Eachtra JournalIssue 13                                                    [ISSN 2009-2237]                  Archaeologica...
Archaeological Excavation Report,KilbaneCastletroyCo Limerick                            August 2008Client:Licence No.:   ...
03E1717         Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick           Table of Contents           A...
03E1717        Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick           Appendix 1: Stratigraphic Inde...
03E1717        Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick           List of Figures               ...
03E1717        Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick           Acknowledgements           Tha...
03E1717        Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick           Abstract           Until monit...
03E1717        Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick           1	        Introduction        ...
03E1717        Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick               The site is roughly triang...
03E1717        Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick           4.1	      Area 1           A r...
03E1717        Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick           Cremation pits           The c...
03E1717        Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick           4.2	 Area 2           Crematio...
03E1717        Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick           0.05–0.07m and there were diff...
03E1717        Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick           area. 16g of burnt human bone,...
03E1717        Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick              Finally a large pit, F400, ...
03E1717        Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick           4.8	      Area 8           Ful...
03E1717        Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick           4.12	 Pottery                T...
03E1717        Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick           niles buried with a mature per...
03E1717        Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick           McCutcheon, S. 2006 In I. Benn...
03E1717        Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick             7	        Figures           ...
03E1717        Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick       Figure 2: Extract from Ordnance Su...
03E1717        Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick                                         ...
03E1717        Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick                                         ...
03E1717        Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick                                         ...
03E1717                                                                                                                   ...
03E1717                                     A                                                                             ...
03E1717                                                                                                   C.204           ...
03E1717                                                                                                                   ...
03E1717         Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick                                        ...
N                                                                                                                         ...
03E1717           Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick        N                             ...
03E1717            Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick                             Area 6  ...
03E1717                                                                                                                   ...
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)

1,189

Published on

Until monitoring of top-soil stripping commenced in 2003 only one archaeological monument was recorded on the site of the current development, Enclosure LI005:037. Following monitoring and subsequent excavation this area now includes records of at least three Late Bronze Age unenclosed flat cremation cemeteries, a ring-ditch in close proximity to one of the smaller cemeteries and the remains of four Fulachta Fiadh.

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,189
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)"

  1. 1. Eachtra JournalIssue 13 [ISSN 2009-2237] Archaeological Excavation Report 03E1717 - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick A ring-ditch, three cremation burial cemeteries and a four Fulachta Fiadh
  2. 2. Archaeological Excavation Report,KilbaneCastletroyCo Limerick August 2008Client:Licence No.: 03E1717Licensee: Niamh O’CallaghanPlanning Register No.: 01/1328 Contact details: Ballycurreen Industrial Estate, Kinsale Road, Cork.Written by: Niamh O’Callaghan Tel.: 021 4915850 Fax: 021 4975711 E-mail: info@eachtra.ie Web Site: www.eachtra.ie
  3. 3. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Table of Contents Acknowledgements........................................................................................................1 Abstract.........................................................................................................................2 1 Introduction.........................................................................................................3 2 Site Location and Description...............................................................................3 3 Archaeological Background..................................................................................4 4 The Excavation.....................................................................................................4 4.1 Area 1.................................................................................................................5 4.2 Area 2.................................................................................................................7 4.3 Area 3.................................................................................................................8 4.4 Area 4.................................................................................................................8 4.5 Area 5.................................................................................................................9 4.6 Area 6.................................................................................................................9 4.7 Area 7................................................................................................................10 4.8 Area 8................................................................................................................11 4.9 Plant Remains....................................................................................................11 4.10 Charcoal............................................................................................................11 4.11 Cremated Bone..................................................................................................11 4.12 Pottery ..............................................................................................................12 4.13 Radiocarbon Dates............................................................................................12 . 5 Summary.............................................................................................................12 6 References............................................................................................................ 13 7 Figures................................................................................................................. 15 8 Plates...................................................................................................................30 Copyright Notice: Please note that all original information contained within this report, including all original drawings, photographs, text and all other printed matter deemed to be the writer’s, remains the property of the writer and Eachtra Archaeological Projects and so may not be reproduced or used in any form without the written consent of the writer or Eachtra Archaeological Projects.Eachtra Archaeological Projects ii
  4. 4. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Appendix 1: Stratigraphic Index. .................................................................................. 39 . Appendix 2: Stratigraphic Matrix.................................................................................67 Appendix 3: Finds Register........................................................................................... 75 Appendix 4: Plant Remains. .........................................................................................77 . Appendix 5: Charcoal Report. ......................................................................................80 . Appendix 6: Cremated Human Remains......................................................................84 Appendix 7: Pottery Report......................................................................................... 118 .Eachtra Archaeological Projects iii
  5. 5. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick List of Figures Figure 1: Extract from Ordnance Survey Ireland, Discovery Series Map, No. 65................... 15 Figure 2: Extract from Ordnance Survey Ireland, Rural Place Map....................................... 16 Figure 3: Extract from Ordnance Survey 6” sheet, LI005 in conjunction with the Record of Monuments and Places constraint map.................................................................................. 17 Figure 4: Extract from Ordnance Survey 1st edition 6” sheet LI005...................................... 18 Figure 5: Site development plan with 8 areas of archaeology highlighted............................... 19 Figure 6a: Area 1 post-excavation plan................................................................................... 20 Figure 6b: Area 1 sections...................................................................................................... 21 Figure 7a: Area 2 post-excavation plan................................................................................... 22 Figure 7b: Area 2 selected sections......................................................................................... 23 Figure 8: Area 3 post-excavation plan.................................................................................... 24 Figure 9: Area 5 post-excavation plan.................................................................................... 25 Figure 10a: Area 6 post-excavation plan................................................................................. 26 Figure 10b: Area 6 sections.................................................................................................... 27 Figure 11: Area 7 post-excavation plan & section................................................................... 28 Figure 12: Area 8 post-excavation plan and section................................................................ 29 List of Plates Plate 1: View of recorded Enclosure, LI005:037.................................................................... 30 Plate 2: View of excavated Ring-ditch, Area 1........................................................................ 30 Plate 3: View of cremation F125 and circle of stake-holes, Area 1.......................................... 31 Plate 4: Area 1 post-excavation............................................................................................... 31 Plate 5: Area 2 pre-excavation................................................................................................ 32 Plates 6: Area 2 cremations, F175, 27, 198 & 252.................................................................. 32 . Plates 7: Area 2 cremations, F175, 27, 198 & 252................................................................... 33 Plates 8: Area 2 cremations, F175, 27, 198 & 252.................................................................. 33 . Plates 9: Area 2 cremations, F175, 27, 198 & 252.................................................................. 34 . Plate 10: Area 2 post-excavation............................................................................................. 34 Plate 11: Cremation, F366 during excavation......................................................................... 35 Plate 12: Cremation, F366 during excavation........................................................................ 35 Plate 13: Cremation, F366 during excavation........................................................................ 36 . Plate 14: Area 3...................................................................................................................... 36 Plate 15: Area 4...................................................................................................................... 37 Plate 16: Area 6, cremation pits F85, 86 & 87........................................................................ 37 Plate 17: Area 7, Fulacht Fiadh............................................................................................... 38Eachtra Archaeological Projects iv
  6. 6. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Acknowledgements Thanks to Eachtra Archaeological Projects particularly Jacinta, Lar, Choryna, Rita and Mar- ion; Chieftan Construction, namely John Collins; Helen Roche and Eoin Grogan for pottery analysis; Adrian Kennedy for conservation advice; Catryn Power analysed the cremated bone; Beta Analytic Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory processed samples for radiocarbon; Abigail Brewer for the charcoal report and the plant remains report; Flor Hurley initially monitored the site; Martin Doody for helpful discussion on the text; all of those who worked on the site and finally Rory O’Callaghan for editing the text.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 1
  7. 7. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Abstract Until monitoring of top-soil stripping commenced in 2003 only one archaeological monu- ment was recorded on the site of the current development, Enclosure LI005:037. Following monitoring and subsequent excavation this area now includes records of at least three Late Bronze Age unenclosed flat cremation cemeteries, a ring-ditch in close proximity to one of the smaller cemeteries and the remains of four Fulachta Fiadh.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 2
  8. 8. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick 1 Introduction Full planning permission was granted to developers to construct 180 houses, 82 apartments, a crèche and ancillary works at Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick. This work was to be com- pleted on a phased basis and all top-soil stripping for Phase 1 and part of Phase 2 was un- dertaken by Flor Hurley, 03E1382 (Hurley, 2003). Stripping continued over eight days and a large number of potential archaeological features were revealed in eight areas. While monitoring was being undertaken for the current development, a new road was also being constructed across the southern part of the site which was to replace part of School- house Lane. This work formed a separate contract and was monitored and excavated by Lim- erick County Council archaeologists. This team also excavated a number of pits and at the time the area was being described as a possible Bronze Age flat cemetery. The remains of two fulachta fiadh were fully excavated, one found during monitoring and a second found as a result of the excavation. The remaining two were located along the line of the access road and were not excavated as part of this project. In Area 1 a ring-ditch and eight cremation pits were excavated. One of the pits was sur- rounded by a circle of 11 stake-holes. Sherds of pottery were recorded in two examples and three phases of cremation burial were interpreted. The ring-ditch was also excavated. Eighty-nine pits were excavated in Area 2, all but 12 contained fragments of cremated bone which produced evidence of social stratification with mature individuals primarily bur- ied separately and all juveniles evident buried with a mature person. Pathology was also rec- ognised in four examples. Evidence for the preservation and deterioration of bone and pottery was well documented in one example. F366 was the only pit to be covered by a capstone that served to preserve the burial in a different manner to the remainder. It also helped to preserve the pot that contained the burial. Of the 89 pits excavated 15 contained fragments of Late Bronze Age pottery which ultimately derived from settlement contexts. Finally, three further cremation pits were recorded in Area 6, while a number of features were excavated in Areas 3, 4 & 5 some of which included token deposits of cremated bone. 2 Site Location and Description The development site is located in the eastern suburbs of Limerick city, in the townland of Kilbane and parish of Kilmurry, national grid reference c. R162000/156000 (Figure 1). The site is situated just south of Castletroy Golf Club and is bordered by two minor roads. To the west are a row of individual properties on Golf Links Road which connects the N7 (to Dublin) and the N24 (to Waterford), while the south and south-east sides are bordered by Schoolhouse Lane (Figure 2).Eachtra Archaeological Projects 3
  9. 9. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick The site is roughly triangular in plan and generally slopes southward to the valley of the Groody River, c. 0.5km south and west. Before development commenced the site was actively managed for agriculture, and mature hedgerows remained along the south and south-eastern boundaries. At least two field boundaries were removed from the centre of the development, aligned north/south, and one of these had a small stream alongside. This has since been di- rected through concrete pipes. Included within the development-site boundaries, approximately mid-way on the south- east side, are the remains of a Recorded Monument, LI005:037. This was not physically af- fected by the current development. 3 Archaeological Background Within the development site, in the townland of Kilbane or An Chill Bán meaning ‘white church’ or ‘white wood’ (Joyce, 1923), there was one Recorded Monument, LI005:037 (Fig- ures 3 & 4, Plate 1). This was located approximately halfway along the south-eastern bound- ary and listed in the Record of Monuments and Places (RMP) as an Enclosure. However, the feature appears as a flat-topped mound with an outer ditch that may be a Raised Ringfort rather than an Enclosure. The circular platform is 1.5–2m high with a diameter of 38m. It appears to be surrounded by a ditch, with only slight traces visible at ground level which are best viewed on the northern side. The external diameter is c. 48m. When viewed from the north-east the platform appears to be sunken at the centre. 4 The Excavation Eight areas of archaeological potential were recorded during monitored top-soil strip- ping throughout the Phase 1 development (Figure 5, see Appendices 1 – 7). Where possi- ble, feature numbers allocated during monitoring were also assigned during the excavation. However, due to extra features being recorded during the excavation and the difficulties involved in separate companies undertaking each task this was not always possible and many of the numbers allocated during monitoring were abandoned during the excavation and new numbers allocated. Therefore, there is not always a direct correlation of features between the monitoring and excavation reports. Full details are available in the stratigraphic index (Appendix 1) and the stratigraphic matrix (Appendix 2).Eachtra Archaeological Projects 4
  10. 10. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick 4.1 Area 1 A ring-ditch, a linear feature, eight cremation pits with a series of stake-holes and two isolated features (including one cremation) were excavated in an area that measured approximately 100m2 (Figure 6, plate 4). Over 100 cremation pits and 53 samples of cremated bone were excavated at Kilbane. Only three of the samples included sexually diagnostic bone, all male. These were recovered from F116 (fill F115), F125 (fill F126) and F136 in Area 1. Additionally, pathology, degenera- tive joint disease in the form of osteophytosis was recorded in two samples F96 (fill F120) and F136. Thirty-two sherds of Late Bronze Age pottery was recovered from three features, cremation pits F21 and F22 and the linear F89. Ring-ditch A circular ditch (F97) enclosed two pits (F24 & F378) and was excavated 2m west of a small cluster of cremation burials (Plate 2). F97 comprised a circular ditch cut into natural sub- soil. The ditch was 0.80m wide and 0.24m deep, with an external diameter of 5.6m and an internal diameter of 4m. The sides sloped to a slightly rounded, almost flat, base. It had one fill, F113, composed of mid-brown silt, with small, fist-sized stones in the central lower part. A charcoal sample was taken from the ring-ditch, but a14C date could not be achieved. A layer, F132, was located within the ring-ditch F97 and was interpreted as a layer of bur- ied sod and included flecks of charcoal. No features were located beneath F132, however two features were cut into it, F24 and F378. F24 was a pit located within the north-west quadrant of F97. It contained two fills, F106 and F107, both of which included flecks of charcoal while the latter also included a large flat stone, similar to a capstone found over a cremation burial in Area 2. F378 was located in the south-west quadrant of F97 and contained one charcoal- flecked fill, F379. Apart from the large stone in F24, which may have been intended as a capstone, no evi- dence for the use of the pits existed. However, due to their morphology, their location within a ring-ditch adjacent to a small cremation cemetery and the large stone within the fill of F24, these features are thought to be pits that were originally excavated with the intention of inter- ring cremations but were abandoned. No stratigraphic relationship existed between the ring-ditch and the cremation burials recorded from Area 1. Linear F89 F89 was a shallow linear feature located 1.5m west of the ring-ditch, F97. It measured 5.2m long by 1.6m wide and was generally 0.2m deep. It was filled with F139, composed of dark brown silty clay with occasional flecks of charcoal and included two LBA pottery sherds.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 5
  11. 11. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Cremation pits The cremation pits were generally circular in plan with an average diameter of 0.50m and an average depth of 0.20m. The fills were composed of charcoal-rich silt with lumps of charcoal recorded in three features. Substantial quantities of bone were recovered from four of the pits, while occasional sherds of pottery were recorded in two examples. Phase 1 – Cremations The earliest phase of cremation burials was recorded in the base of the linear F89. They were truncated by the linear. The remains of two cremations were excavated: F138 was associated with two stake-holes, F129 and F133; and cremation F125 was located within a circle of 11 stakes-holes (F124, 123, 122, 135, 136, 130, 128,110, 121 (replaced or supported by 134) and 131) (Plate 3). The final two stakeholes were visible in the fill of F89. The cremation burial F125 was surrounded by a circle of stakes and subsequently all but two of the stakes were removed or disintegrated. The features were cut by the linear F89. Stake-hole F127 cut cremation F125. It may have been used to mark the location of cre- mation F125, or may have formed part of a small super-structure associated with it. Phase 2 - Cremations The 2nd phase of cremation burials comprised a group of four cremations (F21, F22, F96, and F103) and two stakeholes. They cut the fill of the linear F89. An Early Bronze Age date Cal BC 1690 to 1500 (Beta 215288) was returned from the fill of F103. The cremation pit F21 truncated an earlier stake-hole, F110. Rim, basal and body sherds of pottery were recovered from the fill of the cremation. The remains of stake-hole F136 un- derlay cremation F21. Phase 3 - Cremations The third and final phase of cremation burials in Area 1 consisted of one cremation, F23 (filled with F101) which truncated an earlier burial, F103. This cremation pit included burnt bone and charcoal-rich silt (Plate 4). Isolated features Finally, one cremation pit, F116, was recorded c. 1m south-east of linear F89. This was similar in plan to those described above. The fill was a black, charcoal-rich silty clay with flecks of burnt bone. It cut a short linear F118 (fill F117). The linear may have been associated with the cremation pit as it included flecks of charcoal and flecks of burnt bone.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 6
  12. 12. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick 4.2 Area 2 Cremation cemetery A total of 89 pits were excavated in Area 2 (Figure 7, plate 5). The area measured 4 m north- south by 8 m east-west and was located 125m north of Area 1. The pits measured on average 0.47m in diameter by 0.2m in depth with variations in diameters from 0.20m to 0.70m and in depth from 0.07m to 0.40m. Only one of the pits F366 was covered by a capstone, others were covered by a re-deposited sod layer. A small number of cremation pits were excavated around bedrock. In general, the majority of the pits respected the location of others, but c. ten of the pits truncated the edges of earlier pits (Plates 6 - 9). All of the pits are considered to be cremation pits due to their homogeneity and morphol- ogy. Substantial quantities of cremated bone were recovered from 44, flecks of cremated bone were recovered from 34 and no trace of bone was recorded in 11 of the pits. Pathology was recorded in two of the bone samples. Degenerative joint disease in the form of osteophytosis was recorded in pit F345 (fill F344) while Schmorl’s nodes from herniated discs were evident in F49 (fill 269). The largest amount of bone was recovered from the only covered cremation pit F366. Fragments of Late Bronze Age pottery was recovered from 15 of the pits. The assemblage comprised 217 sherds and 67 fragments from between 17 to 24 vessels (Appendix 7). These cremation pits were located within an area of 12m by 6m. Two possible post-holes (F280 and F282) were recorded centrally within the group of cremations. Although very shallow, 0.10m deep, and likely to have been truncated, the pits were 0.20m and 0.38m in diameter and may have formed a central element to a superstructure over the cemetery. No further evidence for a superstructure was apparent. Individual excavation of F366 Cremation pit F366 was sealed by a capstone. The pit was 0.47m in diameter by 0.14m deep, the capstone measured 0.45 by 0.36 by 0.06m in extent. A Middle Bronze Age date Cal BC 1290 to 1020 (Beta 215289) was returned from the pit. The pot and its contents were removed from the pit as a single entity (Plates 11-13) and sent to Adrian Kennedy for further study (Appendix 7). The contents of the pit were then excavated and recorded in layers and all bone sent to Catryn Power for analysis (Appendix 6). The specialists confirmed that the structure of the vessel had not survived due to decay over time. Only the form of the pot had been intact and, in reality, only one sherd had survived. The form of the pot measured 0.18m in di- ameter, 0.10–0.11m deep and was very fragile. It appeared bowl-shaped and was not inverted although the base was never visible. Occasional rim sherds measured c.5–6mm in thickness and included coarse temper. The pot was black on the outside and dark grey on the inside. The bone was well preserved, and many diagnostic pieces were recorded. The bone was occasionally burnt black or blue but was mostly pale brown. Pieces varied in length fromEachtra Archaeological Projects 7
  13. 13. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick 0.05–0.07m and there were different levels of preservation. Some pieces were very porous and disintegrated easily. Most of the bone lay on one side of the pot, and it was tightly packed. There was little soil between bone pieces, and the bone was most porous towards the base of the pot. Following analysis of the cremated bone from F366, if was found that they represent the remains of one individual, aged in the mid to late teens. This bone type was found within and outside the pot, together with neonate remains found outside the pot only. No familial relationship could be determined between the neonate and the older individual (Power, Ap- pendix 6). 4.3 Area 3 Area 3 covered a relatively large area (30m north-south by 10m east-west ) and was divided into two sections, north and south (Figure 8). In the northern section there was one large pit, four post-holes and two pit/post-holes, F79, F80, F258, F255, F210, F205 and F207 (Plate 14). F79 was a large, partly bowl-shaped pit that included three fills, F214, F215 and F216. The two upper fills ranged from mid- to dark brown silty clay with charcoal flecks, while the lower fill comprised black charcoal-rich silt with heat cracked stones at the base. All of the features included charcoal flecks while three included fragments of bone: F255, filled with F254, had unburnt bone fragments, while F205 and F207, filled with F206 and F208 respectively, included small fragments of burnt animal bone. A short distance south two isolated pits/post-holes were recorded, F92 and F93, filled with F320 and F321 respectively. They were similar in nature, c. 0.60m in length by 0.40–0.50m in width and 0.45m deep and were filled with dark brown, silty clay. Possible packing stones were recorded in F320 and flecks of charcoal and large burnt stones in F321. Finally, in the most southerly section of Area 3 five features were recorded, F75, F77, F78, F272 and F284. F78 included stone packing F322, and an upper fill which included tiny fragments of burnt bone. This was also the case with the upper fill of F75, F304, which included small burnt bone fragments and slight evidence of in situ burning. 4.4 Area 4 Located a short distance south of Area 3 the excavation covered an area 45m long by 6m wide. Only those features found during monitoring were excavated due to time constraints and in most cases new feature numbers were allocated as opposed to those assigned during monitoring while many features were tested and considered natural. Twenty-four features were excavated, including six stakeholes and 15 pits, and deemed likely to be archaeological in nature (Figure 9 & Plate 15). Many features were anomalous and collectively did not ap- pear to be associated with each other. Of the six stake-holes excavated (F524 – 527, F541 and F548) four included flecks of charcoal. Charcoal was found in most of the 15 pits across theEachtra Archaeological Projects 8
  14. 14. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick area. 16g of burnt human bone, representing a minimum of three individuals, was recorded in features 88, 520 and 568 collectively, and burnt stone was also recorded. Two sherds of pottery were recovered from F573 and two stone artefacts, possibly rubbing stones, were found during monitoring. 4.5 Area 5 Also located on the southern section of the site, ?m west of Area 6, Area 5 included eight pits, two stake-holes, two possible post-holes and one later cultivation furrow (Figure 10). These features were not part of a formal structure although they were recorded as possibly archaeo- logical in nature as three of the pits included charcoal, three had fragments of burnt stone, and F16 included 5g of burnt human bone representing a minimum of one individual. 4.6 Area 6 Cremation cemetery Located 50m south of the cremation cemetery in Area 1, Area 6 included three cremation pits (F85, F86 and F87) similar to those from Area 1 and 2. Also included were two deposits (F88 and F396) that included cremated bone and five cut features, three of these included flecks of bone and charcoal while one, F400 included fragments of pottery (Figure 11). The cremation pits were similar in plan: F85 and 86 were circular with a diameter of 0.45m and depth of 0.16m while F87 was sub-circular, approximately 0.10m wider but only 0.10m deep (Plate 16). Fragments of cremated bone from mature adults were recovered from the cremation pits. An anatomical variation in the form of a Wormian Bone was found in analysis of F86. This is an extra bone which occurs on the occipital bone and may be a domi- nant genetic trait (Appendix 6). Later Bronze Age pottery sherds were recovered from the fills of F85 and F87. The two deposits F88 and F396 included charcoal and cremated bone. They measured 0.30m by 0.42m by 0.03m and 0.20m by 0.30m by 0.03m respectively and were not associ- ated with any other feature. It is considered that these layers were disturbed and were likely to have been dragged from the cremation pits during top-soil stripping. Three of the remaining five features included flecks of charcoal and cremated bone, and two also included burnt stone. It is likely that, although different in nature, these features may have been associated with cremation burials F85, F86 and F87. F9 was a shallow linear feature, 2m long and 0.65m wide; F398 was a large circular pit with a diameter of 0.77m and depth of 0.20m, and F392 was a small pit 0.24m wide by 0.15m deep. F9 and F392 included burnt stone while all three included fragments of cremated bone. It is not likely that this was a result of disturbance but the features may have been in use when the cremations were exposed.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 9
  15. 15. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Finally a large pit, F400, and a smaller example, F8, both included flecks of charcoal and Late Bronze Age pottery sherds, but their association with the remaining features is unknown. 4.7 Area 7 Area 7 comprised two separate areas of archaeological material recorded during Phase 1 monitoring. The first of these areas comprised six features described by Flor Hurley in the monitoring report. During Phase 1 works, these features were recorded and covered. Unfor- tunately all but one was destroyed when a machine was used to clear rubble as part of the re-alignment of Schoolhouse Lane. One feature survived, it consisted of a sub-rectangular pit, F6, which measured, 0.45m wide by 1m long by 0.20m deep. It included two fills, F401 composed of scorched, loose, silty clay and F402 which was dark grey, loose silty clay with flecks of charcoal. Fulacht Fiadh The second area comprised a layer of blackened silt with heat-shattered stones situated 5m from a small stream (Plate 17). The stream was diverted through concrete pipes in the area of the development site. The layer measured 8.5m by 10.5m. It was at most 0.20m deep and it petered out towards the perimeter. Two large, shallow rectangular features and six smaller pits underlay the layer (Figure 11). Although not a classic example, the feature is considered to be the remains of a Fulacht Fiadh. There was no evidence of a fire or hearth. A 1m wide trench, orientated north/south was excavated through the mound of burnt material. Two layers were recorded in the mound: F502, an upper layer of blackened silt with shattered stones, overlay F503, which was similar but included more charcoal. A second, 1m wide trench was then excavated, orientated east/west and subsequently each resultant quadrant was excavated. Following the removal of the remains of the mound, two possible troughs, F505 and F506 (the latter associated with two stake-holes F510 and F511), and six smaller pits, F508, F504, F512 (which truncated F505), F516, F517 and F519, were excavated. The troughs F505 and F506 were filled with typical fulacht mound material. However, they were shallow – 0.20m and 0.30m deep (the latter was truncated by a field drain). It is con- sidered that the two stake-holes recorded in F505 may have been part of an organic structure used to help contain water within the feature and also that the larger shattered stones found in the fill of F506 may be evidence of abandonment. There was less charcoal in this fill and the stones were not used to their full potential. The function of the smaller pits is unknown, perhaps domestic in nature. Two were filled with the primary mound layer F503 while others were deliberately filled before being covered by F503. Apart from the largest pit, F512, which truncated the possible trough F505, the pits were generally 0.38m to 0.40m in diameter and varied from 0.03m to 0.19m deep.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 10
  16. 16. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick 4.8 Area 8 Fulachta Fiadh One feature was recorded in Area 8 during Phase 1 monitoring works. Unfortunately, it was also disturbed at this time. It was a layer of burnt mound material F405 (Figure 12). It was loosely compacted, black silty clay with small heat-shattered sandstones and occasional shattered limestone. It measured 6m by 5m by 0.30m deep. One field-drain truncated F405. There were no other features associated with this layer and it is considered to be the remains of a layer from a fulacht fiadh and likely to be ex-situ. 4.9 Plant Remains A total of ten samples from this site were examined by Abigail Brewer (Appendix 4). Five of the samples produced plant remains other than charcoal. The plant remains recov- ered from Area 2 probably represent material used as tinder or fuel. 4.10 Charcoal A total of 56 samples were examined by Abigail Brewer (Appendix 5). The majority of the charcoal samples came from the fills of the cremation pits. The charred wood remains were dominated by hazel/alder, and ash with lesser amounts of willow/poplar, oak and other spe- cies. Many of the fragments were from twigs or small branches which would be consistent with the wood being collected as firewood. 4.11 Cremated Bone The cremated bone was examined by Catryn Power (Appendix 6). The remains of fifty four cremated people were identified; of these four were juveniles, and four were teenagers. The sex of three males was established. Pathologies conditions were seen in four people and a genetic anatomical variation was recorded in one adult. Social stratification was part of society in some form as mature individuals were primarily buried separately, and all juveniles evident were buried with a mature person. Parts of two funerary urns were used as vessels to hold the cremated remains of people, which were then deposited in pits. The number of pits with cremated bone deposits totalled fifty three. The pit, which con- tained the funerary vessel may have yielded one or two individuals aged in the mid to late teens, and a neonate, while three other deposits held two individuals, an adult and a juvenile (under the age of fourteen years). If each burial pit (fifty one) represents a token deposit, whether large or small, of a deceased person, then the total number of individuals in this cemetery group is fifty four individuals (including the juveniles).Eachtra Archaeological Projects 11
  17. 17. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick 4.12 Pottery The pottery assemblage was examined by Eoin Grogan and Helen Roche (Appendix 7). The Kilbane site, and its ceramic assemblage, forms an important addition to our under- standing of the Late Bronze Age in North Munster. This assemblage contains the remains of at least 30 and not more than 35 separate vessels. This is a significant collection especially as the pots come largely as single examples from separate features. While there is some variation the assemblage is reasonably homogenous and appears to be contemporary. All of the pot- tery is generally from flat-bottomed vessels with unexpanded upright rims, gently rounded or upright profiles and simple rounded junctions with the base. There is a broad range of sizes amongst the vessels, between 0.14-0.22 m in external diameter. All the vessels seem to have been used for cooking, derived from settlement contexts. 4.13 Radiocarbon Dates Radiocarbon analysis was carried out by Beta Analytic Inc. Lab. code Feature Sample Material Un-calibrat- 2 sigma Period No. No. ed date calibrated date Beta 105 3 Charcoal 3310 ±40 cal BC Early 215288 BP 1690-1500 Bronze Age Beta 365 49 Charcoal 2950 ±40 cal BC Middle 215289 BP 1290-1020 Bronze Age 5 Summary Kilbane is testimony to a long-standing tradition of cremation burial within unenclosed flat cemeteries. Three cemeteries were excavated under the current license, a fourth was dug by Limerick County Council, 03E1343 (McCutcheon, 2006), and finally Aegis Archaeology Ltd (Hayes, 2006) excavated a small example, also in the townland of Kilbane, 02E1707. The cemetery in Area 1 was small but elaborate. It included eight cremation pits, one of which had been surrounded by a circle of stake-holes and a ring-ditch. Three phases of burials were discerned. An extensive unenclosed flat cremation cemetery was excavated in Area 2. 89 cremation pits with burials of at least 54 individuals were excavated. Social stratification was evidently part of society in Kilbane, with mature individuals primarily buried separately and all juve-Eachtra Archaeological Projects 12
  18. 18. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick niles buried with a mature person. Adolescents, once they had reached puberty, were likely to have been buried in their own pit as mature adults. The cemetery in Area 6 was a small example, with just three burial pits recorded. Much bone was missing from the pits. Possibly samples of burials had been ritually de- posited in nearby watercourses, perhaps the Groody river or the Shannon, only 5km to the west. Ritual deposits of bone may also be accounted for by the small pockets of cremated bone recorded in Areas 3, 4 and 5. Two 14C dates were recorded for the current site. These span the Early to Middle Bronze Age which, considering the complexities involved in the Bronze Age community achieving the quality of cremated bone at Kilbane, is further evidence of the long-standing tradition of cremation burial in this area. The extensive collection of LBA pottery, with 30–35 flat-bottomed vessels represented, together with the remains of four Fulachta Fiadh in the overall site, all pay credence to the ex- istence of a large, well-established community in the area at that time. However, the location of settlement evidence has yet to be established beyond the fact that all of the LBA pottery originally derived from domestic contexts. 6 References 1st ed OS sheet LI005:037 3rd ed OS sheet LI005:037 in conjunction with the RMP Discovery Series Map (No. 65, OSi) Ireland South Map (OSi) Rural Place Map (OSi) 1:2500 Ordnance Survey Letters Hayes, A. 2006 In I. Bennett (ed.) Excavations 2003: Summary accounts of archaeological excavations in Ireland, pp 308. Hurley, F. 2003 Archaeological Monitoring at Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick. Unpublished specialist report. National Monuments Service, Department of the Environment, heritage and Local Government, Dublin.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 13
  19. 19. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick McCutcheon, S. 2006 In I. Bennett (ed.) Excavations 2003: Summary accounts of archaeological excavations in Ireland, pp 308. Power, C. 2005 An Analysis of the Assemblage of Cremated Human Remains from Kilbane, County Limerick. Specialist report. Waddell, J. 1998 The Prehistoric Archaeology of Ireland, Galway University Press. Appendices (including Specialist Reports) At the time of submission the excavation archive including record sheets, registers, plans, photographs and artefacts were being stored at the offices of Eachta Archaeological Projects Ltd, Ballycurreen Industrial Estate, Kinsale Rd., Cork.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 14
  20. 20. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick 7 Figures Site Location Figure 1: Extract from Ordnance Survey Ireland, Discovery Series Map, No. 65.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 15
  21. 21. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Figure 2: Extract from Ordnance Survey Ireland, Rural Place Map.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 16
  22. 22. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Site Location Figure 3: Extract from Ordnance Survey 6” sheet, LI005 in conjunction with the Record of 0 1 km Monuments and Places constraint map.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 17
  23. 23. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Figure 4: Extract from Ordnance Survey 1st edition 6” sheet LI005.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 18
  24. 24. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick N Area 2 Area 8 FF3 Area 7 Area 3 Area 1 Area 4 Area 6 Area 5 Figure 5: Site development plan with 8 areas of archaeology highlighted.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 19
  25. 25. 03E1717 N C C.97 B C.96Eachtra Archaeological Projects C.22 C.23 C.103 C.24 C.135 C.122 C.378 C.110 C.123 C.125 C.124 C.21 E 12, N10 E 20, C.127 N10 C.136 C.89 C.121 C.131 C.134 C.130 C.128 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick A C.138 C.129 C.133 D C.118 C.116 0 1m Figure 6a: Area 1 post-excavation plan.20
  26. 26. 03E1717 A BEachtra Archaeological Projects C.1 C.24 Section Trench C.132 C.97 C.97 North-west facing section through Ring Ditch. C D C.139 C.139 C.139 C.139 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick C.89 C.21 C.31 C.22 C.96 West facing section of C.89 (Fill.89) 50 cm 0 1 m Figure 6b: Area 1 sections.21
  27. 27. 03E1717 C.204 N C.262 C.152 C.289 C.177 C.186 C.333 C.194 C.181 C.149 C.160 C.33 C.246 C.162 C.250 C.32 C.200 C.50Eachtra Archaeological Projects C.184 C.275 C.248 C.277 C.169 C.191 C.188 C.196 C.51 B A B C.202 C.319 C.297 C.182 C.171 C.223 C.341 C.265 C.377 B C.252 C.351 A C.339 A C.315 B C.268 C.299 C.317 C.349 C.30 C.151 C.167 A C.347 C.343 C.198 C.25 C.291 C.345 C.310 C.282 B C.294 C.356 A C.217 C.359 B C.280 C.307 C.292 C.36 C.313 C.259 C.35 C.38 A C.48 A C.47 C.27 C.366 C.55 C.53 C.40 C.46 C.45 B B A A C.352 C.41 C.287 C.26 C.28 C.52 B C.337 C.175 B C.94 A C.49 C.31 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick C.44 C.37 C.43 C.271 C.144 C.54 C.56 50 cm 0 1 m Figure 7a: Area 2 post-excavation plan.22
  28. 28. 03E1717 Area 2 Area 2 South facing section Area 2 South-east facing section A B North facing section A B A B C.344 C.341 C.353 C.342 C.345 C.338 C.343 C.352Eachtra Archaeological Projects C.339 Area 2 Area 2 East facing section South-south-east facing section A Area 2 B South-east section A B A B C.335 C.336 C.355 C.348 C.350 C.354 C.94 C.356 C.337 C.346 C.349 C.350 C.35 C.347 Area 2 Area 2 East facing section Area 2 East facing section A B West facing section A B A B C.316 C.318 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick C,365 C.376 C.366 C.317 C.319 C.377 Area 2 West facing section A B C.334 Legend C.28 Charcoal = 10 cm 0 50 cm Burnt Bone = Figure 7b: Area 2 selected sections.23
  29. 29. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick N C.75 C.77 C.272 C.78 C.284 C.93 C.92 C.210 C.207 C.258 C.255 C.205 C.80 C.79 1m 0 5m Figure 8: Area 3 post-excavation plan.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 24
  30. 30. N 03E1717 C.373Eachtra Archaeological Projects C.20 C.375 C.16 C.369 C.17 C.371 C.18 C.15 C.19 C.14 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick C.381 C.12 C.384 50 cm 0 50 cm Figure 9: Area 5 post-excavation plan.25
  31. 31. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick N 50 cm 0 C.392 50 cm C.9 C.400 C.396 C.87 C.88 Figure 10a: Area 6 post-excavation plan. C.86 C.398 C.85 C.8Eachtra Archaeological Projects 26
  32. 32. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Area 6 West facing section A B C.390 C.9 Area 6 North facing section B A C.399 C.400 Area 6 Area 6 West facing section South-west facing section A B A B Pottery C.397 C.398 C.393 C.8 Area 4 East facing section Area 6 North-east facing section A B A B C.394 C.395 C.87 C.86 Legend Charcoal = Burnt Bone = 0 1m Figure 10b: Area 6 sections.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 27
  33. 33. 03E1717 N C.519Eachtra Archaeological Projects C.517 C.504 Modern Field Drain Limit of C.516 excavation C.510 C.512 C.506 C.511 C.505 C.508 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick 0 1m 2 cm B C.502 B C.503 East facing section of Area 7 FF C.504 0 1m 2 cm Figure 11: Area 7 post-excavation plan & section.28

×