.2 m south of the southern terminal of the East Ditch there was a series of pits (C.66, C.169 and C.194) and approximately 2 m to the west of this there was another larger pit (C.198; 1.08 m x 0.52 m) with two smaller pits/postholes set into it (C.139 and C.189). There was a small stakehole (C.164) 1 m east of this. Further west again there was an arc of five stakeholes (C.136, C.142, C.152, C.160 and C.158) and two pits (C.80 and C.122). In general these pits and stakeholes did not conform to any coherent structural pattern, but their existence nonetheless indicates that the area outside the enclosure was occupied on an ad hoc basis.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/03e1033-knockhouse-lower-co-waterford/ 11
  17. 17. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford 03E1033 5 Discussion The site at Knockhouse Lower comprised a sub-circular enclosure (with an approximate diameter of 36 m) which surrounded a round house and associated occupation remains. The radiocarbon and pot- tery dates from the site indicate a period of relatively short-lived occupation at this site in the Middle Bronze Age (1500-1000 BC), in particular covering the period 1400-1133 BC. The building at Knockhouse Lower consisted of an arc of postholes and a line of stakeholes at the southeast. In several cases it was evident that the structural posts had been squared-off. Within post- hole C.504 there was a post (C.472) that burnt in situ and was rectangular in plan. Post-pipes within C.503, C.594 and C.636 were also rectangular in plan. These posts were all situated to the south, southwest and west of the arc of posts. In contrast, the northwestern, northern and eastern posts of the arc (represented by postpipes evident within C.660, C.569 and C.555) were all oval or sub-circular in plan (see Figure 6). Oak was identified as the building material used in the house (from the in situ burnt post, C.472). As one of the hardest and most common wood types available in prehistoric Ireland this has several parallels; oak was also identified as structural material from Structure 12 at Chancellorsland, Co. Tipperary (Doody 2000). Both the sub-circular and the squared off posts were of similar dimensions, (approximately 0.3 m x 0.2 m). These were relatively substantial posts and their size, combined with the identification of oak as a building material, suggests a substantial building. There was no evidence for internal supports and no indication of potential roofing material. The postpipes from Knockhouse Lower were approximately 0.26 m in diameter (average length 0.29 m and average width 0.23 m); some experimental data suggests that half a centimetre of oak wood can survive fifteen years (Wainwright and Longworth 1971) and this would suggest a potential lifespan of around sixty years for the Knockhouse Lower building without the necessity for substantial repair. The absence of posts at the southeastern part of the structure indicates that the wall of the structure was less substantial there, possibly a wattle screen, and the entrance to the structure may also have been placed at this part of the building. The most likely entrance was the 2m gap at the centre of this wall, flanked on either side by two stakeholes. This entrance was very wide and may have been covered by hide or textile, with several small stakeholes immediately outside the building perhaps representing temporary pegging of the doorway when it was kept open. The outline of the structure has been plotted in Figure 6, incorporating most of the postholes and pits. Several cut features do not fit into the arc (e.g. postholes C.572, C.567 and C.660) and these may represent support features, for example a row of external posts, that have survived in some parts of the site but were not possible to trace in other areas. The remains of a rough ‘L’-shaped line of stakes and planks may represent another building; the re- mains are only partial but the ground plan suggests a rectilinear outline, rather than a circular struc- ture. Although this is relatively unusual in Bronze Age buildings, there are several examples of timber rectilinear structures (eight listed in Doody 2000) and circular and rectilinear examples occur at thehttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/03e1033-knockhouse-lower-co-waterford/ 12
  18. 18. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford 03E1033 same sites, for example at Chancellorsland, Co. Tipperary (Ibid.). There are several parallels for house/settlement sites that date to the Middle Bronze Age; Doody (2000) lists eighteen excavated houses, of which thirteen were circular, and notes a large range in the struc- tural dimensions of the excavated examples. Since the publication of Doody’s work several more house sites with Middle Bronze Age dates have been excavated; e.g. Kilmurry North, Co. Wicklow (Ó Néill 2003), Cultragh, Co. Sligo (MacDonagh 2005), Knockdomny Co. Westmeath (Hull In preparation) and Mitchelstown 1 (Cotter 2006) in Co. Cork. The Knockhouse Lower house site, measuring 9 m by 8 m, is roughly an average dimension for circular Middle Bronze Age houses. Houses built to approxi- mately the same scale as this include Knockdomny, Co. Westmeath, which had an internal diameter of 8.5 m (Hull in preparation), Mitchelstown 1 Structure A, Co. Cork, 9.7 m x 8.5 m (Cotter 2006) and Kiloran 8 Structure A, Co. Tipperary, which was 9 m in diameter (Cross May et al. 2005). There are much smaller examples of houses known; the nearest contemporary house site was located c. 100 m to the southeast of the Knockhouse Lower enclosure (McQuade in preparation) and it was classified as a hut due to its small size, just 3.2 m in diameter, and the absence of an internal hearth. The construction method at Knockhouse Lower (sub-circular made from a single row of posts and stakes) has parallels with many other Bronze Age houses and, of ten sub-circular Bronze Age houses surveyed, Doody (2000) noted that all but one were constructed from a single setting of posts without a footing trench. There are some comparative examples of enclosed lowland settlements dating to the Middle Bronze Age: at Chancellorsland, Co. Tipperary several structures were enclosed by ditches and this phase of the settlement produced Middle Bronze Age dates (Doody 1996 & 2000). More recent excavations at Ballybrowney in Co. Cork revealed three enclosures of Bronze Age dates and several round houses, both enclosed and unenclosed (Cotter 2005). The closest parallel to Knockhouse Lower was Enclosure 2 at Ballybrowney, which had an estimated 37 m diameter. It produced radiocarbon dates from the Early Bronze Age for the outer ditch and Middle to Late Bronze Age for the incomplete inner ditch. There was a concentration of archaeological features (metalled surfaces and postholes) within the en- closure, suggesting settlement, although because it was not fully excavated (much of the site lay outside the road take) this is not certain. The Ballybrowney enclosures are also comparable to the site at Knockhouse Lower because they were associated with four unenclosed houses that were near contemporary. At Knockhouse Lower a con- temporary unenclosed house/hut lay just 100 m outside the enclosure (McQuade in preparation). This indicates that, although single houses surrounded by an enclosure are a recognised feature of the Irish Bronze Age; there are excavated examples at Carrigillihy, Co. Cork (O’Kelly 1951), Cullyhanna, Co. Armagh (Hodges 1958) and Kilsharvan, Co. Meath (Russel and Corcoran 2003); these settlement sites were not necessarily isolated units. There is also evidence of multiple house sites: three houses at Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork (Cotter 2006), a series of enclosures and huts excavated at Ballybrowney 1, Co. Cork (Cotter 2005), three hut sites at Curraghatoor, Co. Tipperary (Doody 1987) and an en- closure around multiple structures at Chancellorsland, Co. Tipperary (Doody 2000). The evidencehttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/03e1033-knockhouse-lower-co-waterford/ 13
  19. 19. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford 03E1033 of archaeological activity beyond the confines of the Knockhouse Lower enclosure, the proximity of other hut and hearth sites of a similar date (in MCQuade in preparation), all suggest that the Middle Bronze Age occupation at Knockhouse Lower extended beyond the limits of the enclosure. The pottery from the site was identified as Domestic Cordoned Urn and the types of pot found in- cluded a good range of vessel-shapes: open straight-sided pots, barrel-shaped vessels, a tall waisted vessel, bowls, scoops and drinking vessels or beakers (Brindley 2005 Appendix 4). Brindley (2005) considers this assemblage to belong to a single date and cultural identity on the basis of the context (the fills of the ditch of an enclosure) in which it was found, the range of pastes, methods of construc- tion and finishing, and the shapes of the pots themselves. The lower parts of the pots appeared to have a rougher character than the upper parts, probably because towards the base they were prone to wear and suffered more damage, e.g. contact with fire, which has led to a loss of the original surface. Some sherds had charred deposits which occurred on either the inner or the outer surface and very occasion- ally on the broken edges, indicating that the pottery had been in contact with fire after breakage and while still retaining traces of the original contents (the vessel may have broken during cooking or if the settlement was burnt down). Cordoned Urns are usually found in burial contexts and it is relatively rare to retrieve this pottery type from domestic contexts. Most noted examples are from the north of the country, with records from sandhill sites in counties Antrim, Derry and Down, and at Ballyrenan, Downpatrick, and Sheepland, all in Co. Down and at Moynagh Lough in Co. Meath (Waddell 1998). There are more recently exca- vated examples from secondary contexts at settlement sites in Rathmullan Site 10, Co. Meath (Bolger 2003) and Kilbride, Co. Wicklow (Breen 1998). The closet parallel to Knockhouse Lower is perhaps at Colp West, Co. Meath, a ‘D’-shaped enclosure where cordoned urn fragments were found; although there was no structure within the enclosure there was a Middle Bronze Age structure located outside it (Clarke and Murphy 2003). The distribution pattern for this pottery type is generally quite northerly, but the Knockhouse examples fit into the scattered clusters found outside the main distribution pat- tern, in particular in counties Galway, Limerick and Waterford, with most other examples from Co. Waterford coming from burials (Waddell 1998). Analysis of charred plant material from deposits associated with the house suggest that some of the food that was being cooked in the pottery vessels may have been porridges or gruels made from naked barley or glume wheats (emmer), as these were the most common cereal types recovered from the site (Appendix 7). While barley is often the most common cereal type from Bronze Age settlement sites, it is often a hulled variety. The widespread retrieval of naked barley from Knockhouse Lower may again suggest a ‘special’ aspect to the diet or the arable agriculture that was carried out at the site. No animal bone was recovered during the excavation, presumably because preservation conditions were unsuit- able, and there is therefore no other evidence of the diet at the site. The retrieval of pottery from some original ditch fills suggests that the ceramics were initially depos- ited in these fills. Recutting of the ditch disturbed these deposits, and broken pot fragments became incorporated into the re-deposited materials within the fills of there cut ditches (Plate 5). The recuttinghttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/03e1033-knockhouse-lower-co-waterford/ 14
  20. 20. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford 03E1033 of the ditches indicates continued use and maintenance over an extended period. It is possible that the enclosure of the settlement at Knockhouse Lower set its occupants apart and may, in part, have reflected social status. The rich assemblage of pottery from this site (c. 1000 ce- ramic sherds) also suggests a certain amount of surplus wealth (see Cleary 2000). In addition, the widespread retrieval of naked barley from Knockhouse Lower is somewhat unusual; barley is often the most common cereal type from Bronze Age settlement sites, but it is frequently hulled varieties rather than naked grains that are retrieved. Therefore these results may again suggest a ‘special’ aspect to the settlement of this site. However, several archaeological features were also excavated outside the enclosure, indicating that oc- cupation went beyond the enclosure and included the area immediately outside the ditches. Combined with the evidence for Middle Bronze Age settlement at other sites nearby (McQuade in prep.), this suggests that the settlement site was not necessarily socially isolated, even though it was set slightly apart. Similarly, at Ballybrowney Co.Cork the enclosures were associated with four unenclosed houses that were near contemporary (Cotter 2005), indicating that enclosed settlements were not necessarily isolated units of settlement.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/03e1033-knockhouse-lower-co-waterford/ 15
  21. 21. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford 03E1033 6 Conclusions The site at Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford consisted of a sub-circular enclosure with a diameter of approximately 36 m; it was initially identified as a crop mark on an aerial photograph, but there was no trace at ground level. Three sides of the enclosure were formed by two ditches (recorded as the ‘east ditch’ and the ‘west ditch’). The ditches had similar morphology, fills and phases of use and most of the ditch deposits contained large amounts of Domestic Cordoned Urn pottery fragments. There was no evidence for a ditch at the south of the site, but in this area there was some evidence that an enclosing structure continued beyond the line of the ditch; slot trenches, postholes and stakeholes were excavated. The ditches surrounded a Bronze Age settlement site; at the centre of the enclosed area a series of stake- holes and postholes were found. They were arranged in a circle around a central area of fire reddened clay and were interpreted as the remains of a single structure. This internal structure was c. 9 m long (northeast-southwest) and 8 m wide, and was composed of eight postholes and five large stakeholes/ driven posts, as well as five anomalous pits that were possibly originally structural. In plan its shape echoed the overall shape of the enclosure. At the centre of the structure there was an area of intensely burned subsoil surrounded by thirteen small stakeholes. Other features excavated within the enclosure included pits, stakeholes and slot trenches, but these did not follow any discernible pattern and were therefore interpreted as being related to the general occu- pation of the site rather than being structural in nature. Several external features were also excavated, indicating that occupation went beyond the enclosure and included the area immediately outside the ditches.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/03e1033-knockhouse-lower-co-waterford/ 16
  22. 22. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford 03E1033 7 Bibliography Bolger, T. 2003. Rathmullan Site 10, Co. Meath, in Bennet, I. (ed.) Excavations 2001. Bray, Wordwell. Breen, T. 1998. Kilbride, Co. Wicklow, in Bennet, I. (ed.) Excavations 1997. Bray, Wordwell. Brindley, A. L. 2005. Report on the prehistoric pottery from an excavation at Knockhouse Lower, Co. Waterford (03E1033), Unpublished Specialist Report for Eachtra Archaeological Projects (Appendix 4 this report). Clarke, L. and Murphy, D. 2003. Colp West, Co. Meath, in Bennet, I. (ed.) Excavations 2001. Bray, Wordwell. Cleary, R. 2000. The potter’s craft in prehistoric Ireland, pp. 119-134 in Desmond, A., Johnson, G., McCarthy, M., Sheehan, J. and Shee Twohig, E. New Agendas in Irish Prehistory. Bray, Wordwell. Cotter, E. 2006. Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork 04E1072, Unpublished excavation report for Eachtra Archaeological Projects. Cotter, E. 2005. Bronze Age Ballybrowney, County Cork, pp. 37-44 in O’Sullivan, J. and Stanley, M. (eds.) Recent Archaeological Discoveries on National Road Schemes 2004. Dublin, NRA. Cross May, S., Murray, C., Ó Néill, J. and Stevens, P. 2005. Catalogue of Dryland sites, in Gowen, M. (ed.) The Lisheen Mine Archaeological Project 1996-8. Bray, Wordwell. Doody, M. 1996. Ballyhoura Hills Project, interim report, Discovery Programme Reports 4, 15-25. Dublin, Royal Irish Academy. Doody, M. 2000. Bronze Age houses in Ireland, in Desmond, A., Johnson, G., McCarthy, M., Sheehan, J. and Shee Twohig, E. New Agendas in Irish Prehistory. Bray, Wordwell. Hodges, H.W.M. 1958. A Hunting Camp at Cullyhanna Lough, near Newtown Hamilton, County Armagh, Ulster Journal of Archaeology 21, 7-13. Hughes, J. 2005. Two Neolithic structures in Granny townland, County Kilkenny, pp. 25-35 in O’Sullivan, J. and Stanley, M. (eds.) Recent Archaeological Discoveries on National Road Schemes 2004. Dublin, NRA. Hull, G. In Preparation. Excavation of a Bronze Age Round House at Knockdomny, Co. Westmeath, Submitted to The Journal of Irish Archaeology. MacDonagh, M. 2005. Valley bottom and hilltop; 6,000 years of settlement along the route of the N4http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/03e1033-knockhouse-lower-co-waterford/ 17
  23. 23. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford 03E1033 Sligo Inner Relief Road, pp. 9-23 in O’Sullivan, J. and Stanley, M. (eds.) Recent Archaeological Discoveries on National Road Schemes 2004. Dublin, NRA. McQuade, M. In Preparation. Archaeological Excavation of Pre-historic settlement sites at Knockhouse Lower and Carrickpherish, Co. Waterford, Submitted to Decies. Moore, M. J. 1999. Archaeological Inventory of County Waterford. Dublin, The Stationary Office. Moore, M. 1995. A Bronze Age settlement and ritual centre in the Monavullagh Mountains, County Waterford, Ireland, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 61, 191-243. Ó Néill, J. 2003. Kilmurry North, Co. Wicklow (01E0572), in Bennet, I. (ed.) Excavations 2001. Bray, Wordwell. O’Kelly, M.J. 1951. An Early Bronze Age Ring-fort at Carrigillihy, Co. Cork, Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society 56, 69-86. Russell, I. 2003. Archaeological Excavation of Woodstown 6, N25 Waterford By-pass Archaeological investigation, Contract 1 http://www.nra.ie/Archaeology/N25WaterfordBypass-Woodstown. Tierney, J. 2005. Final report on excavation of sites under licence 98E575. Unpublished report for Eachtra Archaeological Projects. Tierney, J., Richardson, A. and Frazer, B. 2002. Ahanaglogh-Graigueshoneen. Prehistoric, pp. 328-31 in Bennet, I. (ed.) Excavations 2000. Bray, Wordwell. Waddell, J. 1998. The Prehistoric Archaeology of Ireland. Bray, Wordwell. Wainwright, G.J. and Longworth, L.H. 1971. Durrington Walls: excavations 1966-1968. London: Reports of the Research Committee of the Society of Antiquaries of London 29. Zvelebil, M., Macklin, M.G., Passmore, D.G. and Ramsden, P. 1996. Alluvial archaeology in the Barrow Valley, southeast Ireland: the “Riverford” culture revisited, The Journal of Irish Archaeology 7, 13-40.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/03e1033-knockhouse-lower-co-waterford/ 18
  24. 24. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford 03E1033 8 Figures 2000m 0m Development Location of Knockhouse Enclosure Site Lower Figure 1: Discovery map with location of sitehttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/03e1033-knockhouse-lower-co-waterford/ 19
  25. 25. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford 03E1033 150m 0m FigurFigure 2: RMP with location of sitehttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/03e1033-knockhouse-lower-co-waterford/ 20
  26. 26. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford 03E1033 Knockhouse Lower Location of enclosure 03E1033 Figure 3: Site location with area of development markedhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/03e1033-knockhouse-lower-co-waterford/ 21
  27. 27. Northern Entrance Possible Ancillary Structure “D”-Shaped Structure C.570 ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 East Ditch West Ditchhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/03e1033-knockhouse-lower-co-waterford/ Possible Southern Entrance Base of Ditch Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford Figure 4: Site plan showing enclosure and associated features 03E103322
  28. 28. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford 03E1033 Possible Entrance Hearth Figure 5: Round house showing all cut featureshttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/03e1033-knockhouse-lower-co-waterford/ 23
  29. 29. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford 03E1033 Outline of structure Possible Entrance Figure 6: Round house showing postpipes and outlining the arc of the structure Hearth Postpipes : Key:http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/03e1033-knockhouse-lower-co-waterford/ 24
  30. 30. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford 03E1033 Pit with large amounts of charred grain Figure 7: Possible ancillary structurehttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/03e1033-knockhouse-lower-co-waterford/ 25
  31. 31. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford 03E1033 9 Plates Plate 1: Plate 1 Post-excavation of site showing the enclosurehttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/03e1033-knockhouse-lower-co-waterford/ 26
  32. 32. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford 03E1033 Plate 2: Collapsed bank material within the west ditch Plate 3: Post-excavation of the round househttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/03e1033-knockhouse-lower-co-waterford/ 27
  33. 33. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford 03E1033 Plate 4: Post-excavation of pipe C.473 Plate 4: Post-excavation of pipe C.473 Plate 5: In situ shot of pottery fragments within the ditch fills prior to excavationhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/03e1033-knockhouse-lower-co-waterford/ 28
  34. 34. 10 Appendices 10.1 Context Register Context Number Grid Type Dimensions (lxbxd) Description Finds Environmental in metres samples 1 Fill of test trench 2 Cut of test trench 3 All Sod Extensive 4 All Topsoil Extensive 5 All Interface between topsoil and Extensive ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 subsoil 6 45 Fill of pit C.23 Ashy. 7 45 Spread Mottled ashy. 8 45 Fill of pit C.23 Mid greyish brown. 9 45 Fill of stakehole C.14 Dark grey. 10 45 Spread Light brown clay. 11 45 Fill of pit C.24 Dark greyish brown clayey silt.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/03e1033-knockhouse-lower-co-waterford/ 12 45 Spread Light pinkish grey clay. 13 45 Spread Mid grey. 14 45 Cut of stakehole, fill C.9 15 45 Fill of pit C.24 Mid greyish brown silty clay. 16 45 Fill of pit C.24 Mid yellowish grey silty clay. 17 45 Spread Mottled greyish brown silty clay. 18 45 Fill of pit Greyish white ashy. 19 45 Fill of posthole Mottled greyish brown. 20 45 Fill of posthole Greyish white ashy. 21 45 Spread Dark greyish brown silty clay. 22 45 Fill of pit C.23 Ashy white. 23 45 Cut of pit Shallow 24 45 Cut of pit Shallow linear feature which may have represented the base of a foundation trench Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford 25 45 Fill of stakehole C.26 26 45 Cut of stakehole, fill C.25 27 45 Fill of stakehole C.28 03E103329
  35. 35. Context Number Grid Type Dimensions (lxbxd) Description Finds Environmental in metres samples 28 45 Cut of stakehole, fill C.27 29 45 Fill of stakehole C.30 30 45 Cut of stakehole, fill C.29 31 45 Cut of pit 0.2 N-S x 0.181 x Irregular shaped cut with rounded corners. Gradual None SS2 0.07 break of slope top at N, imperceptible at S, sharp at E and W. Sides moderate and smooth at N and S, steep and concave at E, vertical and smooth at W. Break of slope base gradual at N, sharp elsewhere. Base concave. Filled with C.6, cut into subsoil. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 32 45 Fill of stakehole C.33 33 45 Cut of stakehole, filled with C.32 and C.37 34 22 Spread Mid greyish brown charcoal spread. 35 22 Possible pit fill 36 45 Spread Light greyish brown clay. 37 45 Fill of stakehole C.33 Charcoal richhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/03e1033-knockhouse-lower-co-waterford/ 38 45 Fill of postpipe C.39 Mid greenish brown silty clay in postpipe C.39, packed in place with C.40 in posthole C.43. 39 45 Cut of postpipe in posthole C.43 Filled with C.38, packed in place with C.40 in posthole C.43. 40 45 Fill of posthole C.43 Packs C.39 which is filled with C.38 in place. 41 45 Spread Light whitish brown. 42 45 Fill of pit Mid brown charcoal flecked. Fill of C.46? 43 45 Cut of posthole Filled with C.40 which packs postpipe C.39 with fill C.38 in place. 44 45/46 Fill of stakehole 45 45/46 Cut of stakehole 46 45 Cut of pit 47 All Subsoil Extensive 48 45 Spread Light whitish brown. 49 45 Whitish mottled clay. Knockhouse Lower, Co Waterford 50 45/46 Spread Whitish grey fill of C.60 51 45 Possible fill of stakehole 52 45 Possible cut of stakehole 03E103330

×