Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)
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Archaeological Report - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick (Ireland)

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Until monitoring of top-soil stripping commenced in 2003 only one archaeological monument was recorded on the site of the current development, Enclosure LI005:037. Following monitoring and......

Until monitoring of top-soil stripping commenced in 2003 only one archaeological monument was recorded on the site of the current development, Enclosure LI005:037. Following monitoring and subsequent excavation this area now includes records of at least three Late Bronze Age unenclosed flat cremation cemeteries, a ring-ditch in close proximity to one of the smaller cemeteries and the remains of four Fulachta Fiadh.

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  • 1. Eachtra JournalIssue 13 [ISSN 2009-2237] Archaeological Excavation Report 03E1717 - Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick A ring-ditch, three cremation burial cemeteries and a four Fulachta Fiadh
  • 2. Archaeological Excavation Report,KilbaneCastletroyCo Limerick August 2008Client:Licence No.: 03E1717Licensee: Niamh O’CallaghanPlanning Register No.: 01/1328 Contact details: Ballycurreen Industrial Estate, Kinsale Road, Cork.Written by: Niamh O’Callaghan Tel.: 021 4915850 Fax: 021 4975711 E-mail: info@eachtra.ie Web Site: www.eachtra.ie
  • 3. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Table of Contents Acknowledgements........................................................................................................1 Abstract.........................................................................................................................2 1 Introduction.........................................................................................................3 2 Site Location and Description...............................................................................3 3 Archaeological Background..................................................................................4 4 The Excavation.....................................................................................................4 4.1 Area 1.................................................................................................................5 4.2 Area 2.................................................................................................................7 4.3 Area 3.................................................................................................................8 4.4 Area 4.................................................................................................................8 4.5 Area 5.................................................................................................................9 4.6 Area 6.................................................................................................................9 4.7 Area 7................................................................................................................10 4.8 Area 8................................................................................................................11 4.9 Plant Remains....................................................................................................11 4.10 Charcoal............................................................................................................11 4.11 Cremated Bone..................................................................................................11 4.12 Pottery ..............................................................................................................12 4.13 Radiocarbon Dates............................................................................................12 . 5 Summary.............................................................................................................12 6 References............................................................................................................ 13 7 Figures................................................................................................................. 15 8 Plates...................................................................................................................30 Copyright Notice: Please note that all original information contained within this report, including all original drawings, photographs, text and all other printed matter deemed to be the writer’s, remains the property of the writer and Eachtra Archaeological Projects and so may not be reproduced or used in any form without the written consent of the writer or Eachtra Archaeological Projects.Eachtra Archaeological Projects ii
  • 4. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Appendix 1: Stratigraphic Index. .................................................................................. 39 . Appendix 2: Stratigraphic Matrix.................................................................................67 Appendix 3: Finds Register........................................................................................... 75 Appendix 4: Plant Remains. .........................................................................................77 . Appendix 5: Charcoal Report. ......................................................................................80 . Appendix 6: Cremated Human Remains......................................................................84 Appendix 7: Pottery Report......................................................................................... 118 .Eachtra Archaeological Projects iii
  • 5. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick List of Figures Figure 1: Extract from Ordnance Survey Ireland, Discovery Series Map, No. 65................... 15 Figure 2: Extract from Ordnance Survey Ireland, Rural Place Map....................................... 16 Figure 3: Extract from Ordnance Survey 6” sheet, LI005 in conjunction with the Record of Monuments and Places constraint map.................................................................................. 17 Figure 4: Extract from Ordnance Survey 1st edition 6” sheet LI005...................................... 18 Figure 5: Site development plan with 8 areas of archaeology highlighted............................... 19 Figure 6a: Area 1 post-excavation plan................................................................................... 20 Figure 6b: Area 1 sections...................................................................................................... 21 Figure 7a: Area 2 post-excavation plan................................................................................... 22 Figure 7b: Area 2 selected sections......................................................................................... 23 Figure 8: Area 3 post-excavation plan.................................................................................... 24 Figure 9: Area 5 post-excavation plan.................................................................................... 25 Figure 10a: Area 6 post-excavation plan................................................................................. 26 Figure 10b: Area 6 sections.................................................................................................... 27 Figure 11: Area 7 post-excavation plan & section................................................................... 28 Figure 12: Area 8 post-excavation plan and section................................................................ 29 List of Plates Plate 1: View of recorded Enclosure, LI005:037.................................................................... 30 Plate 2: View of excavated Ring-ditch, Area 1........................................................................ 30 Plate 3: View of cremation F125 and circle of stake-holes, Area 1.......................................... 31 Plate 4: Area 1 post-excavation............................................................................................... 31 Plate 5: Area 2 pre-excavation................................................................................................ 32 Plates 6: Area 2 cremations, F175, 27, 198 & 252.................................................................. 32 . Plates 7: Area 2 cremations, F175, 27, 198 & 252................................................................... 33 Plates 8: Area 2 cremations, F175, 27, 198 & 252.................................................................. 33 . Plates 9: Area 2 cremations, F175, 27, 198 & 252.................................................................. 34 . Plate 10: Area 2 post-excavation............................................................................................. 34 Plate 11: Cremation, F366 during excavation......................................................................... 35 Plate 12: Cremation, F366 during excavation........................................................................ 35 Plate 13: Cremation, F366 during excavation........................................................................ 36 . Plate 14: Area 3...................................................................................................................... 36 Plate 15: Area 4...................................................................................................................... 37 Plate 16: Area 6, cremation pits F85, 86 & 87........................................................................ 37 Plate 17: Area 7, Fulacht Fiadh............................................................................................... 38Eachtra Archaeological Projects iv
  • 6. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Acknowledgements Thanks to Eachtra Archaeological Projects particularly Jacinta, Lar, Choryna, Rita and Mar- ion; Chieftan Construction, namely John Collins; Helen Roche and Eoin Grogan for pottery analysis; Adrian Kennedy for conservation advice; Catryn Power analysed the cremated bone; Beta Analytic Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory processed samples for radiocarbon; Abigail Brewer for the charcoal report and the plant remains report; Flor Hurley initially monitored the site; Martin Doody for helpful discussion on the text; all of those who worked on the site and finally Rory O’Callaghan for editing the text.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 1
  • 7. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Abstract Until monitoring of top-soil stripping commenced in 2003 only one archaeological monu- ment was recorded on the site of the current development, Enclosure LI005:037. Following monitoring and subsequent excavation this area now includes records of at least three Late Bronze Age unenclosed flat cremation cemeteries, a ring-ditch in close proximity to one of the smaller cemeteries and the remains of four Fulachta Fiadh.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 2
  • 8. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick 1 Introduction Full planning permission was granted to developers to construct 180 houses, 82 apartments, a crèche and ancillary works at Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick. This work was to be com- pleted on a phased basis and all top-soil stripping for Phase 1 and part of Phase 2 was un- dertaken by Flor Hurley, 03E1382 (Hurley, 2003). Stripping continued over eight days and a large number of potential archaeological features were revealed in eight areas. While monitoring was being undertaken for the current development, a new road was also being constructed across the southern part of the site which was to replace part of School- house Lane. This work formed a separate contract and was monitored and excavated by Lim- erick County Council archaeologists. This team also excavated a number of pits and at the time the area was being described as a possible Bronze Age flat cemetery. The remains of two fulachta fiadh were fully excavated, one found during monitoring and a second found as a result of the excavation. The remaining two were located along the line of the access road and were not excavated as part of this project. In Area 1 a ring-ditch and eight cremation pits were excavated. One of the pits was sur- rounded by a circle of 11 stake-holes. Sherds of pottery were recorded in two examples and three phases of cremation burial were interpreted. The ring-ditch was also excavated. Eighty-nine pits were excavated in Area 2, all but 12 contained fragments of cremated bone which produced evidence of social stratification with mature individuals primarily bur- ied separately and all juveniles evident buried with a mature person. Pathology was also rec- ognised in four examples. Evidence for the preservation and deterioration of bone and pottery was well documented in one example. F366 was the only pit to be covered by a capstone that served to preserve the burial in a different manner to the remainder. It also helped to preserve the pot that contained the burial. Of the 89 pits excavated 15 contained fragments of Late Bronze Age pottery which ultimately derived from settlement contexts. Finally, three further cremation pits were recorded in Area 6, while a number of features were excavated in Areas 3, 4 & 5 some of which included token deposits of cremated bone. 2 Site Location and Description The development site is located in the eastern suburbs of Limerick city, in the townland of Kilbane and parish of Kilmurry, national grid reference c. R162000/156000 (Figure 1). The site is situated just south of Castletroy Golf Club and is bordered by two minor roads. To the west are a row of individual properties on Golf Links Road which connects the N7 (to Dublin) and the N24 (to Waterford), while the south and south-east sides are bordered by Schoolhouse Lane (Figure 2).Eachtra Archaeological Projects 3
  • 9. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick The site is roughly triangular in plan and generally slopes southward to the valley of the Groody River, c. 0.5km south and west. Before development commenced the site was actively managed for agriculture, and mature hedgerows remained along the south and south-eastern boundaries. At least two field boundaries were removed from the centre of the development, aligned north/south, and one of these had a small stream alongside. This has since been di- rected through concrete pipes. Included within the development-site boundaries, approximately mid-way on the south- east side, are the remains of a Recorded Monument, LI005:037. This was not physically af- fected by the current development. 3 Archaeological Background Within the development site, in the townland of Kilbane or An Chill Bán meaning ‘white church’ or ‘white wood’ (Joyce, 1923), there was one Recorded Monument, LI005:037 (Fig- ures 3 & 4, Plate 1). This was located approximately halfway along the south-eastern bound- ary and listed in the Record of Monuments and Places (RMP) as an Enclosure. However, the feature appears as a flat-topped mound with an outer ditch that may be a Raised Ringfort rather than an Enclosure. The circular platform is 1.5–2m high with a diameter of 38m. It appears to be surrounded by a ditch, with only slight traces visible at ground level which are best viewed on the northern side. The external diameter is c. 48m. When viewed from the north-east the platform appears to be sunken at the centre. 4 The Excavation Eight areas of archaeological potential were recorded during monitored top-soil strip- ping throughout the Phase 1 development (Figure 5, see Appendices 1 – 7). Where possi- ble, feature numbers allocated during monitoring were also assigned during the excavation. However, due to extra features being recorded during the excavation and the difficulties involved in separate companies undertaking each task this was not always possible and many of the numbers allocated during monitoring were abandoned during the excavation and new numbers allocated. Therefore, there is not always a direct correlation of features between the monitoring and excavation reports. Full details are available in the stratigraphic index (Appendix 1) and the stratigraphic matrix (Appendix 2).Eachtra Archaeological Projects 4
  • 10. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick 4.1 Area 1 A ring-ditch, a linear feature, eight cremation pits with a series of stake-holes and two isolated features (including one cremation) were excavated in an area that measured approximately 100m2 (Figure 6, plate 4). Over 100 cremation pits and 53 samples of cremated bone were excavated at Kilbane. Only three of the samples included sexually diagnostic bone, all male. These were recovered from F116 (fill F115), F125 (fill F126) and F136 in Area 1. Additionally, pathology, degenera- tive joint disease in the form of osteophytosis was recorded in two samples F96 (fill F120) and F136. Thirty-two sherds of Late Bronze Age pottery was recovered from three features, cremation pits F21 and F22 and the linear F89. Ring-ditch A circular ditch (F97) enclosed two pits (F24 & F378) and was excavated 2m west of a small cluster of cremation burials (Plate 2). F97 comprised a circular ditch cut into natural sub- soil. The ditch was 0.80m wide and 0.24m deep, with an external diameter of 5.6m and an internal diameter of 4m. The sides sloped to a slightly rounded, almost flat, base. It had one fill, F113, composed of mid-brown silt, with small, fist-sized stones in the central lower part. A charcoal sample was taken from the ring-ditch, but a14C date could not be achieved. A layer, F132, was located within the ring-ditch F97 and was interpreted as a layer of bur- ied sod and included flecks of charcoal. No features were located beneath F132, however two features were cut into it, F24 and F378. F24 was a pit located within the north-west quadrant of F97. It contained two fills, F106 and F107, both of which included flecks of charcoal while the latter also included a large flat stone, similar to a capstone found over a cremation burial in Area 2. F378 was located in the south-west quadrant of F97 and contained one charcoal- flecked fill, F379. Apart from the large stone in F24, which may have been intended as a capstone, no evi- dence for the use of the pits existed. However, due to their morphology, their location within a ring-ditch adjacent to a small cremation cemetery and the large stone within the fill of F24, these features are thought to be pits that were originally excavated with the intention of inter- ring cremations but were abandoned. No stratigraphic relationship existed between the ring-ditch and the cremation burials recorded from Area 1. Linear F89 F89 was a shallow linear feature located 1.5m west of the ring-ditch, F97. It measured 5.2m long by 1.6m wide and was generally 0.2m deep. It was filled with F139, composed of dark brown silty clay with occasional flecks of charcoal and included two LBA pottery sherds.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 5
  • 11. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Cremation pits The cremation pits were generally circular in plan with an average diameter of 0.50m and an average depth of 0.20m. The fills were composed of charcoal-rich silt with lumps of charcoal recorded in three features. Substantial quantities of bone were recovered from four of the pits, while occasional sherds of pottery were recorded in two examples. Phase 1 – Cremations The earliest phase of cremation burials was recorded in the base of the linear F89. They were truncated by the linear. The remains of two cremations were excavated: F138 was associated with two stake-holes, F129 and F133; and cremation F125 was located within a circle of 11 stakes-holes (F124, 123, 122, 135, 136, 130, 128,110, 121 (replaced or supported by 134) and 131) (Plate 3). The final two stakeholes were visible in the fill of F89. The cremation burial F125 was surrounded by a circle of stakes and subsequently all but two of the stakes were removed or disintegrated. The features were cut by the linear F89. Stake-hole F127 cut cremation F125. It may have been used to mark the location of cre- mation F125, or may have formed part of a small super-structure associated with it. Phase 2 - Cremations The 2nd phase of cremation burials comprised a group of four cremations (F21, F22, F96, and F103) and two stakeholes. They cut the fill of the linear F89. An Early Bronze Age date Cal BC 1690 to 1500 (Beta 215288) was returned from the fill of F103. The cremation pit F21 truncated an earlier stake-hole, F110. Rim, basal and body sherds of pottery were recovered from the fill of the cremation. The remains of stake-hole F136 un- derlay cremation F21. Phase 3 - Cremations The third and final phase of cremation burials in Area 1 consisted of one cremation, F23 (filled with F101) which truncated an earlier burial, F103. This cremation pit included burnt bone and charcoal-rich silt (Plate 4). Isolated features Finally, one cremation pit, F116, was recorded c. 1m south-east of linear F89. This was similar in plan to those described above. The fill was a black, charcoal-rich silty clay with flecks of burnt bone. It cut a short linear F118 (fill F117). The linear may have been associated with the cremation pit as it included flecks of charcoal and flecks of burnt bone.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 6
  • 12. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick 4.2 Area 2 Cremation cemetery A total of 89 pits were excavated in Area 2 (Figure 7, plate 5). The area measured 4 m north- south by 8 m east-west and was located 125m north of Area 1. The pits measured on average 0.47m in diameter by 0.2m in depth with variations in diameters from 0.20m to 0.70m and in depth from 0.07m to 0.40m. Only one of the pits F366 was covered by a capstone, others were covered by a re-deposited sod layer. A small number of cremation pits were excavated around bedrock. In general, the majority of the pits respected the location of others, but c. ten of the pits truncated the edges of earlier pits (Plates 6 - 9). All of the pits are considered to be cremation pits due to their homogeneity and morphol- ogy. Substantial quantities of cremated bone were recovered from 44, flecks of cremated bone were recovered from 34 and no trace of bone was recorded in 11 of the pits. Pathology was recorded in two of the bone samples. Degenerative joint disease in the form of osteophytosis was recorded in pit F345 (fill F344) while Schmorl’s nodes from herniated discs were evident in F49 (fill 269). The largest amount of bone was recovered from the only covered cremation pit F366. Fragments of Late Bronze Age pottery was recovered from 15 of the pits. The assemblage comprised 217 sherds and 67 fragments from between 17 to 24 vessels (Appendix 7). These cremation pits were located within an area of 12m by 6m. Two possible post-holes (F280 and F282) were recorded centrally within the group of cremations. Although very shallow, 0.10m deep, and likely to have been truncated, the pits were 0.20m and 0.38m in diameter and may have formed a central element to a superstructure over the cemetery. No further evidence for a superstructure was apparent. Individual excavation of F366 Cremation pit F366 was sealed by a capstone. The pit was 0.47m in diameter by 0.14m deep, the capstone measured 0.45 by 0.36 by 0.06m in extent. A Middle Bronze Age date Cal BC 1290 to 1020 (Beta 215289) was returned from the pit. The pot and its contents were removed from the pit as a single entity (Plates 11-13) and sent to Adrian Kennedy for further study (Appendix 7). The contents of the pit were then excavated and recorded in layers and all bone sent to Catryn Power for analysis (Appendix 6). The specialists confirmed that the structure of the vessel had not survived due to decay over time. Only the form of the pot had been intact and, in reality, only one sherd had survived. The form of the pot measured 0.18m in di- ameter, 0.10–0.11m deep and was very fragile. It appeared bowl-shaped and was not inverted although the base was never visible. Occasional rim sherds measured c.5–6mm in thickness and included coarse temper. The pot was black on the outside and dark grey on the inside. The bone was well preserved, and many diagnostic pieces were recorded. The bone was occasionally burnt black or blue but was mostly pale brown. Pieces varied in length fromEachtra Archaeological Projects 7
  • 13. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick 0.05–0.07m and there were different levels of preservation. Some pieces were very porous and disintegrated easily. Most of the bone lay on one side of the pot, and it was tightly packed. There was little soil between bone pieces, and the bone was most porous towards the base of the pot. Following analysis of the cremated bone from F366, if was found that they represent the remains of one individual, aged in the mid to late teens. This bone type was found within and outside the pot, together with neonate remains found outside the pot only. No familial relationship could be determined between the neonate and the older individual (Power, Ap- pendix 6). 4.3 Area 3 Area 3 covered a relatively large area (30m north-south by 10m east-west ) and was divided into two sections, north and south (Figure 8). In the northern section there was one large pit, four post-holes and two pit/post-holes, F79, F80, F258, F255, F210, F205 and F207 (Plate 14). F79 was a large, partly bowl-shaped pit that included three fills, F214, F215 and F216. The two upper fills ranged from mid- to dark brown silty clay with charcoal flecks, while the lower fill comprised black charcoal-rich silt with heat cracked stones at the base. All of the features included charcoal flecks while three included fragments of bone: F255, filled with F254, had unburnt bone fragments, while F205 and F207, filled with F206 and F208 respectively, included small fragments of burnt animal bone. A short distance south two isolated pits/post-holes were recorded, F92 and F93, filled with F320 and F321 respectively. They were similar in nature, c. 0.60m in length by 0.40–0.50m in width and 0.45m deep and were filled with dark brown, silty clay. Possible packing stones were recorded in F320 and flecks of charcoal and large burnt stones in F321. Finally, in the most southerly section of Area 3 five features were recorded, F75, F77, F78, F272 and F284. F78 included stone packing F322, and an upper fill which included tiny fragments of burnt bone. This was also the case with the upper fill of F75, F304, which included small burnt bone fragments and slight evidence of in situ burning. 4.4 Area 4 Located a short distance south of Area 3 the excavation covered an area 45m long by 6m wide. Only those features found during monitoring were excavated due to time constraints and in most cases new feature numbers were allocated as opposed to those assigned during monitoring while many features were tested and considered natural. Twenty-four features were excavated, including six stakeholes and 15 pits, and deemed likely to be archaeological in nature (Figure 9 & Plate 15). Many features were anomalous and collectively did not ap- pear to be associated with each other. Of the six stake-holes excavated (F524 – 527, F541 and F548) four included flecks of charcoal. Charcoal was found in most of the 15 pits across theEachtra Archaeological Projects 8
  • 14. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick area. 16g of burnt human bone, representing a minimum of three individuals, was recorded in features 88, 520 and 568 collectively, and burnt stone was also recorded. Two sherds of pottery were recovered from F573 and two stone artefacts, possibly rubbing stones, were found during monitoring. 4.5 Area 5 Also located on the southern section of the site, ?m west of Area 6, Area 5 included eight pits, two stake-holes, two possible post-holes and one later cultivation furrow (Figure 10). These features were not part of a formal structure although they were recorded as possibly archaeo- logical in nature as three of the pits included charcoal, three had fragments of burnt stone, and F16 included 5g of burnt human bone representing a minimum of one individual. 4.6 Area 6 Cremation cemetery Located 50m south of the cremation cemetery in Area 1, Area 6 included three cremation pits (F85, F86 and F87) similar to those from Area 1 and 2. Also included were two deposits (F88 and F396) that included cremated bone and five cut features, three of these included flecks of bone and charcoal while one, F400 included fragments of pottery (Figure 11). The cremation pits were similar in plan: F85 and 86 were circular with a diameter of 0.45m and depth of 0.16m while F87 was sub-circular, approximately 0.10m wider but only 0.10m deep (Plate 16). Fragments of cremated bone from mature adults were recovered from the cremation pits. An anatomical variation in the form of a Wormian Bone was found in analysis of F86. This is an extra bone which occurs on the occipital bone and may be a domi- nant genetic trait (Appendix 6). Later Bronze Age pottery sherds were recovered from the fills of F85 and F87. The two deposits F88 and F396 included charcoal and cremated bone. They measured 0.30m by 0.42m by 0.03m and 0.20m by 0.30m by 0.03m respectively and were not associ- ated with any other feature. It is considered that these layers were disturbed and were likely to have been dragged from the cremation pits during top-soil stripping. Three of the remaining five features included flecks of charcoal and cremated bone, and two also included burnt stone. It is likely that, although different in nature, these features may have been associated with cremation burials F85, F86 and F87. F9 was a shallow linear feature, 2m long and 0.65m wide; F398 was a large circular pit with a diameter of 0.77m and depth of 0.20m, and F392 was a small pit 0.24m wide by 0.15m deep. F9 and F392 included burnt stone while all three included fragments of cremated bone. It is not likely that this was a result of disturbance but the features may have been in use when the cremations were exposed.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 9
  • 15. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Finally a large pit, F400, and a smaller example, F8, both included flecks of charcoal and Late Bronze Age pottery sherds, but their association with the remaining features is unknown. 4.7 Area 7 Area 7 comprised two separate areas of archaeological material recorded during Phase 1 monitoring. The first of these areas comprised six features described by Flor Hurley in the monitoring report. During Phase 1 works, these features were recorded and covered. Unfor- tunately all but one was destroyed when a machine was used to clear rubble as part of the re-alignment of Schoolhouse Lane. One feature survived, it consisted of a sub-rectangular pit, F6, which measured, 0.45m wide by 1m long by 0.20m deep. It included two fills, F401 composed of scorched, loose, silty clay and F402 which was dark grey, loose silty clay with flecks of charcoal. Fulacht Fiadh The second area comprised a layer of blackened silt with heat-shattered stones situated 5m from a small stream (Plate 17). The stream was diverted through concrete pipes in the area of the development site. The layer measured 8.5m by 10.5m. It was at most 0.20m deep and it petered out towards the perimeter. Two large, shallow rectangular features and six smaller pits underlay the layer (Figure 11). Although not a classic example, the feature is considered to be the remains of a Fulacht Fiadh. There was no evidence of a fire or hearth. A 1m wide trench, orientated north/south was excavated through the mound of burnt material. Two layers were recorded in the mound: F502, an upper layer of blackened silt with shattered stones, overlay F503, which was similar but included more charcoal. A second, 1m wide trench was then excavated, orientated east/west and subsequently each resultant quadrant was excavated. Following the removal of the remains of the mound, two possible troughs, F505 and F506 (the latter associated with two stake-holes F510 and F511), and six smaller pits, F508, F504, F512 (which truncated F505), F516, F517 and F519, were excavated. The troughs F505 and F506 were filled with typical fulacht mound material. However, they were shallow – 0.20m and 0.30m deep (the latter was truncated by a field drain). It is con- sidered that the two stake-holes recorded in F505 may have been part of an organic structure used to help contain water within the feature and also that the larger shattered stones found in the fill of F506 may be evidence of abandonment. There was less charcoal in this fill and the stones were not used to their full potential. The function of the smaller pits is unknown, perhaps domestic in nature. Two were filled with the primary mound layer F503 while others were deliberately filled before being covered by F503. Apart from the largest pit, F512, which truncated the possible trough F505, the pits were generally 0.38m to 0.40m in diameter and varied from 0.03m to 0.19m deep.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 10
  • 16. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick 4.8 Area 8 Fulachta Fiadh One feature was recorded in Area 8 during Phase 1 monitoring works. Unfortunately, it was also disturbed at this time. It was a layer of burnt mound material F405 (Figure 12). It was loosely compacted, black silty clay with small heat-shattered sandstones and occasional shattered limestone. It measured 6m by 5m by 0.30m deep. One field-drain truncated F405. There were no other features associated with this layer and it is considered to be the remains of a layer from a fulacht fiadh and likely to be ex-situ. 4.9 Plant Remains A total of ten samples from this site were examined by Abigail Brewer (Appendix 4). Five of the samples produced plant remains other than charcoal. The plant remains recov- ered from Area 2 probably represent material used as tinder or fuel. 4.10 Charcoal A total of 56 samples were examined by Abigail Brewer (Appendix 5). The majority of the charcoal samples came from the fills of the cremation pits. The charred wood remains were dominated by hazel/alder, and ash with lesser amounts of willow/poplar, oak and other spe- cies. Many of the fragments were from twigs or small branches which would be consistent with the wood being collected as firewood. 4.11 Cremated Bone The cremated bone was examined by Catryn Power (Appendix 6). The remains of fifty four cremated people were identified; of these four were juveniles, and four were teenagers. The sex of three males was established. Pathologies conditions were seen in four people and a genetic anatomical variation was recorded in one adult. Social stratification was part of society in some form as mature individuals were primarily buried separately, and all juveniles evident were buried with a mature person. Parts of two funerary urns were used as vessels to hold the cremated remains of people, which were then deposited in pits. The number of pits with cremated bone deposits totalled fifty three. The pit, which con- tained the funerary vessel may have yielded one or two individuals aged in the mid to late teens, and a neonate, while three other deposits held two individuals, an adult and a juvenile (under the age of fourteen years). If each burial pit (fifty one) represents a token deposit, whether large or small, of a deceased person, then the total number of individuals in this cemetery group is fifty four individuals (including the juveniles).Eachtra Archaeological Projects 11
  • 17. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick 4.12 Pottery The pottery assemblage was examined by Eoin Grogan and Helen Roche (Appendix 7). The Kilbane site, and its ceramic assemblage, forms an important addition to our under- standing of the Late Bronze Age in North Munster. This assemblage contains the remains of at least 30 and not more than 35 separate vessels. This is a significant collection especially as the pots come largely as single examples from separate features. While there is some variation the assemblage is reasonably homogenous and appears to be contemporary. All of the pot- tery is generally from flat-bottomed vessels with unexpanded upright rims, gently rounded or upright profiles and simple rounded junctions with the base. There is a broad range of sizes amongst the vessels, between 0.14-0.22 m in external diameter. All the vessels seem to have been used for cooking, derived from settlement contexts. 4.13 Radiocarbon Dates Radiocarbon analysis was carried out by Beta Analytic Inc. Lab. code Feature Sample Material Un-calibrat- 2 sigma Period No. No. ed date calibrated date Beta 105 3 Charcoal 3310 ±40 cal BC Early 215288 BP 1690-1500 Bronze Age Beta 365 49 Charcoal 2950 ±40 cal BC Middle 215289 BP 1290-1020 Bronze Age 5 Summary Kilbane is testimony to a long-standing tradition of cremation burial within unenclosed flat cemeteries. Three cemeteries were excavated under the current license, a fourth was dug by Limerick County Council, 03E1343 (McCutcheon, 2006), and finally Aegis Archaeology Ltd (Hayes, 2006) excavated a small example, also in the townland of Kilbane, 02E1707. The cemetery in Area 1 was small but elaborate. It included eight cremation pits, one of which had been surrounded by a circle of stake-holes and a ring-ditch. Three phases of burials were discerned. An extensive unenclosed flat cremation cemetery was excavated in Area 2. 89 cremation pits with burials of at least 54 individuals were excavated. Social stratification was evidently part of society in Kilbane, with mature individuals primarily buried separately and all juve-Eachtra Archaeological Projects 12
  • 18. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick niles buried with a mature person. Adolescents, once they had reached puberty, were likely to have been buried in their own pit as mature adults. The cemetery in Area 6 was a small example, with just three burial pits recorded. Much bone was missing from the pits. Possibly samples of burials had been ritually de- posited in nearby watercourses, perhaps the Groody river or the Shannon, only 5km to the west. Ritual deposits of bone may also be accounted for by the small pockets of cremated bone recorded in Areas 3, 4 and 5. Two 14C dates were recorded for the current site. These span the Early to Middle Bronze Age which, considering the complexities involved in the Bronze Age community achieving the quality of cremated bone at Kilbane, is further evidence of the long-standing tradition of cremation burial in this area. The extensive collection of LBA pottery, with 30–35 flat-bottomed vessels represented, together with the remains of four Fulachta Fiadh in the overall site, all pay credence to the ex- istence of a large, well-established community in the area at that time. However, the location of settlement evidence has yet to be established beyond the fact that all of the LBA pottery originally derived from domestic contexts. 6 References 1st ed OS sheet LI005:037 3rd ed OS sheet LI005:037 in conjunction with the RMP Discovery Series Map (No. 65, OSi) Ireland South Map (OSi) Rural Place Map (OSi) 1:2500 Ordnance Survey Letters Hayes, A. 2006 In I. Bennett (ed.) Excavations 2003: Summary accounts of archaeological excavations in Ireland, pp 308. Hurley, F. 2003 Archaeological Monitoring at Kilbane, Castletroy, Co. Limerick. Unpublished specialist report. National Monuments Service, Department of the Environment, heritage and Local Government, Dublin.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 13
  • 19. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick McCutcheon, S. 2006 In I. Bennett (ed.) Excavations 2003: Summary accounts of archaeological excavations in Ireland, pp 308. Power, C. 2005 An Analysis of the Assemblage of Cremated Human Remains from Kilbane, County Limerick. Specialist report. Waddell, J. 1998 The Prehistoric Archaeology of Ireland, Galway University Press. Appendices (including Specialist Reports) At the time of submission the excavation archive including record sheets, registers, plans, photographs and artefacts were being stored at the offices of Eachta Archaeological Projects Ltd, Ballycurreen Industrial Estate, Kinsale Rd., Cork.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 14
  • 20. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick 7 Figures Site Location Figure 1: Extract from Ordnance Survey Ireland, Discovery Series Map, No. 65.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 15
  • 21. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Figure 2: Extract from Ordnance Survey Ireland, Rural Place Map.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 16
  • 22. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Site Location Figure 3: Extract from Ordnance Survey 6” sheet, LI005 in conjunction with the Record of 0 1 km Monuments and Places constraint map.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 17
  • 23. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Figure 4: Extract from Ordnance Survey 1st edition 6” sheet LI005.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 18
  • 24. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick N Area 2 Area 8 FF3 Area 7 Area 3 Area 1 Area 4 Area 6 Area 5 Figure 5: Site development plan with 8 areas of archaeology highlighted.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 19
  • 25. 03E1717 N C C.97 B C.96Eachtra Archaeological Projects C.22 C.23 C.103 C.24 C.135 C.122 C.378 C.110 C.123 C.125 C.124 C.21 E 12, N10 E 20, C.127 N10 C.136 C.89 C.121 C.131 C.134 C.130 C.128 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick A C.138 C.129 C.133 D C.118 C.116 0 1m Figure 6a: Area 1 post-excavation plan.20
  • 26. 03E1717 A BEachtra Archaeological Projects C.1 C.24 Section Trench C.132 C.97 C.97 North-west facing section through Ring Ditch. C D C.139 C.139 C.139 C.139 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick C.89 C.21 C.31 C.22 C.96 West facing section of C.89 (Fill.89) 50 cm 0 1 m Figure 6b: Area 1 sections.21
  • 27. 03E1717 C.204 N C.262 C.152 C.289 C.177 C.186 C.333 C.194 C.181 C.149 C.160 C.33 C.246 C.162 C.250 C.32 C.200 C.50Eachtra Archaeological Projects C.184 C.275 C.248 C.277 C.169 C.191 C.188 C.196 C.51 B A B C.202 C.319 C.297 C.182 C.171 C.223 C.341 C.265 C.377 B C.252 C.351 A C.339 A C.315 B C.268 C.299 C.317 C.349 C.30 C.151 C.167 A C.347 C.343 C.198 C.25 C.291 C.345 C.310 C.282 B C.294 C.356 A C.217 C.359 B C.280 C.307 C.292 C.36 C.313 C.259 C.35 C.38 A C.48 A C.47 C.27 C.366 C.55 C.53 C.40 C.46 C.45 B B A A C.352 C.41 C.287 C.26 C.28 C.52 B C.337 C.175 B C.94 A C.49 C.31 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick C.44 C.37 C.43 C.271 C.144 C.54 C.56 50 cm 0 1 m Figure 7a: Area 2 post-excavation plan.22
  • 28. 03E1717 Area 2 Area 2 South facing section Area 2 South-east facing section A B North facing section A B A B C.344 C.341 C.353 C.342 C.345 C.338 C.343 C.352Eachtra Archaeological Projects C.339 Area 2 Area 2 East facing section South-south-east facing section A Area 2 B South-east section A B A B C.335 C.336 C.355 C.348 C.350 C.354 C.94 C.356 C.337 C.346 C.349 C.350 C.35 C.347 Area 2 Area 2 East facing section Area 2 East facing section A B West facing section A B A B C.316 C.318 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick C,365 C.376 C.366 C.317 C.319 C.377 Area 2 West facing section A B C.334 Legend C.28 Charcoal = 10 cm 0 50 cm Burnt Bone = Figure 7b: Area 2 selected sections.23
  • 29. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick N C.75 C.77 C.272 C.78 C.284 C.93 C.92 C.210 C.207 C.258 C.255 C.205 C.80 C.79 1m 0 5m Figure 8: Area 3 post-excavation plan.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 24
  • 30. N 03E1717 C.373Eachtra Archaeological Projects C.20 C.375 C.16 C.369 C.17 C.371 C.18 C.15 C.19 C.14 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick C.381 C.12 C.384 50 cm 0 50 cm Figure 9: Area 5 post-excavation plan.25
  • 31. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick N 50 cm 0 C.392 50 cm C.9 C.400 C.396 C.87 C.88 Figure 10a: Area 6 post-excavation plan. C.86 C.398 C.85 C.8Eachtra Archaeological Projects 26
  • 32. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Area 6 West facing section A B C.390 C.9 Area 6 North facing section B A C.399 C.400 Area 6 Area 6 West facing section South-west facing section A B A B Pottery C.397 C.398 C.393 C.8 Area 4 East facing section Area 6 North-east facing section A B A B C.394 C.395 C.87 C.86 Legend Charcoal = Burnt Bone = 0 1m Figure 10b: Area 6 sections.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 27
  • 33. 03E1717 N C.519Eachtra Archaeological Projects C.517 C.504 Modern Field Drain Limit of C.516 excavation C.510 C.512 C.506 C.511 C.505 C.508 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick 0 1m 2 cm B C.502 B C.503 East facing section of Area 7 FF C.504 0 1m 2 cm Figure 11: Area 7 post-excavation plan & section.28
  • 34. 03E1717 N C.405Eachtra Archaeological Projects SECTION DITCH/DRAIN A B C.405 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick A B C.405 SANDY TOPSOIL 20 cm 0 1m Area 8 North facing section Figure 12: Area 8 post-excavation plan and section.29
  • 35. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick 8 Plates Plate 1: View of recorded Enclosure, LI005:037. Plate 2: View of excavated Ring-ditch, Area 1.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 30
  • 36. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Plate 3: View of cremation F125 and circle of stake-holes, Area 1 Plate 4: Area 1 post-excavation.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 31
  • 37. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Plate 5: Area 2 pre-excavation. Plates 6: Area 2 cremations, F175, 27, 198 & 252.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 32
  • 38. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Plates 7: Area 2 cremations, F175, 27, 198 & 252. Plates 8: Area 2 cremations, F175, 27, 198 & 252.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 33
  • 39. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Plates 9: Area 2 cremations, F175, 27, 198 & 252. Plate 10: Area 2 post-excavation.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 34
  • 40. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Plate 11: Cremation, F366 during excavation. Plate 12: Cremation, F366 during excavation.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 35
  • 41. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Plate 13: Cremation, F366 during excavation. Plate 14: Area 3.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 36
  • 42. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Plate 15: Area 4. Plate 16: Area 6, cremation pits F85, 86 & 87.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 37
  • 43. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Plate 17: Area 7, Fulacht Fiadh.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 38
  • 44. 03E1717 Appendix 1: Stratigraphic Index Area F. No. Type Dimensions Description Finds Sample 1Eachtra Archaeological Projects 2 3 4 5 7 6 Cut 0.45m x 1.0m x 0.22m Sub-rectangular in plan, moderate break of slope- top in W, sharp elsewhere.Sides: moderate in E & W, almost vertical in N & S.Uneven base, deeper in west end. 7 6 8 Cut of pit 0.65m x 0.70m x 0.45m Square on surface, circular at base. Sides: vertical Pottery 31 Soil 62 in N & W, slightly concave in in E & S towards base. Mainly flat base. 6 9 Cut of linear feature 2.00m x 0.65m x 0.05m Irregular linear in plan, rounded corners, varies in width and depth throughout length, sharp break fo slope-top, steep sided. 10 11 5 12 Cut of posthole 0.52m x 0.33m Sub-circular in plan, Break of slope-top: sharp N, Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick W, S.Truncated in E by c384. Sides: almost verti- cal. Flat base. 5 14 Cut of furrow 1.7m x 0.4m x 0.1m Linear, gradual sides. Flat base. 5 15 Cut of posthole 0.47m x 0.41m x 0.42m Sub-circular in plan, vertical sides, concave base, tapers to a point. Orientation NW-SE. 5 16 Irregular cut 0.8m x 0.5m x 0.22m Irregular in plan. Break of slope-top: sharp in W, moderate E & S. Sides: Almost vertical in NW & E. Irregular base. 5 17 Cut of possible pit 0.4m x 0.44m x 0.18m Circular in plan. Sides slope gently to base. 5 18 Cut of possible pit 0.4m x0.35m x 0.17m Circular in plan. Break of slope: sharp top and base. Sides slope to base.39
  • 45. 03E1717 Area F. No. Type Dimensions Description Finds Sample 5 19 Cut of pit 1.02m x 0.96m x0.19m Circular in plan. Break of slope: gradual top and base. Sides moderate slope to base. Flat base. 5 20 Cut of shallow pit 0.2m x 0.18m x 0.06m Circular in plan, moderate sides, concave base. 1 21 Cut of Cremation 0.67m x 0.61m x 0.16m Sub-rectangular in plan, sharp break of slope,Eachtra Archaeological Projects moderate sides, uneven base. Cuts stakehole c.110. This feature cuts into c.189. 1 22 Cut of Cremation 0.50m x 0.51m x 0.20m Sub-circular in plan, steep sided, concave base. Pottery 38 Charcoal 7 1 23 Cut of Cremation 0.52m x 0.46m x 0.22m Sub oval in plan, truncated in E byC.103, sharp Soil break of top-slope elsewhere, concave sides, round 1 Bone base. 3 Bone 8 Bone 10 Charcoal 6 1 24 Cut of small pit 1.0m x 0.82m x 0.13m Sub-oval in plan. Break of slope-top: sharp in S E W, gradual in N, uneven base. 2 - TJ Enda 25 Cut of Cremation 0.62m x 0.38m x 0.14m Sub rectangular, steep sided, even stoney base. 2 - TJ Enda 26 Cut of Cremation 0.44m x 0.52m x 0.25m Sub circular, steep sided, even base. 2 - TJ Enda 27 Cut of Posthole 0.35m x 0.45m x 0.24m Sub oval, steep sided, gradual in E, concave base. 2 - Aisling 28 Cut of cremation pit 0.44m x 0.42m x 0.09m Circular in plan. Break of slope: gradual at top and Bone 47 base. Sides: sloping and concave. Shallow. 29 2 - TJ Enda 30 Cut of Cremation 0.24m x 0.24m x 0.24m Sub circular, steep sided in S gradual in N, even base. 2 - Louise 31 Cut of possible 0.51m x 0.54m x 0.29m Sub-oval in plan, Break of top-slope sharp. Sides: Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick cremation pit uneven, stones in N, concave in W. Break slope- base gentle, base flat and stoney. 2 - TJ Enda 32 Cut of Cremation 0.4m x 0.4m x 0.08m Circular, shallow, concave sides, base almost flat. 2 - TJ Enda 33 Cut of Cremation 0.69m x 0.6m x 0.13m Sub rectangular, steep sided in SW, gradual in E, uneven base. 34 2 - Aisling 35 Cut of cremation pit 0.65m x 0.69m x 0.26m Sub-circular in plan. Break of slope: sharp at top Charcoal 47 and base. Steep sided, flat base. 2 - TJ Enda 36 Cut of Cremation 0.78m x 0.7m x 0.38m Sub rectangular, steep sided in all but E, even stoney base.40
  • 46. 03E1717 Area F. No. Type Dimensions Description Finds Sample 2 - Louise 37 Cut of pit 0.5m x 0.49m x 0.1m Sub-circular shaped shallow pit. Break of slope gentle at top and base. Sloping sides.Uneven stony base. 2 - Darragh 38 Cut of shallow pit 0.38m x 0.56m x 0.11m Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners, almost vertical sides, sharp break of top-slope, break ofEachtra Archaeological Projects slop-base sharp in N,E,S, moderate in W.rocks in situ at base. 39 2 - Darragh 40 Cut of post 0.57m x 0.54m x 0.31m Hexagonal in plan, rounded corners, almost verti- Pottery 6 Charcoal 6 cal sides, undercut on NW side, concave base, Soil 20 orientation WNW-ESE. 2 - Darragh 41 Cut of cremation pit 0.4m x 0.43m x 0.15m Circular in plan, rounded corners, sharp break of Charcoal 12 top-slope, almost vertical sides, moderate break of slope-base, concave base. 42 2 - Darragh 43 Cut of cremation pit 0.52m x 0.55m x 0.11m Roughly circular in plan. Feature truncated in South by field drain (cut c43). Break of top-slope: N sharp, E&W moderate, truncated in S. Sides: N vertical, moderate elsewhere. Base: slightly concave. 2 - Darragh 44 Cut of cremation pit 0.26m x 0.29m x 0.08m Circular in plan, rounded corners, moderate break of top-slope, sides 45 degrees to vertical, gradual break of slope-base, concave base. Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick 2 - Louise 45 Cut of pit 0.5m x 0.42m x 0.2m Sub-circular shaped shallow pit. Break of slope Pottery 8 Bone 24 top W S E sharp, gentle in N. Sides: concave in Charcoal 16 W, slope gently to base in N S E. Sides lines with stones. Possible evidence of stakehole. 2 - Louise 46 Cut of cremation pit 0.87m x 0.66m x 0.28m Sub-oval in plan. Break of top-slope sharp on W Pottery 7 Charcoal 13 E SE. Sides: gentle slopein s SW, steep in SE NW Bone 21 W N. large rocks in N. Break of slope base sharp Soil 22 except in S & SW. Base uneven and stoney. 2 - Louise 47 Cut of cremation pit 0.45m x 0.6m x 0.28m Sub-oval in plan. Break of top-slope sharp in N Pottery 12 Charcoal 28 & E, gentle in W & SE. Sides: stepped in NNW, vertical in N& NNE, E & W sides slope gently. Base uneven and stoney, slopes to NE.41
  • 47. 03E1717 Area F. No. Type Dimensions Description Finds Sample 2 - Louise 48 Cut of cremation pit 0.44m x 0.42m x 0.15m Circular in plan. Break slope top: sharp in N & S, Pottery 20 Charcoal 36 gentle SE & NE. Sides: irregular in SE, concave in Bone 45 N & S. Base slopes to NW. 2 - Darragh 49 Cut of cremation 0.49m x 0.58m x 0.07m Circular in plan, rounded corners, moderate break Bone 37 of top-slope, tapered sides, concave break of slope- Soil 36Eachtra Archaeological Projects base, flat base, orientation N-S. Truncated by cut c287. 2 - TJ Enda 50 Cut of Cremation 0.43m x 0.4m x 0.19m Sub rectangular,gradual sides, concave base. 2 - Aisling 51 Cut of cremation pit 0.58m x 0.56m x 0.29m Circular in plan, rounded corners. Break of slope: sharp at top, gradual at base. Sides: steep in NW & SE. Feature cuts c252, c223, c188, and is cut by c268. 2 - Aisling 52 Cut of cremation pit 0.56m x 0.52m x 0.23m Irregular circular in plan. Break of slope: sharp at top, moderate at base. Sides: steep, tapered toward base. Uneven base. 2 - Aisling 53 Cut of possible 0.47m x 0.53m x 0.23m Sub-circular in plan. Break of slope: sharp at top, cremation pit moderate at base. Steep sided, flat base. 2 - Louise 54 Cut of cremation pit 0.46m x 0.56m x 0.2m Circular in plan. Break slope top: sharp in N, Charcoal 10 gentle elsewhere. Sides: uneven in N & E, gentle Bone 17 in S. Base slopes to S. 2 - Darragh 55 Cut of cremation 0.56m x 0.51m x 0.2m Roughly circular in plan, rounded corners, sharp break of top-slope, sides almost vertical, concave break of slope-base, flat base. Orientation W-E Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick 2 - Aisling 56 Cut of cremation pit 0.59m x 0.53m x 0.2m Oval in plan. Sides: steep-concave more gradual Charcoal 37 in SE. 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 6642
  • 48. 03E1717 Area F. No. Type Dimensions Description Finds Sample 67 68 69 70Eachtra Archaeological Projects 71 72 73 74 3 75 75 Shallow cut 1.1m x 1.2m x 0.13m Circular in plan, gradual sloping sides, uneven concave base. 3 76 76 Deposit 0.70m x 0.30m x 0.17m Dark brown loose sandy clay. 3 77 77 Cut of small pit 0.36m x 0.30m x 0.16m Sub circular in plan. Sides: mod- erate in N, almost vertical in W, concave base. 3 78 78 Cut of posthole 0.25m x 0.32m x 0.17m Circular in plan, sides moderate in N,NE,NW,E, vertical in S. Concave base. 3 79 79 Cut of large pit 4.00m x 2.1m x 0.36m Circular in S with linear exten- sion to N. Circular section has moderate sloping sides, linear ex- tension has uneven and irregular sides. Orientation N-S) 3 80 80 Cut of posthole 0.32m x 0.29m x 0.22m Sub-circular, steep sided, sharp Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick break of slope-top, flat base. 81 82 83 84 6 85 Cut of possible 0.46m x 0.46m x 0.16m Circular shallow pit, gradual sloping sides. Pottery 36 Bone 58 cremation 6 86 Cut of cremation 0.44m x 0.43m x 0.16m Circular in plan, almost vertical sides, slightly Bone 59 concave in S. Sharp break of slope base, stones embedded base. 6 87 Cut of cremation 0.55m x 0.48m x 0.10m Sub-circular, sharp break of top slope, uneven Pottery 30 Bone 60 stoney base.43
  • 49. 03E1717 Area F. No. Type Dimensions Description Finds Sample 6 88 Cremation deposit 0.30m x 0.42m x 0.03m Dark blackish brown silty clay, loose compaction, Bone 61 (no cut) charcoal flecks and burnt bone inclusions. Possibly drag from nearby cremations. 1 89 Cut of Linear 5.20m x 1.60m x 0.20m Linear in plan, rounded in N, gentle sloping sides, Pottery 35 Feature uneven base.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 90 91 topsoil 3 92 Cut of posthole 0.60m x 0.38m x 0.45 Oval in plan, vertical sides, slightly concave to- ward base. Flat base. 3 93 Cut of posthole 0.59m x 0.50m x 0.45m Oval in plan, vertical rough gravel sides, sharp break of slope base, flat base, orientation NW-SE. 2 - Aisling 94 Cut of cremation pit 0.58m x 0.47m x 0.15m Oval in plan. Sides: steep-concave more gradual in NE. Flat base. 95 1 96 Cut of Cremation 0.80m x 0.56m x 0.29m Sub oval in plan. Break of top-slope: gentle N & Bone 13 NNE, sharp elsewhere, steep sided. Flat base. 1 97 Cut of Ring Ditch 0.91m x 0.91m x 0.23m Circular in plan, sharp break of slope-top, vertical Soil 9 sides, flat base. Charcoal 5 98 99 100 1 101 Fill of Cremation 0.46m x 0.52m x 0.18m Blackish brown silty clay, frequent charcoal Soil (Cut c23) chunks, frequent bone pieces. Cut C.23. Large 1 Bone Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick limestone curved stone. Set on top of primary 3 Bone 8 cremation fill C.101 Bone 10 Charcoal 6 1 103 Cut of Cremation 0.35m x 0.25m x 0.13m Truncated in E by C.23. Semi circular in plan, Sample Break of slope-top: sharp in S W E. Sides moderate 1,2,5,6 to sharp, flat base. Charcoal 3 1 105 Fill of Cremation 0.30m x 0.25m x 0.15m Dark blackish brown silty clay. Inclusions: Sample 1,2 (Cut c103) frequent charcoal chunks, frequent burnt bone, Charcoal 3 occasional burnt stone. 1 106 Fill of pit (Cut c24) 0.25m x 0.26m x 0.03m Grey, firm compaction, >70% charcoal inclusions.44
  • 50. 03E1717 Area F. No. Type Dimensions Description Finds Sample 1 107/108 Fill (Cut c24) 0.70m x 0.81m Light brown, loose compaction, sandy clay, char- Charcoal 2 coal flecks, pebbles. c108 is a large stone found in c107. 1 109 Fill of Cremation 0.67m x 0.61m x 0.16m Mid-dark black silty clay. Inclusions: frequent Pottery 1 Soil 7 (Cut c 21) burnt bone and charcoal, pottery sherd. Charcoal 4Eachtra Archaeological Projects 1 110 Cut of Stakehole 0.11m x 0.18m x 0.15m Sub-oval in plan, sharp break of slope-top, uneven base. 1 111 Fill of Stakehole 0.17m x 0.17m x 0.15m Mid-dark brown compact silty clay, occasional (Cut c110) charcoal flecks and burnt bone. 1 113 Fill of Ring Ditch 0.92m x 0.92m x 0.22m Light brown, firm compaction, occasional large Soil 9 (Cut c97) stones. Charcoal 4 1 114 Fill of Cremation 0.50m x 0.50m x 0.20m Mid black loose silty clay, moderate-frequent Pottery 38 Charcoal 7 (Cut c22) charcoal flecks, moderate amount burnt bone, 2 pottery sherds. 1 115 Fill of Cremation 0.50m x 0.50m x 0.25m Mid-dark black silty clay. Inclusions: frequent Find 2 Bone 11 (Cut c116) charcoal, occasional burnt bone. 1 116 Cut of Cremation 0.50m x 0.50m x 0.25m Circular in plan, sharp break of slope-top, gradual sides, concave base. 1 117 Fill of Linear Feature 0.70m x 0.30m x 0.05m Mid brown silty clay, occasional charcoal. (Cut c118) 1 118 Cut of Linear 0.70m x 0.30m x 0.05m Linear in plan, gentle sloping sides, concave base. Feature 1 119 Upper fill of Crema- 0.90m x 0.85m x 0.15m Mid brown silty clay, loose compaction, moderate Bone 13 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick tion (Cut c96) charcoal and burnt bone inclusions, occasional stones. 1 120 Fill of Cremation 0.50m x 0.47m x 0.14m Dark greyish brown, loose compaction, moder- Bone 13 (Cut c96) ate - frequent inclusions of burnt bone, occasional charcoal flecks. 1 121 Stakehole 0.13m x 0.13m x 0.12m Grey silty clay, occasional charcoal. Circular in Charcoal 8 plan, vertical sides, concave base. 1 124 Stakehole 0.12m x 0.12m x 0.14m Mid black silty clay. Circular in plan, sharp break of slope-top, sides sharp, tapered toward base. 1 125 Cut of Cremation 0.48m x 0.36m x 0.08m Sub-circular in plan, truncated by c21 in E, sides Bone 15 moderate to steep, uneven base.45
  • 51. 03E1717 Area F. No. Type Dimensions Description Finds Sample 1 126 Fill of Cremation 0.40m x 0.40m x 0.09m Mid greyish brown silty clay, loose compaction. Bone 15 (Cut c125) Inclusions: moderate burnt bone chunks, occasion- al charcoal flecks. 1 127 Stakehole 0.11m x 0.09m x 0.05m Blackish brown silty clay, charcoal stained. Circu- lar in plan, vertical sides taper to u-shaped base.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 1 128 Stakehole 0.11m x 0.13m x 0.18m Mid brown silty clay. Circular in plan, sharp break of slope-top, sides vertical, tapered toward base. 1 129 Stakehole 0.12m x 0.14m x 0.15m Mid brown silty clay. Circular in plan, sharp break of slope-top, sides sharp, tapered toward base. 1 130 Stakehole 0.12m x 0.10m x 0.12m Mid brown silty clay. Circular in plan, sharp break of slope-top, sides vertical, tapered toward base. 1 131 Stakehole 0.11m x 0.12m x 0.14m Mid brown silty clay. Circular in plan, sharp break of slope-top, sides tapered toward base, u-shaped base. 1 132 Spread 4.2m x 0.06m Grey silty clay, occasional charcoal. 1 133 Stakehole 0.10m x 0.09m x 0.15m Mid brown silty clay. Circular in plan, sides tapred toward base. 1 134 Stakehole 0.09m x 0.09m x 0.12m Mid brown silty clay. Circular in plan, steep sided, tapred toward base in NE. 1 135 Stakehole 0.11m x 0.09m x 0.12m Mid greyish brown, occasional charcoal flecks. Oval in plan, vertical sides, rounded base. 1 136 Stakehole 0.90m x 0.90m x 0.14m Mid brown silty clay. Circular in plan, steep sided, tapred toward base. Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick 1 137 Fill of Cremation 0.43m x 0.59m 0.11m Mid black brown silty clay, loose compaction. In- Pottery 4 Bone 16 (Cut c138) clusions: moderate burnt bone, occasional charcoal Charcoal 9 flecks, pottery pieces. 1 138 Cut of Cremation 0.43m x 0.55m x 0.11m Sub rectangular in plan, circular base, concave Pottery 4 Bone 16 sides, flat base. Charcoal 9 1 139 Fill of Linear Feature 5.20m x 1.60m x 0.20m Dark brown silty clay, occasional charcoal, (Cut c89) 2 - Louise 140 Fill of possible cre- 0.46m x 0.54m x 0.29m Mid brown silty clay, loose compaction, occasional mation (Cut c31) inclusions of small sub-angular stones. 2 - Louise 141 Fill of possible cre- 0.23m x 0.37m x 0.1m Dark blackish brown, charcoal stained, silty clay, mation (Cut c31) loose compaction. Inclusions: charcoal flecks, very occasional bone flecks. 14246
  • 52. 03E1717 Area F. No. Type Dimensions Description Finds Sample 2 - Darragh 143 Fill of field drain 0.46m x 2.6m(within Mid greyish brown, medium compaction, sandy (Cut c144) grid) x 0.08m clay, frequent inclusions of medium stones. 2 - Darragh 144 Cut of field drain 0.46m x Linear in plan, orientation WSW-ENE, sides 1.4m(Excavated) x almost vertical on S, more gradual on N, base flat. 0.08m This feature truncates fill c145 & cut c43.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 2 - Darragh 145 Fill of possible cre- 0.52m x 0.55m x 0.11m Black silty clay. loose compaction, frequent inclu- mation pit (Cut c43) sions of charcoal flecks and cremated bone pieces. Feature truncated by field drain cut c43. 2 - Darragh 146 Fill of possible cre- 0.26m x 0.29m x 0.08m Dark brownish black silty clay, percentage of cre- mation pit (Cut c44) mated bone fragments noticeable throughout fill. 2 - Aisling 147 Fill of possible cre- 0.56m x 0.52m x 0.23m Black silty clay, soft, loose compaction. Inclu- mation pit (Cut c52) sions: occasional charcoal, frequent small-medium stones. 2 - TJ Enda 148 Fill of Posthole (Cut 0.4m x 0.55m x 0.21m Black friable silty clay, charcoal rich, cremated Charcoal 11 c149) bone. 2 - TJ Enda 149 Cut of Posthole 0.4m x 0.55m x 0.21m Sub rectangular, steep sided, concave base. 2 - TJ Enda 150 Fill of Cremation 0.5m x 0.5m x 0.2m Mid black loose silty clay, Burnt bone, occasional (Cut c151) charcoal flecks. 2 - TJ Enda 151 Cut of Cremation 0.5m x 0.5m x 0.2m Sub circular, steep sided, stepped side in W, con- cave uneven base. 2 - TJ Enda 152 Cut of Cremation 0.41m x 0.4m x 0.15m Sub oval, steep sided, moderate in W, concave base. 2 - Louise 153 Fill of cremation pit 0.5m x 0.6m x 0.32m Mid black brown silty clay, loose compaction. Charcoal 10 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick (Cut c54) Inclusions: occasional large burnt bone pieces and Bone 17 flecks, occasional large stones. 2 - TJ Enda 154 Fill of Cremation 0.41m x 0.4m x 0.15m Mid black, loose silty clay, burnt bone inclusions. Bone 18 (Cut c152) 2 - TJ Enda 155 Fill of Cremation 0.43m x 0.4m x 0.19m Mid black friable silty clay, occasional charcoal (Cut c50) flecks, v. occ. Burnt bone flecks. 2 - Louise 156 Fill of pit (Cut c37) 0.5m x 0.49m x 0.1m Mid brown silty clay, loose compaction, regular inclusions of charcoal flecks. 2- Darragh 157 Fill of possible post 0.57m x 0.54m x0.31m Pitch black silty clay, moderately compacted, Pottery 6 Charcoal 14 (Cut c40) some tiny pieces of cremated bone located near Soil 20 surface of fill.Frequent inclusions charcoal chunks throughout fill.47
  • 53. 03E1717 Area F. No. Type Dimensions Description Finds Sample 2 - Aisling 158 Fill of possible cre- 0.47m x 0.53m x 0.23m Mid brownish black, sandy clay, soft, loose mation pit (Cut c53) compaction. Inclusions: occasional burnt bone, frequent stones. 2 - Darragh 159 Fill of cremation pit 0.4m x 0.43m x 0.15m Black silty clay, occasional charcoal pieces, small Charcoal 12 (Cut c41) fragments of cremated bone concentrated in oneEachtra Archaeological Projects area of fill. 2 - Roisin 160 Cut of cremation pit 0.5m x 0.55m x 0.31m Sub-circular in plan, sharp break of slope- Bone 19 top. Sides: sharp in E & N, gradual in W & S.Moderate break of slope-base. Concave base. 2 - TJ Enda 161 Fill of Cremation 0.53m x 0.53m x 0.18m Mid black, loose silty clay, charcoal flecks and (Cut c162) burnt bone inclusions. 2 - TJ Enda 162 Cut of Cremation 0.53m x 0.53m x 0.18m Sub oval, steep sided, moderate in N, concave base. 2 - Roisin 163 Fill of cremation pit 0.5m x 0.55m x 0.31m Dark black, silty clay, loose compaction, >10% Bone 19 (Cut c160) burnt bone inclusions, some charcoal flecks. 2 - Aisling 164 Fill of cremation pit 0.44m x 0.38m x 0.14m Mid brownish black, loose, sandy clay. Inclusions: (Cut c333) occasional flecks of burnt bone, frequent stones. 2 - Louise 165 Fill of possible cre- 0.64m x 0.63m x 0.24m Dark blackish brown, silty clay, loose compaction. Pottery 7 Charcoal 13 mation (Cut c165) Inclusions: moderate amount charcoal chunks, oc- Bone 21 casional burnt bone, occasional pottery sherds. Soil 22 2 - TJ Enda 166 Fill of Cremation 0.64m x 0.58m x 0.32m Dark black, occasional orange mottling, loose silty Bone 23 (Cut c167) clay, moderate charcoal flecks and burnt bone. ~20 Charcoal 15 pottery sherds.. Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick 2 - TJ Enda 167 Cut of Cremation 0.64m x 0.58m x 0.32m Sub rectangular, steep sided, uneven base. 2 - TJ Enda 168 Fill of Cremation 0.34m x 0.34m x 0.21m Dark black, loose silty clay, occasional charcoal (Cut c169) flecks and burnt bone. 2 - TJ Enda 169 Cut of Cremation 0.34m x 0.34m x 0.21m Sub rectangular, steep sided, uneven base. 2 - Darragh 170 Fill (Cut c40) 0.27m x 0.05m x 0.07m Greyish brown moderately compacted sandy clay, inclusions of occasional small stones. 2 - Aisling 171 Cut of possible 0.64m x 0.55m x 0.17m Circular in plan, rounded corners. Break of slope: cremation pit sharp at top, gradual at base. Sides: steep E, slop- ing W. Uneven stony base. 2 - Aisling 172 Fill of possible 0.64m x 0.55m x 0.17m Black silty clay, compact. Inclusions: occasional cremation pit (Cut burnt bone. c171) 17348
  • 54. 03E1717 Area F. No. Type Dimensions Description Finds Sample 2 - Darragh 174 Fill of cremation pit 0.43m x 0.5m x 0.29m Black silty clay containing frequent amounts of Bone 27 (Cut c175) bone. Charcoal 19 2 - Darragh 175 Cut of cremation pit 0.43m x 0.5m x 0.29m Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners, vertical Bone 27 sides, slightly undercut at north end, break of slope Charcoal 19 is sharp at top and moderately concave at base.Eachtra Archaeological Projects Flat base. 2 - Roisin 176 Fill of cremation pit 0.54m x 0.56m x 0.25m Dark brown, silt, loose compaction, inclusions of Charcoal 17 (Cut c177) burnt bone, charcoal, stones. Bone 25 2 - Roisin 177 Cut of cremation pit 0.54m x 0.56m x 0.25m Circular in plan, sharp break of slope-top. Sides Charcoal 17 : sharp N S E, more gradual in W. Flat base with Bone 25 stones. 2 - Darragh 178 Fill of shallow pit 0.38m x 0.56m x 0.11m Black silty clay with some mottled topsoil near (Cut c38) surface, occasional charcoal pieces. 2 - Louise 179 Fill of possible cre- 0.48m x 0.41m x 0.2m Mid blackish brown silty clay, loose compaction. Pottery 8 Charcoal 16 mation (Cut c45) Inclusions: one pottery sherd, occasional burnt Bone 24 bone flecks, moderate amount of charcoal chunks. 2 - TJ Enda 180 Fill of Cremation 0.6m x 0.5m x 0.4m Black loose silty clay, occasional-moderate cre- Bone 20 (Cut c181) mated bone and charcoal flecks. Charcoal 18 2 - TJ Enda 181 Cut of Cremation 0.6m x 0.5m x 0.4m Sub oval, steep sided, concave base. 2 - TJ Enda 182 Cut of Cremation 0.35m x 0.35m x 0.18m Sub circular, steep sided, gradual in N & S, un- even base. 2 - TJ Enda 183 Fill of Cremation 0.35m x 0.35m x 0.18m Brown-black moderate silty clay, some charcoal (Cut c182) flecks. Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick 2 - Aisling 184 Cut of cremation pit 0.44m x 0.37m x 0.22m Sub-circular in plan. Break of slope-top: sharp, Charcoal 20 Break of slope-base: gradual E, sharp elsewhere. 2 - Roisin 185 Fill of cremation pit 0.45m x 0.4m x 0.2m Black silty clay, loose compaction, inclusions of (Cut c186) occasional bone and charcoal pieces. 2 - Roisin 186 Cut of cremation pit 0.45m x 0.4m x 0.2m Circular in plan, sides slope gradually to a flat base embedded with stones. 2 - Aisling 187 Fill of cremation pit 0.36m x 0.41m x 0.15m Black charcoal-rich silt, moderately compact, (Cut c188) inclusions of charcoal flecks and burnt bone frag- ments. Truncated in E by c51 2 - Aisling 188 Cut of cremation pit 0.36m x 0.41m x 0.15m Sub-circular in plan. Break of slope: sharp at top, rounded at base. Flat base. Truncated in E by c51. 2 - Aisling 189 Fill of cremation pit 0.44m x 0.37m x 0.22m Black sandy clay, soft, occasional stones, frequent Charcoal 20 (Cut c184) charcoal..49
  • 55. 03E1717 Area F. No. Type Dimensions Description Finds Sample 2 - TJ Enda 190 Fill of Cremation 0.33m x 0.33m x 0.12m Brown-black moderate silty clay, some charcoal (Cut c191) chunks and occasional burnt bone. 2 - TJ Enda 191 Cut of Cremation 0.33m x 0.33m x 0.12m Sub oval, steep sided, gradual in E, even base. 2 - Louise 192 Packing fill of pos- 0.6m x 0.58m x 0.3m Mid brown sandy gravel, loose compaction, oc-Eachtra Archaeological Projects sible cremations (Cut casional large and small stones included. c45 & c46) 2 -Roisin 193 Fill of cremation pit 0.31m x 0.36m x 0.1m Black silty clay, loose compaction. Inclusions: peb- Charcoal 21 (Cut c194) bles, frequent bone and charcoal pieces. Bone 28 2 - Roisin 194 Cut of cremation pit 0.31m x 0.36m x 0.1m Circular in plan, shallow, sharp break of slope-top, Charcoal 21 sides slope gradually to a flat base. Bone 28 2 - TJ Enda 195 Fill of Cremation 0.35m x 0.41m x 0.08m Mid black, loose silty clay, occasional amount Find 9 (Cut c196) burnt bone fragments and charcoal flecks. 4 Pot- tery pieces 2 - TJ Enda 196 Cut of Cremation 0.35m x 0.41m x 0.08m Sub circular, shallow, concave. 2 - Aisling 197 Fill of cremation pit 0.46m x 0.4m x 0.18m Black charcoal-rich silt, loose compaction, inclu- Charcoal 22 (Cut c198) sions of charcoal chunks and occasional burnt bone fragments. 2 - Aisling 198 Cut of cremation pit 0.46m x 0.4m x 0.18m Oval in plan. Break of slope: sharp at top, gradual Charcoal 22 at base. Sides W gradual, steep elsewhere. Flat base, orientated E-W. 2 - Aisling 199 Fill of cremation pit 0.49m x 0.42m x 0.09m Black sandy clay, loose, occasional stones. (Cut c200) 2 - Aisling 200 Cut of cremation pit 0.49m x 0.42m x 0.09m Oval in plan. Break of slope: sharp at top, gradual Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick at base. Sides S gradual, steep elsewhere. Large flat stone lines base. 2 - TJ Enda 201 Fill of Cremation 0.61m x 0.54m x 0.08m Brown-black loose silty clay, occasional charcoal (Cut c202) and bone fragments. 2 - TJ Enda 202 Cut of Cremation 0.61m x 0.54m x 0.08m Sub oval, shallow, concave. 2 - Roisin 203 Fill of cremation pit 0.42m x 0.41m x 0.24m Black silty clay, loose compaction. Inclusions: Charcoal 23 (Cut c204) frequent charcoal pieces, occasional burnt bone, Bone 29 occasional large stones. 2 - Roisin 204 Cut of cremation pit 0.42m x 0.41m x 0.24m Circular in plan, sharp break of slope-top, sides Charcoal 23 gradual, flat stoney base. Bone 29 3 205 Cut of pit 0.47m x 0.40m x 0.30m Oval in plan, sharp break of slope-top, sides steep- gradual near base, stoney uneven base, tapered toward centre.50
  • 56. 03E1717 Area F. No. Type Dimensions Description Finds Sample 3 206 Fill of pit (Cut c205) 0.47m x 0.40m x 0.30m Grey brown sandy clay. Inclusions: frequent small-medium stones, occasional charcoal flecks & burnt bone. 3 207 Cut of possible 0.20m x 0.30m x 0.05 m Sub rectangular. Sides: vertical, protruding large posthole stones. Sharp break of slope-base. Base orientatedEachtra Archaeological Projects NE-SW. 3 208 Fill of possible post- 0.20m x 0.30m x 0.05 m Grey brown sandy clay. Inclusions: frequent small hole (Cut c207) stones, very occasional charcoal flecks & burnt bone. 3 209 Fill of posthole (Cut 0.30m x 0.25m x 0.18m Brownish grey sandy clay, small stones and some c210) charcoal flecks included. 3 210 Cut of posthole 0.30m x 0.25m x 0.18m Oval in plan, sharp break of slope-top, vertical sides, irregular stoney base. 211 212 2 - TJ Enda 213 Fill of Cremation 0.69m x 0.6m x 0.13m Mid black, firm silty clay, moderate amount burnt Find 10 Charcoal 25 (Cut c33) bone fragments, moderate charcoal flecks. 17 pot- tery sherds. 3 214 Fill of large pit (Cut 4.00m x 2.10m x 0.28m Mid-brown silty clay, occasional flecks of char- c79) coalnad small stones. 3 215 Fill of large pit (Cut 4.00m x 2.10m x 0.25m Dark brown loose silty clay, occasional stones and c79) charcoal flecks. 3 216 Fill of large pit (Cut 1.40m x 0.25m x 0.06m Black loose silt, charcoal rich, frequent burnt Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick c79) stone, at base of c79. 2 - Louise 217 Cut of cremation pit 0.4m x 0.34m x 0.15m Sub-circular in plan, gentle sloping sides, base Pottery 11 Bone 30 stoney and uneven. 2 - Louise 218 Fill of cremation pit 0.45m x 0.34m x 0.14m Mid blackish brown silty clay, loose compaction. Pottery 11 Bone 30 (Cut c217) Inclusions: frequent charcoal flecks, occa- sional pottery sherds, occasional tiny burnt bone fragments. 2 - Louise 219 Fill of cremation pit 0.6m x 0.64m x 0.29m Dark blackish brown, silty clay, loose compaction. Potery 12 Charcoal 28 (Cut c47) Inclusions: frequent charcoal chunks, occasional burnt bone, Pottery sherds. 2 - TJ Enda 220 Fill of Cremation 0.78m x 0.7m x 0.38m Brown-black moderate silty clay, some charcoal Bone 31 (Cut c36) and bone fragments. Charcoal 2551
  • 57. 03E1717 Area F. No. Type Dimensions Description Finds Sample 3 221 Spread (no cut) 0.37m x (truncated) x Brown sandy clay, frequent small stones, bone 0.04m fragments & charcoal flecks. Truncated by pos- sible furrow. 3 222 Fill of small pit (Cut 0.38m x 0.28m x 0.13m Mid brown with red patches. Loose silty clay. c77)Eachtra Archaeological Projects 2 - Aisling 223 Cut of possible 0.68m x 0.73m x 0.28m Sub-circular in plan.Break of slope: sharp at top Bone 33 cremation pit and base.Truncated in W by c51. 2 - Aisling 224 Fill of possible 0.68m x 0.73m x 0.28m Black soft sandy clay, occasional charcoal, frequent Bone 33 cremation pit (Cut bone. c223) 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 2 - TJ Enda 245 Fill of Cremation 0.3m x 0.3m x 0.14m Mid black, firm silty clay, moderate amount burnt (Cut c246) bone fragments, moderate charcoal flecks. Pottery sherd. 2 - TJ Enda 246 Cut of Cremation 0.3m x 0.3m x 0.14m Irregular in plan, steep sided, uneven base.52
  • 58. 03E1717 Area F. No. Type Dimensions Description Finds Sample 2 - TJ Enda 247 Fill of Cremation 0.35m x 0.35m x 0.2m Mid black, firm silty clay, moderate amount burnt (Cut c248) bone fragments, moderate charcoal flecks. 2 - TJ Enda 248 Cut of Cremation 0.35m x 0.35m x 0.2m Sub circular, steep sided, uneven concave base. 2 - Roisin 249 Fill of cremation pit 0.6m x 0.73m x 0.38m Black silty clay, >70% silt, strong compaction, Charcoal 26Eachtra Archaeological Projects (Cut c250) inclusions of burnt bone and frequent charcoal Bone 32 pieces throughout fill. 2 - Roisin 250 Cut of cremation pit 0.6m x 0.73m x 0.38m Irregular circular pit, lined by large stones in N & Charcoal 26 NW. Sharp break of slope-top, vertical sides slope Bone 32 to base in NW. 2 - Aisling 251 Fill of cremation pit 0.48m x 0.49m x 0.26m Black soft sandy clay, frequent charcoal and bone. Charcoal 27 (Cut c252) Bone 34 2 - Aisling 252 Cut of cremation pit 0.48m x 0.49m x 0.26m Sub-circular in plan, steep sided, slightly concave. Charcoal 27 Uneven base. Truncated by c51 in NW. Bone 34 2 - TJ Enda 253 Fill of Posthole (Cut 0.35m x 0.45m x 0.24m Dark blue/black, loose silty clay, occasional char- c27) coal flecks. 3 254 Fill of posthole (Cut 0.38m x 0.27m x 0.30m Brown grey sandy clay, frequent small-medium c255) stones, bone fragments & charcoal flecks. 3 255 Cut of posthole 0.38m x 0.27m x 0.30m D-shape in plan, Sharp break of slope-top, vertical sides, even base orientated N-S. 3 256 Fill of posthole (Cut 0.25m x 0.32m x 0.17m Red orange silty sand, occasional burnt bone. c78) 3 257 Fill of posthole (Cut 0.38m x 0.26m x 0.27m Grey brown sandy clay, gravel content, occasional c258) charcoal flecks, occasional large stones. Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick 3 258 Cut of posthole 0.38m x 0.26m x 0.27m Irregular oval in plan, break of slope-top sharp, vertical sides, flat base. 2 - Louise 259 Cut of possible 0.3m x 0.55m x 0.11 Oval in plan, shallow, sides uneven, base stoney Pottery 13 Charcoal 29 cremation pit and slopes to E. 2 - Louise 260 Fill of possible cre- 0.41m x 0.6m x 0.11m Dark blackish brown, silty clay, loose compaction. Pottery 13 Charcoal 29 mation (Cut c259) Inclusions: frequent charcoal chunks, occasional burnt bone flecks, one pottery sherd, occasional pebbles. 2 - Roisin 261 Fill of shallow pit 0.42m x 0.46m x 0.2m Black silty clay, very compact. Inclusions: charcoal Charcoal 30 (Cut c 262) chunks, large stones. 2 - Roisin 262 Cut of shallow pit 0.42m x 0.46m x 0.2m Circular in plan, shallow, sharp break of slope-top, Charcoal 30 sides slope gradually to base.Irregular break of slope-base.53
  • 59. 03E1717 Area F. No. Type Dimensions Description Finds Sample 2 - TJ Enda 263 Fill of Cremation 0.24m x 0.24m x 0.24m Mid black, loose silty clay, moderate amount burnt Bone 39 (Cut c30) bone fragments, charcoal flecks. 2 - TJ Enda 264 Fill of Cremation 0.5m x 0.5m x 0.17m Mid black/brown, moderate silty clay, moderate Bone 38 (Cut c265) amount burnt bone fragments and charcoal flecks. Charcoal 31Eachtra Archaeological Projects 2 - TJ Enda 265 Cut of Cremation 0.5m x 0.5m x 0.17m Sub circular, gradual sides, concave base. 2 - Aisling 266 Fill of cremation pit 0.58m x 0.56m x 0.29m Black loose sandy clay. Occasional-frequent inclu- (Cut c51) sions of bone and charcoal. 2 - Aisling 267 Fill of cremation pit 0.44m x 0.61m x 0.11m Black loose sandy clay. Frequent inclusions of bone (Cut c268) flecks and charcoal. 2 - Aisling 268 Cut of cremation pit 0.44m x 0.58m x 0.11m Oval in plan, sharp break of slope-top. Sides :gradual in SE, steep-concave in SW, W & NE. Uneven base. This feature cuts c51 to N. 2 - Darragh 269 Fill of cremation pit 0.49m x 0.58m x 0.07m Black sandy clay, moderate compaction, inclusions Bone 37 (Cut c49) >70% burnt bone pieces.Truncated by cut c287. Soil 36 2 - Darragh 270 Fill of pit (possible 0.4m x 0.48m x 0.16m Black sandy clay, moderate compaction, inclu- cremation) Cut c271 sions: occasional stones, pieces of cremated bone near base. 2 - Darragh 271 Cut of pit (possible 0.4m x 0.48m x 0.16m Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners, Break of cremation) top-slope: sharp in N, moderate elsewhere. Sides: vertical in N, tapered elsewhere. Concave base, orientation NW-SE. 3 272 Cut of possible 0.26m x 0.28m x 0.32m Oval in plan. Sides: vertical in N & W, moderate posthole in E & S. Concave base. Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick 3 273 Fill of possible post- 0.28m x 0.28m x 0.32m Dark brown sandy silt. Occasional charcoal. hole (Cut c272) 2 -Roisin 274 Fill of cremation pit 0.4m x 0.48m x 0.38m Black silty clay, loose compaction. Inclusions: oc- Charcoal 32 (Cut c275) casional burnt bone, moderate amount of charcoal Bone 40 chunks. 2 -Roisin 275 Cut of cremation pit 0.4m x 0.48m x 0.38m Circular in plan, sharp break of slope-top. Sides : Charcoal 32 gradual in E, steep elsewhere, tapered to base. Bone 40 2 - TJ Enda 276 Fill of Cremation 0.72m x 0.5m 0.24m Mid black, moderate silty clay, occasional charcoal (Cut c277) flecks, some burnt bone. 2 - TJ Enda 277 Cut of Cremation 0.72m x 0.5m 0.24m Irregular in plan, sides steep in N, gradual else- where, uneven base. 3 278 Fill of posthole (Cut 0.32m x 0.29m x 0.22m Grey brown sandy clay, gravel content, occasional c80) charcoal flecks, occasional large stones.54
  • 60. 03E1717 Area F. No. Type Dimensions Description Finds Sample 279 2 - Louise 280 Cut of possible pit/ 0.19m x 0.2m x 0.1m Oval in plan, gentle break of top slope, sides un- post even, u-shaped base. 2 - Louise 281 Fill of possible pit/ 0.24m x 0.34m x 0.11m Mid blackish brown, silty clay. Frequent inclusionsEachtra Archaeological Projects post (Cut c280) of charcoal flecks. 2 - Louise 282 Cut of possible pit 0.28m x 0.3m x 0.12m Sub-oval in plan, shallow, gentle sloping sides, stoney base. 2 - Louise 283 Fill of possible pit 0.36m x 0.4m x 0.1m Mid blackish brown, silty clay, loose compactio, (Cut c282) frequent inclusions of charcoal flecks. 3 284 Cut of possible pit 0.40m x 0.46m x 0.19m Oval in plan, slightly concave sides, rounded base. 3 285 Fill of possible pit 0.40m x 0.46m x 0.19m Dark brown loose silty clay, ~10% mid sized (Cut c284) stoned in NE. 2 - Darragh 286 Fill of cremation pit 0.71m x 0.66m x 0.21m Black sandy clay, moderate compaction. Inclu- Pottery 17 Bone 42 (Cut c287) sions: moderate amount of burnt bone, charcoal, Charcoal 35 pottery pieces. 2 - Darragh 287 Cut of cremation pit 0.71m x 0.66m x 0.21m Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners, Break of Pottery 17 top- slope: moderate E & SE, sharp elsewhere. Sides: 45 degrees E & SE, almost vertical else- where. Flat base, orientation NE-SW. Truncates Cut c49. 2 - Roisin 288 Fill of pit (Cut c289) 0.55m x 0.5m x 0.15m Black silty clay, >80% silt, loose compaction, Charcoal 33 inclusions of charcoal chunks. 2 -Roisin 289 Cut of pit 0.55m x 0.5m x 0.15m Circular in plan, sharp break of slope-top, sides Charcoal 33 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick gradual. 2 - TJ Enda 290 Fill of Cremation 0.4m x 0.4m x 0.08m Mid black, loose silty clay, occasional charcoal Find 15 Bone 41 (Cut c32) flecks, some burnt bone, 1 pottery sherd. 2 - TJ Enda 291 Cut of Furrow 2m x 0.6m x 0.1m Linear in plan, concave in section, orientated E-W. 2 - Louise 292 Cut of possible 0.2m x 0.18m x 0.17 Circular in plan, gentle break of slope-top, sharp Pottery 16 Charcoal 34 cremation pit break of slope base, u-shaped base. 2 - Louise 293 Fill of possible cre- 0.26m x 0.16m x 0.15m Mid brown silty clay, loose compaction. Inclu- Pottery 16 Charcoal 34 mation (Cut c292) sions: occasional burnt bone flecks, occasional charcoal flecks, one pottery sherd. 2 - Louise 294 Cut of cremation pit 0.25m x 0.3m x 0.12m Oval in plan, truncated by c291(furrow) in N & E, break slope-top sharp, sides vertical, SW side slightly concave, flat base.55
  • 61. 03E1717 Area F. No. Type Dimensions Description Finds Sample 2 - Louise 295 Fill of cremation pit 0.25m x 0.26m x 0.08m Dark blackish brown, silty clay, loose compaction. Pottery 18 (Cut c294) Inclusions: frequent charcoal flecks, occasional burnt bone flecks, two pottery sherds. Truncated by c291. 2 - TJ Enda 296 Fill of Cremation 0.3m x 0.34m x 0.11m Mid brown, moderate silty clay, moderate amount Bone 44Eachtra Archaeological Projects (Cut c297) burnt bone fragments, charcoal flecks. 2 - TJ Enda 297 Cut of Cremation 0.3m x 0.34m x 0.11m Sub rectangular, sides sharp in E and S, sides gradual in N and W, uneven concave base. 2 -Roisin 298 Fill of cremation pit 0.32m x 0.3m x 0.15m Black silty clay, >80% silt, loose compaction, Bone 43 (Cut c.299) inclusions of burnt bone and burnt stone. 2 -Roisin 299 Cut of cremation pit 0.32m x 0.3m x 0.15m Circular in plan, shallow. Break of slope-top: sharp Bone 43 in W, gradual elsewhere. 2 - Darragh 300 Fill of cremation 0.56m x 0.51m x 0.2m Black sandy clay, moderate compaction. Inclu- Pottery 19 (Cut c55) sions: burnt bone, charcoal, large pottery pieces. 3 301 Fill of posthole (Cut 0.40m x 0.47m x 0.30m Brown grey sandy clay, gravel content, frequent c303) large stones, occasional charcoal flecks. 3 302 Fill of posthole (Cut 0.17m x 0.17m x 0.20m Brownish yellow sand, mottled black patches. c303) Flecks of charcoal. At Base of c303, beneath c301. 3 304 Cut of posthole 0.40m x 0.47m x 0.50m Slightly irregular circle, sharp break of slope-top, vertical sides, small hollow in otherwise flat base. 3 305 Fill of shallow cut 1.1m x 0.80m x 0.08m Dark grey-black loose sandy clay, occasional char- (Cut c75) coal flecks, v. occasional burnt bone. 2 - Darragh 306 Fill of shallow cut 1.1m x 0.65m x 0.12m Redish brown, loose silty clay, v. occasional char- Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick (Cut c75) coal flecks and burnt stone. 2 - Darragh 307 Cut of shallow pit 0.4m x 0.3m x 0.08m Circular in plan, rounded corners, moderate break of top-slope, sides 45 degrees to vertical, concave break of slope base, flat base. 2 - Aisling 308 Fill of cremation pit 0.64m x 0.59m x 0.22m Mid brownish black, sandy clay, soft, tight com- Charcoal 37 (Cut c56) paction. Inclusions: occasional stones, frequent charcoal. 2 - Roisin 309 Fill of cremation pit 0.67m x 0.65m x 0.35m Black silty clay, >80% silt, loose compaction. Charcoal 38 (Cut c.310) Inclusions: large amount of burnt bone, charcoal Bone 46 and burnt stone. 2 - Roisin 310 Fill of cremation pit 0.67m x 0.65m x 0.35m Circular in plan, deep, sharp break of slope-top, Charcoal 38 (Cut c.310) steep sides, tapered to base. Stones in base. Bone 4656
  • 62. 03E1717 Area F. No. Type Dimensions Description Finds Sample 2 - Louise 311 Fill of cremation pit 0.43m x 0.36m x 0.12m Dark blackish brown, silty clay, loose compaction. (Cut c48) Inclusions: moderate charcoal flecks, occasional charcoal chunks, moderate occurance burnt bone, one pottery sherd. 2 - Darragh 312 Fill of pit (Cut c313) 0.24m x 0.27m x 0.13m Black sandy clay, moderate compaction, someEachtra Archaeological Projects charcoal inclusions. 2 - Darragh 313 Cut of pit 0.24m x 0.27m x 0.13m Circular in plan, rounded corners, sharp break of top-slope, sides almost vertical, u-shaped base. 2 - TJ Enda 314 Fill of Cremation 0.46m x 0.55m x 0.35m Brown moderate silty clay, moderate amount burnt Find 25 (Cut c315) bone fragments and charcoal flecks. 3 pottery sherds. 2 - TJ Enda 315 Cut of Cremation 0.46m x 0.55m x 0.35m Sub oval, steep sided, concave base. 2 - TJ Enda 316 Fill of Cremation 0.47m x 0.5m x 0.31m Mid black, loose silty clay, moderate amount burnt Find 24 Charcoal 42 (Cut c317) bone fragments and charcoal flecks. 2 - TJ Enda 317 Cut of Cremation 0.47m x 0.5m x 0.31m Sub rectangular, steep sided, uneven base. 2 - TJ Enda 318 Fill of Cremation 0.55m x 0.4m x 0.26m Mid black, loose silty clay, occasional amount (Cut c319) burnt bone fragments and charcoal flecks. 2 - TJ Enda 319 Cut of Cremation 0.55m x 0.4m x 0.26m Sub oval, steep sided, concave base. Large stones in N of base. 3 320 Fill of posthole (Cut 0.60m x 0.38m x 0.45 Dark brown silty clay, 4 large stones within fill. c92) 3 321 Fill of posthole (Cut 0.35m x 0.45m x 0.45m Dark brown sandy clay, occasional flecks of char- c93) coal, large burnt stones. Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick 3 322 Stone packing of n/a Stones arranged in S of posthole, probable packing post (Cut c78) stones for post. Covered by c256. 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 33257
  • 63. 03E1717 Area F. No. Type Dimensions Description Finds Sample 2 - Aisling 333 Cut of cremation pit 0.44m x 0.38m x 0.14m Oval in plan. Sides :gradual. Uneven stony base. 2 - Aisling 334 Fill of cremation pit 0.44m x 0.42m x 0.11m Black soft sandy clay, frequent burnt bone. Bone 47 (Cut c28) 2 - Aisling 335 Fill of cremation pit 0.67m x 0.53m x 0.16m Black loose sandy clay. Frequent inclusions ofEachtra Archaeological Projects (Cut c94) burnt bone and moderate amounts of charcoal. 2 - Aisling 336 Fill of cremation pit 0.53m x 0.49m x 0.17m Black loose sandy clay. Frequent inclusions of Charcoal 40 (Cut c337) burnt bone and charcoal. Bone 49 2 - Aisling 337 Cut of cremation pit 0.49m x 0.48m x 0.15m Oval in plan. Break of slope: sharp at top and Charcoal 40 base. Steep sided. Flat base. Bone 49 2 - Roisin 338 Fill of cremation pit 0.5m x 0.5m x 0.2m Black silty clay, loose compaction. Inclusions: Charcoal 39 (Cut c.339) burnt bone, ~ 5% charcoal and burnt stone. Bone 48 2 - Roisin 339 Cut of cremation pit 0.5m x 0.5m x 0.2m Circular in plan, deep, sharp break of slope-top, Charcoal 39 steep sided with stones embedded, tapered to base. Bone 48 Gradual break of slope-base. Base slopes E-W. 2 - TJ Enda 340 Fill of Cremation 0.34m x 0.34m x 0.12m Mid black, loose silty clay, occasional amount (Cut c341) burnt bone fragments and charcoal flecks. 2 - TJ Enda 341 Cut of Cremation 0.34m x 0.34m x 0.12m Sub oval, shallow, concave base. Large stones in base. 2 - TJ Enda 342 Fill of Cremation 0.56m x 0.56m x 0.35m Mid black, firm silty clay, moderate amount burnt Find 22 Bone 50 (Cut c343) bone fragments and charcoal flecks. Charcoal 41 2 - TJ Enda 343 Cut of Cremation 0.56m x 0.56m x 0.35m Sub circular, vertical sides, flat base. Cut by c348 & c291, cuts c341. 2 - TJ Enda 344 Fill of Cremation 0.6m x 0.6m x 0.14m Mid black, loose silty clay, moderate amount burnt Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick (Cut c345) bone fragments. 2 - TJ Enda 345 Cut of Cremation 0.6m x 0.6m x 0.14m Circular in plan, gradual sides, concave base. Cut by N-S furrow c291. Cuts c343 to E. 2 - Roisin 346 Fill of cremation pit 0.53m x 0.4m x 0.2m Black silty clay, loose compaction. Inclusions: Charcoal 44 (Cut c347) small fragments burnt bone, frequent charcoal Bone 51 throughout, stones and pebbles.Truncated by c349 in N. 2 - Roisin 347 Cut of cremation pit 0.53m x 0.4m x 0.2m Circular in plan, sharp break of slope-top, sides Charcoal 44 slope to base.Truncated by c349 in N. Gradual Bone 51 break of slope-base. Uneven base slope to N. 2 - Roisin 348 Fill of cremation pit 0.23m x 0.5m x 16m Black v. silty clay, loose compaction. Inclusions: no Charcoal 45 (Cut c349) substantial bone, charcoal dispersed throughout. Truncates cut c347 & cut c351.58
  • 64. 03E1717 Area F. No. Type Dimensions Description Finds Sample 2 - Roisin 349 Cut of cremation pit 0.15m x 0.5m x 0.16m Irregular circular pit. Sharp break of slope-top. Charcoal 45 Sides: E & W taper toward base, defined by large stones in natural, truncates c347 & c351 to N & S. 2 - Roisin 350 Fill of cremation pit 0.37m x 0.43m x 0.25m Black silty clay, loose compaction. Inclusions: Bone 52Eachtra Archaeological Projects (Cut c351) very occasional burnt bone, charcoal dispersed throughout. 2 - Roisin 351 Cut of cremation pit 0.37m x 0.43m x 0.25m Circular in plan, sharp break of slope-top, sides ta- Bone 52 per to base.Gradual break of slope-base. Truncated by c349 in S. 2 - TJ Enda 352 Cut of Cremation 0.5m x 0.53m x 0.27m Sub oval, steep sided, even base. Large stones in base. 2 - TJ Enda 353 Fill of Cremation 0.5m x 0.53m x 0.27m Mid black, loose silty clay, occasional amount (Cut c352) burnt bone and charcoal fragments. 2 - Aisling 354 Fill of cremation pit 0.65m x 0.69m x 0.26m Black loose sandy clay. Frequent inclusions of bone Charcoal 47 (Cut c35) and charcoal. 2 - Aisling 355 Fill of cremation pit 0.47m x 0.54m x 0.18m Black loose sandy clay. Frequent inclusions of Charcoal 46 (Cut c356) burnt bone and charcoal. Bone 53 2 - Aisling 356 Cut of cremation pit 0.44m x 0.48m x 0.16m Circular in plan. Sides: vertical, shallow in W. Charcoal 46 This feature cuts c35 in W. Bone 53 2 - TJ Enda 357 Fill of Cremation 0.62m x 0.38m x 0.14m Mid black, loose silty clay, moderate amount burnt Bone 54 (Cut c25) bone fragments. 2 - TJ Enda 358 Fill of Cremation 0.47m x 0.46m x 0.09m Mid black, loose silty clay, occasional amount Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick (Cut c359) burnt bone and charcoal fragments. 2 - TJ Enda 359 Cut of Cremation 0.47m x 0.46m x 0.09m Irregular circle, moderate sloping sides interrupted by some large stones. Uneven base. 2 - TJ Enda 360 Fill of Cremation 0.44m x 0.52m x 0.25m Mid brown black, moderate compaction silty clay. (Cut c26) 5 360 360 Fill of posthole (Cut c15) 0.47m x 0.41m x 0.42m Blackish mottled brown sandy clay, moderate compaction, fre- quent small-medium stones. 5 361 361 Fill of irregular cut c16 0.8m x 0.5m x 0.22m Dark greyish black silty clay. Fre- Bone 63 quent charcoal flecks, occasional burnt stone, 362 36359
  • 65. 03E1717 Area F. No. Type Dimensions Description Finds Sample 5 364 Fill of pit (Cut c19) 1.02m x 0.96m x0.19m Greyish brown sandy clay, moderate compaction, small-medium stones. 2 - TJ Enda 365 Fill of Cremation 0.44m x 0.48m x 0.14m Black loose silty clay, charcoal rich, cremated Find 27 Find 28 Charcoal 49 (Cut c366) bone. Bone 56 Bone 57Eachtra Archaeological Projects 2 - TJ Enda 366 Cut of Cremation 0.44m x 0.48m x 0.14m Circular, concave sides almost vertical, base almost Find 27 Find 28 Charcoal 49 flat. Bone 56 Bone 57 5 367 Fill of Shallow Cut 0.2m x 0.18m x 0.06m Dark greyish black silty clay. Inclusions of charcoal (c20) flecks and burnt stone. 5 368 Fill of pit (Cut c369) 0.43m x 0.43m x 0.11m Mid-grey silty clay, frequent unburnt stones included. 5 369 Cut of pit 0.43m x 0.43m x 0.11m Circular in plan, shallow, gentle sloping sides, flat base. 5 370 Fill of possible stake- 0.13m x 0.08m x 0.16m Mid-brown silty clay, v. occasional small stones. hole (Cut c371) 5 371 Cut of possible 0.13m x 0.08m x 0.16m Oval in plan, almost v-shaped in profile. stakehole 327 5 373 Cut of shallow pit 1.2m x 0.59m x 0.13m Linear in plan. Sides: vertical in W, gradual-mod- erate elsewhere. 5 374 Fill of pit (Cut c374) 0.35m x 0.22m x 0.12m Mid-grey silty clay, occasional unburnt stones included. Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick 5 375 Cut of pit 0.35m x 0.22m x 0.12m Oval in plan, shallow, vertical sides, uneven base, orientated SE-NW 2 - TJ Enda 376 Fill of Cremation 0.4m x 0.45m x 0.27m Dark black silty clay, moderate compaction, mod- Find 26 Charcoal 48 (Cut c377) erate amount burnt bone and charcoal fragments. 2 - TJ Enda 377 Cut of Cremation 0.4m x 0.45m x 0.27m Sub rectangular, steep sided, concave base. 1 378 Cut of pit 0.55m x 0.56m x 0.2m Oval in plan. Sides: vertical in W N, stepped in E S. Concave base. 1 379 Fill of pit (Cut c379) 0.55m x 0.56m x 0.2m Mid-light brown loose silty clay. 5 380 Fill of possible stake- 0.14m x 0.18m x 0.13m Mid-greyish brown sandy clay, firm compaction. hole (Cut c381) 5 381 Cut of possible 0.14m x 0.18m x 0.13m Sub-circular in plan, almost vertical sides S, verti- stakehole cal in E & W, undercut in N. Flat base slopes S-N.60
  • 66. 03E1717 Area F. No. Type Dimensions Description Finds Sample 5 382 Fill of furrow (Cut 1.7m x 0.4m x 0.1m Mid brownish black sandy clay, moderate compac- c14) tion, occasional small-medium stones. 5 383 Fill of furrow (Cut 2.54m x 0.29m x 0.1m Mid-dark brown sandy clay, modreate compac- c384) tion, inclusions of stones and charcoal flecks. This feature truncates c12.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 5 384 Cut of furrow 2.54m x 0.29m x 0.1m Linear, almost vertical sides, u-shaped base. Orien- tation NW-SE. This feature truncates c12. 5 385 Fill of posthole (Cut 0.52m x 0.33m Truncated in E.Grey-brown sandy clay, stoney fill. c12) Large rock at base. 5 386 Fill of shallow pit 1.2m x 0.59m x 0.13m Black sandy clay, moderate compaction, occasional (c373) small stones. 5 387 Fill of possible Pit 0.4m x 0.44m x 0.18m Brown loose sandy silt. Inclusions of charcoal (Cut c17) flecks, bone and >5% pebbles. 5 388 Fill of possible Pit 0.4m x0.35m x 0.17m Very dark brown sandy silt. Inclusions: flecks of (Cut c18) bone, charcoal, small pebbles. 6 389 Fill of possible cre- 0.46m x 0.46m x 0.16m Black loose sandy clay. Flecks of charcoal, small Pottery 36 Bone 58 mation (Cut c85) pebbles. 6 390 Fill of linear feature 2.00m x 0.75m x 0.15m Brown-grey clay, traces of sand. Inclusions: burnt (Cut c9) bone flecks. Stones medium to large (some burnt), charcoal flecks, med 6 391 Fill of possible post- 0.24m x 0.21m x 0.15m Greyish brown mottled sandy clay. Inclusions: hole (Cut c392) burnt stone, charcoal and burnt bone flecks. 6 392 Cut of possible 0.24m x 0.21m x 0.15m Circular in plan. Sharp break of slope top and Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick posthole base, vertical sides, flat base. 6 393 Fill of pit (Cut c8) 0.65m x 0.70m x 0.45m Dark grey at surface, lighter greyish brown un- Pottery 31 Soil 62 derneath. Silty clay, becomes sandy toward base. Inclusions: charcoal, pebbles, pottery fragments. 6 394 Fill of cremation 0.51m x 0.60m x 0.12m Mid black brown silty clay. Inclusions: frequent Pottery 30 Bone 60 (Cut c87) charcoal flecks, moderate pottery sherds, occa- sional burnt bone (> 0.3m) 6 395 Fill of cremation 0.43m x 0.37m x 0.18m Black loose sandy silt.Frequent bone. Bone 59 (Cut c86) 6 396 Cremation deposit 0.20m x 0.30m x 0.03m Mid black brown silty clay. Inclusions: moderate (no cut) amount charcoal, occasional burnt bone, occa- sional pebbles..61
  • 67. 03E1717 Area F. No. Type Dimensions Description Finds Sample 6 397 Fill of shallow pit 0.80m x 0.75m x 0.20m Pinkish brown sandy silt, flecks of charcoal, small (Cut c398) bone fragments, pebbles. 6 398 Cut of shallow pit 0.77m x 0.77m x 0.20m Circular shallow pit, sharp break of slope-top, vertical sides, uneven base.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 6 399 Fill of large pit (Cut 1.40m x 0.90m x 0.19m Mid brown silty clay. Inclusions: occasional char- Pottery 33 c400) coal, moderate small stones, one pottery sherd. 6 400 Cut of large pit 1.50m x 0.90m x 0.20m Oval in plan, Break of slope-top: sharp all sides Pottery 33 except NNE. Sides: stoney and slope gently to uneven stoney base. 7 401 Orangy fill (Cut c6) 0.45m x 0.8m x 0.2m Orange loose silty clay, occasional small stones. Soil 64 Heat affected. 7 402 Dark grey fill (Cut 0.6m x 0.45m x 0.18m Dark grey loose silty clay, occasional pebbles, oc- Soil 65 c6) casional charcoal flecks. 2 - Aisling 403 Fill of Ditch (Cut 1m x 0.42m Mid-dark brown loose silty clay, occasional char- c404) coal flecks, 2 - Aisling 404 Cut of Ditch 1m x 0.42m Linear, steep sides, concave base, orientated N-S. Section 8 405 Fulacht material 6.0m x 5.0m x 0.30m Black loose silty clay and burnt stone mixture. Soil 66 Frequent burnt sandstone, occasional burnt lime- stone, frequent charcoal flecks. Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick 7 502 Fulacht material 0.7m x ?m x 0.1m Dark brownish grey, loose, v. silty clay, frequent burnt and angular stones. 7 503 Fulacht material 6.2m x 0.58m x 0.2m Black charcoal-rich silty clay, frequent burnt stone (Cut c504) and charcoal. 7 504 Cut of pit 0.65m x 0.58m x 0.18m Circular shallow pit, vertical sides, uneven base. Filled with fulacht material (fill c503)62
  • 68. 03E1717 Area F. No. Type Dimensions Description Finds Sample 7 505 Cut of rectangular 1.2m x 1.6m x 0.2m Sub-rectangular in plan, almost vertical sides, 2 pit stakeholes cut into eastern quadrant. 7 506 Cut of rectangular 1.6m x 0.95m x 0.3m Subrectangular in plan, slightly concave sides, flat pit base.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 7 507 Fill of pit (Cut 508) 0.35m x 0.3m x 0.03m Grey-black, loose peaty clay, flecks of charcoal, occasional small stones. 7 508 Cut of pit 0.35m x 0.3m x 0.03m Circular shallow pit, vertical sides, uneven base. 7 509 Fill of stakeholes 0.15m x 0.13m x 0.16m Grey, loose silty clay, flecks of charcoal, occasional (Cut c510 & c511) small stones. Fills two stakeholes. 7 510 Stakehole Cut 0.12m x 0.12m x 0.24m Circular, vertical sides,taper toward base. 7 511 Stakehole Cut 0.12m x 0.12m x 0.17m Circular, vertical sides,taper toward base. 7 512 Cut of Square pit 1.52m x 1.54m x 0.26m Sub rectangular in plan, concave sides, irregular base. 7 513 Fill of pit (Cut 512) 1.52m x 1.54m x 0.26m Peaty black clay, 50% small stones. 7 514 Fill of pit (Cut c506) 1.6m x 1.95m x 0.2m Dark grey, loose, silty clay, occ. large stones. 7 515 Fill of pit (Cut c516) 0.42m x 0.42m x 0.13m Yellow loose sandy clay, occasional charcoal flecks. 7 516 Cut of pit 0.42m x 0.42m x 0.13m Circular, vertical sides, flat base. 7 517 Cut of small pit 0.39m x 0.51m x 0.16m Oval in plan, sharp break of slope-top. Vertical sides, moderate lower down. Concave base. Orien- tated E-W. 7 518 Fill of small pit (Cut 0.37m x 0.38m x 0.19m Mid-grey silty clay, firm compaction, frequent 519) burnt stone and occasional charcoal flecks. Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick 7 519 Cut of small pit 0.37m x 0.38m x 0.19m Sub-circular in plan. Sides: concave S, almost vertical elsewhere, Break of slope-base: sharp in S & SE, moderate in N & NW. Base slopes E-W. 4 520 Fill of pit (Cut 1.8m x 1.25m x 0.44m Mid brown silty clay, moderate charcoal chunks, Soil 109 c521) occasional burnt bone. Charcoal 101 Bone 102 4 521 Cut of pit 0.6m x 1.7m x 0.58m Oval in plan, concave sides, uneven base slopes to Soil 109 S. Charcoal 101 Bone 102 4 524 Stakehole 0.14m x 0.15m x 0.12m Mid brown silty clay, inclusions of charcoal flecks. Oval in plan, vertical sides tapered to u-shaped base.63
  • 69. 03E1717 Area F. No. Type Dimensions Description Finds Sample 4 525 Stakehole 0.09m x 0.09m x 0.12m Mid brown silty clay. Circular in plan, gentle sides tapered to u-shaped base. 4 526 Stakehole 0.06m x 0.06m x 0.12m Mid brown silty clay, inclusions of charcoal flecks. Oval in plan, vertical sides tapered to u-shaped base.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 4 527 Stakehole 0.09m x 0.07m x 0.12m Dark brown silty clay, occasional charcoal flecks. Oval in plan, vertical sides tapered to u-shaped base. 4 528 Fill of linear feature 1.75m x 0.65m x 0.36m Brown, loose compaction, sandy clay, frequent Charcoal 103 (Cut c532) charcoal. 4 529 Fill (Cut c533) 0.08m x 0.47m x 0.05m Black loose sandy clay, frequent inclusions of Pottery 101 charcoal. 4 530 Fill of pit 0.25m x 0.30m x 0.12m Mid black silty clay, occasional burnt bone and charcoal. 4 531 Cut of pit 0.88m x 1.58m x 0.19m Sub triangular in plan. Sides: sharp in N, more gradual elsewhere. Uneven stoney base. 4 532 Cut of linear feature 1.75m x 0.65m x 0.36m Linear in plan, sides taper toward base. Charcoal 103 4 533 Cut 0.34m x 0.18m x 0.22m Sub circular in plan, steep sided,uneven base. 4 534 Fill of pit (Cut c531) 0.88m x 1.58m x 0.19m Light brown loose sandy clay, moderate occurance of small stones. 4 535 Fill (Cut c533) 0.74m x 1.18m x 0.17m Mid brown sandy clay, occasional charcoal flecks. Stone 102 4 536 Fill (Cut c543) 1.2m x 0.7m x 0.24m Mid brownish orange silty clay, loose, occasional Charcoal 105 charcoal, small stones. Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick 4 537 Fill of pit (Cut c538) 0.50m x 0.55m x 0.25m Brown loose soft sandy clay, inclusions of charcoal and burnt stones. 4 538 Cut of pit 0.50m x 0.55m x 0.25m Circular in plan, sides taper toward base, flat base. 539 4 540 Deposit (Cut c549) 1.14m x 1.11m x 0.26m Mid black loose sandy clay, frequent charcoal and Charcoal occasionalsmall stones. 106 4 541 Stakehole 0.14m x 0.17m x 0.21m Mid brown sandy clay, loose. Circular in plan, vertical sides, v-base. 542 4 543 Cut of pit 1.2m x 0.7m x 0.24m Oval in plan, gradual stepped sides, uneven base. Charcoal 105 4 544 Fill of Pit (Cut c545) 0.40m x 0.26m x 0.18m Brown loose soft sandy clay. Inclusions: frequent Charcoal charcoal and pebbles. 10464
  • 70. 03E1717 Area F. No. Type Dimensions Description Finds Sample 4 545 Cut of pit 0.23m x 0.38m x 0.16m Sub rectangular in plan, sharp break of slope top Charcoal and base, moderate sloping sides. Flat base. 104 4 546 Cut of pit 0.41m x 0.44m x 0.22m Circular in plan, steep sided. Gradual break of slope base, rounded base.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 4 547 Spread 1.64m x 0.70m Brown loose soft silty sand, no apparent cut. 4 548 Posthole 0.21m x 0.20m x 0.14m Mid brown loose sandy clay, occasional charcoal. Circular in plan, steep sided, u-shaped base. 4 549 Cut 1.14m x 1.11m x 0.43m Circular in plan, steep sided. Possible tree bowl. Charcoal 106 4 550 Deposit (Cut c549) 1.14m x 1.11m x 0.20m Mid brown silty clay, moderate compaction. 551 4 552 4 553 Deposit (Cut c554) 0.38m x 0.26m x 0.05m Dark brown-black silty sand, occasional charcoal flecks. 4 554 Cut Of Shallow pit 0.38m x 0.26m x 0.05m Sub-circular, shallow, gradually sloping sides, inperceptible base. 555 556 4 557 Fill of pit (Cut c558) 0.08m x 0.6m x 0.34m Mid-brown with black mottling, silty clay, occ. Charcoal flecks. 4 558 Cut of pit 0.08m x 0.6m x 0.34m Sub-circular, sharp sloping sides, concave base. 4 559 Fill (Cut c560) 0.7m x 0.4m x 0.13m Light brown loose silty clay, moderate occurance Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick of charcoal. 4 560 Cut 0.7m x 0.4m x 0.13m Oblong in plan, gradual sloped sides, concave base, E-W orientation. 4 561 Fill (Cut c562) 0.48m x 0.36m x 0.18m Brown sandy silt, loose, occ. Charcoal. 4 562 Cut 0.48m x 0.36m x 0.18m Circular, gently tapered sides, uneven base. 563 4 564 Cut of pit 0.9m x 1.03m x 0.23m Sub oval in plan, steep sided, flat base. 4 565 Deposit 0.8m x 0.9m x 0.13m Brown-black, loose silty clay, occ. Charcoal. 4 566 Deposit 0.9m x 1.03m x 0.1m Brown, loose silty clay, occ. Small stones. 4 567 Deposit (Cut c568) 0.95m x 0.56m x 0.3m Dark brown, loose sandy silt, some charcoal and Charcoal burnt bone, small pebbles. 107 Bone 10865
  • 71. 03E1717 Area F. No. Type Dimensions Description Finds Sample 4 568 Cut 0.95m x 0.56m x 0.3m Circular in plan. Sides taper to base, uneven base. Charcoal 107 Bone 108 4 569 Fill (Cut c571) 0.85m x 0.23m Mid black silty clay, occasional charcoal.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 4 570 Fill (Cut c571) 0.40m x 0.70m Mid brown silty clay, occasional charcoal. 4 571 Cut of pit 0.85m x 0.45m Circular in plan. Sides: gradual in S, sharp else- where. Concave base. 4 572 Fill (Cut c573) 2.0m x 1.45m x 0.25m Dark grey sandy clay, large stones. 4 573 Cut of pit 2.0m x 1.45m x 0.25m Sub rectangular in plan, steep sided, flat base, 4 574 Fill of pit (Cut 0.60m x 0.50m x 0.12m Light grey silty clay, occasional small stones. c575) 4 575 Cut of pit 0.60m x 0.50m x 0.12m Oval in plan, gradual sides, concave base. Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick66
  • 72. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Appendix 2: Stratigraphic Matrix Area I RING-DITCH 106 107 379 24 378 113 132 97 Cremations and stake-holes 101 119 23 120 114 105 109 134 121 131 96 22 103 21 139 127 89 126 137 129 133 136 130 128 124 123 122 135 110 125 138 isolated cremation and stake-holes 115 116 117 118Eachtra Archaeological Projects 67
  • 73. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick AREA II TOPSOIL                            SUBSOIL TOPSOIL                              SUBSOIL TOPSOIL                                      SUBSOILEachtra Archaeological Projects 68
  • 74. 03E1717 AREA II TOPSOIL             Eachtra Archaeological Projects                  SUBSOIL TOPSOIL                              Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick                                         SUBSOIL69
  • 75. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick area 3 northern section Topsoil 278 214 257 254 209 206 208 215 80 216 258 255 210 205 207 79 subsoil MIDDLE SECTION TOPSOIL 320 321 92 93 SUBSOIL SOUTHERN SECTION TOPSOIL 304 256 305 222 322 273 285 75 76 77 78 272 284 SUBSOILEachtra Archaeological Projects 70
  • 76. 03E1717Eachtra Archaeological Projects AREA IV topsoil 522 523 524 525 527 526 530 539 540 557 572 520 528 534 552 550 542 544 548 558 561 565 567 536 573 521 532 531 549 541 546 545 559 562 566 568 543 569 535 574 560 564 570 529 575 571 533 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick SUBSOIL71
  • 77. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick               TOPSOIL SUBSOIL             AREA V  Eachtra Archaeological Projects 72
  • 78. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick         SUBSOIL  TOPSOIL        AREA VI  Eachtra Archaeological Projects 73
  • 79. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick area 7. fulacht fiacht 502 503 507 504 513 509 514 515 517 518 401 508 512 506 516 519 402 510 511 6 505Eachtra Archaeological Projects 74
  • 80. 03E1717 Appendix 3: Finds Register Find No. Feature No. Area Description Date Initials Notes 1 109 I Base sherd + 4 pot sherds 10/16/2003 TJOCEachtra Archaeological Projects 2 115 I 1 piece of burnt flint 10/16/2003 TJOC 3 114 I 2 sherds of pot 10/16/2003 TJOC 4 136 I Small pieces of pot (5) 10/20/2003 LN 6 157 II Small piece of pottery 10/22/2003 DM 7 165 II 46 sherds of pottery 10/23/2003 LN f.46 8 179 II 1 pottery sherd 10/23/2003 LN f.45 9 195 II 1 to 4 pottery sherds 10/23/2003 TJOC 10 213 II 1 to 17 pottery sherds 10/23/2003 TJOC 11 218 II 1 to 22 pottery sherds 10/23/2003 LN 12 219 II 1 to 4 pottery sherds 10/23/2003 LN 13 260 II Pottery sherd 10/28/2003 LN 14 166 II 1 to 20 pottery sherds 10/28/2003 TJOC 15 290 II Pottery sherd 10/29/2003 TJOC 16 293 II Pottery sherd 17 286 II 1 to 21 pottery sherds (2 boxes) 10/29/2003 DM 18 294 II 2 pottery sherds 10/29/2003 LN 19 300 II 1 to 22 pottery sherds (5 boxes) 10/29/2003 DM Cut No.55 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick 20 311 II 1 pottery sherd 10/29/2003 LN 21 245 II Pottery 10/29/2003 TJOC 22 342 II 4 pottery sherds 10/31/2003 TJOC 23 340 II 5 pottery sherds 10/31/2003 24 316 II 6 pottery sherds 10/31/2003 25 314 II 3 pottery sherds 10/31/2003 26 376 II 5 pottery sherds 11/5/2003 from crem.deposit 27 365/366 II 7 pottery sherds 11/5/2003 from full cremation pot 28 II Capstone 11/5/2003 from cremation pit No.366 45,5 cm x 6,5 cm x 40 cm 29 79 III Very small piece of post medieval pottery 11/5/2003 from keyhole shape cut No.79 30 394 VI Pottery sherds (03E1717:394:28) 11/7/2003 from fill 39375
  • 81. 03E1717 Find No. Feature No. Area Description Date Initials Notes 31 8 VI Pottery sherds 11/7/2003 32 398 VI Enigmatic stone 11/7/2003 frm pit 395, fill 397 33 399 VI 1 pottery sherd 11/7/2003 34 24 I Oval shape large stone 50,5 cm x 6,5 cm x 35 cmEachtra Archaeological Projects 35 89 I Pottery 11/11/2003 36 85 VI Pottery 11/11/2003 37 57 II Pottery 11/11/2003 38 22 I Pottery 11/11/2003 39 91 Finds 3538,100: from Monitoring by F. Hurley 40 91 Flor Hurley found 2 rubbing stones in this area but they can’t be assigned to a particular feature 100 VII Flint scraper, worn 10/15/2003 NOC 101 529 IV Pottery sherd 11/11/2003 TJOC 102 535 IV Possible rubbing stone 11/11/2003 TJOC Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick76
  • 82. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Appendix 4: Plant Remains Introduction Ten samples from Kilbane were sieved for plant remains using sieves with meshes of 1mm, 500µm and 250µm. The samples were scanned using a binocular microscope under x10 to x40 magnifications. Five samples produced plant remains other than charcoal which were identified using reference to comparative collections and identification manuals. Wherever possible the plant remains were identified to species but intermediate terms such as Atriplex patula/prostrata and Triticum sp. were also used. Samples One sample was taken from a cremation pit, F. 28, in Area 2. The plant remains recovered from F.28 included seeds of knotgrass (Polygonum aviculare), common or spear-leaved orache (Atriplex patula/prostrata), sorrel (Rumex acetosa) and cereal chaff including straw fragments, culm nodes and a bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) rachis internode. A sample was also taken from F.366, a pot containing a cremation in Area 2. The fill of the pot produced a seed of cleavers (Galium aparine) and a fragment of straw. A third sample from Area 2 came from the fill of a possible posthole, F.40. This sample contained seeds of common/spear-leaved orache and cleavers as well as straw fragments and culm nodes. One sample came from Area 4 from F.520, the fill of a pit. This sample contained a frag- ment of hazelnut shell (Corylus avellana), four barley grains (Hordeum sp.) and one wheat grain (Triticum sp.). One sample was also taken from F.405, fulacht fiadh material in Area 8. One wheat grain was recovered from the sample. Discussion Plants such as knotgrass, orache and cleavers all grow on disturbed and fertile ground. They are widespread arable weeds today and are commonly found in prehistoric plant assemblages. Sorrel is a grassland plant which may have grown as an arable weed in the past. Weed seeds, straw, chaff and culm nodes are by-products of crop processing. After harvesting cereals, the weeds, straw and chaff are separated from the cereal grains by a process of threshing, win- nowing and sieving. The presence of weed seeds, a wheat rachis internode, straw fragments and culm nodes in the two samples from cremation pits at Kilbane, F.28 and F.366, and from a posthole in Area 2, F.40, suggests that the plant remains represent crop processing waste. A Late Bronze Age/Iron Age flat cemetery and crematoria at Ballyvelly, Tralee (98E0240) produced similar plant remains to those from Area 2, Kilbane. At Ballyvelly, the majority of the plant remains were arable weeds and were interpreted as possibly being used as tinder forEachtra Archaeological Projects 77
  • 83. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick the cremations (Brewer unpublished). It seems likely that at Kilbane too, the waste from crop processing was being used as tinder and/or fuel for the cremations. A wheat grain, barley grain and hazelnut shell fragment were recovered from a pit in Area 4. Both wheat and barley have been cultivated in Ireland from the Neolithic. Both were com- mon at Bronze Age sites in the vicinity of Tralee, with barley being slightly more plentiful. Hazelnut shells are common in plant remains assemblages from sites of all periods. The sample from the fulacht fiadh in Area 8 contained only one wheat grain. Excavations of fulachta fiadh by Eachtra Archaeological Projects in Kerry and Waterford all produced lit- tle or no plant remains. Conclusion The plant remains recovered from Area 2 at Kilbane appear to represent material used as tin- der or fuel used during the cremation process. Few plant remains from Area 4 and Area 8.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 78
  • 84. 03E1717 Kilbane 03E1717 Fill of poss post hole Fill of pot Cremation pit Fulacht Pit Feature no. 157 366 28 405 520 Sample no. 20 27 47 66 109 Taxa Corylaceae Corylus avellana 1 fragment HazelEachtra Archaeological Projects Polygonaceae Polygonum aviculare 1 Knotgrass Rumex acetosa 1 Docks Cheopodiaceae Atriplex patula/prostrata 3 1 Common/ Spearleaved orache Rubiaceae Galium aparine 1 1 Cleavers Gramineae Hordeum sp. (grain) 4 Barley Triticum sp. (grain) 1 1 Wheat Triticum aestivum (rachis internode) 1 Bread wheat Straw fragments 11 4 Culm nodes 3 2 Stem fragment 1 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick79
  • 85. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Appendix 5: Charcoal Report Introduction Fifty-two charcoal samples were recovered by hand at Kilbane for identification. The samples were first allowed to dry and were then examined under a binocular microscope at x10 to x 40 magnifications. The identifications were made using Schweingruber’s Microscopic Wood Anatomy (1978). Where the charcoal could not be identified to genus level broad categories such as ring porous and diffuse porous were used. The charcoal was weighed prior to iden- tification and then the identified fraction was weighed. The number of fragments for each species was counted. Quantification of charcoal is difficult because it is impossible to tell if five fragments have come from five different branches or one branch. Contexts The majority of the charcoal samples came from the fills of cremation pits. A small number of samples came from pits that did not contain cremations. These were C107, C261 and C545. Two samples were taken from stakeholes; C121 and C130. One sample came from the fill of the ring ditch, C113. One sample, C540 was the fill of a possible tree bole. Species Hazel/Alder Coll/Fearnóg It is not usually possible to distinguish between the charred remains of Hazel (Corylus avel- lana) and Alder (Alnus glutinus) as the microscopic features that enable distinction between the two species are often destroyed during the charring process. Hazel/Alder was the most abundant wood charcoal from the site as it was present in samples from thirty-five contexts. Hazel is locally abundant today in woods, scrub, rocky places and hedges. It is a small tree or shrub that grows to a height of about six metres. It often grows with Ash or in the understorey of old oak woods. It was frequently coppiced in the past and its wood is tough and flexible. The sticks from coppiced trees are long and straight and may be used for mak- ing baskets, hoops for barrels and hurdles (Hickie 2002, 56). An Early Medieval text Bretha Comaithchesa lists hazel as one of the nobles of the wood, valued for its nuts and rods (Kelly 1998, 380). Hazel nut shells are commonly found on archaeological sites of all periods. There is abundant folklore surrounding the Hazel and it also appears frequently in mythology (Mac Coitir 2003). Alder is abundant today along river banks and at lake shores and damp woods. It grows up to 20m high and thrives on infertile soils. The wood is resistant to decay under water and so is used for making piles. It is also used for furniture and turning. In the past it was also used for making shields and bows. Two Bronze Age wooden shields made of Alder were found in bogs at Cloonlara, Co. Mayo and Annandale, Co. Leitrim. The Annadale shieldEachtra Archaeological Projects 80
  • 86. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick was radiocarbon dated to around 1200 BC (Waddell 1998, 240). Alder vessels have also been found, dating to the Late Bronze Age; at Lough Eskaragh, Co. Tyrone and Altanagh, Co. Tyrone. (ibid. 264). In folklore the Alder is generally considered to be an unlucky tree. It was considered a tree of war and death both because it was used to make shields and because the wood turns from white to blood red when cut (Mac Coitir 2003, 34). Ash Fuinseóg Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) is the second most abundant species at the site after Hazel/Alder and it is present in samples from fifteen contexts. Ash is a tall tree, which grows up to forty- five metres in height and lives to about 200 years. It is the last tree to come into leaf in spring and the first to lose its leaves in autumn (Hickie 2002, 44). It grows best on deep, moist lime- rich soils and needs lots of light to grow well (ibid; Wyse-Jackson 1994, 63). Today it grows abundantly in hedges, woods and rocky places. Its timber is light-weight and flexible but very tough. It is an opportunist tree which springs up when trees have been cleared or fields abandoned (Mitchell 1986, 120). It has been used for making carts, furniture, oars, hurleys and spears. It also makes a good fuel and will burn even when green. The fruits may be eaten if picked when young and pickled and the leaves may be used as fodder. A Bronze Age set- tlement site at Clonfinlough, Co. Offaly produced evidence of coppiced Ash (Waddell 1998, 213). Ash trees appear frequently in Irish folklore and mythology. Ash was often associated with healing in folklore and is often found growing at holy wells (Mac Coitir 2003, 122). Willow/Poplar Saileach/Crann Creathneach The genus Salix sp. and Populus sp. cannot be differentiated easily from their charred remains. There are many species of willow (Salix sp.) native to Ireland. The aspen (Populus tremula) is a native species and another poplar (Populus nigra) is possibly native. Two sam- ples from Kilbane produced charcoal of the Willow/Poplar type making it the third most common species at the site. One of these samples, C540, Willow/Poplar produced a greater number of fragments and outweighed the other two species present, Hazel/Alder and Ash. Willows grow in damp habitats such as river banks, lake shores and bog. The twigs and branches are very flexible and so they are very useful for fencing and basket-making. In Irish folklore it was considered good luck to bring a willow rod with you on a journey and wil- low rods were also put round churns to help make good butter (Mac Coitir 2003, 40). Wil- low was considered one of the ‘commoners of the wood’ and is mentioned in often in Early Medieval texts in relation to house-building and there are also references to animals being restrained by a willow with (Kelly 1998, 384). Oak Dair Several fragments were found in a sample from one context; C113 in Area 1. Two species of oak are native to Ireland Sessile Oak (Quercus petraea) and Pendunculate Oak (Q. robur).Eachtra Archaeological Projects 81
  • 87. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Sessile Oak is the more common of the two and grows on acid soils and in mountain districts. Pendunculate Oak grows mainly in the lowlands and on richer soils. Oak is the largest and, together with the yew, the longest-living native tree in Ireland. They grow up to 40 metres in height and may live for over 1,000 years. Its timber has been used for construction, ship building, charcoal, barrels and furniture. Its bark was used for tanning leather. Oak was ranked as one of the Nobles of the Wood for ‘its acorns and its dignity’ (Mac Coitir 2003, 14). Discussion The charred wood remains from Kilbane were dominated by hazel/alder and ash with lesser amounts of willow/poplar, oak and other species. Many of the charcoal fragments were from twigs or small branches which would be consistent with the wood being collected as fire- wood. Some of the fragments were unidentifiable due to being in poor condition but overall the charcoal was in fairly good condition. Bibliography Hickie, D. 2002 Native Trees and Forests of Ireland. Gill and Macmillan. Kelly, F. 1997 Early Irish Farming. Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. Mac Coitir N. 2003 Irish Trees: Myth, Legend and Folklore. Collins. Schweingruber, F. 1978 Microscopic Wood Anatomy. Swiss Federal Institute of Forestry Research. Waddell, J. 1998 The Prehistoric Archaeology of Ireland. Wordwell.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 82
  • 88. 03E1717 Area 2 2 1 1 1 Area Area 2 2 Context no. 35 56 101 102 105 107 113 114 121 130 Context no. Context no. 149 153 Cut no. 23 103 24 97 22 Cut no. 41 54 Sample no. 47 37 6 1 3 4 5 7 8 9 Sample no. Sample no. 11 10Eachtra Archaeological Projects Weight 5g 8g 140g 21g 20g 150g <1g <1g 7g <1g Weight Weight 110g 7g cf Quercus sp. 7 Oak cf Quercus sp. cf Fraxinus sp. 5 9 Ash cf Fraxinus sp. 6 6 cf Rosa sp. Rose cf Rosa sp. Ring porous 2 1 1 1 Ring porous Ring porous cf Corylus/Betula sp. 4 3 7 10 1 1 Hazel/Alder cf Corylus/Betula sp. cf Salix/Populus sp. Willow/Poplar cf Salix/Populus sp. cf Prunus sp. Sloe/Cherry etc cf Prunus sp. Diffuse porous 1 Diffuse porous Diffuse porous Unidentifiable 6 2 7 Unidentifiable Unidentifiable 5 Suitable for C14 N N Y Y Y Y N N Y ams Suitable for C14 N N Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick83
  • 89. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Appendix 6: Cremated Human Remains Catryn Power Summary A total weight of 4247g of cremated human bone was examined. At Kilbane the practice of cremation was a long held funeral tradition. These people believed in life after death and made respectful provision for their deceased loved ones to speed them to the next world. Parts of two funerary urns were used as vessels to hold the cremated remains of people, which were then deposited in pits. The remains of fifty four cremated people were identified; of these four were juveniles, and four were teenagers. Social stratification was part of the burial custom. The sex of three males was established. Pathologies conditions were seen in four people. A genetic anatomical variation was recorded in one adult. The choice of cremation as the chief burial rite The philosophies of human thought are everywhere the same: the very nature of things that people do, their similar experiences, or the same religious needs of making sense of the world, which they then convey in ideas and customs. Worldwide disposing of the dead is generally dealt with by reverence and custom, and belief in an existence after death. The method of disposing of the dead varies according to the cultural group and of course, the environment. Throughout human existence Inhumation was always probably the most widespread man- ner. The custom of cremating the dead also dates back to very early times; it was a common funerary rite in prehistoric times, and is well documented. Cremation involves the burning of the corpse in a fire called a pyre, and subsequently the cremation was buried or dispersed at an appropriate place. In the past some cultures considered fire to be a purifying virtue, refining the body for the hereafter and it was believed that a fiery dissolution was the natural transfer from life to death. Fire was also considered to be the master principle in the composition of life, so too it was natural to cease in fire. The Indian Brachmans, among others, thought that to end their days in fire was the noblest way to depart this world. Others did not want their enemies ex- huming and desecrating their buried bodies, hence cremation was a functional resolution. In prehistoric Europe cremation was popular. So too In many of the mission Indians of California cremation was universal. The corpse was burned upon a funeral pyre immediately after death, together with the personal property, by a man specially appointed to that duty; the bones afterwards were gathered up and buried or otherwise preserved. An annual mourn- ing ceremony was held, to which all the neighbouring peoples were invited. On this occasion large quantities of property were burned as sacrifice to the spirits of the dead, or given away to the visitors; an effigy of the deceased was burned upon the pyre, and the performance, which lasted through several days and nights, concluded with a weird night dance aroundEachtra Archaeological Projects 84
  • 90. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick the blazing pile, during which an eagle or other great bird, passed from one to another of the circling dance priests, was slowly pressed to death in their arms, while in songs they implored its spirit to carry their messages to their friends in the other world. History reveals no trace of the custom of cremation among the Jewish people, except in extraordinary circumstances of war and pestilence. It was likewise unknown, in practice at least, to the Egyptians, Phoenicians, Carthaginians; or to the inhabitants of Asia Minor -- the Carians, Lydians, and Phrygians. The Greeks and Romans varied in their practice ac- cording to their views of the after life; those who believed in a future existence analogous to the present buried their dead, even leaving food in the tomb, or burial location, for the nourishment and enjoyment of the departed. On the other hand, others held the opinion that on the decay of the body life was continued in the shade or image, practiced cremation, the more expeditiously to speed the dead to the land of shadows. Owing in great part to the rapid progress of Christianity by the fifth century AD, the practice of cremation had entirely ceased among the Greeks and Romans. The Christians never burned their dead. In times of persecution many risked their lives to recover the bodies of martyrs for the holy rites of Christian burial. The pagans, to destroy faith in the resurrection of the body, often cast the corpses of martyred Christians into the flames, fondly believing that they rendered impossible the resurrection of the body. Thus, for one of a variety of reasons many societies strictly rejected the practice of crema- tion, just as the Christian Church has opposed it from the beginning as a custom, which has been used chiefly by the enemies of the Christian Faith; it was also considered undignified that the human body, once the living temple of God, should finally be subjected to a treat- ment that is judged as inhuman. The Egyptians were afraid of fire, not as a deity, but as a devouring element, mercilessly consuming their bodies, and leaving too little of them; and therefore by embalming, and deposition in dry earths the body could endure forever. The Babylonians, according to Herodotus, embalmed their dead, and the Persians pun- ished capitally those who attempted cremation, special regulations being followed for the purification of the fire so desecrated. Some societies including, North American Indian tribes allowed the bodies to decay upon scaffolds, after which the bones were gathered up and de- posited with ceremony in the common tribal grave or repository. The Choctaw scraped the flesh from the bones, which were then wrapped in a bundle, and placed in a box within the dwelling. Tree, scaffold, and cave burial were common on the plains and in the mountains, while cremation was the rule in the arid regions. The tradition of placing food near the grave for the spirit during the passage to the other world was common. Slashing of the body, cutting off of the hair, general neglect of the person, and ceremonial wailing, morning and evening, sometimes for weeks, were also parts of North American aboriginal funeral customs. Human religious ritual is probably one of the most basic of all human activities, and still it is one of the most difficult to identify archaeologically. The traditional procedures of the ritual associated with the cremation at Kilbane are a mystery, apart from the actual cremation process itself.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 85
  • 91. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Another custom, that of watching by the dead (the wake), is thought to be pagan in ori- gin. The Christians adopted it and chanted psalms to Christianize it. In medieval times, the monastic orders appointed relays of monks to succeed one another looking over the corpse so that it should never be left without prayer. So too in prehistoric times the burning corpse may have had to be watched for a certain number of hours and perhaps the very fragmented cremated bones, as seen at Kilbane, is evidence of continual presence at the pyre, by regular stoking the hot fires which would also serve to keep the fire burning. The cremation procedures at kilbane. At Kilbane the occurrence of well-cremated bone shows that the practice of cremation was a long held tradition in this area. The cremated remains from Kilbane are of a sufficient size to make identification into bone type possible for a large percentage of the deposits. It was also possible to acquire other types of information such as numbers of individuals, general ages for these subjects and identification of sex for a number of people. Pathology was also evident. The process of cremation is one of dehydration, and oxidation of the organic compo- nents of the body. Dehydration of the bone assists in its liability to fragment. Shrinkage and deformation of the bone also takes place. Most fragments are Kilbane are white in colour, indicating that during the firing process temperatures rose above 800 degrees C. A small number of fragments are blue, coal black or grey. This coloration occurs during the routine firing process of a well-fired body, when the affected bones are exposed to less time at the higher temperatures than the white bone; this may have resulted in areas of the body covered by greater amounts of soft tissue or when this bone was at the periphery of the funeral pyre. In many of the contexts at Kilbane some of the bones are blue/black in colour. Other factors which are responsible for this bone discoloration during cremation, include the age and struc- ture of the cremated individual. The white colour of the well-fired bones would also indicate that bones had shrunk by twenty five per cent of their original size during incineration, when temperatures reached 700 degrees C. The bones at this stage would also be very fragmentary and small. Transverse fracture lines are evident on many of the bone fragments from Kilbane, as well as irregular lengthwise splitting and warping of bone; these are typical characteristics of bone, which is burned when covered with flesh; during burning the bone explodes along the lines of least resistance. The total weight of bone in these assemblages at Kilbane is 4247g. The greatest weight of bone (836g) is evident in Context 120, Area 1 while the smallest weight (1g) is seen in Con- text 174, Area 2, and in Context 356, Area 2. As the average weight of a modern adult crema- tion varies between 1600g-3600g then between a maximum of 16.50kg and a minimum of 7.1kg is missing from the burial deposits in total, if forty seven individuals of mature age are represented; this missing weight does not include the small amounts of bone representing the younger juveniles, aged under ten years. Few bones represent the three youngest individuals,Eachtra Archaeological Projects 86
  • 92. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick this is due to the fact that their smaller and more fragile bones probably vanished during the firing process; this is typical in a routine cremation where the corpse of an infant may com- pletely disappear. There are a number of factors, which could be responsible for this loss: post burial loss due to the disturbance of the burials, differential burial where the cremations are deposited in a few burial locations. The amount of cremated bone, which is missing is large and it would have seemed unlikely to have lost such an amount after the burning and before the burial, in particular since so much care and reverence was taken in the funerary ritual at Kilbane, evidenced in the thoroughness of the cremation process, the deposition of burials in the nu- merous pits and the inclusion of one burial within a hand crafted pot. The entire corpse was probably burned because in all deposits, even the smallest in weight, all or large parts of the skeletal elements are represented in each burial deposit ruling out differential burning of the corpse(s) and hence the absence of some of the skeleton. The most likely scenario is that the missing bone was placed as part of the ritual for the deceased in another location; archaeologically no such burial deposits containing a mix of such large amounts of cremated bone has been uncovered for the bronze age period. One pos- sibility is that the missing cremated remains were placed in the nearby river or lake, to a de- ity. Even concerning the mixed cremated deposits excavated at the passage tomb at Knowth (and examined by the author), there were large amounts of cremated bone missing, and here too, deposits may have been placed in the Boyne river to the goddess associated with the river. These would have scattered easily in the water or sunk into the silts at the river bottom. The largest fragment of bone is 6.6cm, for a femoral shaft, located in Context 269, Area 2 while the smallest size are the numerous minute specks of bone in most deposits. The average size of fragments in each Area is 2cm. The smallest fragment in each deposit is a mere speck of bone; numerous examples of these occur. As well as incineration, fragmentation would also result from regular stoking of the bones while on the funeral pyre. Other causes include car- rying the hot and brittle bones from the pyre to the burial place, and the eventual excavation and removal of the fragile bones. Each burial deposit contains a wide range of the anatomical parts of the skeleton, though not necessarily all of the skeletal elements. All parts of the body of the adult skeleton are rep- resented in many of the deposits though sometimes only small portions; these parts include the skull, spine, shoulders, rib cage, arms, hips and legs; this indicates that a complete corpse was burned during the cremation process, and a range of elements placed within the burial pit, whether parts chosen intentionally or fortuitously can not be established. The funerary urn The cremated contents of the funerary urn (F366, Bone 27 & F365, Bone 57) were excavated in three layers, in order to determine if there was a specific order in which the bones hadEachtra Archaeological Projects 87
  • 93. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick been placed in the urn, whether it be related to parts of the one individual, or a number of individuals, either human or faunal etc. Basal layer within pot. This layer consisted of 2-3cm in depth of cremated bone deposit; it is the first layer of cre- mated bone, which was placed into the urn. The remains consist of a large part of the right pelvis (hip), small fragments of lumbar and sacral vertebrae, small fragments of the lower limb bones around the knee joints, a wisdom tooth and a fragment of base of the skull. The bone in this deposit is very friable, although cremated it has the appearance of unburnt bone (white cortex with cream-coloured cancellous bone); the bone may not have been cremated for as many hours as typical cremated bone, perhaps simply because it was rained upon. Other cremated deposits, which were found within pots and which the author has examined, do not have the appearance of that from Kilbane. Middle layer within pot This cremated bone layer is 2cm in thickness. This bone has similar preservation qualities to that in the basal layer. The remains consist of parts of a mandible, a tooth, some ribs, an arm bone, a hand bone, the thigh and shin bones. Upper layer within pot This layer of cremated bone is 3cm thick. This bone has similar preservation qualities to that in the other layers. These bone fragments consist of the following: a cranial fragment, some ribs, hand bones, some thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, lower limbs, and some foot bones. Miscellaneous bones from within the pot. These bone fragments are friable and of similar preservation qualities to that in the other lay- ers within the pot. The remains consist of part of the face, the mandible, some teeth, some ribs, arm, some vertebrae and sacrum fragments, the ventral parts of the hips, parts of the lower limbs, and foot bones. Summary The cremated bone from the funerary vessel (F366, Bone 27 & F365, Bone 57) is representa- tive of the remains of one individual, who was aged in the mid to late teens; the remains which were deposited outside the pot (F365, Bone 56) also consisted of those of an individual aged in the late teens, and it could well be the same person who was placed within and around the pot, or there may be two persons involved; the remains of a neonate were found also in the deposit outside the pot (F365, Bone 56). It was not possible to determine the sex of the older individual, and if it were the parent or brother or grandmother etc of the new born infant.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 88
  • 94. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick It would appear from the deposition of the cremated bones within the funerary vessel that one of the largest bones from the skeleton (the pelvis) was placed into the vessel first prob- ably because it was large and simply an easy bone to collect first from the funeral pyre, where the corpse lay on the ground in its correct anatomical position. More of the lower half of the body (from the hip to the shins) was at the same time placed first in the funerary vessel. The rest of the large limb bones (lower and upper limbs) were next placed in the vessel. Finally the smaller fragments that were left all over the pyre and those of the upper body were finally collected and placed in the funerary vessel, which was placed near the recently cremated person. The remains outside the pot (Context 365, Bone 56) consisted of small bones such as those of the hands and feet, as well as a large part of the dentition; this is also indicative of the small bones being the last leftover fragments to be collected and perhaps scattered around the funerary vessel. The pyre site could have been located near the burial place or at a considerable distance; the cremation within the ceramic vessel would have been sufficiently heavy to think that the distance which the vessel was carried was short; however carrying such a heavy vessel would not have been considerable if done for a ritualistic, cultural or familial reason; nevertheless since the bones (when cooled or warm) were hand picked from the pyre and carried to the funerary urn, it indicates that no intermediary vessel (ceramic, basket etc) was used to bring the bones from the pyre to the urn. Some ceremony probably took place at the bone collec- tion time ie. chanting, dancing etc. Reconstructing the kilbane demography The presence of a cemetery of this size in the Bronze Age indicates that great reverence and dignity was given to the deceased as well as the belief in an after life. Social stratification was part of society in some form as mature individuals were primarily buried separately, and all juveniles evident were buried with a mature person, perhaps to be taken care of on their journey into the hereafter. Accordingly, there is evidence of differential burial for adults/ adolescents and juveniles. There does not appear to be any relationship between the location of the burial deposits and the demography (age, sex, disease etc) of those buried within the pits. Juveniles are buried with mature individuals. Pottery was associated with two burial pits: Context 126, Area 1 and Context 365, Area 2; perhaps special people though more likely all persons were placed in funerary vessels and they have not survived in the ground due to environmental condi- tions. The pottery sherds, which have survived are poorly preserved. The number of pits with cremated bone deposits totalled fifty three. The pit, which con- tained the funerary vessel may have yielded one or two individuals aged in the mid to late teens, and a neonate, while three other deposits held two individuals, an adult and a juvenile (under the age of fourteen years). If each burial pit (fifty one) represents a token deposit, whether large or small, of a deceased person, then the total number of individuals in thisEachtra Archaeological Projects 89
  • 95. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick cemetery group is fifty four individuals (including the juveniles). Adolescents identified in two burial pits (Context 342, Area 2 & Context 344, Area 2) do not seem to share their burial location with any other individual. The adolescent, aged ten to fourteen, does share a burial pit (Context 114, Area 1); this might suggest that when one had reached puberty, then one was sufficiently mature, and had reached womanhood/manhood, to possess a burial pit for oneself, and was able to make their way into the after life on their own. Most societies had an initiation process for the transition to puberty, and as it was recognised in life so too it probably had significance in death and the next world. In total there are eight individuals aged under twenty: five in the teens, two aged between seven and ten and one newborn infant. If one uses the minimum number of diagnostic bones to determine the number of people in this demographic group, then using the numbers of odontoid processes of the cervical vertebrae (one in each skeleton), there would only be six persons from Kilbane represented. From the numbers of petrous portions (two in each person) of the temporal bone, a number of between eight to twelve individuals are present. This would indicate that each cremated corpse was spread among different burial pits. However, this hypothesis could be ruled out because most pits, even those with small amounts of cremated bone, contains skeletal parts from a wide range of skeletal elements. The lack of sexually diagnostic bone remains meant that only three individuals could be sexed: Context 115, Area 1; Context 126, Area 1; Context 136, Area 1; these were sexed us- ing the following diagnostic criteria: the temporal bone, the nuchal crest of the occipital, and the pronounced superciliary ridge of the frontal bone. These individuals are probably male; the male skeleton has more obvious diagnostic criteria for sex identification than the female, depending on the part of the skeleton involved. Hence there is a slight bias in male identifica- tion at Kilbane. Although the cremated remains are very fragmented one anatomical variation and four subjects with pathological conditions were identified. The anatomical variation is evident in Context 86, Area 6 and is called a Wormian Bone, and occurs on the occipital bone. This type of extra bone is referred to as an ossicle or sutural bone and is most commonly interposed between the lambdoid suture (between the parietal and occipital bones), though its occur- rence on other sutures is known. These irregular ossicles have a tendency to be symmetrical on the two sides of the skull. They vary in size from a pinhead to the size of an occipital bone. Wormian bones may be a dominant genetic trait. Degenerative joint disease is the most common of all joint diseases. A major factor in its development is ‘wear and tear’, as well as its progression due to ageing. The spine is the most severely affected. The early stages of degenerative changes consist of degeneration of the articular cartilage followed by compensatory bone proliferation. This proliferation of bone is referred to as osteophytosis, or bony lipping, and forms along the joint margins. Osteoar- thritis refers to loss of bone substance and is evident as porosis of the bone, sometimes with eburnation and underlying cystic activity. Osteophytosis is evident in three individuals: Con-Eachtra Archaeological Projects 90
  • 96. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick text 344, Area 2; Context 120, Area 1 and Context 136, Area 1. It occurs on the finger of one adolescent, on the spines of two adults and one of these latter individuals also has the condition on the elbow. This degenerative disease may have been caused by wear and tear during life, from daily chores and numerous strains resulting from these tasks. The individuals may have had physically demanding work, perhaps doing manual labour. The degenerative joint disease would have resulted in considerable pain, probably for some years prior to death. However there are other aetiological factors, which could have been respon- sible for this disease including trauma, acquired joint disease, as well as other inflammatory, metabolic and congenital conditions. It seems likely that the teenager with osteophytosis on the finger suffered from some physical trauma, resulting in the condition, and may have suf- fered from this when doing a chore or when involved in some other physical activity. In one male the condition affects an elbow joint as well as the spine; again trauma or routine chores may have resulted in this condition in two areas of the skeleton. In the third person with the condition at least two vertebrae (included one lumbar) are affected; one of these vertebrae also ahs osteoarthritis in the form of porosis. Herniated discs resulting in Schmorl’s nodes are evident (Context 269, Area 2) on the back of one person aged in their twenties. Their presence would indicate the occurrence of severe strains to the mid thoracic spine, perhaps from a wrench to the back. This cavity or disc herniation results from expansion of the nucleus pulposus, the partially liquid central portion of the intervertebral disc. They result from degenerative disc disease, from trauma from such activities as a fall from a height, heavy lifting, trauma during physical exercises. Non-specific infection affected the man in Context 126, Area 1; the shafts of the femur and tibia displayed . This inflammation of the periosteum is most often caused by infection or trauma (a blow to the leg perhaps), though it is not possible to determine which of the two is responsible in this case. Acknowledgements Thanks are due to Fiona Greene, MA for assistance in typing some of this report. ____________ Catryn Power Physical Anthropologist 7th October 2005Eachtra Archaeological Projects 91
  • 97. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Inventory of cremated bone from kilbane CONTEXT 120: Area 1 Bone: 13 Weight: 836g. Colour: white Largest: 5cm (shaft of tibia). Average Size of Fragments: 2cm Number of Individuals: One mature adult 232g: three hundred and twenty three fragments of skull: temporal, parietal, occipital, fron- tal, sphenoid, nasal bones; the margin of the left and right (two fragments) orbits; the left temperomandibular fossa; the right condylar process; the right coracoid process; eight other fragments of the mandibular body include the gonial angle, and two fragments containing three sockets on each fragment; and fragments containing one right resorbed molar, and one left resorbed molar; five fragments of two petrous portions of temporal (right and left); two mandibular molars – two roots and fused; five other tooth fragments (at least a minimum of two single-rooted teeth and one possible maxillary premolar). 22g: eleven upper limb fragments, and twelve ulnar and radial shaft fragments. 31g: sixty one rib fragments representing four left and five right (one with a head); the gle- noid fossa of the left scapula; seven shaft fragments of the humerus and two fragments of the trochlea of the distal joint and a possible head fragment; three fragments of the iliac crest of the pelvis. Lower limbs: 130g: 30 fragments of lower limb; four fragments of fibula shaft; fifteen femoral shaft fragments including three of the distal articulation (condyles) and three femoral head fragments; forty four tibial fragments including that of the shaft and the articulations and tuberosity. Three hundred and eighty five fragments of unidentifiable long bone (164g) 45g: one hundred and fifty five vertebral fragments, mostly minute: a minimum of three cervical, two thoracic, four lumbar and one sacral: parts of the bodies of three cervical (also left part of a body,) one superior left articular process, two cervical transverse (left) processes with superior and inferior facets; five thoracic articular processes; two inferior articular left processes, and one right; one spinous process and part of the body with mild osteophytes on the inferior surface of an upper thoracic;Eachtra Archaeological Projects 92
  • 98. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Two transverse processes, five inferior articular processes, and one articular process of lumbar vertebrae; severe osteophytes and porosis are evident on two lumbar articular facets. The fifth segment of the sacrum. 56g : fifty four fragments of hand/foot bones: four proximal hand phalanges (two/three fin- gers); one proximal hand phalanx; the base of a second metacarpal (left); the head of a meta- carpal; the bases of the first metacarpal (left and right); the proximal and distal phalanges of the thumb (left); the right proximal phalanx (thumb); the distal phalanx of the small finger, right; the shafts of seventeen metacarpals/metatarsals; one medial phalanx of the hand; the right lunate and triquetral carpals of the hand; two middle and one distal phalanges of the foot; the base of the first metatarsal and two other metatarsals; nine shafts of phalanges of the hand/foot; the head of a metacarpal/metatarsal; the head of a metatarsal; the left navicular, three cuneiforms and two possible fragment of the talus. 75g: eighty-five articular facets from foot/hand bones and other joint surfaces, though many remain unidentifiable. Unidentifiable bone: 66g CONTEXT 153: Area 2 Bone 13 Weight: 50g. Colour: white. Largest fragment: 6cm (femur). Average size: 2.5cm. Number of Individuals: one mature adult and one child, aged four to eight years 23g: Skull including parietals, frontal, and a possible fragment of the mental protuberance of the mandible. Four fragments of rib (including one head), representing at least two ribs. One vertebral fragment; One possible fragment of the ischium or public bone. 11g: forty fragments of lower limb long bones. 15g: the posterior surface of the distal end of the femoral shaft (6cm), and five other frag- ments of femur. Six unidentifiable articulation/joint surfaces: one of these probably belongs to a child aged between four to eight years, possibly a humerus or femur.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 93
  • 99. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick 3g: twenty six unidentifiable fragments CONTEXT 154: Area 2 Bone: 18 Weight: 5g. Colour: white and charcoal stained (marrow cavities are black) Average size: 1-2cm (cranial). Minimum Number of Individuals: one mature adult. Nine fragments, including two cranial and one possible scapular fragment. Five long bone fragments, probably metacarpal/metatarsal shaft fragments. One fragment of rib. CONTEXT 115: Area 1 Bone 11 Weight: 4g. Largest fragment: 3.7cm (skull). Average size: 2cm. Minimum Number of Individuals: one mature adult male. Six cranial fragments, probably male as the occipital bone with the nuchal crest of the exter- nal protuberance is very pronounced. Twenty long bone fragments. Seventeen minute unidentifiable fragments. CONTEXT 16: Area 5 Bone 63 (Disturbed pit). Weight: 5g. Colour: white. Average size: 2cm. Minimum Number of Individuals: one mature adult. Two cranial fragments. One large odontoid process of the second cervical vertebra, and a fragment of the body of a cervical vertebra (fifth to seventh). One fragment of the shaft of a fibula. One fragment of the shaft of a radius. CONTEXT 114: Area 1Eachtra Archaeological Projects 94
  • 100. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Bone: 12 Weight: 90gm. Colour: white. Largest fragment: 5.7cm. Average size: 1-2cm Minimum Number of Individuals: one child aged between ten years to fourteen years, and one mature adult. 10g: twenty eight cranial fragments probably belonging to a child; one socket of a maxilla (possibly a child); adult skull include the following: one fragment of right petrous portion of temporal bone; other fragments of temporal bones and parietals. One fragment of the axillary border of a scapula. One rib fragment. 4g: four fragments of the humeral shaft. One left pubic bone fragment. 20gm: sixteen fragments of lower limb (tibia and femur). 6gm: small fragments of articular/joint surfaces The condylar surface of the proximal end (unfused) of a tibia, and the unfused condyles of the articular surface of the femur, both probably belonging to a child aged between ten years to fourteen years. 40gm of unidentifiable fragments. CONTEXT 86: Area 6 Bone 59 Weight: 250g. Colour: white. Largest fragment: 5.2cm (tibial shaft). Average size of fragments: 2cm Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult. Seventy three skull fragments – seventy of the cranium and two mandibular, including the temporal, frontal, occipital, four fragments of orbits (the right: supraorbital crest and two fragments of the left; a fragment of the mandibular body and the right of ramus containing the coronoid and condylar processes; Skull: including mandible, one orbit, and two teeth: the root of a maxillary molar, and the root of a single rooted tooth (lower incisor). One possible wormian bone on the occipital. A fragment of the distal radial shaft. Two fragments of the proximal shaft of the left ulna. The axillary border of a scapula and the acromion of the left scapula; two shaft fragments of the clavicle. Twenty seven rib fragments.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 95
  • 101. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Hand: the distal phalanx of a middle finger, the shaft of a metacarpal, fragments of two carpals, eleven fragments of shafts of metacarpals and phalanges, and two shafts proximal phalanges. Twenty one fragments of vertebrae, three fragments from bodies, six of articular processes (a minimum of one lumbar, and one thoracic), and one spinous process. Seven fragments of the ilium of the pelvis, three of these are from the crest. Seven fragments of femoral shaft (including fragments containing the linea aspera); six tibial fragments: four (two of one fragment) of the shaft including three of the anterior crest and two fragments of condyles from the proximal end; two fragments of fibula shaft. One fragment of the heal of the calcaneous of the foot. 40g: unidentifiable fragments, including several tiny fragments of articular ends (probably from facets on vertebrae or extremities). One hundred and one unidentifiable long bones CONTEXT 88: Area 4 Bone 61 Weight: 6g. Colour: white. Largest fragment: 2.25cm. Average size of fragments: 1cm. Minimum number of individuals: 1. Eighteen cranial fragments, including a possible maxillary fragment with one socket of a tooth, and the tip of a petrous portion of a temporal bone. Four rib fragments and six long bone fragments. Fifty six unidentifiable fragments. CONTEXT 101 and CONTEXT 105: Area 1 Sample Number 3 Mixed sample from both contexts. Weight: 20g. Colour: white Largest fragment: 4cm. verage size of fragments: 2cm A Forty five cranial fragments, including an orbit, and frontal, and parietal fragments.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 96
  • 102. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Two fragments of rib shaft. One fragment of the distal articulation of the humerus (troch- lea). The shaft of the proximal phalanx of the hand. Two articular fragments, possibly two carpals One fragment fibula shaft and one shaft of a medial phalanx of the foot. Thirteen long bone fragments. Twenty six unidentifiable fragments CONTEXT 101: Area 1 Bone: 10 Weight: 100g. Colour: white/brown/black./blue Average size of fragments: 2cm. Largest fragment: 3.9cm (left temporal) and part of petrous portion. Minimum number of individuals: 1. 50g: one hundred thirty seven cranial fragments: fragments of parietal and left temporal, the supraorbital crest of left orbit, and fragments of the nasal, sphenoid, and frontal; one root of a molar tooth in two fragments. One fragment of the body of a vertebra. Six rib fragments. Shaft fragments of the distal radi- us. Two ulnar shafts fragments: the proximal of one and the midshaft of the right ulna. One joint surface of the proximal ulna. Articular surfaces from four small joints such as extremi- ties, and six of hand bones. Three long bones of extremities; four hand phalange fragments. The articular surface of the femoral condyle. The proximal articulation of the condyle of a tibia. One shaft fragment from each of the following: femur and the fibula. Ten fragments of the tibial shaft. The basal parts (second or third toe, and the fourth or fifth) of two meta- tarsals. The talus containing the articular surface for calcaneous, and the articular surface of a tarsal of the foot. Blue specks discoloration on foot bones. Two articular/joint surfaces 10g: sixty long bones fragments. 10g: minute unidentifiable fragments. CONTEXT 105: Area 1 Bone: 4 Weight:150g. Colour: white/some buff./blue. Largest bone fragment: 4.2cm. Average size of fragment: 1-2cm.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 97
  • 103. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Minimum number of individuals: 1. 50g: cranial fragments including the parietal and occipital fragments (tinged blue), a possible right petrous portion of the temporal bone, a fragment of a maxillary socket. Nine shaft fragments of the ulna or radius. A fragment of the distal articulation (trochlea) of a humerus, and a humeral head. A clavicular shaft. Seven rib fragments. The body of a cervical vertebra (possibly a cervical third to cervical sixth). Two Inferior articular processes of cervical vertebrae, one from a left. Two fragments of the proximal shaft of the femur. Three tibial shaft fragments. SIxteen long bone fragments from extremities. Six fragments of articular/joint facets. 43g: seventy two fragments of unidentifiable long bone fragments. 25g of unidentifiable fragments. CONTEXT 109: Area 1 Bone: 1 (also sherd of pottery) Largest bone fragment: 3cm (temporal bone). Average size of fragments: 2g. Weight: 38g. Colour: white Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult. 20g: twenty eight cranial fragments including two parietal, three frontal, two fragments of petrous portion of the left temporal, two other temporal fragments three occipital fragments; two mandibular body fragments including the left body containing two sockets, and one tooth root, possibly a mandibular canine. Three rib shaft fragments including the sternal end of the left rib. The acromion of a scapula (possibly left). The articulating surface, possibly the head of a humerus. A possible shaft of a metacarpal of the hand. A fragment of the rim of the acetabulum of the pelvis. Two articulation/joint surfaces: one of the proximal end of the fibula or of the distal end of the radius. Eleven long bone fragments. Twenty six unidentifiable fragments.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 98
  • 104. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick CONTEXT 126: Area 1 Bone 15 Largest bone: 2cm. Average size of fragments: 2cm. Weight: 450g. Colour: white Minimum number of individuals: two: one mature adult, possibly male, and one child aged 7-10 years. 60g: one hundred and ninety six cranial fragments: five are temporal, three parietal, four frontal and two occipital; the right orbit; three fragments from the prominent nuchal crest of the occipital. Six alveolar sockets from both halves of the mandible. 11g: the head of a humerus and a fragment of the shaft. A fragment of the olecranon of the proximal end of an ulna and a fragment of the distal shaft. One possible shaft of a metacarpal and a fragment of a medial hand phalanx. 38g: twenty-six rib fragments representing at least two left and one right. 5g: a minimum of one cervical and two thoracic vertebrae: the second cervical vertebra, a fragment of a spinous process, three transverse processes from the thoracic vertebrae, three fragments from the vertebral body, two thoracic articular facets. 5g: fragment of the ilium of the pelvis. A possible right patella. 185g: thirty five femoral shaft fragment from the left and right elements. Eighteen fragments of the tibial shaft, including the tuberosity of an anterior fragment. Non-specific infection is evident in the from of striated bone on femoral and tibial fragments. 1g: the left pubic bone of a child aged circa eight to ten years; the transverse process of a ver- tebra and part of a sacral body of a child aged seven to ten years. 72g: two hundred and eighty seven unidentifiable long bone fragments. 60g: forty eight articular surface fragments; one hundred and twenty three unidentifiable bone fragments. CONTEXT 136 Bone 16 Weight: 400g. Colour : white/grey Largest bone fragment: 2cm (femur). Average size of fragment: 1-2cm. Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult male.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 99
  • 105. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick 195g: two hundred and seventeen fragments from the cranium including large parts of the temporal, frontal, parietal bones, the orbits, malars and one fragment from the chin of a man- dible; a fragment of a superciliary ridge on the frontal bone is prominent and suggestive of a male; six fragments of the mandible including one of the condylar process, one of the right body, one of the right mandible containing the three sockets and one of the left mandibular body containing the mandibular left first five teeth (from the central incisor through to the second premolar); a fragment of the crown, of a tooth; the root of a possible mandibular mo- lar; three maxillary fragments containing tooth sockets, one of these contains the following: the left maxillary incisors and the left canine. 10g: a minimum number of two cervical and one thoracic vertebrae: the body of the second cervical vertebra containing the odontoid process; one fragment from a cervical vertebra; the left half of the body of a central thoracic vertebra; the body of the hyoid bone. 50g: one possible clavicular shaft fragment; the glenoid fossa and a fragment of the spine of the right scapula; a fragment of the acromion of the scapula; four other fragments from the scapula including one of the axillary border. 60g: a fragment of the posterior surface of the distal shaft of the right humerus, containing the olecranon depression; parts of the trochlea of the humerii; the mid shaft of the right ulna; the distal end of the left ulna containing the head and styloid process; one fragment from the shaft of a radius; two proximal hand phalanges; eleven rib fragments including two heads from left ribs and one from a right rib. 10g: eight articular processes from thoracic vertebrae and the spinous process of an upper thoracic vertebra. Seven other vertebral fragments including those from two bodies; four articular processes from lumbar vertebrae; parts of five sacral bodies, including the bodies of the fifth and two others. One fragment of the iliac crest, one fragment of the ischium, three pubic bone fragments and one from an acetabulum; seventeen fragments from articular/joint surfaces such as hand/ foot, and shoulder/hip joints. 65g: two fragments of the posterior surface of the right femoral shaft containing the linea as- pera, and a fragment also of the left femur. Three fragments from one piece of bone from the posterior surface of the mid shaft of the left femur; seventeen other fragments of the femur; the anterior surface of the shaft of the tibia containing the tuberosity. Six fragments from the tibial shaft including one from the anterior surface of the midshaft. 20g: hands/feet: two fragments from the head of a talus, including one from the right. The heads of two metatarsals and the shafts of five. A middle of the foot; four shaft fragments from metacarpals/metatarsals. 110g: one hundred and ninety seven fragments from unidentifiable long bones. 50g: three hundred and eighty seven fragments of unidentifiable bone. Pathology.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 100
  • 106. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Mild osteophytosis is evident on the margin of the distal end of the left ulna. Mild osteohytes occur on the superior surface of the body of the second cervical vertebra containing the odontoid process, on the margin of the inferior surface of the body of a cervi- cal vertebra; on the surface of the body of the central thoracic vertebra and on the superior surface of the first sacral body and on the posterior surface of a lower sacral body. CONTEXT 163: Area 2 Bone 19 Weight: 3g. Colour: white and some charcoal staining. Largest bone fragment: 1.8cm (large long bone). Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult. Fourteen bone fragments, including seven longbone (including two large long bone) fragments. CONTEXT 165: Area 2 Bone 21 Weight : 23g. Colour: white and some charcoal staining. Largest bone fragment: 5.1cm (anterior crest of the tibia) Average size of fragments: 2cm. Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult. Sixty-six fragments, including forty-six from long bones, most from the tibia, and five cranial (five probably fragments from piteous portion of temporal) fragments.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 101
  • 107. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick CONTEXT 166: Area 2 Bone 23 Weight: 31g. Colour: white. Largest bone fragment: 4.05cm (femur). Average size of fragment: 2cm. Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult. Fifty three bone fragments: thirteen cranial fragments including occipital and parietal; nine fragments of femur/tibia including: one femoral shaft (including the linear aspera) and two tibial shaft fragments. Twenty unidentifiable long bone fragments. CONTEXT 174: Area 2 Bone 27 Weight: 1g. Colour: white. Largest bone fragment: 2cm. Minimum number of individuals: one. Four long bone fragments and one large bone such as femur/tibia. CONTEXT 177: Area 2 Bone 25 Weight: 6g Colour: white/some charcoal staining. Largest bone fragment: 1.9cm (long bone). Average size of fragment: Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult. Twenty nine fragments including five skull fragments; fifteen longbone fragments; and one possible clavicle shaft. Faunal (small animal) bones present. CONTEXT 179: Area 2 Bone 24 Weight: 2g. Colour: white with charcoal staining. Largest bone fragment: 1.5cm. Average size of fragments 1-2cm. Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 102
  • 108. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Thirty three tiny fragments including four cranial, seven long bone and two unidentifiable fragments. CONTEXT 180: Area 2 Bone 26 Weight: 11g. Colour: white and charcoal staining. Largest bone fragment:2.8cm (long bone). Average size of fragments:2cm. Minimum number of individuals: one. Thirty fragments including forty cranial, one possible vertebral facet from the mid to lower thoracic vertebrae, and one fragment of a long bone (femur/tibia); six unidentifiable long bone fragments. CONTEXT 193: Area 2 Bone 28 Weight: 11g. Colour: white and charcoal staining Largest bone fragment: 3.1cm (large long bone, probably femur). Average size of fragment: 2cm. Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult. Thirty five fragments, including nineteen from long bones, one is femoral fragment and one a possible tibial shaft; the rest are minute unidentifiable fragments. CONTEXT 203: Area 2 Bone 29 Weight: 5g. Colour: white with charcoal staining. Largest bone fragment: 2.6cm. Average size of fragment: 2cm. Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult. Seven fragments including four fragments of one part of a rib.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 103
  • 109. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick CONTEXT 218: Area 2 Bone: 30 Weight: 5g. Colour: white with charcoal staining Largest bone fragment: 1.2cm. Average size of fragment: 1cm Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult. Twenty one bone fragments including fourteen cranial and two long bone fragments. CONTEXT 220: Area 2 ? Weight: 4g Colour: white with some charcoal staining/blue/grey. Largest bone fragment: 1.4cm (fibula). Average size of fragment: 1cm. Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult. Fourteen bone fragments including, two fibula fragments (from one piece, internally blue/ grey, 1.4cm in length); and four lone bone fragments. CONTEXT 223: Area 2 Bone 33 Weight : 22g . Colour: white. Largest bone fragment: 3.14cm. Average size of fragment: 2cm. Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult. Fourteen bone fragments including twelve cranial, all probably from temporal and adjoining parts of the occipital bone (two definite occipital fragments), and Two fragments of the left petrous portion of the temporal bone (large suggestive of a male), and five belonging to the two petrous portions; and two long bone fragments. CONTEXT 249: Area 2 Bone 32 Weight: 79g. Colour: white/grey, small amount of charcoal staining. Largest bone fragment: 4.3cm (fibula). Average size of fragments:2cm. Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 104
  • 110. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Two hundred and forty six fragments, including thirty three skull fragments. Eight frag- ments of rib shaft. One fragment of shaft from the radius/ulna, and one possible distal shaft fragment from the radius. A possible fragment of a carpal (grey/blue). The ilium of the pelvis, containing the sciatic notch. Six fragments of the fibular shaft. A possible right talus: the joint surface for the calcaneous. One hundred and eighteen long bone fragments. Seventy six unidentifiable fragments. CONTEXT 252: Area 2 Bone 34 Weight: 4g. Colour: white, some with charcoal staining. Largest bone fragment: 2cm. Average size of fragment: 2cm. Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult. Seven fragments of bone including four of the cranium, and one of a long bone. CONTEXT 263: Area 2 Bone 39 Weight: 39g. Colour: white, and a few grey/blue. Largest bone fragment: 4.25cm (femur/tibia). Average size of fragments: 2cm. Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult. Sixty seven fragments: ten cranial fragments including three parietal. The odontoid process of the second cervical vertebra. One rib fragment. Long bone fragments include five femoral (two containing linear aspere); thirty nine include ten of large long bones (femur/tibia) and ten of small long bone; articular foot bone. Several unidentifiable specks of bone.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 105
  • 111. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick CONTEXT 264: Bone 38 Weight: 12g. Colour: white. Largest bone fragment: 2.9cm (long bone). Average size of fragments: 2cm. Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult. Two cranial fragments. Nineteen long bone fragments (including three of small long bones). One rib fragment. Several unidentifiable minute fragments. CONTEXT 269: Area 2 (not on inventory list) Soil Sample 36 Weight: 260g (100g are long bone). Colour: white, and discoloured black/grey from the deposit from which it had been discovered. Largest bone fragment: 2cm. Average size of fragment: 2cm. Minimum number of individuals: one adult aged circa twenty years. 50g: thirty-three cranial fragments, of these twelve are temporal, five are parietal and two are occipital; one sphenoid fragment and one fragment from each petrous portion of the tempo- rals; two possible fragments from the mandibular body and a third fragment containing a tooth socket. 8g: a minimum of ten vertebrae, six cervical, two thoracic, one lumbar and one sacral: the anterior surface of the first cervical vertebra, containing the articulation for the odontoid process of the first cervical vertebra. Part of the body and left transverse process of a cervical vertebra. Parts of four bodies of cervical vertebrae. A spinous process of a cervical vertebra. A spinous process of one thoracic vertebra and one lumbar vertebra. Three inferior articular processes (including one thoracic and one lumbar). One central thoracic vertebra, possibly the eighth. Two possible arches of central thoracic vertebrae. Part of the superior surface of the first sacral body. Fifteen rib fragments (3g). 5g: two fragments from the distal end of the right humerus containing the trochlea, and six shaft fragments. Five fragments from the shaft of the radius or ulna. Fragments of three shafts from hand phalanges. The shafts of two metacarpals or metatarsals. The shaft of a distal phalanx of the hand from a second or third finger. 7g: three phalanges from the hand or foot, and the head of a metacarpal or metatarsal.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 106
  • 112. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick One possible fragment from the pubic bone. Twelve fragments from the femoral shaft. Twelve fragments from the tibiae including one proximal articulation and one distal articulation. Six fibular fragments including the distal end containing the malleolus (possibly recently fused). Nineteen fragments from articulation/ joint surfaces, most are small and probably belong to hand and foot bones (0.5g). Forty-five fragments of long bones from the lower limbs. Seventy-four unidentifiable long bone fragments. Thirty-two fragments of unidentifiable bone (10g). Pathology. The possible eighth thoracic vertebra has Schmorl’s nodes on the superior and inferior sur- faces of the body. CONTEXT 269: Area 2 Bone 37 Weight: 127g. Colour: white/grey with charcoal staining. Largest bone fragment: 6.6cm (femur shaft). Average size of fragment: Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult. Eighty six bone fragments, including twenty three cranial: occipital, temporal, parietal, in- cluding the left glenoid fossa and right tubercle of the zygomatic arch, and a fragment of petrous portion of temporal bone. Nine fragments of rib. Three (small ulna/radius bones) long bone fragments. The superior articular facet of a lumbar vertebra, and a second articular facet possible lumbar. A fragment of the wing of the sacrum. A fragment of the ilium of the right pelvis. Twelve femoral fragments including the posterior surface of the shaft. An articular surface, the possible distal condyle of a femur. Five tibia fragments. Twenty nine unidentifiable long bones fragments. Three articular surfaces. CONTEXT 274: Area 2 Bone 40 Weight: 6gEachtra Archaeological Projects 107
  • 113. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Colour: white but stained black from charcoal around it. Largest bone fragment: 1.5cm. Average size of fragment: 1cm. Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult. Fifteen fragments, including three cranial, ten long bone, and possibly of the humeral shaft. One fragment of a small long bone. CONTEXT 286: Area 2 Bone 42 Weight: 15g. Colour: white. Largest bone fragment: 3.7cm (Cranial). Average size of fragments: 2cm. Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult. Eleven bone fragments including the right humeral fragment of distal shaft and olecranon fossa, and three other long bones; seven fragments of the parietal of the cranium; and two probable fragments of one rib shaft. One unidentifiable fragment. CONTEXT 290: Area 2 Bone 41 Weight: 20g. Colour: white. Largest bone fragment: 2.38cm (cranial). Average size of fragment: 2g. Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult. Twenty fragments, including two cranial fragments (one including one parietal), and four long bone fragments. CONTEXT 296: Area 2 Bone 44 Weight: 99g. Colour: white. Largest bone fragment: 3.2cm (long bone). Average size of fragment: 1.5cm. Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult. Two hundred and twenty six fragments of bone including, thirty one cranial fragments; the spinous process of one vertebra; one possible humeral shaft; two radial heads; one fragment of the glenoid fossa of a scapula, and two fragments of scapular body. One possible fragmentEachtra Archaeological Projects 108
  • 114. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick of a pubic bone, one of the iliac crest, two wings of the sacrum and one sacral body. Three fragments of the femoral shaft. Fifty four long bone fragments. Fifty six parts of articular surfaces (one possible carpal/tarsal). Seven unidentifiable fragments. CONTEXT 298: Area 2 Bone 43 Weight: 10g. Colour: white, stained with charcoal. Largest bone fragment: 2.7cm (occipital). Average size of fragment: 2cm. Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult. Eight cranial fragments, including three adjoining fragments (two occipital and one parietal), three other probable occipital fragments, and two other cranial fragments. CONTEXT 310: Area 2 Bone 46 Weight: 56g. Colour: white with charcoal staining Largest bone fragment: 4.4cm (ischial fragment). Average size of fragment: 1.5 cm. Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult. Eighty seven fragments including thirty two cranial: the temporal, occipital, and frontal; one possible fragment of the proximal shaft of the ulna and one fragment of the humeral shaft; one fragment of rib shaft; one charred articular/joint of a vertebra, probably thoracic. The left ischia (tuberosity) of the pelvis, part of sciatic notch of the ilium and a second ilium, one of the acetabula; several other fragments of the pelves are probably present Twenty four unidentifiable (small) long bone fragments. CONTEXT 311: Area 2 Bone sample 45 Weight: 32g. Colour: white Largest bone fragment: 2.75cm. Average size of fragments: 2cm.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 109
  • 115. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult. One hundred and seventy nine fragments including twenty four cranial fragments including two fragments of the petrous portion of the temporal bone; one root of a tooth. One articular surface, probably a carpal of the hand; forty three long bone fragments. One metacarpal/metatarsal fragment; one ulnar shaft fragment. Several small long bones: meta- carpal/metatarsal and/or ulnar/radial. One hundred and ten unidentifiable minute specks of bone. CONTEXT 337: Area 2 Bone 49 Weight: 10g. Colour: white Largest bone fragment: 4.1cm (right ulna). Average size of fragment: 2cm. Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult. Twenty eight fragments of bone (and several minute), including seven long bone fragments probably from an ulna; an upper shaft fragment from the right ulna. CONTEXT 339: Area 2 Bone 48 Weight: 10g. Colour: white. Largest bone fragment: 2.4cm. Average size of fragment: 1cm. Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult. Nineteen fragments of bone including one cranial fragment and eight long bone fragments. CONTEXT 342: Area 2 Bone 50 Weight: 11g. Colour: white with charcoal staining Largest bone fragment: 3.6 cm (long bone). Average size of bone fragment: 2cm. Minimum number of individuals: one adolescent.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 110
  • 116. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Eleven fragments, including seven cranial from the one piece of occipital bone; two frag- ments of one piece of distal shaft of the radius. Possible adolescent (possible calcaneous foot bone or distal end femur); two unidentifiable fragments of calcaneous bone showing that the cancellous bone was not cremated, only charred. CONTEXT 344: Area 2 Bone 55 Weight: 50g. Colour: white/buff. Largest bone fragment: 3.1cm (long bone). Average size of fragments: Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult. Seventy nine fragments of bone, including one cranial fragment, one possible shaft of a clavi- cle; forty nine long bone fragments of all sizes and several fragments of tibia (at least eleven); six rib fragments; one carpal of the hand, probably the pisiform, one hand phalanx (distal), one base of a metacarpal/metatarsal. One distal articular surface. One possible adolescent/child (aged ten to fifteen years) epiphysis from the distal end of the radius. Pathology One distal hand phalanx has mild osteophytosis at the base. CONTEXT 347: Area 2 Bone 51 Weight: 1g. Colour: white. Largest bone fragment: 2.1cm. Average size of fragment: 2.1cm. Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult. One possible shaft of a left ulna. CONTEXT 356: Area 2 Bone 53Eachtra Archaeological Projects 111
  • 117. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Weight: 1g. Colour: white Largest bone fragment: 5cm long bone. Average size of fragment: 2cm Minimum number of individuals: one. Two unidentifiable bone fragments, with blue internal discoloration; not possible to deter- mine with certainty if these are human, could be faunal. CONTEXT 357: Area 2 Bone 54 Weight: 14g. Colour: White/buff with some charcoal staining. Largest bone fragment: 3cm. Average size of fragment: 2cm. Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult. Twenty nine bone fragments (including some specks), including nineteen long bone frag- ments, several may be from the one bone (distal shaft of the tibia). One small long bone (fibula/ulna/radius). CONTEXT 365: Area 2 Bone 57. From inside Pot Weight: 23g. Colour: white, and two blue fragments. Poor preservation, friable bone. Largest bone fragment: 2cm. Average size of fragment: 2cm. Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult. Twenty three fragments of bone, including the following: a possible fragment of the gladiolus of the sternum (breast bone); one head from a probable first metacarpal; the inferior right articular facet and an inferior right articular facet of the vertebra. The proximal end of the right tibia containing the articular surfaces, the epiphseal surface is evident; a fragment of the distal articulation of a tibia and probably a second fragment of the same bone; a probable distal end of the articular surface of the femur. Sixteen unidentifiable fragments of bone. CONTEXT 365: Area 2 Bone 56. From outside Pot Weight: 349g. Eachtra Archaeological Projects 112
  • 118. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Colour: some white but a large portion is black/blue and very friable. Largest bone fragment: 2cm. Average size of fragment: 2cm. Minimum number of individuals: one individual aged between sixteen and twenty years, and a neonate (time of birth). Ninety six fragments of the cranium (some are discoloured black), including three parietal, four occipital, and eleven temporal, the auditory meatus (blue and white) and pertrous por- tions of both temporal bones (blue); the glenoid fossae of the temporal and the orbits; the nasal spine (65g); the root of a molar tooth; three fused roots of a third mandibular molar (wisdom tooth); two fragments of enamel including enamel probably from a wisdom tooth, which had remained unerupted and was probably cushioned in the alveolar bone of the jaw; two fragments of enamel probably from two maxillary molars (first/second); enamel and a root from a maxillary first or second molar; the left maxilla containing the sockets of the central incisor through to the second premolar; a fragment of the right mandible containing the angle of the jaw; the left mandible containing the sockets from the canine through to the first molar. The axillary border of the scapula; the coracoid process of the left scapula. A fragment of the manubrium of the sternum; a fragment also of the gladiolus. Two articular facets of the thoracic vertebrae; one transverse process of a vertebra; three ver- tebral bodies (0.5g); a thoracic body, which is yellow in colour and displays a yellow colour; three fragments of the right humerus, including the distal end, the trochlea and part of the shaft; the head of the radius, which shows some partial epiphyseal fusion; the distal and proximal shaft of the left ulna (upper arm: 50g); an unfused distal phalanx of the first finger or thumb; the distal phalanx of the fifth finger; five medial phalanges including the base of one which remains unfused; two proximal phalanges (unfused base of one); six medial hand phalanges (two with unfused bases, black); one distal phalanx; sixty six rib fragments, repre- senting at least three right (black) ribs and three left (100g). One fragment of the ilium (0.1g); five femoral shaft fragments; one possible greater tro- chanter of the femur; four fragments of the posterior surface of the femur; one fragment of the posterior surface of the right femur; four fragments of the distal articulation and four of the proximal articulation (partially fused) of the tibia; four shaft fragments of the tibia and one of the tuberosity of the right tibia (tibia/femur: 41g); the styloid process of the proximal end of the fibula. The navicular of the right foot and the head of the first metatarsal of the left foot; a fragment of the cuboid of the foot with an unfused epiphyseal plate; an internal cuneiform (black) (0.5g); one metacarpal/metatarsal. One hundred and forty seven unidentifiable long bone fragments (three of these display un- fused epiphyses).Eachtra Archaeological Projects 113
  • 119. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Forty six articular surfaces, many are vertebrae (black, blue and grey) (22g). One hundred and thirty four unidentifiable bone fragments. A fragment possibly of the right maxilla containing two dental crypts, of a neonate. CONTEXT 366 Bone 27. Funerary Urn Basal layer within the pot Weight: 58g. Colour: beige/cream (does not give the appearance of cremated bone; appearance as organic bone, but cortex is white). Largest bone fragment: 3cm. Average size: 2cm; very friable. Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult. One fragment of the occipital bone of the cranium, at the lambda suture. Two fused roots of a third molar (wisdom tooth). One rib fragment. One unfused diaphysis (shaft) of the hu- merus. A blue fragment of the left superior articular process of the lumbar vertebra; a possible vertebral body fragment. One possible sacral body fragment; an articular process of the first sacral body. The possible right iliac crest of the ilium; a fragment of the right acetabulum at the surface of the os pubis, which is unfused and suggestive of an age probably in the late teens; a fragment of the sciatic notch; a fragment of the right ilium adjacent to the auricular surface; another possible iliac fragment; a fragment of the right ischium containing the tuberosity, which is unfused and suggestive of an age probably in the late teens. One fragment of the distal end of the femoral shaft and four condylar fragments; another shaft fragment. Two fragments of the distal articulation of the tibia. Numerous fragments of unidentifiable flakes of bone. Middle layer (2cm) within the pot Weight: 130g. Colour: white with some blue; very friable bone. Largest bone fragment: 2cm. Average size of fragment: 2cm. Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult. One root of a molar tooth. The condyles of the mandible and the ramus of the right. Nine rib fragments. The proximal end of the shaft of the humerus. One possible metacarpal shaft of the hand.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 114
  • 120. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick The posterior surface of the distal shaft of the femur; two femoral midshaft fragments; an unfused distal shaft fragment (blue/white); the unfused diaphysis of the femur (blue/white). The epiphysis or possible proximal end of the tibia, partial fusion has taken place; the unfused distal end of a shaft (diaphysis) and the proximal end of a shaft of the tibia; another fragment of tibial shaft. Seventeen fragments from joint/articular surfaces. Twenty four fragments of unidentifiable long bone. One hundred and forty four fragments of unidentifiable bone. Upper layer (3cm) within the pot Weight: 110g. Colour: white Largest fragment: 3cm (the shaft of a tibia). Average size of fragment: 1cm. Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult. Six fragments of the orbit of the cranium. One possible humeral shaft fragment; three shafts of metacarpals (one blue). Two rib fragments. The superior articular process of a lumbar vertebra; the articular processes of two vertebrae and one transverse process of a thoracic vertebra. Two fragments of the femoral head; two fragments of the anterior surface of the distal shaft of the femur. A possible fragment of the proximal tibial articulation and the anterior surface of the shaft of the tibia. One head of a metacarpal/metatarsal. Fifty three long bone fragments. Ninety seven unidentifiable fragments (six are blue). Miscellaneous bone fragments from full pot Weight: 160g). Colour: white/grey; very friable. Largest bone fragment: 2cm. Average size: 2cm. Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult. Twelve fragments of the nasal/maxillary bones; the petrous portion of the temporal bone. The two roots of a mandibular molar (blue); a fragment of the chin of the mandible containing the sockets of the incisors and canines; four alveolar sockets from the maxillae. A proximal shaft of the humerus. Four rib fragments. One fragment of a vertebral body (unfused) and two other body fragments; one transverse process of a vertebra; two fragments from the posterior surface of the sacrum. A fragment of the ilium containing a small portion of the sciatic notch; one fragment from the right pubic bone and one of the right acetabular portion of the ischium. The posterior surface of the distal shaft of the left femur and a second fragment of the femur; three fragments of possible unfused condyles (epiphyses) of the distal end of the femur (blue).Eachtra Archaeological Projects 115
  • 121. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick The distal articulation of the tibia. One medial phalanx of the foot; a fragment of the calcane- ous (blue). One shaft of a metacarpal/metatarsal; the unfused base of a metatarsal. Five fragments of unfused shaft (femur/tibia). Thirty one fragments of long bone shafts. Thirty one fragments of articular/joint surfaces. One hundred ninety three unidentifiable blue fragments and twenty one white fragments. CONTEXT 389: Area 6 Bone 58 Weight: 29g. Colour: white. Largest bone fragment: 2cm. Average size of fragment: 2cm Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult. Ninety four bone fragments, of these twenty eight are unidentifiable; thirty cranial, including parietal; the head of one medial phalanx of the hand, and one rib shaft fragment Thirty four fragments of long bones, including three possible fragments of femur/tibia, and one possible fragment of lunar/radial shaft. CONTEXT 394: Area 6 Bone 60 Weight: 94g. Colour: white. Largest bone fragment: 3.2cm (long bone). Average size of fragments: 2cm. Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult. One hundred and three fragments of cranium, including the occipital, temporal, two small parts of the petrous portion of the temporal, one possible maxillary fragment containing one tooth socket. At least one thoracic vertebra; four articular facets, including one lumbar and one inferior; one rib fragment; two articular fragments (probably carpals). Sixty seven fragmented long bones. One hundred and three unidentifiable fragments (numerous minute specks).Eachtra Archaeological Projects 116
  • 122. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick CONTEXT 520: Area 4 Bone 102 Weight: 5g. Colour: white. Largest bone fragment: 2.4cm. Average size of fragment: 2cm. Minimum number of individuals: one. Eight bone fragments, including seven possible scapula fragments (but could also be faunal). CONTEXT 568: Area 4 Bone 108 Weight: 5g. Colour: white. Largest bone fragment: 1cm. Average size of fragment: 1cm. Minimum number of individuals: one mature adult. One fragment of a small long bone is present.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 117
  • 123. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Appendix 7: Pottery Report Eoin Grogan and Helen Roche Summary There are 295 sherds of pottery and a further 75 fragments from the site1. The small assem- blage, coming from pits, postholes, and surface layers, is largely well preserved. Based on the featured sherds and fabric it is estimated that there are a minimum of 30 (Vessels 1-25, A) and not more than 35 vessels represented. These date to the Late Bronze Age. Discussion This assemblage contains the remains of at least 30 (Nos 1-25, A-D) and not more than 35 separate vessels. This is a significant collection especially as the pots come largely as single examples from separate features. While there is some variation in the form, quality and pro- duction details, the assemblage is reasonably homogenous and, from a ceramic perspective, the material appears to be contemporary. All of the pottery is from flat-bottomed vessels with unexpanded upright rims, gently rounded or upright profiles and simple rounded junctions with the base. Some variation is apparent. Vessels 1, 5 and 6 have gently rounded body and an upright to slightly concave lower profile. These are very similar to examples from Lough Gur, Co. Limerick, especially large pots from Sites C and D (see Ó Ríordáin 1954, figs 16-7, pl. 46a). The Kilbane pots vary considerably in size: No. 5 is slightly larger2 than the Lough Gur examples (over 22.5cm in diameter at the rim), while Nos 1 and 6 are medium sized. Another type occurring at Kilbane is similar in general form but with a rounded lower body and a simple rounded foot; vessels of this type include Nos 6, 8B, 9-10, 14, 16-7. This is a reasonable common shape and examples occur at Lough Gur Circle L and Haughey’s Fort, Co. Armagh. Vessel 22 is the only example of type C with a pronounced splayed foot and a rounded lower body; a similar footed vessel occurs at Lough Eskragh, Co. Tyrone. More straight-sided pots, generally small to medium in size, also occur and Nos 7, 11-3 and 18 are of this type. Similar, but much larger, examples came from Athgarret, Co. Kildare, and Monknewtown, Co. Meath. Several sites in southeast Limerick, both domestic and funerary, have produced vessels of the Kilbane type (Gowen 1988); while these have been radiocarbon dated to the later part Middle Bronze Age this appears to have been the period when plain domestic pottery emerged as the dominant ceramic form (Grogan 2004). Small to medium sized ‘tub-shaped’ pots include Nos 24-5; these are not a common late Bronze Age type but 1 The excavation number 03E1717 is omitted throughout, only the context number followed by the find number is included. 2 A very general scale is used here: over 20cm in diameter at the rim = large, 15-20cm = medium, less than 15cm = small.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 118
  • 124. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick there is a large example from Clonfinlough, Co. Offaly (Fig. 2:E) and open flat bottomed bowls or basins come from Lough Gur Site C (Ó Ríordáin 1954, fig, 18.16-17) and Haugh- ey’s Fort (Mallory 1988, fig. 7). There is a broad range of sizes amongst the Kilbane vessels (see Table 2). The largest, including Nos 5, 8B and 9, are over 22cm in maximum external diameter. There are 14 medium vessels (Nos 1, 3-4, A, B, 6, 12-4, 16-7, 20, 22-3) and another five that are small to medium in size (Nos 10-1, 15, 18-9). Five small pots (Nos 2, 7, C, 24-5) all appear to be less than 14cm in diameter. While it is probable that pot size reflects an element of differential function this is not apparent in the use histories of the Kilbane vessels all of which seem to have been used for cooking. In general the pottery is in good condition. The Kilbane assemblage is made up of pot- tery derived ultimately from settlement contexts; all of the vessels represented display clear evidence, in the form of sooting or blackening, for domestic use. There is some surface wear from use: the most clear cut example is the glossy faceted wear, resulting from constant rub- bing possibly by a utensil used to stir the contents, along the inner face of the rim from Vessel 243. Despite the widespread indication of use wear the majority of the sherds have sharp edges indicating that there is little post-depositional damage or abrasion. The large number of fragments – small pieces usually lacking at least one original surface – is principally due to the friable nature of the fabric of several vessels. This brittle texture, resulting from a lack of cohesion in the fabric, is in part due to the medium to high content of often very large limestone inclusions. It is a feature of a large percentage of Late Bronze Age pottery and, with the exception of a few vessels (particularly Nos 1, 3, 5, 20 and 22-5), is also a feature of this assemblage. The outer faces of several vessels (e.g. Nos 17, 19, 22 and 24) were apparently fin- ished by wetting the hand or fingertips and rubbing them over the surface; this action forms a thin wet paste or ‘slurry’ that helps to smoothen the vessel as well as mask the inclusions otherwise visible on the surface. Another, unusual, feature of the Kilbane pottery that seems to have affected its preservation is the use of a fine slip, made up of an inclusion-free clay paste 1-3mm thick, to finish the outer surface of some pots. In some cases, such as Vessels 5, 8A and 9, this has failed over part of the pot and the slip has fallen off exposing the core (Fig. 4). This may, in part, be due to the paste being too wet when applied but it seems that both of these vessels had been partly burnt and this may have differentially affected the slip. The evidence overall suggest that some vessels were deposited intact, or soon after break- age, in sealed context that were not re-used. Reasonably substantial portions of Nos 5-7, 9-10 and 22 are present while Nos 1, 2, 8A, 11-2, 16 and 23-4 are also well represented. Of these it appears that the first group were probably deposited wholly or substantially intact while some, at least, of the second group may have been. The preserved parts of these vessels may reveal another piece of evidence: Nos 5-7, for example, lack any base- or base angle sherds and 3 The unusual wear pattern and the fact that this vessel, uniquely at Kilbane, has perforations and some simple decoration, may indicate a specialist function.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 119
  • 125. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick it is probable that these were inverted; by contrast Nos 9-10 and 22 are represented principally by base- and lower bodysherds and may have been deposited in an upright position. If this hypothesis is correct then it is possible that there has been surface damage in Areas 2 and 6 that has truncated the pits and removed the upper or lower portions of several vessels. Domestic or funerary? During the Middle Bronze Age coarse domestic vessels, both inverted and upright, enter the burial record and by c. 1500-1200 BC had completely replaced cinerary urns (Grogan 2004). Regional examples include Cush 3, burial 6 (Ó Ríordáin 1940) and Lough Gur Circle P (Grogan and Eogan 1987), Co. Limerick, and Killoran within the Derryville-Lisheen com- plex, Co. Tipperary (Gowen et al. 2000; Stevens 1998a, Site 4). As discussed above it seems possible that some of the Kilbane pits contained intact pots in both upright and inverted positions. Smaller groups of, or single, sherds were deposited in many of the other Kilbane pits. As noted above even this material is largely free of wear or abrasion following breakage. While this may represent straightforward domestic refuse the deposition of small numbers of sherds in burial pits is a feature of the Middle, and especially the Late, Bronze Age (Grogan 2004; Cooney and Grogan 1994). Burials of this type have come from the region at, for example, Mitchelstowndown North, Shanaclogh and Duntryleague, Co. Limerick (Gowen 1988; Gro- gan 1988), Ballyconneely, Co. Clare (Read 2000); and Killoran (Gowen et al. 2000; Stevens 1998b, Site 10). The regional context Lough Gur and its wider hinterland dominate the evidence for this region (Ó Ríordáin 1954; Grogan and Eogan 1987; Cleary 1995) but there are a few other sites that have extended the known distribution of Late Bronze Age pottery. These include the hillfort at Mooghaun and the lakeshore settlement at Knocknalappa, Co. Clare, Curraghatoor and Chancellorsland, Co. Tipperary, and Aughinish, Co. Limerick (Grogan forthcoming; Raftery 1942; Grogan et al. 1999; Doody 1987; 1995; 1996; Kelly 1974). Although about 15,000 sherds of coarse pottery were recovered in various excavations on the Knockadoon peninsula it is difficult at present to make any very accurate estimates, other than for the more recently published sites (Grogan and Eogan 1987; Cleary 1995), about the minimum number of vessels or an assessment of the relative percentages of the various types represented. However, there are certainly no less than 193 vessels of coarse ware (Gro- gan forthcoming). Of these a large percentage, but certainly more than 60%, are plain and the majority of these are domestic pots of the Late Bronze Age (Grogan 2004; Cooney and Grogan 1994, 126-29). There is a limited range of rim forms including simple round and flat tops, as well as rims with a straight or slightly curved internal bevel; more sharply curved or stepped bevels also occur (Ó Ríordáin 1954, figs 16-9). The majority of vessels are bucket-Eachtra Archaeological Projects 120
  • 126. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick shaped with a rim diameter smaller than the height; amongst these are all of the forms found at Kilbane. Other types found at Lough Gur include those with expanded flat-topped rims, incurving upper bodies and rims, and open bowl forms (Ó Ríordáin 1954, figs 18.16-17, 19.20, 22). Another type, not found at either Kilbane or Lough Gur, are vessels with short or elongated necks and an S-shaped profile represented at Mooghaun and Knocknalappa. Perforations beneath the rim, such as on Vessel 24, are a feature of some assemblages such as Lough Gur and Freestone Hill, Co. Kilkenny (e.g. Ó Ríordáin 1954, fig. 17.2; Raftery, B. 1969, fig. 32). In most cases these appear to have been inserted into the pottery before firing and seem to be too small, as well as too numerous and regularly spaced, to have been used for suspension. While the Kilbane 25 perforation is large enough for suspension there is no evidence for wear from a string or thong. It is possible that their function was either to ven- tilate food storage or cooking vessels, and/or to secure the lids to such vessels. Such a lid, of pottery or wood, would have been accommodated within the curved internal bevel of Vessel 25. In discussing this rim shape from other sites, including Rathgall, Co. Wicklow, Raftery (B. 1995, 154-55, fig. 76) noted the similarity to the rims of stave-built wooden vessels, such as the Iron Age examples from Corlea, Co. Longford; similar Late Bronze Age vessels came from Lough Eskragh, Co. Tyrone (see Waddell 1998, fig. 124:A5). Echoing Case (1961, 196) Raftery suggested that these might have been designed to support lids. It is possible that the necked vessels (see above) were also designed to hold lids. Conclusions The Kilbane site, and its ceramic assemblage, forms an important addition to our under- standing of the Late Bronze Age in North Munster. Two very significant settlement zones are already well identified in the region. The more extensive of these is in east central Lim- erick with a focus in the Lough Gur area but extending down into the Morningstar val- ley and eastwards into Tipperary. Significant ceramic assemblages have been studied from the Knockadoon peninsula (Ó Ríordáin 1954; Grogan and Eogan 1987; Cleary 1995), the Grange Stone Circle (Ó Ríordáin 1951; Roche 2004) and several occupation and burial sites in southeast Limerick (Gowen 1988). This zone extends into Tipperary and is represented by sites such as Curraghatoor, Chancellorsland, Ballyveelish and Lisheen (see Doody 2000; Gowen et al. 2000). To the northwest another significant settlement core has been identi- fied in county Clare and is represented by settlement sites at Mooghaun and Knocknalappa (Grogan forthcoming; Raftery, J. 1942; Grogan et al. 1999), and by a cremation pit cemetery at Ballyconneely (Read 2000). Kilbane neatly fills a void in the area between these zones and indicates significant funerary and settlement activity close to potential routeways across the lower Shannon linking the Clare and Limerick cores.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 121
  • 127. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Catalogue Numbers have been applied to well represented vessels while letters refer to small groups of sherds that may be from separate vessels. Numbers in square brackets (e.g. 109.[20, 12]) indicate that the sherds are conjoined. Late Bronze Age vessels There 295 sherds of this pottery type (28 rimsherds, 199 bodysherds; 58 base- and base angle sherds; and 75 fragments). Area 1 These features produced 32 sherds and 1 fragment from at least five vessels (Nos 1-4, A; Table 2). Vessel 1. There are 11 sherds (3 rimsherds: 109.1, 9, 3(?); 6 bodysherds: 109.5, 6, 10-1, 17, 19; 1 base angle and 1 base sherd: 109.16, 15) from a small vessel. The flat-topped rim is upright as is the up- per body, while the lower body is slightly curved with a slightly concave profile immediately above the simple junction with the base. The vessel has a smooth but very irregular finish with inclusions appearing on, but rarely protruding through, the surface. The fabric is hard, compact and very well- fired, light cream to grey in colour throughout, with a hard biscuit-like texture. A moderate content of inclusions consists of crushed limestone generally  3 by 2mm but occasionally up to 5 by 3mm. Thickness: 8-9mm. Condition: generally unworn surfaces and clean edge breaks. This is a medium vessel 16.5cm in maximum external diameter at the rim, and 11cm at the base. From Feature 109 Vessel 2. There are 8 sherds (6 bodysherds: 109.1-2, 7-8, 12, 18; 2 base/base angle sherds: 109.[20, 14]) from a medium sized vessel. There is a simple angle junction between the gently rounded lower body and the base. The vessel has a smooth but very irregular finish with inclusions appearing on, but rarely protruding through, the surface. The fabric is hard and well-fired, light cream to grey in colour throughout. A moderate content of inclusions consist of crushed limestone generally  3 by 2mm but occasionally up to 5 by 3mm. Some of the sherds (109.1-2, 7, 12, 18) have been burnt. Thickness: 11mm. Condition: some surface wear and fire degradation and some worn edge breaks. This is a small vessel 13.5cm in diameter at the base. From Feature 109 Vessel 3. There are 5 sherds (5 lower bodysherds/ /base angle sherds: 22.[1, 2], 3-5; 1 fragment: 22.6) from the lower 5.5cm of the body, and the base, of a medium sized vessel. There is a simple angle junction between the gently rounded lower body and the base. The fabric is compact and well-fired, originally with a smooth but slightly uneven finish, with a buff to orange outer surface and core andEachtra Archaeological Projects 122
  • 128. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick a light-grey to grey inner face. A moderate content of inclusions consist mainly of crushed limestone but with occasional pieces of sandstone; the inclusions are generally  3 by 2mm but occasionally up to 7 by 5mm. Thickness: 13mm. Condition: some surface wear and occasional abrasion but with clean edge breaks. This is a medium vessel 16cm in diameter at the base. From Feature 22 Vessel 4. There are 3 sherds (3 lower bodysherds/ /base angle sherds: 114.1, [2, 3]) from the lower 5cm of the body, and the base, of a medium sized vessel. There is a simple angle junction between the gently rounded lower body and the base. The fabric is compact and well-fired, with a smooth but slightly uneven finish, and a buff to light-grey outer surface and core and a light-grey to grey inner face. A low to moderate content of inclusions consist mainly of crushed limestone generally  2 by 1mm but occasionally up to 4 by 2mm. Thickness: 11mm. Condition: generally unworn surfaces but occasionally worn edge breaks. This is a medium vessel c. 15cm in diameter at the base. From Feature 114 Vessel A. There are 3 bodysherds (136.2-4) from a vessel of compact fabric with a smooth but slightly uneven finish, buff to orange outer surface and core and a light-grey to cream inner face. A moderate content of inclusions consist mainly of crushed limestone; the inclusions are generally  3 by 2mm but occasionally up to 9 by 6mm. Thickness: 12mm. Condition: generally worn surfaces and worn edge breaks. This is a medium vessel 16cm in diameter at the base. From Feature 136 Vessel B. There are 2 bodysherds (89.[1-2]) from a upper part of a vessel of hard compact fabric with a smooth but uneven finish, light cream to grey in colour throughout. A moderate content of inclusions consist of crushed limestone generally  3 by 2mm but occasionally up to 5 by 3mm. Thickness: 8-9mm. Condition: unworn surfaces and clean edge breaks. These sherds are from No. 1 or a vessel very similar to it. From Feature 89 Area 2 These features produced 217 sherds and 67 fragments from at least 17 (Nos 5-21) and not more than 24 vessels (Table 2). Vessel 5. There are 45 sherds (8 rimsherds: 166.[48, 19], [30, 31], 6, 33, 36, 43; 37 bodysherds: 166.1, 3-5, 7-11, 13-8, 20-7, 29, 32, 34-5, 37-9, 40-2, 44-7; 2 fragments: 166.2, 12) represent- ing a substantial part of the upper portion of a large vessel (there are no base or base angle sherds present). The unexpanded flat-topped rim is upright; the upper body is gently curved while the lower has a slightly concave profile.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 123
  • 129. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Although none of the base survives this type of vessel generally has a slight foot. There is considerable colour variation on the smooth outer surface (Fig. 4): the upper part of the pot is very dark grey to grey, part of the mid-body is light grey while the lower part, just above the base, is buff. There is sooting over most of the inner surface on the upper portion of the pot. There is a medium to high content of inclusions of both crushed and pebble limestone with occasional pieces of both calcite and quartzite; these are generally  3 by 2mm but occasion- ally up to 9 by 6mm. Thickness: 11-15mm. There is a distinctive blackened stain across part of the upper vessel (Figs 4 and 5) that is a result of flaws during firing. Over a large portion of the upper part of the pot the external sur- face has broken away exposing the core. The outer surface was applied as a fine paste or slip; this appears to have been either too thin or too wet and during firing the bond between it and the core was weakened. The inner surface was not as well-finished and inclusions protrude over part of it, especially towards the base. Extensive sooting on the inner surface indicates that the vessel was successfully used for cooking and the collapse of the outer surface may be post-depositional. The sharp edge breaks suggest that the vessel was intact when deposited. Condition: generally good with unworn surfaces and sharp edge breaks. However, over a large area the outer surface has broken away exposing the core. This is a large vessel 22.5cm in maximum external diameter at the rim. On the basis of comparisons with very similar vessels from Lough Gur, Sites C and D, this vessel would have been c. 24cm high with a slight, unexpanded, foot (see Ó Ríordáin 1954, figs 16-7, pl. 46a). From Feature 166 Vessel 6. There are 24 sherds (3 rim/upper bodysherds: 286.6, 12, 3; 18 bodysherds: 286.1, 4, 7-11, 13-5, 17, 19, 20, 22-6; 3 lower body sherds: 286.2, 16, 18; 1 fragment: 286.21) repre- senting a medium sized vessel with an unexpanded round-topped rim, a gently rounded up- per body and an upright to slightly concave lower body. Most of the sherds are from the upper part of the pot. There are 3 sherds from immediately above the junction with the base but no base- or base angle sherds are present. Compact, slightly friable, fabric with, where preserved, a smooth but uneven finish. This is black to cream grey in colour throughout with some sooting along the rim and upper external surface. Medium to high content of mainly crushed limestone generally  3 by 2mm but occasionally up to 9 by 6mm. Thickness: 11-16mm. Condition: generally good with unworn surfaces and sharp edge breaks. However, there is severe wear to the outer surface of some sherds (286.1, 2, 9) from the lower body. From a medium sized vessel. From Feature 286 Vessel 7. There are 21 sherds (3 rimsherds: 300.26, 40, 45; 14 bodysherds: 300.5, 20, 22-3, 27, 29, 33-4, 37, 39, 44, 47-9; 4 base angle/ basesherds: 300.9, 11, 16, 19; 16 fragments: 300.21, 24, 35, 38, 41, 43, 50 (10)) representing a small to medium jar-like vessel with an unexpanded flat-topped rim and a generally upright profile. The friable fabric is grey to dark grey in colour throughout except around the base where there is some orange buff. There is a high contentEachtra Archaeological Projects 124
  • 130. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick of mainly crushed limestone generally  3 by 2mm but occasionally up to 7 by 5mm. Thick- ness: 11mm. Condition: generally unworn surfaces and sharp edge breaks. However, there is severe wear to the outer surface of some sherds (300. 9, 33, 40, 45) exposing the core. From a small vessel with a base diameter of c. 12cm. From Feature 300 Rimsherd (300.1) is an unexpanded upright slightly pointed rim of hard compact fabric with smooth surfaces. Compact smooth fabric with a medium content of crushed limestone gener- ally  3 by 2mm but occasionally up to 4 by 3mm. Thickness: 11mm. Condition: good. Possibly from vessel 7 or 8A/B. From Feature 300 Vessel 8A. There are 8 sherds (1 rimsherd: 300.4; 7 bodysherds: 300.7, 10, 13, 17, 25, 28, 32) from the upper part of a large vessel. There is an upright unexpanded round-topped rim with a distinct waist consisting of a narrow irregular horizontal constriction (Fig. 6 right); this ap- pears to be a poorly executed junction between the upper and lower parts of the body which may have been made separately and then joined together. While the outer surface, which may have been applied to mask this conjunction, is missing it is also possible that the groove was formed by tightening a string or cord around the pot to secure the joint - effectively separat- ing the vessel into a ‘neck’ and body (300.13, 17). The compact but friable fabric is grey to orange buff in colour. The high content of limestone inclusions are generally  3 by 2mm but occasionally up to 8 by 6mm. Thickness: 11mm. Condition: generally worn surfaces with the core exposed but with sharp edge breaks. From a large vessel with a diameter of c. 18cm at the ‘waist’. From Feature 300 Vessel 8B. There are 5 sherds (4 bodysherds: 300.2, 6, 12, 18; 1 basesherd: 300.8; 3 fragments: 300.15, 31, 46) from the base and lower portion of a large vessel, possibly No. 8A. The com- pact but friable fabric is grey to orange buff in colour. The high content of limestone inclu- sions are generally  3 by 2mm but occasionally up to 8 by 6mm. Thickness: 17mm. Condition: generally worn surfaces with the core exposed but with sharp edge breaks. From a large vessel with a diameter of 24cm+ close to the base. From Feature 300 Other sherds. There are four bodysherds (300.3, 30, 36, 42) of hard compact fabric from a vessel or vessels not represented above. Low content of crushed limestone inclusions generally  3 by 2mm but occasionally up to 4 by 3mm. Thickness: 8-10mm. Condition: generally unworn surfaces and sharp edge breaks. From a small vessel. From Feature 300 Fig. 6 Vessel 9 (left, 213.1-2, 12, 19) showing the core exposed as a result of the ‘failure’ of the outer surface; Vessel 8A (right, 300.13) with the ‘constriction’ indicated.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 125
  • 131. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Vessel 9. There are 19 sherds (13 bodysherds: 213.[1, 2, 12, 19], [9, 17], 8, 13-4, 16, 20-2; 2 base angle sherds: 213.3, 11; 4 basesherds: 213.5-6, 15, 18) from the base and lower portion of a large vessel. There is a simple rounded angle with the foot. The compact but friable fabric is cream-grey to grey to buff in colour. The high content of mainly crushed limestone inclusions average 4 by 3mm but occasionally up to 10 by 8mm. Thickness: 12mm. Condition: the external surface has largely failed (Fig. 6 left; see discussion, and Vessel 5) exposing the core but the sherds have mainly fresh edge breaks. Both the inner and outer surfaces (where the latter survives: 213.8, 13, 16) are smooth but irregular. From a large vessel with a body diameter of 24cm+. There are two very heavily burnt stones with the vessel (213.4, 7). From Feature 213 (cremation 33) 213.10 Lower body- or possibly basesherd from a large heavy vessel, probably not No. 9. Thickness: 17mm. From Feature 213 (cremation 33) Vessel 10. There are 25 sherds (17 bodysherds: 165.20, 22, 24, 28-9 (large c. 6 x 5cm), 1, 5-6, 8, 10-2, 14-5, 19, 21, 27 (small  3 x 2cm); 5 base angle sherds: 165.9, 17, 23, 26, 34; 3 basesherds: 165.13, 25, 30; 10 fragments: 165.2-4, 7, 16, 18, 31-3, 35) from the base and lower portion of a medium vessel. There is a simple rounded angle with the foot. The compact but friable fabric is cream-grey to grey to dark grey in colour. The external surface is gener- ally smooth but uneven with inclusions visible but not protruding. The inner face is worn or abraded. The medium to high content of mainly crushed limestone inclusions average 4 by 3mm but are occasionally up to 8 by 6mm. Thickness: 10-14mm. Condition: some wear/ abrasion to inner surface, some edges worn. From Feature 165 Vessel 11. There are 7 sherds (6 bodysherds: 218.2-3, 5-6, 8-9; 1 base angle sherds: 218.7; 14 fragments: 218.1, 4, 10-11 (12)) from a small to medium sized vessel with a generally upright profile and a simple junction between the body and the base. This is of compact friable fabric cream-grey externally and with a grey core and inner face. The medium content of mainly crushed limestone inclusions average 3 by 2mm but are occasionally up to 8 by 6mm; these occur on, and protrude through, the outer surface. Thickness: 9.5-11.5mm. Condition: some wear/ abrasion to both surfaces, some edges worn. From Feature 218 Vessel 12 There are 11 sherds (1 rimsherd: 245.11; 10 bodysherds: 245.1-7, 9-10, 13; 7 frag- ments: 245.8, 12, 14 (5)) from a small to medium sized vessel with a generally upright profile and an unexpanded round-topped rim. This is of compact very friable fabric with cream-grey to buff surfaces and a dark grey core. The high content of mainly crushed limestone inclu- sions average 3 by 2mm but are occasionally up to 15 by 10mm; these occur on, and protrudeEachtra Archaeological Projects 126
  • 132. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick through, the outer surface. Where preserved the surfaces are generally smooth but uneven. Thickness: 11mm. Condition: some wear/ abrasion to both surfaces, some edges worn. From Feature 245 Vessel 13 There are 5 sherds (2 bodysherds: 316.2-3; 3 base angle sherds: 316.1, 4, 5a; 1 fragment: 316.5b) from a medium sized vessel with a generally upright profile and a simple rounded foot. This is of compact friable fabric with cream-grey outer surface and core and a dark grey interior. The medium content of mainly crushed limestone inclusions average 3 by 2mm but are occasionally up to 10 by 10mm. Where preserved the surfaces are generally smooth and the outer face was finished with a fine slip. Thickness: 8-11mm. Condition: generally good with some wear, sharp edges. From Feature 316 Vessel 14 There are 3 sherds (1 rimsherd: 340.2; 2 bodysherds: 340.1, 3) from a medium sized vessel with a generally upright profile and an unexpanded round-topped rim. This is of compact friable fabric with grey to grey-buff surfaces and a dark grey core. The high content of mainly crushed limestone inclusions average 3 by 2mm but are occasionally up to 10 by 10mm. Where preserved the surfaces are generally smooth with inclusions visible but not generally protruding. Thickness: 11mm. Condition: generally good with some wear, sharp edges. 340.[4, 5], 6 are 3 basesherds possibly from Vessel 14. Only the flat under surface is preserved. From Feature 340 Vessel 15 There are 4 sherds (2 rimsherd: 195.[1, 3]; 2 basesherds: 195.2, 4) from a small to medium sized vessel with a generally upright profile and an unexpanded, slightly inward sloping, flat-topped rim. This is of hard compact fabric cream-buff throughout. The medium content of mainly crushed limestone inclusions average 4 by 3mm but are occasionally up to 8 by 7mm. Where preserved the surfaces are generally smooth with inclusions visible but not generally protruding and some pitting where these have been removed. Thickness: 13mm. Condition: externally good with some wear, inner surface not preserved, sharp edges. Fr om Feature 195 Vessel 16 There are 7 bodysherds (219.2-8; 1 fragment: 219.1) from a medium sized vessel of smooth compact fabric cream to grey externally with a grey core and inner face. The outer face was finished with a fine slip. The medium content of mainly crushed limestone inclusions average 3 by 2mm but are occasionally up to 13 by 6mm. Thickness: 10-13mm. Condition: good with some wear, sharp edges. From Feature 129 Vessel 17 There are 4 sherds (3 bodysherds: 342.2, 3, 5; 1 base angle sherd: 342.1; 1 fragment: 342.4) from a medium sized vessel with a simple rounded foot. This is of compact fabric or-Eachtra Archaeological Projects 127
  • 133. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick ange-buff throughout. The outer face may have been finished with a fine slurry. The medium content of crushed limestone and sandstone inclusions average 3 by 2mm but are occasionally up to 9 by 6mm. Where preserved the surfaces are generally smooth with inclusions visible but not generally protruding. Thickness: 12-13mm. Condition: good with some wear, sharp edges. From Feature 342 Vessel 18 There are 4 sherds (2 rimsherds: 366.1, 4; 2 bodysherds: 366.5,7; 4 fragments: 366.2-3, 8, 8) from a small to medium sized vessel with a flat rim. There is a low rounded ridge or cordon 2cm below the rim on the inside: this does not extend for the entire circum- ference. The compact fabric is cream-buff externally with a grey-brown inner face and core. The inner face is very smooth and even with small pit marks where inclusions have been removed prior to firing. The low content of crushed limestone inclusions average 2 by 1mm but are occasionally up to 8 by 4mm. Where preserved the outer surface is generally smooth with inclusions visible but not generally protruding. Thickness: 10mm. Condition: good with some external wear, sharp edges. From Feature 366 Vessel 19 There are 2 sherds (1 rimsherd: 314.2; 1 bodysherd: 314.1) from a small to medium sized vessel with an unexpanded upright rounded rim. The compact fabric is cream-grey throughout. Where well preserved (on the bodysherd) the outer surface is very smooth and has been finished with a fine paste or slurry. The medium content of crushed limestone inclu- sions average 3 by 2mm but are occasionally up to 8 by 4mm. Thickness: 12mm. Condition: good with some external wear, sharp edges. From Feature 314 Vessel 20 There are 5 bodysherds (376.1-5) from a small to medium sized vessel. The com- pact fabric is cream-brown externally with a grey inner face and core. The inner face is very smooth and even with small pit marks where inclusions have been removed prior to firing. The medium content of crushed limestone inclusions average 3 by 2mm but are occasionally up to 9 by 6mm. The outer surface is generally smooth, but uneven, and inclusions are not visible. Thickness: 8-9mm. Condition: good with some wear, sharp edges. From Feature 376 Vessel 21 There are 3 bodysherds (57.1, 2, 5; 2 fragments: 57.3-4) from a medium to large ves- sel. The compact fabric is orange to buff throughout. Both surfaces are smooth and inclusions are not generally visible on the outer face. The medium content of crushed limestone inclu- sions average 3 by 2mm but are occasionally up to 9 by 6mm. Thickness: 13-14mm. Condition: good with some wear, sharp edges. From Feature 57Eachtra Archaeological Projects 128
  • 134. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Other sherds A further 5 bodysherds, 1 base angle sherd and 5 fragments came from several other features. While not identifiably from any of the pots already described there is insufficient evidence to assign separate vessel numbers to them. Feature Find Sherd Thickness Inclusions/ Colour size 294 18 3 fragments ? L/ 3 by 2mm grey-brown Smooth interior 179 8 1 body, near base 10mm L/ ≤ 5 by orange-buff Smooth exterior 3mm 293 16 1 body 11mm L/ ≤ 5 by grey Smooth exterior 3mm 290 15 1 body 11mm L/ ≤ 5 by cream-buff Smooth interior 3mm 157 6 1 body 10mm L/ ≤ 7 by cream-buff Smooth interior 5mm 311 2 1 body 10mm L/ ≤ 3 by Dark grey Smooth surfaces 3mm 260 13 1 base angle, 1 10mm L/ ≤ 7 by Grey-brown Smooth surfaces fragment 5mm 529 101 1 fragment 10mm + L/ ≤ 5 by orange-buff Smooth interior, 3mm blackened Table 1. Single sherds and fragments from separate features in Area 2 and Area 4 (529). Area 6 These features produced 46 sherds and 6 fragments from at least four (Nos 22-25) and not more than 5 vessels (Table 2). Vessel 22. There are 20 sherds (5 lower body-/base angle sherds: 394.[2, 10], 3, 7, 9; 5; 5 base- sherds: 394.4-5, 18, 21, 32; 10 lower bodysherds: 394.12-3, 15-6, 19-20, 23, 27-8, 31) repre- senting a substantial part of the lower portion of a medium sized vessel with a distinctive out splayed foot expanding sharply out into the body. The surfaces are smooth and there is clear evidence for a fine slurry exterior finish. Compact fabric that is light grey to cream-buff ex- ternally and grey-brown internally. The medium content of inclusions consists of limestone, with occasional pieces of sandstone and calcite generally  3 by 2mm. Thickness: 13mm near base thinning to 11mm. Condition: some surface wear but generally clean edge breaks. This is a medium vessel with a narrow base (c. 15cm in diameter) expanding to at least 16cm in the body. From Feature 394 Vessel 23. There are 11 sherds (4 lower body-/base angle sherds: 394.6, [11, 17], 24; 4 base- sherds: 394.[1, 8], 24, 29; 1 lower bodysherd: 394.22; 2 fragments: 394.14, 30) representing part of the lower portion of a medium sized vessel with a simple foot that expands sharplyEachtra Archaeological Projects 129
  • 135. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick into the body. The surfaces are smooth. Compact fabric that is grey to cream-buff externally and grey to light grey-brown internally. The medium content of limestone inclusions are gen- erally  3 by 2mm but up to 4 by 3mm. Thickness: 12mm. Condition: some surface wear but generally clean edge breaks. This is a large vessel; the base has been made from a single plate (c. 13cm in diameter) to which the body was added through coil building. The base expands to at least 16cm in the body. From Feature 394 Vessel 24. There are 8 sherds (1 rim-bodysherd: 393.[7 ,16]; 6 bodysherds: 393.1, 3-5, 9, 15; 1 fragment: 393.10) representing part of the upper portion of a small tub-like vessel. The slightly pointed rim has irregular inner and outer facets; the inner face is clearly worn from constant rubbing during usage. Originally the rim may have had a more rounded profile. Compact, but friable fabric with buff-grey to cream buff to orange surfaces and a grey core. The outer surface close to the rim is worn but the lower body has a very smooth texture with evidence for a fine slurry finish. While smooth the surface is irregular. The inclusions are of crushed limestone with some sandstone generally  2 by 1mm but occasionally up to 9 by 6mm. There is a distinctive coil break on bodysherds 393.3-5. Decoration A deep V sectioned score 1.5mm + long occurs on the outer face 15mm below the rim; this is more lightly continued as an irregular horizontal line. Adjacent to the score is a perforation (8mm in diameter in the outer face narrowing to 4mm on the inner) that has been bored from the outside through the wet clay prior to firing leaving a distinctive lip on the inner face. There are very light slightly off-vertical scores on the body (393.4-5) and a single light stab mark; all of these are irregular and appear to have been applied with a broken or jagged edge, possibly a bird bone. Condition: some slight surface wear but generally clean edge breaks. Possibly from a wide shallow vessel. From Feature 393 Vessel 25. There are 5 sherds (2 rimsherds: 393.14, 17; 3 bodysherds: 393.2, 11, 13) from a vessel with an upright profile, a narrow flat-topped rim with a sharply curved inner bevel. There is distinctive blackening along the bevel. Compact, but friable fabric with orange-buff surfaces and a grey core. Although slightly worn the surfaces were smooth but slightly irregu- lar especially externally close to the rim. The inclusions are of crushed and smooth limestone with some sandstone generally  4 by 2mm but occasionally up to 6 by 4mm. Condition: some slight surface wear but generally clean edge breaks. Possibly from a vessel similar to, but smaller than, No. 24. From Feature 393 399.1 is a bodysherd of compact friable fabric with a worn cream-buff exterior and a smooth dark grey inner surface and core. There is a medium content of crushed limestone inclusions averaging 2 by 5mm. From Feature 399Eachtra Archaeological Projects 130
  • 136. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick 85.1 is a worn bodysherd of compact friable fabric with a cream-buff exterior and a dark grey inner surface and core. There is a medium content of crushed limestone inclusions averaging 2 by 5mm. From Feature 85 Kilbane Pottery Table Base/ base angle Fabric Group No. of sherds Vessel size Vessel size Inclusions Find No. Rim type Context Vessel Frags Body Area Rim 1 1 109 1 11 3 6 2 0 2 Unex. FT L M 16.5R 2 1 109 1 8 0 6 2 0 3 - L S 13.5B 3 1 22 38 5 0 4 1 1 3 - Ls M 16.0B 4 1 114 3 3 0 1 2 0 3 - L M 15.0B A 1 136 4 3 0 3 0 0 3 - L M 16.0B B 1 89 35 2 0 2 0 0 3 - L M Total 32 3 22 7 1 5 2 166 14 45 8 37 0 2 3 Unex. FT Lcq L 22.5R 6 2 286 17 24 2 22 0 1 3 Unex. RT L M 7 2 300 19 21 3 14 4 16 3 Unex. FT L S 12.0B 8A 2 300 19 8 1 7 0 0 3 Unex. RT L L 18 Bo 8B 2 300 19 5 0 4 1 3 3 - L L 24 Bo 300.1 2 300 19 1 1 0 0 0 3 Unex. PT L C 2 300 19 4 0 4 0 0 3 - L S 9 2 213 (33) 10 19 0 13 6 0 3 - L L 24 Bo D213.10 2 213 10 1 0 0 1 0 3 - L L 10 2 165 7 25 0 17 8 10 3 - L S/M 11 2 218 11 7 0 6 1 14 3 - L S/M 12 2 245 21 11 1 10 0 7 3 Unex. RT L M 13 2 316 24 5 0 2 3 1 3 - L M 14 2 340 23 6 1 2 3 0 3 Unex. RT L M 15 2 195 9 4 2 0 2 0 3 Unex. FT L S/M 16 2 219 12 7 0 7 0 1 3 - L M 17 2 342 22 4 0 3 1 1 3 - LS M 18 2 366 27 4 2 2 0 4 2 Unex. FT L S/M 19 2 314 25 2 1 1 0 0 3 Unex. RT L S/M 20 2 376 26 5 0 5 0 0 3 - L M 21 2 57 37 3 0 3 0 3 3 - L M/L 2 Various 6 0 5 1 4 3 - L Total 2 217 22 164 31 67 4 529 101 0 0 0 0 1 3 - L 22 6 394 30 20 0 10 10 0 3 - Lsc M 16 Bo 23 6 394 30 11 0 1 10 2 3 - L M 16 Bo 24 6 393 31 8 1 7 0 1 3 P Ls SEachtra Archaeological Projects 131
  • 137. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick 25 6 393 31 5 2 3 0 0 3 Int cur B Ls S 24/25 6 393 31 - 0 0 0 3 3 - Other 6 399 33 1 0 1 0 0 3 - 6 85 36 1 0 1 0 0 3 - Total 6 46 3 13 20 6 Unex. FT: Unexpanded flat rim Unex. RT: Unexpanded round rim Unex. PT: Unexpanded pointed rim L Limestone S Sandstone C Calcite Q Quartzite Upper case = majority inclusions S small M medium L large B base measurement R rim Bo body Table 2. Vessels and separate pottery groups from Kilbane. References Case, H. 1961 Irish Neolithic Pottery: Distribution and Sequence, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 9, 174- 233. Cleary, R. 1995 Later Bronze Age Settlement and Prehistoric Burials, Lough Gur, Co. Limerick, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 95C, 1-92. Cooney, G. and Grogan, E. 1994 Irish Prehistory. a social perspective, Wordwell, Dublin. Doody, M. 1987 Late Bronze Age Huts at Curraghatoor, Co. Tipperary. In R. Cleary, M. Hurley and E. Twohig (eds) Archaeological Excavations on the Cork-Dublin Gas Pipeline, 36-42. Cork Archaeological Studies 1, Cork. Doody, M. 1995 Ballyhoura Hills Project. Interim Report, Discovery Programme Reports 2, 12-44, Discovery Programme/Royal Irish Academy. Doody, M. 1996 Ballyhoura Hills Project. Interim Report, Discovery Programme Reports 3, 15-25, Discovery Programme/Royal Irish Academy. Doody, M. 2000 Bronze Age houses in Ireland, in A. Desmond et al. (eds) New agendas in Irish prehistory. Papers in commemoration of Liz Anderson, 135-59, Wordwell, Bray. Gowen, M. 1988 Three Irish Gas Pipelines: New Archaeological Evidence in Munster, Dublin. Gowen, M., Casparie, W., Caseldine, C., Geary, B., Hatton, J., Stuijts, I., Reilly, E., Owens, B., Murray, C., Stevens, P., Ó Néill, J. and Cross, S. 2000 Wetland and landscape archaeology in County Tipperary: The Lisheen Archaeological Project, Margaret Gowen and Company Ltd., Dublin. Grogan, E. 1988 The pipeline sites and the prehistory of the Limerick area, in M. Gowen Three Irish GasEachtra Archaeological Projects 132
  • 138. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Pipelines: New Archaeological Evidence in Munster, 148-57, Wordwell, Dublin. Grogan, E. 2004 Middle Bronze Age burial traditions in Ireland. In H. Roche, E. Grogan, J. Bradley, J. Coles and B. Raftery (eds) From Megaliths to Metals. Essays in Honour of George Eogan, 61-71. Oxbow, Oxford. Grogan, E. forthcoming The later prehistoric landscape of southeast Clare. Discovery Programme Monographs 3. Wordwell, Dublin. Grogan, E. and Eogan, G. 1987 Lough Gur excavations by Seán P. Ó Ríordáin: further Neolithic and Beaker habitations on Knockadoon, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 87C, 299-506. Grogan, E., O’Sullivan, A., O’Carroll F. and Hagen, I. 1999 Knocknalappa, Co. Clare: a reappraisal, Discovery Programme Reports 6, 111-123, The Discovery Programme/ Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. Kelly, E. 1974 Aughinish Island, Excavations 1974, 20-21. Belfast. Mallory, J. 1988 Trial Excavations at Haughey’s Fort, Emania 4, 5-20. Moloney, A. Jennings, D., Keane, M. and McDermott, C. 1993 Excavations at Clonfinlough County Offaly, Irish Archaeological Wetland Unit Transactions 2, Office of Public Works/University College Dublin, Dublin. Ó Ríordáin, S.P. 1940 Excavations at Cush, Co Limerick, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 45C, 83-181. Ó Ríordáin, S.P. 1951 Lough Gur excavations: The Great Stone Circle (B) in Grange townland, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 54C, 37-74. Ó Ríordáin, S.P. 1954 Lough Gur Excavations: Neolithic and Bronze Age Houses on Knockadoon, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 56C, 297-459. Raftery, B. 1969 Freestone Hill, Co. Kilkenny: an Iron Age hillfort and Bronze Age cairn, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 68C, 1-108. Raftery, B. 1995 The Conundrum of Irish Iron Age Pottery, 149-156. In B. Raftery (ed.) Sites and Sights of the Iron Age. Oxbow Monograph 56, Oxford. Raftery, J. 1942 Knocknalappa crannóg, Co. Clare. North Munster Antiquarian Journal 3, 53-72.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 133
  • 139. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Read, C. 2000 Neolithic/Bronze Age cemetery site at Ballyconneely, Co. Clare, Archaeology Ireland 54, 28-9. Roche, H. 2004 The Dating of the Embanked Stone Circle at Grange, Co. Limerick. In H. Roche, E. Grogan, J. Bradley, J. Coles and B. Raftery (eds) From Megaliths to Metals. Essays in Honour of George Eogan, 109-16. Oxbow, Oxford. Sleeman, M. and Cleary, R. 1987 Pottery from Athgarret, Co. Kildare, 43-44, in R. Cleary, M. Hurley and E. Twohig (eds), Archaeological Excavations on the Cork-Dublin Gas Pipeline, Cork Archaeological Studies 1, Cork. Stevens, P. 1998a Killoran 4, Co. Tipperary, in I. Bennett (ed.), Excavations 1997, 173, Wordwell, Dublin. Stevens, P. 1998b Killoran 10, Co. Tipperary, in I. Bennett (ed.), Excavations 1997, 174-5, Wordwell, Dublin. Sweetman, P. D. 1976 An earthen enclosure at Monknewtown, Slane, Co. Meath, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 76, 25-73. Waddell, J. 1998 The Prehistoric Archaeology of Ireland, Galway University Press, Galway.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 134
  • 140. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Fig. 12 Conjectural representation of the types of vessels from Kilbane. Fig. 13 Comparative pottery from Irish Late Bronze Age sites. A1/A2: Lough Gur Site C (Ó Ríordáin 1954, fig. 16), B1, B3: Haughey’s Fort, Co. Armagh (Mallory 1988, fig. 7), B2: Lough Gur Circle L (Grogan and Eogan 1987, fig. 51), C: Lough Eskragh, Co. Tyrone (Waddell 1998, fig. 124), E: Clonfinlough, Co. Offaly (Maloney et al. 1993, fig. 50), E1: Ballynatona, Co. Limerick (Gowen 1988, fig. 53). (The letters refer to Fig. 1).Eachtra Archaeological Projects 135
  • 141. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Fig. 14 Comparative pottery from Irish Late Bronze Age sites. D1: Athgarret, Co. Kildare (Sleeman and Cleary 1987, fig. 4.2), D2: Monknewtown, Co. Meath (Sweetman 1976, fig. 5), D3/D4: Raheen, Co. Limerick (Gowen 1988, fig. 43), D5/D6: Dun- tryleague, Co. Limerick (Gowen 1988, fig. 35). (The letters refer to Fig. 1).Eachtra Archaeological Projects 136
  • 142. 03E1717 Archaeological Excavation Report Kilbane , Castletroy, Co Limerick Appendix 8 Conservation report Funeral urn remains, Kilbane, Castletroy, Limerick. 03E1717:F366:27 Adrian Kennedy MICHAWI Conservator Following inspection of the possible LBA funerary urn and cremated bone from Kilbane, Co. Limerick, my observations are that the structure of the vessel no longer remains due to decay over time. However, we are fortunate that at least one large shard remains within the mass of surrounding soil and that it is likely that other shards remain hidden within the soil also. The entire rim and base appear to be missing and hopefully some rim shards may be recovered from the surrounding soil should conservation work be carried out. The existing shard is in a very grave state of decay and liable to crumble apart at any moment. This is be- cause it is very damp and is almost as soft as the supporting soil itself. The cremated bones are also badly decayed and are in an ash-like state in many cases. In their present condition, very little information can be gleaned from the remains. Con- servation measures will be necessary in order to strengthen remaining structural evidence so that the remaining pieces may be safely handled and stored over time. The primary objective of the conservation measures should be to recover as much of the structural and archaeological evidence as possible, followed by stabilisation of the remains to prevent further destruction. The mass in which this vessel was sent for conservation assessment is now altered in order to allow for inspection. However, all shard fragments remain in their original positions as found.Eachtra Archaeological Projects 137