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Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow
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Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow

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The site was excavated under licence no. 04E0712. It was divided into ten areas of excavation: Areas 1-6, Area 6W, Area 7, Area 10 and Area 12.The earliest evidence for human activity was an Early …

The site was excavated under licence no. 04E0712. It was divided into ten areas of excavation: Areas 1-6, Area 6W, Area 7, Area 10 and Area 12.The earliest evidence for human activity was an Early Neolithic radiocarbon date obtained from the fill of a ditch in Area 6. However, there is no evidence for associated Early Neolithic activity. Most of the archaeological features excavated at Ballynattin were Bronze Age. Bronze Age pits were found in Area 6W, there was a spread of Bronze Age material in Area 3 and three partial Bronze Age structures were found in Areas 6 and 7. These were truncated and approximately only one third of each structure survived for excavation. A furnace excavated in Area 2 may also be Bronze Age in date; it has no associated radiocarbon dates but a saddle quern and flints were found within the furnace fill. The remaining features excavated at the site were primarily post-medieval, including a hearth excavated in Area 4, drains and ditches (Areas 1, 4 and 5) and a 19th century cobbled surface (Area 5).

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  • 1. Eachtra JournalIssue 14 [ISSN 2009-2237] Archaeological Excavation Report 04E0712 & 03E1692IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow Bronze Age pits, structures and a furnace
  • 2. Archaeological Excavation Report,IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park,Ballynattin,Co. Wicklow March 2007Client: IDA Ireland, Property Division, Wilton Park House, Wilton Place, Dublin 2Planning Register No.: 03/8546Licence No.: 04E0712 & 03E1692Licensee: John Tierney Contact details:Written by: Bernice Kelly The Forge, Innishannon, Co. Cork Bernadette Doherty Tel: 021 470 16 16 Penny Johnston Fax: 021 470 16 28 Antonia Doolan E-mail: info@eachtra.ie Web Site: www.eachtra.ie
  • 3. Table of Contents1 Summary...........................................................................................................................12 Acknowledgements............................................................................................................13 Introduction......................................................................................................................14 Background to the Development Area...............................................................................25 Site Location, Topography and Soils .................................................................................26 Archaeological and Historical Background........................................................................37 Results of Excavation 04E0712..........................................................................................4 7.1 Area 1.........................................................................................................................4 7.2 Area 2.........................................................................................................................4 7.3 Area 3.........................................................................................................................5 7.4 Area 4.........................................................................................................................5 7.5 Area 5.........................................................................................................................6 7.6 Area 6.........................................................................................................................7 7.7 Area 6W....................................................................................................................10 . 7.8 Area 7........................................................................................................................12 7.9 Area 10. .....................................................................................................................16 . 7.10 Area 12.....................................................................................................................16 .8 Specialist Results..............................................................................................................18 8.1 Radiocarbon Dates.....................................................................................................18 8.2 Plant remains ............................................................................................................18 8.3 Pottery ......................................................................................................................18 8.4 Lithics........................................................................................................................189 Summary and Discussion of Excavation Results...............................................................1910 Conclusions......................................................................................................................2011 Bibliography.....................................................................................................................21 11.1 Websites.....................................................................................................................2112 Figures..............................................................................................................................2213 Plates................................................................................................................................4214 Appendices.......................................................................................................................51 14.1 Appendix 1: Context Register.....................................................................................52 14.2 Appendix 2: Stratigraphic Matrix...............................................................................88 14.3 Appendix 3: Finds Register.......................................................................................89 . iii
  • 4. Table of contents cont. 14.4 Appendix 4: Plant remains from Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow 04E0712.........................92 14.5 Appendix 5: Pottery Report........................................................................................97 14.6 Lithics Finds Report for 03E1692 and 04E0712 Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow............... 101List of Figures Figure 1: Site location map....................................................................................................................22 . Figure 2: RMP version of 6-inch Ordnance Survey map with development location indicated (OS Map Sheet WI045)........................................................................................................................................23 . Figure 3: Development site with area locations..................................................................................... 24 Figure 4: Area 1 post-excavation plan ..................................................................................................25 Figure 5: Section through boundary ditch C.6 in Area 1.......................................................................26 Figure 6: Post-excavation plan of Area 2 ...............................................................................................27 Figure 7: Post-excavation plan of Area 3 . ..............................................................................................28 Figure 8: Post-excavation plan of Area 4................................................................................................29 Figure 9: Section through C.34, C.76, C.88 and C.89 in Area 5...........................................................30 Figure 10: Post-excavation plan of Area 6..............................................................................................31 . Figure 11: Post-excavation plan of contexts in Area 6 excavated under licence no. 03E1692...................32 Figure 12: Post-excavation plan of Area 6W..........................................................................................33 . Figure 13: Western part of Area 6W (post-excavation)...........................................................................34 Figure 14: Eastern part of Area 6W (post-excavation)............................................................................35 Figure 15: Post-excavation plan of contexts in Area 6W excavated under licence no. 03E1692...............36 Figure 16: Post-excavation plan of Area 7..............................................................................................37 . Figure 17: Post-excavation plan of Structure B in Area 7........................................................................38 Figure 18: Post-excavation plan of Structure C in Area 7.......................................................................39 Figure 19: Post-excavation plan of contexts found to the north of Structure C in Area 7...................... 40 Figure 20: Post-excavation plan of contexts in Area 12 excavated under licence no. 03E1692................41List of Plates Plate 1: Post-excavation shot of Area 2.................................................................................................. 42 Plate 2: Pre-excavation shot of Area 2................................................................................................... 42 . Plate 3: Section through the spread excavated in Area 3.........................................................................43 Plate 4: Post-excavation shot of Area 4...................................................................................................43 Plate 5: Section through the ditch in Area 5......................................................................................... 44 Plate 6: Pre-excavation shot of Area 5................................................................................................... 44 . Plate 7: General post-excavation shot of Area 6......................................................................................45 iv
  • 5. List of plates contents cont. Plate 8: Post-excavation shot of Structure A Area 6................................................................................45 Plate 9: Post-excavation of pit C.74 in Area 6W.................................................................................... 46 Plate 10: Post-excavation of pit C.72 in Area 6W.................................................................................. 46 Plate 11: Pre-excavation of pit C.64 in Area 6W....................................................................................47 Plate 12: Footing trenches in Structure B Area 7...................................................................................47 . Plate 13: Post-excavation shot of Structure B Area 7..............................................................................48 Plate 14: Pre-excavation shot of Structure C Area 7...............................................................................48 Plate 15: Footing trenches in Structure C Area 7...................................................................................49 Plate 16: Post-excavation shot of Structure C Area 7..............................................................................49 Plate 17: Pottery from the footing trench of Structure C Area 7.............................................................50 Plate 18: Post-excavation shot of pits C.363 and C.335 Area 7...............................................................50Copyright Notice: Please note that all original information contained within this report, includingall original drawings, photographs, text and all other printed matter deemed to be the writer’s,remains the property of the writer and Eachtra Archaeological Projects and so may not be reproducedor used in any form without the written consent of the writer or Eachtra Archaeological Projects. v
  • 6. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 1 Summary Townland Ballynattin Civil Parish Arklow Barony Arklow County Wicklow Licence no. 04E0712 and 03E1692 OS Map Sheet WI045 Nation Grid Ref. 323320 171140 Elevation 32 m to 59 m OD Site type(s) Three prehistoric round houses, a furnace, isolated hearth with stake-holes, post-medieval ditches 2 Acknowledgements The licence holder was John Tierney and the fieldwork crew included Áine Richardson, Antonia Doo- lan, Dawn Gooney, Tina Murphy, Bernadette Doherty, Bernice Kelly, Fiacc Murphy, Frank Fitzger- ald, Áine Mawe, Kevin Stronach, Mairt Hanley, Carles Plana, Seamas, Ruadhan and Carol Power. Specialists included Mary Dillon, Farina Sternke, Helen Roche, Eoin Grogan and the 14 Chrono Centre at Queen’s University Belfast. Report writing by Bernadette Doherty, Bernice Kelly, Antonia Doolan and Penny Johnston. 3 Introduction This report details the results of archaeological excavation at Ballynattin, Arklow, Co. Wicklow. The site, within a 21.83 hectare Industrial Development Agency (IDA) Business and Technology Park, was located at National Grid Reference 323320 171140 at an elevation of between 32 m OD and 59 m OD in an area covered by OS 6” map Sheet WI045 (Figures 1-3). Excavation was carried out in advance of development which included the construction of roadways, services infrastructure and landscaping covering at the Business & Technology Park. Archaeological testing, followed by small scale excava- tion, was carried out at the site in November 2003 under licence number 03E1692 (licence holder was John Tierney). Subsequent excavations were conducted over a seven week period which commenced on the 4 May 2004. These excavations were also directed by John Tierney under licence number 04E0712. This report pertains to the results from both licences.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 1
  • 7. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 4 Background to the Development Area Four earlier phases of archaeological investigation occurred at the site;  Geophysical (magnetometer) Survey: this was carried out by ArchaeoPhysica, under licence number 03R0140.  Archaeological Test Excavation: pre-development archaeological test excavations were executed by John Tierney of Eachtra Archaeological Projects, in November 2003 under licence number 03E1692. The results of this testing yielded a total of five areas which subsequently required excavation (Tierney and Doolan 2004a).  Archaeological Excavation: phase 3 of archaeological works involved the excavation of a fulacht fiadh and associated features licence 03E1692 A report on these findings was submitted to the Planning and Licensing section of the Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government (DoEHLG) in January 2004. The excavation report advised, as a mitigating meas- ure, that ‘all future groundworks for this development should be monitored by a qualified ar- chaeologist’ (Tierney and Doolan 2004b).  Archaeological Monitoring: archaeological monitoring took place over the course of seven days in April 2004. Potential prehistoric archaeological activity was identified at eight locations within Areas 1-7 and Area 10 (Kelly and Tierney 2004). Archaeological excavation began as a consequence of discoveries made during archaeological monitor- ing. This was carried out under licence 04E0712 and works commenced on the 4th of May 2004. In the course of these works, Eachtra Archaeological Projects were required to monitor topsoil removal at two further locations within the site. At one location, Area 11, potential archaeological sediments were acknowledged and the area was cordoned off until further investigations could be carried out. Archaeological features were encountered to the west of Area 6, and this location was identified as Area 6 West. A total of ten archaeological zones were investigated within the bounds of the development over a 7-week period. Interim results were presented in Kelly and Doherty (2004). This final report integrates the results from archaeological works carried out under excavation licences 03E1692 and 04E0712. 5 Site Location, Topography and Soils The site is situated in the townland of Ballynattin, west of the N11 and to the south-east of Arklow town, a coastal town situated at the mouth of the River Avoca in south Co. Wicklow. Ballynattin is located in the Barony of Arklow and within Arklow Civil Parish. Ballynattin House, an eighteenth/ nineteenth century farmhouse that is now used as offices, is located along the south-western boundary of the site. The Arklow Bypass curves around the eastern and north-eastern extremities of the site. The Arklow Business Park lies to the west of this new Business and Technology Park development. The surrounding landscape consists of low-lying, gently undulating ground. The site elevation slopes from south-west to north-east, from 59 m OD to 32 m OD. The area is drained by an extensive network of small streams. A culvert occurs within the area of the development; it serves to transporthttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 2
  • 8. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 storm-water under the adjacent N11 Arklow bypass, eventually emptying into the Ballyduff stream to the north-west. In turn, Ballyduff stream joins the Avoca River at Glenart. The soils in the development area consist of a mixture of greys (90%) and grey brown podzolics (10%) which are derived from dense, calcareous, marine muds which were removed from the Irish sea and deposited inland by ice. These soils have a limited range and are best used in grass production. Prior to development, the site comprised agricultural (pasture) fields. The field boundaries were composed of hedgerows and/or timber post-and-wire fencing. 6 Archaeological and Historical Background Several archaeological sites have been found in the townland of Ballynattin and in the surrounding area. Topsoil removal along the route of the Arklow bypass, located to the east of the IDA Business Park, was monitored under excavation licence 97E0083 by Breandán Ó Riordáin for Valerie J. Keeley Ltd. (www.excavations.ie). Three sites were found. Site 1 consisted of a small area of dark, charcoal-like material. Site 2 was a deposit of charcoal associated with a scatter of cremated bone. Site 3, a flat cemetery, consisted of three pits and a linear spread. In excess of fifty sherds of Beaker and food vessel pottery and over thirty flakes of flint, half of which were worked, were found within these pits. Other sites excavated along the route of the road included a possible Bronze Age enclosure in Johnstown South (96E0196) by Martin Fitzpatrick (www.excavations.ie). Pottery from the enclosure was similar to sherds retrieved at Ballynattin (Appendix 5) and the site was located 5.4 km to the north-west of the IDA Business Park. Within the townland of Ballynattin a burnt mound was discovered approximately 100 m to the east of the IDA Business Park (National Grid co-ordinate 3231151 1716131). The site was excavated by Anne Connolly under licence number 97E0128 (www.excavations.ie) and it comprised a number of small burnt spreads of heat-affected stone and charcoal and an associated wooden surface. Dendrochronological analysis of some of the wood from the surface indicated a felling date in late 856 or early 855 BC. Sarah McCutcheon monitored ground-works for construction of a short roadway (130 m in length) which provided access to Euroconex Technologies. Monitoring was carried out under licence 98E0257 issued by the DoEHLG (formerly Dúchas) and the archaeological contexts found were subsequently excavated by Eamonn Cotter under the same licence (Cotter 2000, 220). The largest site was a rectan- gular enclosure measuring 14 m X 8 m with a 1.35 m wide entrance on its southern side. The enclosure was interpreted as a livestock corral, or some similar non-domestic compound. A report on these find- ings was submitted to the DoEHLG (formerly Dúchas) and Wicklow County Council in July 1998. Radiocarbon dates for this feature confirmed it to have been a medieval structure dating to between 1430 AD and 1530 AD (Eamonn Cotter pers. comm.). Excavation undertaken by Eachtra in December 2003 at the proposed development produced evidence for ephemeral occupation sites along the route of the Haul Road. These features comprised rubbishhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 3
  • 9. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 pits, some of which contained fire waste, and posts and stakes, which may have comprised fences or a wind-break structure. Based on morphology, artefact typology and radiocarbon dating the majority of the sites are prehistoric. Spreads of heat-shattered stones were discovered within the environs of the proposed new Vitra Tiles factory, which was located to the west of the development site and a fulacht fiadh trough was recorded along the western boundary of the development. The report on these find- ings was submitted to the Planning and Licensing section of the Department of Environment, Herit- age and Local Government (DoEHLG) in January 2004 (Tierney et al. 2004). 7 Results of Excavation 04E0712 The site was excavated under licence no. 04E0712. It was divided into ten areas of excavation: Areas 1-6, Area 6W, Area 7, Area 10 and Area 12.The earliest evidence for human activity was an Early Neo- lithic radiocarbon date obtained from the fill of a ditch in Area 6. However, there is no evidence for associated Early Neolithic activity. Most of the archaeological features excavated at Ballynattin were Bronze Age. Bronze Age pits were found in Area 6W, there was a spread of Bronze Age material in Area 3 and three partial Bronze Age structures were found in Areas 6 and 7. These were truncated and approximately only one third of each structure survived for excavation. A furnace excavated in Area 2 may also be Bronze Age in date; it has no associated radiocarbon dates but a saddle quern and flints were found within the furnace fill. The remaining features excavated at the site were primarily post- medieval, including a hearth excavated in Area 4, drains and ditches (Areas 1, 4 and 5) and a 19th cen- tury cobbled surface (Area 5). Details of the excavated contexts are found in the stratigraphic matrix (Appendix 1) and the context register (Appendix 2) while all the artefacts retrieved during excavation are catalogued in the finds register (Appendix 3). 7.1 Area 1 Area 1 was located at the southern extents of the Spur Road, at National Grid Co-ordinate (NGC) 3229911 1713265 (see Figure 3). A number of potential archaeological features were identified within an area of excavation which measured 5 m X 5 m. Excavation indicated that the majority of the poten- tial features were not archaeological in nature, but were the result of root action and rabbit burrowing. The only archaeological remains consisted of a post-medieval ditch, C.6, (Figure 4) which was filled by two deposits of light grey brown silts, C.4 and C.5. The ditch was aligned north to south (Figures 4 and 5) and it may originally have been constructed to assist drainage in the area, or as part of a field boundary. 7.2 Area 2 This area was situated along the eastern boundary of the Spur Road, to the north-east of Area 1 at NGC 3230160 1713550 (Figure 3). Two features were excavated within a 5 m X 4 m grid; a furnace, (C.110) and a furrow (C.97) (Figure 6, Plates 1 and 2). 7.2.1 The furnace The furnace bowl was sub-circular in plan and approximately 0.9 m in diameter. It was truncated byhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 4
  • 10. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 a plough furrow (C.97) and its exact shape-in-plan and dimensions were difficult to determine. How- ever, there appeared to be a flue that extended from the bowl towards the north-east. This possible flue was c. 1.8 m long and it was c. 0.3 m wide at the bowl, splaying to a width of c. 0.8 m at the north-east (Figure 6). The furnace bowl contained three fills; C.107, C.99 and C.98. The primary fill (C.107) was brown sand with frequent charcoal inclusions. It was sealed by a deposit of reddish brown silty sand (C.99). This deposit was scorched, indicating in situ burning. It was overlain by a deposit of mid-brown sand (C.98) with some charcoal inclusions. This was the uppermost fill of the furnace. Plant remains from the furnace produced very small amounts of cereal grain that could not be identified to type. 7.2.2 The furrow A plough furrow (C.97) truncated the furnace, clipping the bowl of the furnace at the north-east and removing some of the flue. The furrow was aligned roughly north to south and its width ranged from 0.2 m to 0.4 m. Only c.4.6 m of its length was excavated and it extended beyond both the northern and southern limits of the excavation. 7.3 Area 3 Area 3 was located on the Spur Road to the north-east of Area 2 at NGC 3230610 1714650 (see Figure 3). A series of four deposits (C.20, C.21, C.31 and C.42) was found underlying a sub-circular spread (C.25) within an area measuring 5 m X 4 m (Figure 7, Plate 3). The spread, C.25, was 1.4 m in diam- eter and 0.37 m deep. It resembled re-deposited subsoil but it contained over forty individual pieces of flint. The remaining deposits (C.20, C.21, C.31 and C.42) measured on average 1.6 m long, 1.1 m wide and 0.26 m deep. There was no evidence for in situ burning. As no definitive cut was found it was concluded that this was a dump of burnt deposits within a natural hollow. Charcoal from C.42 was radiocarbon dated to the Early Bronze Age; cal BC 1970-1820 (UB7199). The flint artefacts from the site included an end scraper (04E0712:25:19) and two flakes (04E0712:21:1 & 2) produced using bipolar technology, all indicative of Bronze Age activity (Appendix 6). 7.4 Area 4 Area 4 was located to the south-west of Area 1, along the north-eastern boundary of the newly con- structed Haul Road at NGC 3229528 1713035 (Figure 3). The archaeology in this area comprised a hearth (C.91), two associated stakeholes (C.87 and C.92), two drains (C.90 and C.108), a plough furrow (C.101) and a pit (C.102) were found within an area of 5 m X 5 m (Figure 8, Plate 4). The two drains cut the furrow and the pit. All of these features, including the hearth, were the result of post- medieval activity in the area. 7.4.1 The hearth The hearth (C.91) was roughly circular in plan, it measured c. 0.6 m in diameter and it was 0.1 m deep. It contained one fill (C.82) a compact, mid orange-red sandy clay with occasional charcoal flecks and frequent inclusions of manganese. A sample from the deposit within the hearth contained many grainshttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 5
  • 11. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 of oats and a small quantity of rye (Appendix 4). The oats were radiocarbon dated to cal AD 1730- 1800 (UB7200), indicating post-medieval activity. 7.4.2 The stake-holes There were two stake-holes (C.87 and C.92) situated 0.25 m south and south-west of the hearth (C.91). Both of these were circular in plan with vertical sides and on average they measured c. 0.17 m in di- ameter and were 0.15 m deep. Both stake-holes were filled by mid-brown clay-like deposits that had charcoal inclusions. Grains of emmer wheat were recovered from the fill of C.87 (Appendix 4). These features may be the remains of a screen sheltering the hearth, but are more likely to be remains of a spit owing to their close proximity to the fire. 7.4.3 The drains Two drains (C.90 and C.108) traversed the area of excavation in Area 4. The drain C.90 was aligned roughly north to south and it was exposed for approximately 6 m. It extended beyond the limit of the excavation. A trial section through the drain revealed that it had two fills (C.86 and C.106) and that one of these (C.106) had frequent inclusions of charcoal and burnt clay which may have been discarded from the hearth, located just 1.7 m to the east. The other drain (C.108) was aligned roughly east to west. It was exposed within the area of excavation for 4.1 m but it extended beyond the edge of the cutting at both its eastern and western extents. It contained one fill of grey silt (C.109). 7.4.4 The plough furrow A plough furrow (C.101) ran roughly north to south, and it was c. 3.8 m long and 0.34 m wide and only 0.12 m deep. It contained a single fill (C.100), a light grey sandy silt and it was truncated by two drains (C.90 and C.108). 7.4.5 The pit A pit (C102) was located near the south-western limit of the excavation. It was sub-rectangular in plan, measuring 1.2 m long by 0.75 m wide and 0.2 m deep. It contained three fills of grey clays (C.103, C.104 and C.105). All of these features were interpreted as the result of post-medieval or modern activity. The date from the hearth (C.91) confirms this. There were no artefacts retrieved from this area of excavation. 7.5 Area 5 Area 5 was located to the north-west of Area 4, along the eastern boundary of the Haul Road at NGC 3229010 1713520 (Figure 3). The excavation revealed two drainage ditches (C.37 and C.76) and a portion of a cobbled surface (C.34) which overlay another ditch (C.89) (Figure 9, Plates 5 and 6). All the features were post-medieval or modern in date and they were found within a 10 m east to west by a 5 m north to south grid.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 6
  • 12. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 7.5.1 The cobbled surface A portion of a cobbled surface (C.34), measuring 7.9 m east to west by 3.35 m north to south, was revealed along the south-western extents of the excavation cutting, terminating abruptly at the eastern edge of excavation. The cobbling directly overlay a ditch (C.89) and extended marginally beyond the ditch edge to the north. Red earthenware pottery was found directly underneath the cobbled surface and therefore indicated that the cobbling was laid in the 19th century. 7.5.2 The ditches A ditch (C.89) underlay the area of cobbling near the southern edge of the excavation. It was exposed for a length of 5.2 m but it extended beyond the limit of excavation. The ditch was c. 1.5 m wide and 0.5 m deep. It contained one fill (C.88), a brown clay which contained no artefacts. The remaining features within this area included a series of post-medieval or modern ditches associated with the drainage of the terrain. These included parallel ditches (C.37 and C.76) which were aligned north to south. The ditch C.37 was exposed for a length of 6 m and it was 2.8 m wide and 0.37 m deep. It contained one fill (C.36) which resembled topsoil but contained a Bronze Age retouched flint scraper (04E0712:36:1). As this flint came from topsoil that was used to fill the ditch it was probably re-deposited after disturbance of Bronze Age activity (excavations at Areas 2, 3, 6, 6W and 7 all pro- duced evidence of Bronze Age archaeology). 7.6 Area 6 This area was situated 20 m to the south of Area 5, at NGC 322899 171335 on the south-western ex- tents of the Haul Road (Figure 3). An area of excavation measuring 16 m by 7 m was opened in order to resolve features discovered during archaeological monitoring. The principal features found included the remains of a building (Structure A) which included a footing trench (C.39), a post-hole (C.50) and a stake-hole (C.48). Pits (C.30 and C.56) and two irregularly-shaped linear features (C.41 and C.46) were also found within the area of excavation (Figure 10, Plate 7). 7.6.1 The early pit Potentially the earliest feature on site, this pit (C.56) was truncated by later archaeological features including the slot trench of Structure A. The pit was oval in shape and contained two fills (C.54 and C.55). The basal fill, C.54, was a soft, dark brown, sandy clay and it overlay C.55, which was a firm, yellow grey, sandy clay. 7.6.2 Structure A The remains of Structure A comprised a curvilinear footing trench and a post-hole and stake-hole that were found within the area surrounded by the arc. It is likely that this footing trench was originally part of a circular structure with a possible external diameter of 9.5 m. This suggests that approximately only a third of the original footing trench survived. The terminus of the footing trench at the east mayhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 7
  • 13. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 represent the entrance to the structure. No post-holes or stake-holes were recorded within the footing trench cut, suggesting the building was of split-timber construction. The internal post-hole and stake- hole may represent internal sub-division of the building. 7.6.2.1 The footing trench The footing trench (C.39) was curvilinear in plan and probably represented the truncated remains of a round structure. It was not possible to trace the entire arc of the original building but the surviving trench measured 10 m in length along its inner or northern circumference and 10.6 m along its outer, southern circumference. It varied in width from 0.2 m, where the cut petered out at the west, to 0.42 m where the terminus of the trench occurred to the east. The base of the trench varied in width from 0.06 m to 0.14 m. The depth of the footing trench was 0.25 m on average (Plate 8). The break of slope at the top of the cut was generally sharp and the base was flat, sloping gently to the east and north in accordance with the natural undulation of the ground. An early pit (C.56) was truncated by the trench to the east, while the trench itself was truncated by a plough furrow (C.26). The footing trench contained three fills; C.32, C.33 and C.38. The basal fill (C.38) was compact, grey- ish yellow, sandy silt, found only in the eastern portion of the trench. It extended for a length of 8.2 m and it was 0.23 m wide and 0.06 m deep. The middle fill of the footing trench (C.33) overlay C.38 and underlay another fill (C.32). The deposit C.33 was 2.4 m long, 0.32 m wide and 0.09 m deep. It comprised firm, light yellow grey, sandy silt with occasional charcoal flecks and quartz stones. A flint blade (04E0712:33:1) and flint flake (04E0712:33:2) were also recovered from C.33. The flake was comparatively large and was possibly brought in from a region to the north were flint is more abun- dant and the general nodule size is larger (Appendix 6). The uppermost fill (C.32) extended across the length of the trench. It comprised a mid yellow brown, sandy silt with occasional flecks of charcoal. The charcoal was radiocarbon dated and produced a Middle Bronze Age date of cal BC 1445-1304 (UB7196). This was the only fill within the western 1.5 m of the trench. Sherds of Late Bronze Age coarse vessels were found in the deposits C.32 and C.38 (04E0712:32:1-9 and 04E0712:38:1-10). Two vessels were identified and sherds from both vessels were found in both deposits. There was carbonised matter on areas of the interior surface of the pottery vessels, suggesting residue from domestic use such as cooking (Appendix 5). 7.6.2.2 Associated features A post-hole (C.50) and a stake-hole (C.48) were the only associated features within the interior arc of the footing trench. The stake-hole (C.48) was located 2 m north of the footing trench (C.39). It was oval in shape and its fill (C.47), comprised a mid brown, silty sand. A post-hole (C.50) was located 0.9 m to the west of the stake-hole. This post-hole (C.50) was sub-circular in plan and its fill was compa- rable to that of the stake-hole C.47. 7.6.3 Irregular linear features Two irregularly-shaped linear features (C.41 and C.46) were excavated to the south of Structure A. These were interpreted as possible hedging or garden features.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 8
  • 14. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 The cut C.46 was aligned east-west and was located just 0.7 m south of the footing trench of Structure A. It was 4 m long, 0.8 m wide and 0.4 m deep. It contained three fills; C.53, C.44 and C.45. The basal fill was C.45, it was overlain by C.44, which in turn was overlain by C.53. These were all silty clays with some charcoal inclusions. The cut C.41 was similar in shape and size to the other irregular linear feature (C.46), being 4 m long, 0.8 m wide and 0.63 m deep. It was oriented north-south, perpendicular to C.46, and it had a distinc- tive V-shaped base. This cut contained a basal fill (C.40) and an upper fill (C.22). Charcoal from the upper fill was radiocarbon dated (UB7195) to cal BC 3693-3524, an Early Neolithic date. However there is no evidence for associated Early Neolithic activity and the charcoal dated from the fill of this large feature may have been residual. 7.6.4 Large pit A large pit (C.30) was located within the western portion of Area 6. This feature was oval in shape with a gradual break of slope both at the top and base of the pit and with gently sloping sides. It contained four fills (C.27, C.28, C.29 and C.43). The basal fill, C.43, comprised a light grey, sandy clay. It was overlain by C.29, a mottled yellow, brown and grey, sandy clay with occasional inclusions of charcoal, which in turn was overlain by the most substantial fill in the pit (C.28) a mottled brown, sandy clay, containing moderate flecks of charcoal. The uppermost fill (C.27) was a small spread of dark orange brown, sandy clay with frequent charcoal inclusions. 7.6.5 Group of pits and stake-holes A group of pits and stake-holes, were excavated to the north-west of the main archaeological features at Area 6, on the route of the Haul Road (Figure 3). These were initially found during archaeological testing and were excavated under an extension to the testing licence (03E1692). Eight pits (C.48, C.54, C.56, C.57, C.58, C.62, C.67, C.69), three stakeholes (C.64, C.72, and C.74), one ditch (C.51) and a spread (C.52) were excavated within an area of excavation that measured 7 m by 5 m (Figure 11). The three stake-holes form a possible wind-break near the southern part of the excavated area. They measured, on average, 0.26 m in length, 0.21 m in width and 0.22 m in depth. It is possible that it provided shelter for the activity at the pits, further to the north. The function of the pits is unknown. Most of the fills appear to have been heated or burnt but there is no evidence for in situ burning and this appears to have been re-deposited waste from a hearth (un- excavated and not located during this work). Their average dimensions were 0.64 m long, 0.44 m wide and 0.17 m deep. The ditch (C.51) may be related to a ditch un-covered during archaeological testing (Feature 12: Tierney and Doolan 2004a). The ditch contained pieces of flint (03E1692:12-16) that may have been worked. These may have been disturbed when the ditch was dug and re-deposited within its fill as it gradually silted up. The ditch was probably originally dug as a drain and the ditch filled with waterhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 9
  • 15. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 soon after excavation. It is possible that this ditch is similar to the enclosing ditch excavated by Ea- monn Cotter under excavation licence number 98E0257, which measured c. 14 m east-northeast to west-southwest by 8 m and also contained pieces of worked flint. The archaeological features discovered in this part of the site and excavated under licence 03E1692 were probably associated with the Bronze Age activity excavated in the rest of Area 6. 7.7 Area 6W This area was situated 20 m west of Area 6, at NGC 3228559 1713830 to the south-east of the con- verging point of the Main Access Road and Haul Road. Four circular or oval pits (C.72, C.59, C.64 and C.75), three large, irregularly-shaped pits (C.61, C.74 & C.81) and one small pit/ post-hole (C.79) were found within the area of excavation. Four of the pits (C.72, C.59, C.64 and C.75) were regular in shape and contained some charcoal-rich deposits and they were initially interpreted as cremation burials. However, no cremated bone was recovered from these pits during post-excavation analysis and sieving of soil samples. 7.7.1 The pits The eastern-most pit was C.74 (Figures 12 and 14), a large pit irregular pit, oval in shape and 2.45 m long, 1.45 m wide and 0.55 m deep (Plate 9). Two fills were recorded, with a basal fill (C.67) and an upper fill (C.66). Both deposits were brown clayey silts with occasional charcoal flecks. Situated 5.5 m to the south was a smaller circular pit (C.72) which measured c. 0.5 m in diameter and 0.14 m deep with a flat base (Figure 14, Plate 10). It contained a primary fill (C.71) of blackish brown clayey silt with charcoal inclusions. This was overlain by the secondary fill, C.70, a greyish brown, silty sand. This may have been the remains of a grave marker. C.72 was situated 5.1 m east of another pit (C.59). The third pit, C.59, was located between the pit C.72, which occurred to its east, and another pit C.64, situated to the west (Figure 14). It was oval in shape with uneven sides and base. It measure 0.7 m in length, 0.4 m in width and 0.23 m in depth and it contained 3 fills (C.58, C.68 and C.69). The basal fill was C.69, a brown, silty clay with occasional charcoal flecks. Concentrated at the western side of the cut, the deposit C.68, a friable light yellowish brown, silty clay, was interpreted as a spread of re- deposited subsoil. The uppermost fill, C.58, was black silty clay with frequent flecks of charcoal. The fourth pit, C.64, was found to the west of pit C.59 (Figure 14). Circular in shape, it measured c. 0.5 m in diameter and it was 0.13 m deep (Plate 11). It had smooth sides and a rounded base. The basal fill was C.63, a dark brown, silty clay with moderate inclusions of charcoal. It was overlain by the deposit C.62, a brown sandy silt. A large and irregular fifth pit, C.61, was located immediately west of pit C.64 (Figure 14). The pithttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 10
  • 16. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 C.61 measured 1.46 m in length by 0.9 m in width and 0.3 m in depth. It contained a fill (C.60) of soft reddish brown, sandy clay with occasional charcoal inclusions. A sixth pit, C.75, was situated 18 m to the west of C.64 (Figures 12 and 13). It was oval in shape, 0.7 m east-west, 0.44 m north to south and 0.18 m deep. The sides sloped smoothly and the base was rounded. Two fills occurred within the cut (C.73 and C.77). Three heat-shattered stones were located towards the base of the pit in basal fill C.77. The upper fill, C.73 had frequent charcoal inclusions and artefacts from this deposit included worked flint (04E0712:73:8-1), three pieces of which are typical from Bronze Age assemblages (Appendix 6), and sherds from a vessel of Late Bronze Age coarse ware (04E0712:73:1-7). The seventh pit, C.81, was situated to the west of C. 75 (Figure 13). It was semi-circular in shape with rounded corners. It was 2.2 m long, 1 m wide and 0.4 m deep and it contained one fill (C.80), a com- pact mid reddish brown, sandy clay with occasional charcoal flecks. 7.7.2 Post-hole A small pit or post-hole (C.79) occurred 0.75 m to the north of C.81 (Figure 13). It was 0.4 m long, 0.25 m wide and 0.17 m deep and it contained one fill of compact orange-brown sandy clay (C.78). 7.7.3 Group of stake-holes, pits and post-holes A group of stake-holes, pits and post-holes were excavated to the north-west of the main archaeologi- cal features at Area 6W, on the route of the Haul Road (Figure 3). These were initially found during archaeological testing and were excavated under an extension to the testing licence (03E1692). Two slot trenches (C.33 and C.35), three pits (C.13, C.18 and C.44), nine stake-holes (C.6, C.7, C.9, C.20, C.26, C.28, C.37, C.39 and C.42) and two possible post-holes (C.23 and C.32) were excavated within a 5 m by 4 m grid (Figure 15). The posts and stakes may have comprised two fences, or perhaps the corner of a structure. One line of stakes was orientated north-east to south-west, (C.23, C.20, C.26 and C.35). The other line, running north-north-west to south-south-east includes stake-holes C.42, C.29, C.37, C.39 and C.6. On aver- age the stake-holes measured 0.17 m long by 0.13 m wide and 0.08 m deep. The post-holes measured (on average) 0.25 m long, 0.22 m wide and 0.18 m deep, and were only slightly larger than the stake- holes. At the ‘corner’ where these fences meet there is a pit (C.13), although this may also have been a posthole that was dug out after use and backfilled. It is possible that it was originally part of the fence or structure line. A slot trench C.33 runs parallel to this line of stakes and may have been associated with it. The pits (C.13, C.18 and C.44) all contained similar, pinkish brown clayey silt with flecks of charcoal, possibly re-deposited fire waste. There was no evidence for in situ burning. The pits, on average, meas- ured 0.48 m in length, 0.36 m in width and 0.17 m in depth.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 11
  • 17. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 It is likely that these remains represent domestic occupation. Flints were recovered from the area (03E1692: 1-3) and these suggest a prehistoric date for this site. In all likelihood these archaeological remains excavated under licence no. 03E1692. 7.8 Area 7 Area 7 was located to the south-west of Area 4, on the western side of a segment of the Haul Road (Road A) at NGC 322899 171242 (Figure 3). The archaeological features in this area comprised two structures (Structure B and Structure C), as well as two pits, various post-holes and stake-holes and a ditch (Figure 16). They were found within an area of excavation that measured 80 m X 15 m. 7.8.1 Structure B Structure B was located along the south-western extent of Area 7 (Figures 16 and 17). It was circular and comprised nine post-holes (three of which were internal post-holes), thirty-six stake-holes and two gullies (Plate 12). The full extent of the structure was not uncovered as some of it continued beyond the south-western periphery of the area of excavation: only c. forty percent of the structure was excavated under this licence (Plate 13). The projected overall diameter of Structure B was approximately 7.2 m. Radiocarbon dates, pottery and flint artefacts all indicate that the structures were in use in the Bronze Age, with the concentration of dating evidence, both from radiocarbon dates and pottery, indicate a span of activity from the Middle to the Later Bronze Age (1500 BC-400 AD). 7.8.1.1 Structure B post-holes Six post-holes (C.137, C.146, C.148, C.152, C.220 and C.240) made up the excavated portion of the wall that defined Structure B. These were relatively evenly spaced, on average around 1.54 m apart, and arranged in an arc. A circular post-hole C.137 measured 0.28 m in diameter and it was 0.14 m deep. It contained a single fill, C.136, of loosely compacted mid yellowish brown, silty sand with charcoal inclusions and one packing stone. The charcoal from C.136 was radiocarbon dated (UB7198) to cal BC 1130-980, a Mid- dle to Late Bronze Age date. One fragment of Late Bronze Age pottery, too small to assign to a vessel, was recovered from C.136. A circular post-hole cut (C.146) was situated 1.66 m west to south-west of post-hole C.137. It con- tained a fill, C.142, of soft, dark brown, sandy silt with occasional charcoal flecks. It was 0.35 m in diameter and 0.2 m deep with one fill (C.143) a yellowish brown, silty clay. A sub-circular post-hole (C.148) measured 0.27 m long, 0.21 m wide and 0.21 m deep. It was situated 1.71 m to the east of posthole C.137. The basal fill, was a loose, yellowish brown, silty sand. It was overlain by C.147, composed of loosely compacted, mid yellowish brown, silty sand which contained five packing stones.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 12
  • 18. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 The circular post-hole C.152 was situated 1.7 m south-west of C.146. It measured 0.25m in diameter and 0.15 m deep and it was filled by C.151, a soft, dark brown, sandy silt with occasional pebbles. An oval post-hole, C.220 measured 0.4 m in length, 0.28 m in width and 0.18 m in depth and it was filled with a deposit (C.219) of loosely compacted, yellowish brown, silty sand. This posthole was situ- ated 1.2 m south of post-hole C.240. The sixth post-hole in Structure B was C.240. It was oval in plan, it measured 0.4 m long, 0.3 m wide and 0.3 m deep and it was filled by a deposit (C.239) of loosely compacted, yellowish brown, silty sand. The post-hole C.240 was situated 1.4 m south of C.152 and 1.2 m north of C.220. 7.8.1.2 Structure B gullies Surrounding the north and north-western parts of the structure there were two separate trenches (C.122 and C.127). When combined, it is evident that these had the same function and both cuts contained similar fills. They formed an arc with an outer perimeter of 3.9 m. They were located c. 0.6 m from the arc of post-holes that defined the wall of Structure B, to the north and the north-west and they probably originally acted as gullies and held run-off water that came from the roof of the struc- ture. This suggests that the roof extended beyond the wall of the structure for approximately 0.5 m, creating a significant overhang. The gully C.122 was located c. 0.7 m north of post-hole C.146. The cut was sub-rectangular in plan, 1.53 m long, 0.4 m wide and 0.05 m deep, and aligned east-west. The basal fill, C.124, was a de- posit of sub-angular pebbles within silty sand. It was overlain by the upper deposit C.121, a brown, clayey sand with moderate charcoal inclusions. Sherds of one vessel of Late Bronze Age coarse ware (04E0712:121:1-7), were recovered from C.121. The second trench (C.127) was located 0.7 m to the west of C.122. The trench C.127 was 1.6 m long, 0.44 m wide and 0.12 m deep and the cut contained two fills (C.125 and C.126) which were similar to the deposits in slot trench C.122. 7.8.1.3 Structure B internal post-holes Three internal post-holes (C.177, C.183 and C.242) were excavated. These have been interpreted as internal supports or parts of partition walls that sub-divided the internal space in Structure B. Post-hole C.177 was situated 0.23 m north-east of the internal post-hole C.183 and 2.35 m south of the external post-hole C.148. It was circular in plan, with a diameter of c. 0.22 m and a depth of 0.29 m. It contained one fill (C.176), a loosely compacted, mid yellowish brown, silty sand with moderate inclusions of charcoal. The post-hole C.183 was oval in shape, 0.33m long, 0.25 m wide and 0.14 m deep. It was filled by C.182, a deposit of loose, mid yellowish brown, silty sand with moderate charcoal inclusions and sixhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 13
  • 19. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 packing stones. A fragment of Late Bronze Age coarse pottery was also recovered from this deposit. It was from the same vessel as a body-sherd that was found in a deposit within the slot trench of Struc- ture C (C.145, see below). This indicates that occupation at both structures was contemporary. The posthole (C.183) was truncated by the boundary ditch, C.118, to the west. It was situated 0.23 m to the west-south-west of internal post-hole C.177. The final post-hole associated with Structure B was C.242, a sub-circular post-hole situated 1.8 m south of external post-hole C.146 and 0.9 m east-south-east of external post-hole C.152. It was filled by C.241 which comprised loose, mixed brown and grey, sandy silt with moderately occurring inclu- sions of fine pebbles. 7.8.1.4 Structure B internal stake-holes Five stake-holes (C.294, C.296, C.298, C.300 and C.302) was excavated c. 3 m the north Structure B. The line was 2.1 m long and the average distance between stake-holes was 0.41 m. These may have originally been part of a fence. Thirty-five stake-holes were excavated within Structure B: C.156, C.159, C.161, C.163, C.165, C.167, C.169, C.171, C.173, C.175, C.180, C.185, C.186, C.187, C.191, C.193, C.195, C.197, C.213, C.215, C.222, C.224, C.226, C.228, C.230, C.232, C.234, C.236, C.244, C.246, C.248, C.250, C.252 and C.254. In general, the stake-holes were circular, 0.08 m in diameter and 0.14 m deep and they were filled with brown, silty sand. One of the stake-holes produced a flint flake (04E0712:225:1) and another produced a sherd of Late Bronze Age coarse ware (04E0712:170:1). 7.8.2 Structure C Structure C was located to the north-west of Structure B (Figures 16 and 18, Plates 14, 15 and 16). It comprised a curvilinear footing trench (C.130/C.132) that formed an arc c. 11.7 m in circumference (Plate 15). At its northern extent the trace of the Structure C petered out, possibly the result of trunca- tion by agricultural activity. There as also some evidence for truncation of the structure to the eastern limit of the excavation and approximately only a third of the original building survived for excavation. There was evidence that the footing trench was re-cut (C.203), which suggests more than one phase of construction. 7.8.2.1 Structure C footing trench: primary cut The earliest phase of construction in Structure C was represented by the footing trench (C.130/C.132). This was truncated by the construction of a boundary ditch (C.118) in the post-medieval period. The trench to the north-west of the boundary ditch was labelled as C.130 and it was filled by C.129 and C.155. To the south-east of the boundary ditch the trench was numbered C.132 and it was filled by C.131 and C.144. The basal fill of the slot trench was C.144/C.155, a soft, compacted, light grey, silty sand with charcoalhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 14
  • 20. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 inclusions. Diffuse-porous charcoal from C.144 produced a Middle Bronze Age radiocarbon date of cal BC 1415-1267 (UB-7197). A fragment of a Late Bronze Age Vessel 7 was recovered from C.155. C.131/C.129 was the secondary fill within the earlier slot trench (Plate 17). It comprised loosely com- pacted, dark brown, silty sand with occasional charcoal flecks. The fill extended for approximately 4 m along the south-eastern extents of the slot. A flint blade was recovered from C.129 (04E0712:129:1). A post-hole, C.205, was cut into the secondary fill of the footing trench (C.129/C.131). This post-hole was sub-circular in plan and it measured c. 0.5 m in diameter and it was 0.2 m deep. Another possible post-hole (C.207) cut the primary footing trench was C.207. It was filled by C.208, a mid brown, silty clay with occasional inclusions of charcoal and small stones. This was truncated by a linear feature (C.153), which meant that its original form was difficult to determine. The linear (C.153) truncated the footing trench at the south-west. In total it was 2.95 m long, 1.1 m wide and 0.35 m deep with a V-shaped base along its east-west axis and flat base along its north-south axis. It contained two fills; C.209, a compact, dark brownish black, silty clay and C.198, a deposit of re-deposited subsoil. 7.8.2.2 Structure C footing trench: secondary cut The re-cut of the footing trench (C.203) was curvilinear in plan. Its base was concave and it ran for 6.5 m. At its widest the slot measured 0.44 m and its maximum depth was 0.15 m. Seven different fills were found within the cut (C.150, C.149, C.211, C.210, C.145, C.204 and C.259). These were sandy deposits that had an average depth of c. 0.08 m. There were several artefacts retrieved from the fills of the footing trench re-cut, including sherds of Late Bronze Age coarse ware in C.211 and C.145. Some of these fragments were probably from the same vessel as other pieces of ceramic retrieved from an internal post-hole (C.183) in Structure B (Appendix 5), suggesting that the two structures were in use at the same time. The secondary cut of the footing trench was truncated by a post-hole (C.269) and a furrow (C.134). 7.8.2.3 Internal features One post-hole and one stake-hole were recorded within Structure C, a post-hole (C.181) and a stake- hole (C.258). The post-hole, C.181, was circular in plan, 0.24 m in diameter and 0.25 m deep. Its fill, C.178, comprised, mid brown, sandy silt with occasional inclusions of charcoal and grains of barley and emmer wheat (Appendix 4). The stake-hole, C.258, was circular in plan, with gently sloping sides and a concave base. Both of these features may originally have been part of sub-dividing partitions within the building, or they may have acted as structural support, in particular the post may have helped to bear the weight of the roof. 7.8.2.4 Associated features Various features were recorded to the west of Structure C and these included small pits, post-holes andhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 15
  • 21. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 stake-holes (Figure 18). One of these stakeholes produced a flint retouched artefact (04E0712:290:1). These included irregular pits (C.262, C.285, C.287, C. 322 and C.330), post-holes C.140, C.274 and C.362 and stake-holes C.271, C.276, C.278, C.280, C.282, C.284 and C.289. These features did not occur in any particular pattern but their location indicates that they were possibly associated with activity in the area outside Structure C. To the north of Structure C several archaeological contexts were excavated (Figure 19) including two large circular pits (C.363 and C.335; Plate 18), three post-holes (C.314, C.316 and C.320), eight- een stake-holes (C.210, C.304, C.308, C.312, C.326, C.328, C.340, C.342, C.344, C.346, C.348, C.354, C.352, C.365, C.366, C.369, C.371 and C.372), two irregular linear pits (C.331 and C.338) and a sub-rectangular pit (C.359). There was no discernible pattern to the excavated remains. 7.8.3 Later activity Area 7 was truncated by later agricultural activity. A boundary ditch (C.118) extended in a north-east to south-west orientation across the area, cutting both Structures B and C. The ditch had two fills, C.116 and C.117. A rectangular pit, C.202, excavated within Structure B, contained a recent animal burial (C.123). Two irregularly-shaped pits (C.120 and C.128) were potentially post-medieval in date and these were found to the west of Structure B, flanking a drain, C.201. A cobbled surface, C.115, overlay the upper fill of the pit C.128 and it disappeared beneath the south-western part of the baulk. 7.9 Area 10 Located to the east of the north-south orientated segment of the Haul Road at NGC 322808 171154, several possible archaeological features in Area 10 were cordoned-off during the monitoring phase. The small area of excavation was cleaned manually and most of the potential archaeology was discounted as non-archaeological. Only one post-hole (C.218) was identified within the 4m 2 area of excavation. It was situated 1.4 m east of the Haul Road and it measured 0.33 m in length by 0.22 m in width and 0.18 m in depth. It contained two fills; the basal fill, C.217, was light yellowish brown, silty clay and the upper fill, C.216, was moderately compacted light reddish brown, sandy clay. There were no related post-holes or features within this area. 7.10 Area 12 Spreads of burnt material and the remains of a burnt mound were excavated at the proposed Vitra Tiles factory site, at NGC (Figures 3). These were initially found during archaeological testing and were excavated under an extension to the testing licence (03E1692). The entire site was stripped of topsoil without an archaeologist on site (some time in October or early November 2003) and therefore all the archaeological features at the site were truncated. The remaining archaeological deposits comprised spreads of burnt material and the remains of a burnt mound (Figure 20). One spread of burnt material (C.77) overlay a second spread (C.78), which in turn lay directly on the subsoil. These were found c. 80 m to the north-west of the 98E0257 enclosure. Another two spreads ofhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 16
  • 22. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 burnt material, C.79 and C.81, were located 20 m to the north-west. C.79 filled a shallow pit (C.80) and C.81 was a shallow spread. There was no trough associated with these spreads and the deposits were probably associated with the prehistoric enclosure excavated under licence 98E257 (Cotter, 2000). The remains of a burnt mound (C.82, C.83 and C.84) were discovered in the north-west corner of the field, along the north-west baulk and extending beyond the limit of excavation. These deposits were truncated by topsoil stripping and the mound was largely destroyed. A trough (C.85) was associated with the burnt deposits. It measured 2.5 m north-west to south-east, by c. 2.5 m in width and 0.2 m in depth. There was no indication of any trough lining. Burnt mounds are Bronze Age in date and this feature may be broadly contemporary with the enclosure excavated under excavation licence number 98E0257, which is 150 m to the south-east.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 17
  • 23. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 8 Specialist Results 8.1 Radiocarbon Dates Radiocarbon dates were returned from the 14 Chrono Centre at Queens University Belfast. The six dates returned were accelerator dates obtained from samples of charcoal and oats. One of the dates is Early Neolithic (UB7195), one is Early Bronze Age (UB7199), two are Middle Bronze Age (UB7196 & UB7197), one is Middle to Late Bronze Age (UB7198), and one is post-medieval (UB7200). Calibrated date Lab code Sample Material Location C. No. S. No. Years BP 2 sigma Diffuse-porous Area 6 4825±35 UB7195 Charcoal Structure A vicinity 22 29 cal BC 3693-3524 Diffuse-porous Area 6 3109±31 UB7196 Charcoal Structure A 32 15 cal BC 1445-1304 Diffuse-porous Area 7 3074±31 UB7197 Charcoal Structure C 144 52 cal BC 1415-1267 Diffuse-porous Area 7 3004±35 UB7198 Charcoal Structure B external 136 53 cal BC 1130-980 Diffuse-porous Area 3 3845±37 UB7199 Charcoal 42 18 cal BC 1970-1820 UB7200 43 Oat grains Area 4 82 31 153±29 cal AD 1730-1860 8.2 Plant remains The plant remains were examined by Mary Dillon (Appendix 4). Twenty-eight soil samples were proc- essed and eleven of these contained plant remains. Two samples from Area 2, two samples from Area 4 and nine samples from Area 7 produced plant remains. The majority of the plant remains consisted of emmer wheat and weeds seeds from Structure C in Area 7. Weeds from the knotgrass family pre- dominate and it is possible that, given the hundreds of weed seeds of one specific type, these seeds were purposely collected and possibly added to food stuffs. 8.3 Pottery The pottery was analysed by Helen Roche and Eoin Grogan (Appendix 5). An assemblage of forty- eight sherds was found during the excavation. Three rim sherds, six base-angle sherds, thirteen body sherds and twenty-six fragments are present, representing a minimum of eight Late Bronze Age coarse vessels (c. 1150-800 BC). The sherds are poorly preserved and fragmented but the surviving evidence demonstrates that the eight vessels were upright or tub-shaped, flat-based coarse vessels. The vessels were found in both funerary and domestic contexts. 8.4 Lithics The lithic assemblage was examined by Farina Sternke (Appendix 6). Sixty-five pieces of stone were retrieved and of these sixty-two are flints, two are volcanics (possibly rhyolites), and one is a piece of quartz. The assemblage consists of a total of eight cores, thirty-three flakes, two blades, two debitage, seven retouched artefacts, nine split pebbles and four natural pebbles. A number of the artefacts are diagnostic to the Bronze Age. The majority of lithics were found in C.25, one of a number of burnt deposits deposited in a natural hollow in Area 3. Four finds 04E0712:73:8-11 were recovered from ahttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 18
  • 24. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 pit in Area 6W, while 04E0712:107:2 was associated with the fill of a furnace in Area 2. 9 Summary and Discussion of Excavation Results The range of archaeological material excavated at Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow under licence no. 04E0712 included Middle-Late Bronze Age buildings, a furnace, a post-medieval hearth, agricultural and boundary features. Three Middle-Late Bronze Age buildings (Structures A, B and C) were excavated at Ballynattin. Structures B and C were only 10 m apart, both were found within Area 7. They were c. 100 m from Structure A, located in Area 6. Although each structure was disturbed by agricultural activity and/or recent ground-works associated with the construction of the Haul Road, c. one third of each structure survived for excavation. The structures were all round or oval timber-built houses. This is typical: in Doody’s (2000) survey of Irish Bronze Age houses, forty-nine excavated timber-built houses were listed and only eleven of these were rectangular. However, despite a common shape-in-plan, there is certainly diversity in construction methods: some houses have footing trenches while other do not, some have only one ring of posts while others have more, and some houses have evidence of internal divisions, although the majority do not (Doody 2000, 137). This diversity is evident in the results from Bal- lynattin and each of the three structures found were different. Structure A had a footing trench but there was no evidence for post or stake support and it was surmised that the structure was plank-built. Structure B was post-built, and comprised a circle of evenly spaced post-holes with evidence for stake and post-built internal partitions and a drainage gully that surrounded the circle of posts. Structure C was characterised by a curvilinear foundation trench which contained evidence for post-built sup- ports. All of the buildings at Ballynattin were quite large and their projected diameters were in the 7-9 m range. Their size and the substantial nature of the structural remains suggest significant buildings, houses that formed part of a permanent settlement. To emphasise the permanency of the settlement, there was evidence in one house (Structure C) that the wall had been repaired or replaced. Despite this, no hearths (internal or external) were excavated in association with any of the Bronze Age houses at Ballynattin. However, there was evidence that cooking and domestic occupation had been carried out; six of the eight pottery vessels retrieved from the site had carbonised matter and fire-blackening on the both surfaces. This was interpreted as evidence for domestic use (Appendix 5). This settlement evidence occurred alongside many areas of Bronze Age archaeology where the activi- ties at the site were not as easy to classify. In Area 6W seven pits were excavated and, although initially thought of as cremation pits, their function is unknown. Pits, post-holes and stake-holes were also found outside Structure C in Area 7, following no obvious pattern and of uncertain function. The furnace excavated at Area 2 was truncated and its morphology was not clearly defined. However, it appeared to have a small chamber, circular in plan and possibly a long flue that extended to the north- east. It was not radiocarbon dated and therefore it is difficult to be certain about when it was in use. The function of the furnace is also obscure, slag was absent and therefore the site was presumably nothttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 19
  • 25. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 used for metal-working. There were very few seeds recovered from the fill of the furnace, indicating that it was not used for drying grain. Post-medieval features excavated at Ballynattin were generally associated with agriculture. These were generally furrows, drains and boundary ditches. One post-medieval hearth was also excavated (Area ). As there was a large quantity of cereal grains retrieved from the fill of the hearth it is possible that this, too, had an agricultural purpose. 10 Conclusions Ten areas of archaeological potential were investigated along the course of new road and services in- frastructure at the IDA Business and Technology Park in Ballynattin. These areas were fully excavated under State licence 04E0712, revealing the remains of three Bronze Age structures, Bronze Age pits and spreads of Bronze Age material, a furnace (possibly also Bronze Age), a post-medieval hearth and post-medieval agricultural activity. In association with earlier archaeological work in the area, such as the medieval enclosure also found in Ballynattin townland (Cotter 2000, 220), these sites indicate a long span of human activity in the area.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 20
  • 26. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 11 Bibliography Cotter, E. 2000. ‘Ballynattin Prehistoric Enclosure 32332 17114 98E0257, Co. Wicklow’ In I. Bennett (ed.) Excavations 1998. Bray, Wordwell. Doody, M. 2000. ‘Bronze Age houses in Ireland’ pp.135-160 in A. Desmond, G. Johnson, M. McCarthy, J. Sheehan and E. Shee Twohig (eds.) New Agendas in Irish Prehistory. Bray, Wordwell. IDA 2003. Arklow Business and Technology Park IDA, Briefing Document- Archaeological Testing. IDA briefing document. Doherty, B, and Kelly, B. 2004. Ballynattin, Arklow, Co. Wicklow – Archaeological Excavation Interim Report (04E0712). Unpublished Eachtra Archaeological Projects report submitted to the Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government. Kelly, B. & Tierney J. 2004. Ballynattin, Arklow, Co. Wicklow - Archaeological Monitoring Report. Unpublished Eachtra Archaeological Projects report submitted to the Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government. Tierney, J. & Doolan A. 2004a. Ballynattin, Arklow, Co. Wicklow. Archaeological Testing Report. Unpublished Eachtra Archaeological Projects report submitted to the Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government. Tierney, J. & Doolan A. 2004b. Ballynattin, Arklow, Co. Wicklow. Archaeological Excavation Interim Report (03E1692). Unpublished Eachtra Archaeological Projects report submitted to the Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government. 11.1 Websites www.excavations.iehttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 21
  • 27. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 12 Figures N Site Location Figure 1: Site location maphttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 22
  • 28. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 N Area of IDA Business Park 10 m 0 20 m Figure 2: RMP version of 6-inch Ordnance Survey map with development location indicated (OS Map Sheet WI045)http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 23
  • 29. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 N D AD RO Area 12 B AD ROAD A RO Area 3 Area 6W Area 5 A AD Area 2 RO Area 1 Area 4 D ROA Area 6 C ASS AD RO BYP LOW Area 7 ARK A AD RO Area 10 0 250 m Figure 3: Development site with area locationshttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 24
  • 30. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 E 3229911 N 1713265 N C.6 Natural Hollow C.13 C.11 C.7 Root acitivy C.9 0 1m E 3229956 E 3229980 N 1713243 N 1713287 Figure 4: Area 1 post-excavation planhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 25
  • 31. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 Ballynattin Arklow Co Wicklow 04E0712 Area 1 Section drawing Scale 1:10 ESE WSW C.4 C.6 C.5 0 50 cm Figure 5: Section through boundary ditch C.6 in Area 1http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 26
  • 32. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 E 3230136 N N 1713594 C.110 C.97 C.107 Limit of excavation 50 cm 0 50 cm E 3230160 N 1713550 Figure 6: Post-excavation plan of Area 2http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 27
  • 33. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 N Limits of Excavation E 3230606 N 1714645 C.42 E 3230610 N1714650 C.21 C.42 50 cm 0 50 cm Figure 7: Post-excavation plan of Area 3http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 28
  • 34. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 N 1713035 E 3229537 1m N 0 50 cm excavation Limit of C.91 C.92 C.87 C.101 C.100 01 C.1 C.108 C.90 C.106 C.86 Figure 8: Post-excavation plan of Area 4 C.109 N 1713035 E 3229528 C.102 C.105http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 29
  • 35. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 1m B C.89 C.88 Figure 9: Section through C.34, C.76, C.88 and C.89 in Area 5 0 C.34 C.76 Ballynattin Arklow Co Wicklow West-facing Section Scale 1:10 04E0712 Area 5 Ahttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 30
  • 36. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 N 171335 E 322901 2m N 1m C.56 0 cm Structure A C.39 C.41 C.46 C.48 C.50 C.26 C.30 Figure 10: Post-excavation plan of Area 6 Non-Archaeological C.52 N 171335 E 322899http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 31
  • 37. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 N C. 46 C. 48 C. 48 C. 46 C. 47 C. 45 C. 58 C. 56 C. 49 C. 51 C. 60 C. 55 C. 59 C. 54 C. 50 C. 53 C. 61 C. 62 C. 52 C. 69 C. 68 C. 74 C. 73 C. 65 C. 67 C. 70 C. 72 0 3m Figure 11: Post-excavation plan of contexts in Area 6 excavated under licence no. 03E1692http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 32
  • 38. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 N 1713830 E 3228559 10 m C.74 N C.72 C.59 0 Redeposited Natural C.64 C.61 Figure 12: Post-excavation plan of Area 6W C.75 C.81 C.79 N 1714136 E 3228229http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 33
  • 39. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 N 2m 0 C.75 Limit of excavation Figure 13: Western part of Area 6W (post-excavation) C.79 C.81http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 34
  • 40. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 N 2m C.74 C.72 0 Limit of excavation C.59 Figure 14: Eastern part of Area 6W (post-excavation) Redeposited C.64 Natural C.61http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 35
  • 41. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 N C. 44 C. 42 C. 40 C. 29 s C. 37 C. 33 C. 39 C. 32 C. 23 C. 6 C. 18 C. 13 C. 20 C. 28 C. 10 C. 26 C. 19 C. 35 (0,0) (5,0) 0 3m Figure 15: Post-excavation plan of contexts in Area 6W excavated under licence no. 03E1692http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 36
  • 42. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 E 322830 N 171484 N 335 365 369 366 371 354 352 350 372 363 348 346 344 342 340 359 339 338 304 320 306 100 E 125 N 210 105 E 308 125 N 326 328 312 316 314 330 322 324 276 274 265 280 287 284 278 292 282 267 287 271 203 134 262 Structure C 285 134 302 258 203 181 205 140 153 132 130 168 300 298 296 294 318 120 122 137 263 146 148 127 161 150 202 120 169 159 248 171 167 128 163 246 263 173 165 244 152 254 254 228 230 234 243 236 250 252 189 226 232 175 213 215 201 177 224 185 187 222 Structure B 191 189 183 240 197 195 238 193 128 220 E 322899 1m 0 5m N 171242 Figure 16: Post-excavation plan of Area 7http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 37
  • 43. N 300 298 296 294 318 ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 120 122 137 263 146 148 127 161 150 202 120 169 159 248 171 167 128 163 246 263 173 165 244 152 254 254 228 230 234 243 236 250 252 189 226 232 175 213 215 201 177 224 185 187http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 222 Structure B 191 189 183 240 197 195 238 193 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 128 220 1m 0 5m Figure 17: Post-excavation plan of Structure B in Area 738 04E0712-03E1692
  • 44. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 N 339 338 304 320 306 100 E 125 N 210 105 E 308 125 N 326 328 312 316 314 330 322 324 276 274 265 280 287 284 278 292 282 267 287 271 203 134 262 Structure C 285 134 302 258 203 181 205 140 153 132 130 168 1m 0 5m Figure 18: Post-excavation plan of Structure C in Area 7http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 39
  • 45. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 N 335 365 369 366 371 354 352 350 372 363 348 346 344 342 340 359 1m 0 5m Figure 19: Post-excavation plan of contexts found to the north of Structure C in Area 7http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 40
  • 46. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 100 m N 0 Figure 20: Post-excavation plan of contexts in Area 12 excavated under licence no. 03E1692 Context 82-85 Context 81 Context 77 & 78 98E0257 Context 79 & 80 Area 12http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 41
  • 47. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 13 Plates Plate 1: Post-excavation shot of Area 2 Plate 2: Pre-excavation shot of Area 2http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 42
  • 48. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 Plate 3: Section through the spread excavated in Area 3 Plate 4: Post-excavation shot of Area 4http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 43
  • 49. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 Plate 5: Section through the ditch in Area 5 Plate 6: Pre-excavation shot of Area 5http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 44
  • 50. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 Plate 7: General post-excavation shot of Area 6 Plate 8: Post-excavation shot of Structure A Area 6http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 45
  • 51. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 Plate 9: Post-excavation of pit C.74 in Area 6W Plate 10: Post-excavation of pit C.72 in Area 6Whttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 46
  • 52. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 Plate 11: Pre-excavation of pit C.64 in Area 6W Plate 12: Footing trenches in Structure B Area 7http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 47
  • 53. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 Plate 13: Post-excavation shot of Structure B Area 7 Plate 14: Pre-excavation shot of Structure C Area 7http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 48
  • 54. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 Plate 15: Footing trenches in Structure C Area 7 Plate 16: Post-excavation shot of Structure C Area 7http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 49
  • 55. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 Plate 17: Pottery from the footing trench of Structure C Area 7 Plate 18: Post-excavation shot of pits C.363 and C.335 Area 7http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 50
  • 56. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 14 Appendices Appendix 1: Context Register Appendix 2: Stratigraphic Matrix Appendix 3: Find Register Appendix 4: Plant Remains Report by Mary Dillon Appendix 5: Pottery Report by Helen Roche & Eoin Grogan Appendix 6: Lithic Report by Farina Sternke Appendix 7: Site Archive (Basis) Summary Appendix 8: Dissemination Strategy Appendix 9: Programme Schedulehttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 51
  • 57. 14.1 Appendix 1: Context Register Area no C. No Cut/Fill Fill of/ Filled with Dimensions Description Structure/ Feature Artefacts Envir. Samples All 1 topsoil N/A Extensive mid brown sandy clay Flints, surface finds All 2 subsoil N/A Extensive light orange fine to moderate sand with regular inclusions of magnesium 3 20 deposit .75m x 1.2m x loosely compacted mid to dark brown sandy clay soil # 7 .25m with frequent charcoal and small pebbles 3 21 deposit 2.1m x 2.1m x compact brown-grey sandy clay with moderate 4 x flint flakes .25m charcoal ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 6 22 fill 41 4m x .8m x .47m friable mid yellow-brown sandy clay with occa- sional small stone and charcoal. 6 24 furrow fill 26 3m x .22m x compact mid brown sandy clay fill of furrow .06m 3 25 deposit 1.4m x 1.4m x compact orange-yellow silty clay. Re-deposited 22 x struck .37m natural overlying c20 flints 6 26 furrow cut 24 3m x .22m x linear cut with sharp breaks of slope top & base. .06m Sides are vertical and smooth and the base is flat. Runs in a north/south orientation truncating slot trench 6 27 deposit 30 .36m x .3m x firm dark orange-brown sandy clay with frequent .03m charcoal throughout. Situated on the surface of c.28 6 28 pit fill 30 2.8m x 1.3m x firm mottled brown sandy clay with moderate soil # 21 .3m charcoal and sub-angular stone throughout. 6 29 pit fill 30 1.7m x .9m x soft light yellow-brown sandy clay with occasional charcoal flecks and pebbles. Concentrated to thehttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ western edge of the cut c.30 6 30 pit cut 27,28, 29, 43 2.82m x 1.3m x irregular shaped pit cut with a gradual break of slope at top, steep sloping sides, and an irregular IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park base. Break of slope at base is sharp to the north- west but gradual elsewhere.In an east-northeast/ west-southwest orientation 3 31 deposit .6m x 1.1m x soft dark brown sandy silt with 25% charcoal soil # 5 .2m under c.2052 04E0712-03E1692
  • 58. Area no C. No Cut/Fill Fill of/ Filled with Dimensions Description Structure/ Feature Artefacts Envir. Samples 6 32 slot trench 39 10m x soft yellow-brown sandy silt with occasional A Bronze-Age pot- soil # fill .42m(max), charcoal flecks and sub-angular pebbles.It is most tery x 8 sherds 8,24,26,27 .2m (min) x shallow and thinest to the west. and 2 fragments charcoal # 15 .16m(max), .03m(min) 6 33 slot trench 39 2.4m x .32m x firm light yellow-grey sandy silt with occasional A 2 x flints soil # 9 & 13 fill .09m flecks of charcoal and small quartz stone. Concen- trated in the north-east of the slot trench 5 34 deposit 89 7.9m x 3.34m compact cobble surface consisting of small round- Red earthen ed and sub-angular limestone directly overlying ware ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 the fill c.88 of ditch c.89. Contemporary with c.94, Area 7 5 35 ditch fill 76 1.1m x .94m x compact mid yellow-grey sandy clay with frequent .36m pebbles 5 36 ditch fill 37 6m x 2m x .37m loose dark brown sandy clay with occasional Flint scraper angular and sub-angular stone and frequent root material. Topsoil fill of boundary ditch. 5 37 ditch cut 36 6m x 2m x .37m linear in plan running North/south with a sharp break of slope to the east but gradual to the west. sides slope gradually with occasional stone within. Break of slope at base was gradual, and base was flat.Truncated by c.112 6 38 slot trench 39 8.2m x .23m x compact grey-yellow sandy silt with occasional A Bronze-Age pot- soil # 25 fill .06m charcoal flecks. This peters out as you move tery x 4 sherds westward and 6 fragments 6 39 slot trench 32,33,38 10.6m x .42m x curvilinear, break of slope at the top is generally A cut .25m sharp, the sides are generally vertical and the basehttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ is ‘u’ shaped.For the last 1.5m to the west the break of slope at top is gradual and the sides slope gently. Break of slope at base varies from sharp to gradual 6 40 fill 41 2.5m x .49m x soft mottled brown and yellow silty clay with occa- charcoal # 28 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park .25m sional stone inclusions.Primary fill53 04E0712-03E1692
  • 59. Area no C. No Cut/Fill Fill of/ Filled with Dimensions Description Structure/ Feature Artefacts Envir. Samples 6 41 cut 22, 40 4m x .8m x .63m curvilinear shaped pit with 3 rounded corners. Break of slope at top is sharp to the east and west, gradual to north and south.Sides are vertical, but concave to the west. Break of slope at base is sharp to the west and gradual to the east.Base is ‘v’ shaped and cut is orientated north/south 3 42 deposit 1.3m x 1.4m x soft mottled brown-red sandy silt with occasional charcoal # 18 .35m charcoal under c.31and over c.21 6 43 pit fill 30 .63m x .8m x soft light grey sandy clay with no inclusions. Pri- .08m mary fill of pit ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 6 44 fill 46 4m x .7m x .4m soft mid brown silty clay with moderate inclusion of charcoal 6 45 fill 46 soft mottled brown and yellow silty clay with occa- sional stone and moderate charcoal inclusions. 6 46 cut 44,45,53 4m x .8m x .4m irregular shaped pit cut with a gradual break of slope at top, irregular sides, and an irregular base. Break of slope at base is gradual.In an east/ west orientation this is situated .7m south of slot trench 6 47 stake-hole 48 .15m x .11m x moderately compacted mid brown silty clay with A fill .12m sporadic flecks of charcoal & occasional sub-angu- lar stone 6 48 stake-hole 47 .15m x .11m x oval with sharp breaks of slope, vertical sides, A cut .12m rounded base 6 49 post-hole 50 .16m x .19m x moderately compacted mid brown silty clay with A soil & charcoal fill .17m occasional flecks of charcoal & moderate sub-an- # 10 gular stone 6 50 post-hole 49 .16m x .19m x sub-circular with 3 rounded corners and sharp Ahttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ cut .17m break of slope at top.Vertical sides and sharp break of slope at base.Base slopes slightly from west to east. 6 51 non-archae- non-archaeologi- non-archaeologi- non-archaeological IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park ological cal cal 6 52 non-archae- non-archaeologi- non-archaeologi- non-archaeological ological cal cal 6 53 fill 46 .7m x .3m x friable dark brown silty clay with moderate inclu- soil#12 .07m sions of charcoal54 04E0712-03E1692
  • 60. Area no C. No Cut/Fill Fill of/ Filled with Dimensions Description Structure/ Feature Artefacts Envir. Samples 6 54 fill 56 .4m x .35m x soft dark brown sandy clay with frequent charcoal soil & charcoal .04m & occasional sub-angular stone #11 6 55 fill 56 1.5m x .8m x firm light yellow-grey sandy clay with occasional .2m flecks of charcoal and small sub-angular stone. 6 56 cut 54,55,57 1.5m x .8m x oval with gradual breaks of slope, gently sloping .22m sides, had been truncated by slot trench 6 57 deposit over 54 1m x .06m x .4m firm pale yellow-brown sandy clay with occasional small pebbles. Re-deposited natural spread over c.54 6W 58 fill 59 .43m x .32m x friable brown-black silty clay with frequent flecks soil # 30 ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 .15m of charcoal 6W 59 cut 58, 68, 69 .7m x .4m x oval with rounded corners and a gradual break of .23m slope at top and sharp at base. Sides were concave to the south and imperceptible elsewhere.Its base was uneven. 6W 60 fill 61 1.46m x .9m x soft red-brown sandy clay with occasional charcoal .3m 6W 61 cut 60 1.46m x .9m x oval with rounded corners and a gradual break of .3m slope at top and base. Sides were sloping gradu- ally.Its base was flat. Truncates c.65 to the east 6W 62 fill 64 .45m x .38m x loose yellow-brown sandy silt with no inclusions .05m 6W 63 fill 64 .55m x .5m x soft dark brown silty clay with moderate charcoal soil # 14 .07m and sub-angular stone 6W 64 cut 62, 63 .55m x .5m x sub-circular in shape with sharp break of slope at .13m top and gradual at the base. Its sides were smooth, concave and moderately slopedhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 6W 65 deposit 1.23m x .6m x soft mid red-brown sandy clay with occasional .12m charcoal flecks. Shallow spread of scorched clay cut by c.61 6W 66 fill 74 2.45m x 1.45m x soft mid brown-red clayey silt with occasional IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park .25m charcoal and moderate small stone 6W 67 fill 74 2.45m x 1.45m soft mid brown-red clayey silt with frequent char- soil # 16 & 20 x .3m coal and moderate small stone 6W 68 fill 59 .4m x .08m x friable light yellow-brown silty clay. Re-deposited .02m natural.55 04E0712-03E1692
  • 61. Area no C. No Cut/Fill Fill of/ Filled with Dimensions Description Structure/ Feature Artefacts Envir. Samples 6W 69 fill 59 .7m x .5m soft yellow-brown silty clay with occasional small stone. 6W 70 fill 72 .35m x .28m x loosely compacted grey-brown silty sand with soil # 19 .1m moderate inclusion of small angular stone 6W 71 fill 72 diameter .48m, loose black-brown clayey silt with occasional small soil # 17 depth .07m stone and charcoal 6W 72 cut 70, 71 .52m x .48m x circular pit with sharp break of slope at top and .14m gradual at the base. Sides were steep and irregular and its base was flat 6W 73 fill 75 .44m x .72m x loose mid black-brown silty sand with frequent 4 x flint soil # 22 ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 .12m charcoal and occasional burnt small stone. Bronze Age pot- tery x 1 sherd and 6 fragments 6W 74 cut 66, 67 2.45m x 1.45m x irregular with sharp breaks of slope at top with .55m steep sides to the west and gradually sloping to the east. Break of slope at base is gradual to the east and sharp to imperceptible to the west.Its base was flat and was in anorth south orientation 6W 75 cut 73, 77 .7m x .44m x sub-oval in shape with rounded corners to east .18m and west. Break of slope at top was sharp to the NE and SE, imperceptible to the west. Sides were sloping smoothly and break of slope at base was imperceptible. Base was rounded and was in an east/west orientation. Was truncated during moni- toring by machine 5 76 ditch cut 35 1.1m x .94m x linear with sharp breaks of slope at top and base .36m and vertical sides. Its base is flat and it extendshttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ northward outside the area and to its south joins with c.89 6W 77 fill 75 .36m x .2m x loose mid yellow-brown clayey sand with 3 heat .05m shattered stones IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 6W 78 fill 79 .4m x .25m x compact mid brown sandy clay with tinge of .17m orange, occasional charcoal56 04E0712-03E1692
  • 62. Area no C. No Cut/Fill Fill of/ Filled with Dimensions Description Structure/ Feature Artefacts Envir. Samples 6W 79 cut 78 .4m x .25m x sub-oval with rounded corners, sharp break of .17m slope at top, vertical sides and break of slope at base is variable.Base was undulating and irregular. Situated 0.75m north of pit c.81. 6W 80 fill 81 2.2m x 1m x .4m compact mid red-brown sandy clay with occa- sional charcoal 6W 81 cut 80 2.2m x 1m x .4m semi-circular with rounded corners and sharp break of slope at top. Sides were vertical to north and gently sloping to south. Break of slope at base was sharp to north and imperceptible to south. Its ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 base was undulated. 4 82 hearth fill 91 .97m x .75m x compact mid orange-red sandy clay with occa- hearth soil # 31 .05m sional charcoal flecks. A large stone was dragged during monitoring from within the fill westward truncating the feature 4 83 post-hole 87 .17m x .14m x mid grey-brown clayey sand with frequent flecks soil & charcoal fill .03m of charcoal situated .25m south-west of hearth #33 4 84 post-hole 92 .18m x .16m x firm mid brown sandy clay with occasional fill .12m charcoal flecks near the top of the fill small stones throughout. 4 85 deposit .3m x .16m x soft black-brown sandy clay with frequent charcoal .03m flecks. Situated .5m east of hearth c.91. 4 86 drain fill 90 6.5m x 1.8m soft light grey-brown silty clay with occasional wide x .18m deep stones. This fill extends beyond the limits of excavation 4 87 post-hole 83 .17m x .14m x circular in shape, its break of slope at the top and screen, with c92 cut .03m base is imperceptible to the south and east andhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ sharp to north and west.Its sides are sloping to the east and south but vertical elsewhere.Its base is flat. 5 88 ditch fill 89 5.2m x 1.5m x compact mid red-brown sandy clay with frequent IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park .51m pebbles57 04E0712-03E1692
  • 63. Area no C. No Cut/Fill Fill of/ Filled with Dimensions Description Structure/ Feature Artefacts Envir. Samples 5 89 ditch cut 88 5.2m x 1.94m x linear with sharp breaks of slope at top to the .51m south and gradual to the north.Its north side is stepped by c.76 and the soutern side is sloping gradually. Its base is flat and it extends eastward outside the area and to its south joins with c.37 via c112 4 90 drain cut 86, 106 6.5m x .7m x linear drain cut running in a north/south orienta- .18m tion with gradual breaks of slope truncated by c.108 4 91 hearth cut 82 .6m x .55m x circular in shape, its break of slope at the top and hearth ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 .10m base is imperceptible .Its sides are smooth and sloping gradually into a rounded base. Has been truncated by recent machining 4 92 post-hole 84 .18m x .16m x square shaped with two rounded corners to the screen, with c87 cut .12m south and west, with generally sharp reaks of slope at the top and base. Its sides are smooth and vertical and it has a concave base. Situated south of hearth 7 93 ditch fill 95 12m x 2.7m x loose mid to dark brown sandy clay with moderate .72m inclusion if charcoal flecks and occasional angular and sub-angular stone 7 94 ditch fill 95 12m x 1.01m compact cobbled ‘surface’ within a basal fill. Simi- .05m lar to c.34 within Area 5. 7 95 ditch cut 93, 94, 111 12m x 1.62m x linear with sharp break of slope at top and gradual .62m at base. Sides were vertical and base was flat. Ran west-north-west/ east south-east orientation, and possibly was same as c.89.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 2 96 furrow fill 97 4.4m x 1.3m x loosey compacted yellow-brown silty sand with furrow soil & charcoal .08m a concentration of charcoal located to the north. # charcoal# 38 This concentration represents the fill of the flu of the furnace IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 2 97 furrow cut 96 4.4m x 1.3m x linear in shape, with a gradual break of slope at top furrow .08m and base, the base itself is flat but ‘v’ shaped closer to the mouth of the furnace. Has a north-east/ south-west orientation58 04E0712-03E1692
  • 64. Area no C. No Cut/Fill Fill of/ Filled with Dimensions Description Structure/ Feature Artefacts Envir. Samples 2 98 furnace fill 110 .2m x .45m x loosely compacted light to mid brown clayey sand furnace saddlequern 3 x .12m with occasional charcoal overlying c 99 flints 2 99 furnace fill 110 .8m x .67m x moderately compacted brown-red silty sand with soil # 36 .16m occasional charcoal. scorched from burning in situ. Overlieas c.107 4 100 furrow fill 101 3.8m x .34m x firm light grey-yellow sandy silt with frequent modern glass .12m small pebbles and occasional sub-angular stones. Originally thought to be a slot trench because of return to the west-northwest 4 101 furrow cut 100, 106 3.8m x .34m x curvilinear with rounded corner , sharp breaks of ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 .12m slope to the top andgradual to the base.sides are ir- regular and runs in a north/south orientation. Was truncated by c.90 and c.108 4 102 pit cut 103, 104, 105 1.2m x .75m x rectangular with rounded corners,and sharp .32m breaks of slope to at the top and base. Sides are smooth and vertical and its base is flat but slightly undulated.Truncated by c.108 4 103 pit fill 102 1.1m x .46m x soft light grey silty clay with occasional stones. .08m Primary fill of pit under c.104, c.105. 4 104 pit fill 102 .14m x .06m x soft light grey-yellow sandy clay re-deposited natu- .9m ral within pit cut 4 105 pit fill 102 1.2m x .75m x firm grey-brown sandy clay with moderate inclu- .26m sion of pebbles. Uppermost fill of pit 4 106 drain fill 90 2.3m x 1.1m x mottled orange-brown silty clay with frequent .12m flecks of charcoal and burnt clay throughout. Pos- sibly disgarded from hearth c91 2 107 primary 110 .64m x .48m x loosely compacted mottled red & brown clayey Quernstone charcoal #37,http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ furnace fill .08m sand with frequent charcoal, large sub-angular fragment 1 soil & charcoal stone. Stones vary from .12m x .12m x .03m to x flint #34 .46m x .16m x .21m, two were sandstone and 5 were limestone. IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 4 108 drain cut 109 4m x .07m x .2m linear drain cut running in an east/west orienta- tion with gradual breaks of slope at top and base and smooth concave sides. 4 109 drain fill 108 4m x .07m x .2m mid grey-brown sandy clay with a moderate inclu- sion of small stones59 04E0712-03E1692
  • 65. Area no C. No Cut/Fill Fill of/ Filled with Dimensions Description Structure/ Feature Artefacts Envir. Samples 2 110 cut of fur- 98,99,107 1.1m x .95m x sub-circular in shape in plan,with sharp break of nace .22m slope at top, steep vertical sides to the north and slightly sloping sides to te south.Break of slope at base is gradual and base itself flat, sloping gently from east to west. Has been truncated to the east by the furrow, hence distinction of flue was dif- ficult. 7 111 ditch fill 95 12m x 1.2m x primary fill of moderately compacted orange- .2m brown silty sand. 5 112 drain cut 36 .72m x .45m x linear in shape with sharp break of slope top and ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 .14m base with vertical sides. Runs east/west joining c.89 and c.37 7 113 fill 200, 264 1.5m x 1.4m x compact brown-yellow silty sand with moderate west of Structure B .2m angular pebbles. Re-deposited natural 7 114 fill 128 3m x 1.5m x soft red-brown clayey sand with moderate inclu- west of Structure B .25m sion of subangular stone 7 115 deposit .8m x .4m x .2m loosely compacted stone surface comprising of west of Structure B limestone cobbes averaging in size .1m 7 116 ditch fill 118 26.5m x .94m x moderate to loosely compact mid to dark brown .21m sandy clay with moderate inclusion of sub-angular stone 7 117 ditch fill 118 26.5m x .58m x moderately compacted light brown silty sand with .08m frequent inclusion of angular and sub-angular stone 7 118 ditch cut 116,117 26.5m x .94m x linear with sharp break of slope at top and gradual .28m at base. Sides slope diagonally and base is flat, gently sloping northwards with the natural slope ofhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ the ground 7 119 fill 120 2.2m x 2m x soft red-brown clayey sand with moderate inclu- west of Structure B .25m sion of subangular stone 7 120 cut 119 2.2m x 2m x semi-circular with gradual break of slope at top west of Structure B IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park .25m and base and irregular sides. Base was flat. Natural hollow 7 121 slot trench 122 1.53m x .4m x loosely compacted mid to dark brown clayey sand Structure B Bronze Age pot- soil & charcoal fill .05m with moderate inclusions of charcoal tery x 5 sherds # 43 and 2 fragments60 04E0712-03E1692
  • 66. Area no C. No Cut/Fill Fill of/ Filled with Dimensions Description Structure/ Feature Artefacts Envir. Samples 7 122 slot trench 121, 124 1.6m x .44m x Elongated with break of slope at top gradual, but Structure B cut .09m north side partly gradual.sides slope diagonally to north and imperceptible to south. Break of slope at base is gradual and base is flat with occasional stone within natural. 7 123 fill 202 1.2m x .9m x ? loosely compact brown-grey and yellow mixture of topsoil and natural. Recent fill of animal burial 7 124 slot trench 122 1.22m x .4m x moderately compacted deposit of sub-angular cob- Structure B fill .04m bles within a silty sand. Drainage feature 7 125 slot trench 127 1.72m x .42m x loosely compacted mid to dark brown clayey sand Structure B soil & charcoal ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 fill .05m with moderate inclusions of charcoal # 50 7 126 slot trench 127 1.72m x .28m x moderately compacted deposit of sub-angular Structure B fill .04m cobbles within a light orange-brown silty sand. Drainage feature 7 127 slot trench 125, 126 1.6m x .42m x Elongated with break of slope at top sharp but Structure B cut .12m gradual to the east.sides were vertical to south and sloping gradually elsewhere. Break of slope at base was gradual and base was flat. In a north-east/ south-west orientation 7 128 cut 113, 114 1.6m x 3m x .7m irregular in shape with gradual break of slope at west of Structure B top, irregular sides and imperceptible break of slope at base. Base was flat and was truncated by c.201 7 129 slot fill 130 1.7m x .55m x loose dark brown silty sand with occasional char- Structure C 1 x flint blade soil # 44 .11m coal flecks. Same as c.131 7 130 cut 129, 155 1.7m x .55m x linear with gradual break of slope at top and im- Structure C .13m perceptible at base, sides slope gently to west andhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ irregular to east. Base was flat but disturbed by roots to east. Truncated by c.118. Same as c.132 7 131 slot fill 132 2.3m x .4m x loose dark brown silty sand with occasional char- Structure C .07m coal flecks. Same as c.129 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 7 132 cut 131, 144 2.3m x .4m x curvilinear with sharp break of slope at top and Structure C .13m gradual at base,gradual sloping sides and a flat but irregular base. Truncated by c.118 7 133 furrow fill 134 .426m x .24m loose mid to dark brown silty sand with occasional x .1m pebbles61 04E0712-03E1692
  • 67. Area no C. No Cut/Fill Fill of/ Filled with Dimensions Description Structure/ Feature Artefacts Envir. Samples 7 134 furrow cut 133 .426m x .24m linear with gradual break of slope to north and x .1m sharp to south at top, sides vertical to south and imperceptible to north. Base was flat. 7 135 fill 141 .43m x .8m x firm light grey-yellow sandy clay with 80%sub- flint chunk .06m angular stone 7 136 post-hole 137 diameter .28m, loosely compact yellow-brown silty sand with Structure B 1 x pottery 1 x soil & charcoal fill depth .14m moderate inclusion of charcoal and packing stone flint chunk 42 charcoal # 53 7 137 post-hole 136 diameter .28m, circular wih sharp break of slope at top, vertical Structure B cut depth .14m sides and flat base, ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 7 138 post-hole 140 .5m x .33m x soft mid yellow-brown sandy silt with occasional west of Structure C fill .11m small stones, 7 139 post-hole 140 .19m x .19m x soft mid yellow-brown sandy clay with occasional west of Structure C fill .14m small stones, 7 140 post-hole 138, 139 diametre .33m, circular with imperceptible break of slope at top west of Structure C cut depth .22m and stepped sides, imperceptible break of slope at base, and base was ‘u’ shaped 7 141 cut 135 .43m x .8m x sub-rectangular with imperceptible breaks of slope .06m at top and base. Truncated by c.118 to the east 7 142 post-hole 146 .2m x .2m x soft dark brown sandy silt with occasional char- Structure B soil & charcoal fill .19m coal, post pipe remains. # 40 7 143 post-hole 146 .36m x .1m x compact light yellow-brown silty clay, packing fill fill .16m of post-hole 7 144 slot fill 132 2.3m x .06m loose dark brown-black silty sand with occasional Structure C charcoal #52 deep patches of burnt clay and frequent charcoal flecks. Same as c.155. Truncated by c.118 and c.205. 7 145 slot fill 203 6m x .28m x .2m soft light grey silty sand with occasional small sub- Structure C Bronze Age pot- soil # 45http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ angular stone and charcoal. tery x 1 sherd 7 146 post-hole 142,143 diameter .35m, circular with sharp breaks of slope,vertical sides cut depth .2m and flat base IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 7 147 post-hole 148 .27m x .21m x loose yellow-brown silty sand with packing stones Structure B fill .11m 7 148 post-hole 147, 154 .27m x .21m x oval with sharp breaks of slope.Sides were vertical cut .23m in suth and east and moderately sloping elsewhere. Base was concave.62 04E0712-03E1692
  • 68. Area no C. No Cut/Fill Fill of/ Filled with Dimensions Description Structure/ Feature Artefacts Envir. Samples 7 149 slot fill 203 6m x .3m x .05m soft mottled mid-grey-brown silty sand wih occa- Structure C soil # 47& 68 sional scorched clay and frequent charcoal flecks charcoal #70 7 150 slot fill 203 6m x .3m x .05m soft yellow-grey clayey sand with occasional pieces Structure C soil # 67 & 48 un-worked flint 7 151 post-hole 152 diameter .25m, soft dark brown sandy silt with occasional small Structure B fill depth .15m pebbles, . 7 152 post-hole 151 diameter .25m, circular in shape, sharp breaks of slope at top and Structure B cut depth .15m base, smooth vertical sides and a smooth flat base 7 153 cut 209 2.95m x 1.1m x L’ shaped with sharp break of slope at top and .35m base, steep sloping sides and flat base but ‘V’ ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 shaped along easr/west axis.Truncates c.198 within slot trench 7 154 post-hole 148 .24m x .22m x loose yellow-brown silty sand. Primary fill Structure B fill .11m 7 155 slot fill 130 1.7m x .7m x loose dark brown-black silty sand with occasional Structure C Bronxe Age soil #39, 46 .03m patches of burnt clay and frequent charcoal flecks. pottery x 1 frag- Same as c.114. Truncated by c.118 and c.205. ment 7 156 stake-hole 157 diametre .08m soft mid brown sandy silt with occasional charcoal structure B fill depth .18m flecks 7 157 stake-hole 156 diametre .08m circular cut with sharp break of slope at top, verti- structure B cut depth .18m cal smoooth sides tapering into a pointed base 7 158 stake-hole 159 diametre .09m soft mid brown sandy silt Structure B fill depth .12m 7 159 stake-hole 158 diametre .09m circular cut with sharp break of slope at top, verti- Structure B cut depth .12m cal smoooth sides tapering into a pointed base 7 160 stake-hole 161 .09m x .06m x soft mid brown sandy silt Structure B fill .15mhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 7 161 stake-hole 160 .09m x .06m x oval cut with sharp breaks of slope, smooth sloping Structure B cut .15m sides and a flat base 7 162 stake-hole 163 diametre .09m soft dark brown sandy silt with occasional charcoal Structure B IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park fill depth .15m and small pebbles 7 163 stake-hole 162 diametre .09m circular cut with sharp break of slope at Structure B cut depth .15m top,smooth tapering sides into a blunt pointed base 7 164 stake-hole 165 diameter .07m soft mid brown sandy sillt Structure B fill depth .1m63 04E0712-03E1692
  • 69. Area no C. No Cut/Fill Fill of/ Filled with Dimensions Description Structure/ Feature Artefacts Envir. Samples 7 165 stake-hole 164 diameter .07m circular cut with sharp breaks of slope,smooth Structure B cut depth .1m vertical sides tapering into a blunt ‘u’ shaped base 7 166 stake-hole 167 diameter .08m soft mid brown sandy silt with 1packing stone Structure B fill depth .1m 7 167 stake-hole 166 diameter .08m circular cut with sharp break of slope at top, verti- Structure B cut depth .1m cal smoooth sides tapering into a blunt ‘u’ shaped base 7 168 stake-hole 169 diameter .06m soft mid brown sandy silt Structure B fill depth .09m 7 169 stake-hole 168 diameter .06m circular cut with sharp break of slope at top, verti- Structure B ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 cut depth .09m cal smoooth sides tapering into a ‘u’ shaped base 7 170 stake-hole 171 diameter .07m soft mid brown sandy silt with occasional charcoal Structure B Bronze Age pot- fill depth .17m flecks tery x 1 sherd 7 171 stake-hole 170 diameter .07m circular cut with sharp break of slope at top, verti- Structure B cut depth .17m cal smoooth sides tapering into a blunt ‘u’ shaped base 7 172 stake-hole 173 diameter .12m soft brown-yellow sandy silt Structure B fill depth .07m 7 173 stake-hole 172 diameter .12m circular cut with gradual sloping sides but vertical Structure B cut depth .07m in east. Badly truncated with only base left 7 174 stake-hole 175 .15m x .11m x soft brown-grey sandy clay Structure B fill .25m 7 175 stake-hole 174 .15m x .11m x oval cut with gradual sloping sides tapering to a Structure B cut .25m blunt point 7 176 post-hole 177 .22m x .21m x loose mid yellow-brown silty sand with moderate Structure B charcoal # 55 fill .29m inclusion of charcoal 7 177 post-hole 176 .22m x .21m x circular with sharp breaks of slope,vertical sides Structure Bhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ cut .29m and concave base 7 178 post-hole 181 .24m x .23m x loose mid brown sandy silt with occasional char- within Structure C soil # 56 fill .25m coal flecks IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 7 179 stake-hole 180 .12m x .09m x loose yellow-brown silty sand with packing stone Structure B fill .24m 7 180 stake-hole 179 .12m x .09m x loose yellow-brown silty sand with packing stone Structure B cut .24m 7 181 post-hole 178 .24m x .23m x sub-circular with sharp breaks of slope at top and within Structure C cut .25m base, vertical stepped sides and flat base64 04E0712-03E1692
  • 70. Area no C. No Cut/Fill Fill of/ Filled with Dimensions Description Structure/ Feature Artefacts Envir. Samples 7 182 post-hole 183 .33m x .25m x loose mid yellow-brown silty sand with moderate Structure B Bronze Age charcoal # 54 fill .14m inclusion of charcoal and packing stones pottery x 1 frag- ment 7 183 post-hole 182 .33m x .25m x circular with sharp break of slpope at top to east, Structure B cut .14m vertical side to east and gradual break of slope at base. Base was flat and was truncated by c.118 to the west. 7 184 stake-hole 185 diameter .07m loose yellow-brown silty sand Structure B fill depth .14m 7 185 stake-hole 184 diameter .07m circular cut with sharp break of slope at top, verti- Structure B ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 cut depth .14m cal sides tapering into a blunt point 7 186 stake-hole 187 .06m x .05m x loose yellow-brown silty sand Structure B fill .06m 7 187 stake-hole 186 .06m x .05m x circular cut with sharp break of slope at top, verti- Structure B cut .06m cal sides tapering into a blunt point 7 188 stake-hole 189 diameter .06m loose mid yellow-brown silty sand Structure B fill depth .1m 7 189 stake-hole 188 diameter .06m circular cut with sharp break of slope at top, verti- Structure B cut depth .1m cal sides and tapering into a blunt pointed base 7 190 stake-hole 191 diameter .06m loose yellow-brown silty sand Structure B fill depth .07m 7 191 stake-hole 190 diameter .06m circular cut with sharp break of slope at top, verti- Structure B cut depth .07m cal sides tapering into a blunt point 7 192 stake-hole 193 .07m x .06m x loose mid yellow-brown silty sand Structure B fill .1m 7 193 stake-hole 192 .07m x .06m x circular cut with sharp break of slope at top, verti- Structure B cut .1m cal sides tapered into a rounded pointhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 7 194 stake-hole 195 diameter .1m loose mid yellow-brown silty sand Structure B fill depth .28m 7 195 stake-hole 194 diameter .1m circular cut with sharp break of slope at top, verti- Structure B IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park cut depth .28m cal sides tapered into a rounded point 7 196 stake-hole 197 .1m x .115m x loose mid yellow-brown silty sand Structure B fill .21m 7 197 stake-hole 196 .1m x .115m x oval cut with sharp break of slope at top, vertical Structure B cut .21m sides tapered into a rounded point65 04E0712-03E1692
  • 71. Area no C. No Cut/Fill Fill of/ Filled with Dimensions Description Structure/ Feature Artefacts Envir. Samples 7 198 deposit .8m x .35m x compact pale yellow-grey fine clay with tiny peb- .06m bles. Re-deposited naural 7 199 slot fill 205 .45m x .32m x compact bright red-brown fine clay with occa- Structure C soil # 63 .06m sional charcoal flecks. 7 200 fill 201 1.1m x 1.5m x loose red-brown sandy silt west of Structure B .95m 7 201 cut 200 1.1m x 1.5m x semi-circular with gradual break of slope at top .95m and base and irregular sides. Base was flat with oc- casional stone. In east/west orientation, and runs westward into baulk. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 7 202 cut 123 1.2m x .9m x ? rectangular cut within structure B, recent animal burial 7 203 cut 145,149, 150, 6.5m x .44m x curvilinear with sharp break of slope at top and Structure C soil # 59 204, 211 .36m gradual at base,gradual sloping sides and a concave base. 7 204 slot fill 203,210 6.5m x .44m x moderately compacted light brown silty clay with Structure C .15m occasional small sub-angular stone 7 205 post-hole 206 .55m x .48m x sub-circular with sharp breaks of slope at top and Structure C cut .2m base, vertical sides to west and flat but irregular base. Truncates c.132, and truncated by c.153 7 206 post-hole 205 .24m x .05m loose pale grey fine silty clay with sporadic flecks fill deep of charcoal 7 207 cut 208, 210, 204 .48m x .45m x linear with sharp breaks of slope at top, gradual at Structure C .25m base, steep sides and concave base. Re-cut of slot trench c.203 7 208 slot fill 207 .45m x .48m x moderately compacted mid brown silty clay with Structure C soil # 60 .25m occasional small sub-angular stone and charcoalhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ flecks 7 209 fill 153 2.95m x 1.1m x compact dark brown-black silty clay with occa- .35m sional sub-rounded stone near base. Truncates slot trench. IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 7 210 slot fill 203 .2m x .16m x compact pale grey fine clay with occasional peb- Structure C .1m bles. Re-deposited natural from creation of cut c.203?66 04E0712-03E1692
  • 72. Area no C. No Cut/Fill Fill of/ Filled with Dimensions Description Structure/ Feature Artefacts Envir. Samples 7 211 slot fill 203 4.25m x .28m x soft light orange-grey sandy clay with moderate Structure C Possible ham- soil # 62,69 .44m manganese and occasional charcoal flecks. merstone Bronze Age pot- tery x 2 sherds and 9 fragments 7 212 stake-hole 213 .16m x ,12m x loose yellow-brown silty sand Structure B fill .2m 7 213 stake-hole 212 .16m x ,12m x oval cut with gradual break of slope at top, vertical Structure B cut .2m sides tapered into a rounded point. Double Stake- hole. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 7 214 stake-hole 215 .07m x .06m x loose mid yellow-brown silty sand Structure B fill .15m 7 215 stake-hole 214 .07m x .06m x circular cut with sharp break of slope at top, verti- Structure B cut .15m cal sides tapered into a rounded point 10 216 post-hole 218 .33m x .22m x moderately compacted light red-brown sandy clay fill .1m 10 217 post-hole 218 .33m x .22m x moderately compacted light yellow-brown silty fill .08m clay 10 218 post-hole 216,217 .33m x .22m x oval with a sharp break of slope at top, verti- cut .18m cal sides to the south and east, sloping gradually elsewhere.Break of slope at base was imperceptible to the west but sharp to the east. The base was flat. 7 219 post-hole 220 .4m x .28m x loose mid yellow-brown silty sand Structure B fill .18m 7 220 post-hole 219 .4m x .28m x oval cut with sharp break of slope at top, vertical Structure B cut .18m sides, gradual break of slope at base and flat base 7 221 stake-hole 222 diameter .095m loose mid yellow-brown silty sand Structure Bhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ fill depth .2m 7 222 stake-hole 221 diameter .095m circular cut with sharp break of slope at top, verti- Structure B cut depth .2m cal sides tapered into a rounded point 7 223 stake-hole 224 .065m x .055m x loose mid yellow-brown silty sand Structure B IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park fill .11m 7 224 stake-hole 223 .065m x .055m x circular cut with sharp break of slope at top, verti- Structure B cut .11m cal sides tapered into a rounded point 7 225 stake-hole 226 diameter .075m loose mid yellow-brown silty sand Structure B 1 x flint flake fill depth .15m67 04E0712-03E1692
  • 73. Area no C. No Cut/Fill Fill of/ Filled with Dimensions Description Structure/ Feature Artefacts Envir. Samples 7 226 stake-hole 225 diameter .075m circular cut with a gradual break of slope at top, Structure B cut depth .15m vertical sides tapered into a rounded point 7 227 stake-hole 228 .07m x .05m x loose mid yellow-brown silty sand Structure B fill .13m 7 228 stake-hole 227 .07m x .05m x circular cut with sharp break of slope at top, verti- Structure B cut .13m cal sides tapered into a rounded point 7 229 stake-hole 230 diameter .08m loose mid yellow-brown silty sand Structure B fill depth .15m 7 230 stake-hole 229 diameter .08m circular cut with a gradual break of slope at top, Structure B cut depth .15m vertical sides tapered into a rounded point ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 7 231 stake-hole 232 .065m x .075m x loose mid yellow-brown silty sand Structure B fill .16m 7 232 stake-hole 231 .065m x .075m x circular cut with sharp break of slope at top, verti- Structure B cut .16m cal sides tapered into a rounded point 7 233 stake-hole 234 .06m x .75m x loose yellow-brown silty sand Structure B fill .12m 7 234 stake-hole 233 .06m x .75m x oval cut with a sharp break of slope at top, vertical Structure B cut .12m sides tapered into a rounded point. 7 235 stake-hole 236 diameter .1m loose yellow-brown silty sand Structure B fill depth .14m 7 236 stake-hole 235 diameter .1m oval cut with a gradual break of slope at top, verti- Structure B cut depth .14m cal sides tapered into a rounded point. 7 237 stake-hole 238 .2m x .16m x loose yellow-brown silty sand Structure B fill .16m 7 238 stake-hole 237 .2m x .16m x oval cut with a gradual break of slope at top, verti- Structure B cut .16m cal sides tapered into a rounded point. 7 239 post-hole 240 .4m x .3m x .3m loose yellow-brown silty sand Structure Bhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ fill 7 240 post-hole 239 .4m x .3m x .3m oval cut with a sharp break of slope at top, vertical Structure B cut sides, north side stepped and flat base IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 7 241 post-hole 242 .4m x .37m x loose mixed brown-grey sandy silt with moderate Structure B fill .2m inclusion of small pebbles 7 242 post-hole 241 .4m x .37m x sub-circular with a sharp break of slope at top and Structure B cut .2m base, vertical sides and an uneven base. 7 243 stake-hole 244 diameter .09m soft mid brown sandy silt with occasional pebbles StructureB fill depth .2m68 04E0712-03E1692
  • 74. Area no C. No Cut/Fill Fill of/ Filled with Dimensions Description Structure/ Feature Artefacts Envir. Samples 7 244 stake-hole 243 diameter .09m circular cut with a sharp break of slope at top, StructureB cut depth .2m sloping sides tapering into a blunt point 7 245 stake-hole 246 diametre .09m compact mid brown-yellow sandy clay StructureB fill depth .17m 7 246 stake-hole 245 diametre .09m circular cut with a sharp break of slope at the top StructureB cut depth .17m And vertical sides tapering into a blunt point 7 247 stake-hole 248 .14m x .11m x loose yellow-brown silty sand Structure B fill .09m 7 248 stake-hole 247 .14m x .11m x oval cut with a sharp break of slope at top, vertical Structure B cut .09m sides to the east but sloping to the north-west, and ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 flat base 7 249 stake-hole 250 diameter .07m soft mid brown sandy silt with occasional pebbles Structure B fill depth .2m 7 250 stake-hole 249 diameter .07m circular cut with a sharp break of slope at top, Structure B cut depth .2m vertical sides tapering into a blunt point 7 251 stake-hole 252 diameter .1m compact mid brown-yellow sandy clay Structure B fill depth .09m 7 252 stake-hole 251 diameter .1m circular cut with a sharp break of slope at the top Structure B cut depth .09m and base, vertical sides and flat base 7 253 stake-hole 254 .08m x .1m x soft mid brown sandy silt Structure B fill .12m 7 254 stake-hole 253 .08m x .1m x oval cut with a sharp break of slope at top, vertical Structure B cut .12m sides tapering into a blunt point 7 255 stake-hole 256 diameter .05m soft light brown silty clay Structure B fill .06m deep 7 256 stake-hole 255 diameter .05m circular cut with a sharp break of slope at the top Structure B cut .06m deep and base, vertical sides and flat basehttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 7 257 stake-hole 258 .15m x .13m x compact yellow-grey silty sand within Structure C fill .07m 7 258 stake-hole 257 .15m x .13m x circular cut with gradual breaks of slope at top and within Structure C IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park cut .07m base, steep sides in north-east and gentle in west, and concave base 7 259 slot fill 203 .25m x .4m x compact light grey fine silty clay with occasional Structure C .07m pebbles 7 260 post-hole 265 .27m x .22m x firm dark brown clay west of Structure C fill .12m69 04E0712-03E1692
  • 75. Area no C. No Cut/Fill Fill of/ Filled with Dimensions Description Structure/ Feature Artefacts Envir. Samples 7 261 deposit 262 .9m x .65m x loose red-brown silty sand with occasional char- west of Structure C .15m coal flecks 7 262 natural hollow 7 263 fill 264 1.2m x .4m x compact grey-brown silty clay mixed with re-de- north of Structure B .13m posited natural 7 264 cut 263 1.2m x .4m x irregular in shape with gradual break of slope at north of Structure B .13m top, irregular sides and imperceptible break of slope at base. Base was undulated 7 265 post-hole 260 .27m x .22m x oval with sharp breaks of slope at top except to west of Structure C cut .12m north-west, vertical sides in south and south-west ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 but sloping elsewhere. Break of slope at base was gradual and base was concave. 7 266 post-hole 267 .4m x .23m x compact dark brown silty clay with occasional sub- west of Structure C fill .17m rounded stone. 7 267 post-hole 266 .4m x .23m x oval with sharp breaks of slope at top, vertical sides west of Structure C cut .17m to north but sloping elsewhere. Break of slope at base was gradual and base was concave. 7 268 post-hole 269 .17m x .2m x loose dark brown fine silty sand with frequent Structure C soil # 66 fill .05m charcoal flecks. 7 269 post-hole 268 .17m x .2m x sub-circular with sharp breaks of slope at top and Structure C cut .05m base with vertical sides and a flat base 7 270 stake-hole 271 .11m x .09m x loose light yellow-brown silty sand with 3 packing west of Structure C fill .175m stones 7 271 stake-hole 270 .11m x .09m x oval cut with vertical sides tapered into a blunt west of Structure C cut .175m point 7 272 post-hole 274 .33m x .32m x loose light brown silty sand, upper fill of c.274 west of Structure C fill .06mhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 7 273 post-hole 274 .33m x .32m x compact pale yellow-orange sandy clay with oc- fill .16m casional small pebbles near base 7 274 post-hole 272, 273 .33m x .32m x circular with gradual break of slope at top and IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park cut .22m base, sides sloping to east and west,vertical north and south, and base was ‘u’ shaped 7 275 stake-hole 276 diametre .07m, Fill of C.276 west of Structure C fill depth .09m 7 276 stake-hole 275 diametre .07m, circular with gradual break of slope at top and west of Structure C cut depth .09m base, sides vertical, and base pointed70 04E0712-03E1692
  • 76. Area no C. No Cut/Fill Fill of/ Filled with Dimensions Description Structure/ Feature Artefacts Envir. Samples 7 277 stake-hole 278 .09m x .08m x soft pale orange-yellow sandy clay with occasional west of Structure C fill .1m charcoal 7 278 stake-hole 277 .09m x .08m x sub-circular cut with sharp break of slope at top, west of Structure C cut .1m undercut sides, and concave base. Double stake- hole. 7 279 stake-hole 280 diameter .1m Fill of C.280 west of Structure C fill depth .15m 7 280 stake-hole 279 diameter .1m circular with gradual break of slope at top and west of Structure C cut depth .15m base, sides vertical, and base concave 7 281 stake-hole 282 .085m x .08m x Fill of C.282 west of Structure C ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 fill .115m 7 282 stake-hole 281 .085m x .08m x circular with sharp break of slope at top to south west of Structure C cut .115m and gradual to north, vertical sides tapered into a blunt point 7 283 stake-hole 284 .17m x .075m x loose light brown silty sand west of Structure C fill .16m 7 284 stake-hole 283 .17m x .075m x oval cut with sharp break of slope at top, vertical west of Structure C cut .16m sides tapered into a blunt point 7 285 cut 290 1.64m x 1.15m x irregular shaped cut with sharp break of slope at west of Structure C .25m top, sloping sides and gradual break of slope at base. Base was undulating 7 286 fill 287 1.54m x .64m x light red-brown, compact fine silty clay west of Structure C .14m 7 287 cut 286 1.54m x .64m x irregular shaped cut with sharp break of slope to west of Structure C .14m west at top,vertical sides and gradual break of slope at base. Base was flat. 7 288 stake-hole 289 .15m x .13m x loose yellow-brown silty sand west of Structure Chttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ fill .08m 7 289 stake-hole 288 .15m x .13m x oval cut with gradual breaks of slope at top and west of Structure C cut .08m base, vertical sides and flat base IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 7 290 fill 285 1.64m x 1.15m x soft mid brown-yellow sandy silt with moderate west of Structure C 1 x retouched .25m pebble inclusion flint 7 291 fill 292 .375m x .24m x loose mid brown clayey sand with occasional small west of Structure C .007m pebbles71 04E0712-03E1692
  • 77. Area no C. No Cut/Fill Fill of/ Filled with Dimensions Description Structure/ Feature Artefacts Envir. Samples 7 292 cut 291 .375m x .24m x irregular shaped cut with gradual break of slope at west of Structure C .007m top and base, vertical sides to east and west, slop- ing to north and south. 7 293 stake-hole 294 .11m x .08m moderately compacted mid brown silty sand with north of Structure B fill x.11m occasional pebbles 7 294 stake-hole 293 .11m x .08m oval cut, sharp break of slope at top, vertical sides north of Structure B cut x.11m tapered into a ‘u’shaped blunt point 7 295 stake-hole 296 .1m x .07m x loose grey-brown silty sand with occasional peb- north of Structure B fill .18m bles 7 296 stake-hole 295 .1m x .07m x oval cut with a sharp break of slope at top, vertical north of Structure B ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 cut .18m sides tapered into a blunt point. 7 297 stake-hole 298 diameter .09m loose grey-brown silty sand with frequent pebbles north of Structure B fill depth .16m 7 298 stake-hole 297 diameter .09m oval cut with a sharp break of slope at top, vertical north of Structure B cut depth .16m sides tapered into a blunt point. 7 299 stake-hole 300 .11m x .09m loose mid brown fine sand with frequent pebbles north of Structure B fill x.16m 7 300 stake-hole 299 .11m x .09m sub-circular cut with a sharp break of slope at top, north of Structure B cut x.16m vertical sides, tapered into a blunt ‘u’ shaped base. 7 301 post-hole 302 .4m x .3m x compact yellow-brown clayey sand with occasional west of Structure C fill .15m small pebbles and charcoal 7 302 post-hole 301 .4m x .3m x oval cut with sharp break of slope at top and west of Structure C cut .15m gradual at base, vertical sides and flat base. 7 303 post-hole 304 .16m x .175m x loose mid brown clayey sand associated with fill .065m c.320, 306, 308,310, 312, 314, 316, 318http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 7 304 post-hole 303 .16m x .175m x oval with sharp break of slope at top, vertical sides associated with cut .065m to south-east and gently sloping side to north-west. c.320, 306, Gradual break of slope to south-east at base and 308,310, 312, 314, imperceptible to north-west. Base was concave. 316, 318 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 7 305 stake-hole 306 .11m x .065m x loose yellow-brown silty sand associated with fill .075m c.304, 320, 308,310, 312, 314, 316, 31872 04E0712-03E1692
  • 78. Area no C. No Cut/Fill Fill of/ Filled with Dimensions Description Structure/ Feature Artefacts Envir. Samples 7 306 stake-hole 305 .11m x .065m x oval cut with sharp breaks of slope at top and base, associated with cut .075m vertical sides and a flat base c.304, 320, 308,310, 312, 314, 316, 318 7 307 stake-hole 308 diameter .085m loose yellow-brown silty sand associated with fill depth .09m c.304, 306, 320,310, 312, 314, 316, 318 7 308 stake-hole 307 diameter .085m circular cut with sharp breaks of slope at top and associated with cut depth .09m vertical sides tapered into a blunt point. c.304, 306, ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 320,310, 312, 314, 316, 318 7 309 post-hole 310 .245m x .17m x loose mid brown clayey sand with 2 packing stones associated with fill .11m c.304, 306, 308,310, 312, 314, 316, 318 7 310 post-hole 309 .245m x .17m x oval cut with a sharp break of slope to south at associated with cut .11m top and gradual elsewhere, sloping sides, and c.304, 306, gradual break of slope to south at base. Its base was 308,310, 312, 314, concave 316, 318 7 311 stake-hole 312 .12m x .11m x loose yellow-brown silty sand associated with fill .19m c.304, 306, 308,310, 320, 314, 316, 318 7 312 stake-hole 311 .12m x .11m x oval cut with sharp breaks of slope at top and associated with cut .19m vertical sides tapered into a blunt point. c.304, 306, 308,310, 320, 314,http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 316, 318 7 313 stake-hole 314 diameter .2m loose yellow-brown silty sand associated with fill depth .19m c.304, 306, 308,310, 312, 320, IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 316, 318 7 314 stake-hole 313 diameter .2m circular cut with gradual breaks of slope at top and associated with cut depth .19m vertical sides tapered into a blunt point. c.304, 306, 308,310, 312, 320, 316, 31873 04E0712-03E1692
  • 79. Area no C. No Cut/Fill Fill of/ Filled with Dimensions Description Structure/ Feature Artefacts Envir. Samples 7 315 stake-hole 316 .22m x .2m x loose light brown silty sand with charcoal associated with fill .18m c.304, 306, 308,310, 312, 314, 320, 318 7 316 stake-hole 315 .22m x .2m x oval cut with sharp break of slope at top,gradual at associated with cut .18m base,vertical sides and concave base. c.304, 306, 308,310, 312, 314, 320, 318 7 317 stake-hole 318 diameter .095m loose mid brown fine sand with occasional pebbles north of Structure B fill depth .17m ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 7 318 stake-hole 317 diameter .095m circular cut with a sharp break of slope at top, north of Structure B cut depth .17m vertical sides, tapered into a blunt ‘u’ shaped base. 7 319 stake-hole 320 .28m x .24m x loose orange-brown silty sand with associated with fill .22m charcoal&small pebbles c.304, 306, 308,310, 312, 314, 316, 318 7 320 stake-hole 319 .28m x .24m x oval cut with sharp break of slope at top,gradual at associated with cut .22m base,vertical sides and concave base. c.304, 306, 308,310, 312, 314, 316, 318 7 321 fill 322 .7m x .2m x compact light red-brown sandy clay .08m 7 322 cut 321 .7m x .2m x linear with sharp break of slope at top and gradual .08m at base. Sides were vertical and base was concave. Ran west-east orientation, and possibly was associ- ated with c324 7 323 stake-hole 324 diameter .1m soft mid brown sandy silt with 2 small stoneshttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ fill depth .12m 7 324 stake-hole 323 diameter .1m circular cut with a sharp break of slope at top and cut depth .12m vertical sides tapered into a blunt point 7 325 stake-hole 326 .13m x .1m x .1m compact yellow-brown silty sand IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park fill 7 326 stake-hole 325 .13m x .1m x .1m oval cut with a sharp break of slope at top and cut vertical sides tapered into a blunt point 7 327 stake-hole 328 .15m x .11m x loose yellow-brown sandy silt with a small stones fill .085m74 04E0712-03E1692
  • 80. Area no C. No Cut/Fill Fill of/ Filled with Dimensions Description Structure/ Feature Artefacts Envir. Samples 7 328 stake-hole 327 .15m x .11m x oval cut with a gradual break of slope at top and cut .085m vertical sides tapered into a blunt point 7 329 fill 330 1.4m x .6m x soft mid brown-grey silty clay with 25% large to .25m medium sub-angular sandstone 7 330 cut 329 1.4m x .6m x kidney shaped with a sharp break of slope at top .25m and to north at base.Sides were sloped steeply and base was slightly undulating 7 331 furrow fill 332 3m x .4m x .09m loose yellow-brown clayey sand with occasional angular stone throughout l 7 332 furrow cut 331 3m x .4m x .09m inear cut which truncated c.333 ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 7 333 pit fill 363 1.1m x .8m x soft dark grey clayey silt with moderate small stone hearth Possible loom .12m inclusion. Upper-most ashy-type fill of a shallow weight pit 7 334 pit fill 335 1.85m x 2m x soft orange-brown sandy silt with occasional char- .15m coal. Upper-most fill of pit 7 335 pit cut 334, 374 1.9m x 2.05m x sub-circular with sharp break of slope at top except .48m to north-west where it is gradual to imperceptible. Sides were sloping moderately and break of slope at base was gradual to the south-west and impercepti- ble elsewhere. Base was concave. 7 336 fill 339 2.9m x .6m x moderately compacted dark brown clayey sand .4m with 12 sub-angular stones. 7 337 fill 338 1.5m x .8m x compact yellow-brown silty sand with charcoal .3m and small pebble inclusions 7 338 cut 337 1.5m x .8m x oval/linear shaped cut with gradual break of slope .3m at top, and imperceptible at base,moderately slop- ing sides tapering into a blunt pointed base. Ajoinshttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ c.339. 7 339 cut 336 2.9m x .6m x irregular in shape, with gradual break of slope at .4m top to north-east and imperceptible to south-west, moderately sloped sides and break of slope at base IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park was gradual to south-west and imperceptible to south-east. Base was slightly concave. Adjoined c.338 to west75 04E0712-03E1692
  • 81. Area no C. No Cut/Fill Fill of/ Filled with Dimensions Description Structure/ Feature Artefacts Envir. Samples 7 340 stake-hole 341 .12m x .1m x .1m loose mid brown sandy silt with occasional pebbles associated with fill c.342, 344, 346, 348, 350, 352, 354 7 341 stake-hole 340 .12m x .1m x .1m sub-circular cut with sharp breaks of slope at top associated with cut and base,vertical sides and pointed base c.342, 344, 346, 348, 350, 352, 354 7 342 stake-hole 343 diameter .08m loose mid brown sandy silt with occasional pebbles associated with fill depth .14m c.340, 344, 346, 348, 350, 352, 354 7 343 stake-hole 342 diameter .08m circular cut with sharp breaks of slope at top and associated with ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 cut depth .14m base,vertical sides and pointed base c.340, 344, 346, 348, 350, 352, 354 7 344 stake-hole 345 diameter .12m loose mid brown sandy silt with occasional pebbles associated with fill depth .11m c.340, 342, 346, 348, 350, 352, 354 7 345 stake-hole 344 diameter .12m circular cut with sharp break of slope at top and associated with cut depth .11m gradual at base,vertical sides and ‘U’ shaped base c.340, 342, 346, 348, 350, 352, 354 7 346 stake-hole 347 .11m x .1m x loose mid brown sandy silt with occasional pebbles associated with fill .18m c.340, 342, 344, 348, 350, 352, 354 7 347 stake-hole 346 .11m x .1m x sub-circular cut with sharp break of slope at top associated with cut .18m and gradual at base,vertical sides and ‘U’ shaped c.340, 342, 344, base 348, 350, 352, 354 7 348 stake-hole 349 .12m x .1m x loose mid brown sandy silt with occasional pebbles associated with fill .14m c.340, 342, 344, 346, 350, 352, 354http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 7 349 stake-hole 348 .12m x .1m x sub-circular cut with sharp breaks of slope at top associated with cut .14m and base,vertical sides and pointed base c.340, 342, 344, 346, 350, 352, 354 7 350 stake-hole 351 .14m x .11m x loose mid brown sandy silt with occasional pebbles associated with IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park fill .17m c.340, 342, 344, 346, 348, 352, 354 7 351 stake-hole 350 .14m x .11m x sub-circular cut with sharp breaks of slope at top associated with cut .17m and base,vertical sides and rounded ‘u’ shaped base c.340, 342, 344, 346, 348, 352, 35476 04E0712-03E1692
  • 82. Area no C. No Cut/Fill Fill of/ Filled with Dimensions Description Structure/ Feature Artefacts Envir. Samples 7 352 post-hole 353 .2m x .21m x sub-circular with sharp break of slope at top and associated with cut .09m gradual at base. Sides were sloping moderately and c.340, 342, 344, vertical to west. Base was irregular. 346, 348, 350, 354 7 353 post-hole 352 .2m x .21m x moderately compacted dark brown silty clay with associated with fill .09m occasional small stones. c.340, 342, 344, 346, 348, 350, 354 7 354 fill of stake- 355 .21m x .18m x loose dark brown silty sand with occasional char- associated with hole .07m coal and pebbles c.340, 342, 344, 346, 348, 350, 352, 7 355 cut of 354 .21m x .18m x sub-circular cut with sharp breaks of slope at top associated with ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 stake-hole .07m and base,vertical sides and flat base c.340, 342, 344, 346, 348, 350, 352, 7 356 furrow fill 357 10.4m x .22m x moderataly compacted mid to dark brown clayey .12m sand 7 357 furrow cut 356 10.4m x .22m x linear cut which truncated c.334, c.358 .12m 7 358 fill 359 .98m x .32m x compact dark brown silty sand with occasional .23m charcoal and pebbles 7 359 cut 358 .98m x .32m x oval with sharp break of slope at top, vertical sides .23m but gently sloping side to west.Sharp break of slope at base. Base was flat but irregular.Truncated by furrow c.357. 7 360 pit fill 363 1.7m x 1.6m x soft mid grey clayey silt with occasional stones. hearth .15m Secondary fill of pit 7 361 pit fill 363 .9m x .2m compact brown-yellow clayey sand 7 362 pit fill 363 1.7m x 2.2m x soft light grey clayey silt with frequent small stone soil & charcoal .15m and occasional charcoal flecks, primary fill of pit. # 72http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 7 363 pit cut 333,360, 361,362 2.5m x 1.85m x circular shaped cut with a sharp break of slope at .3m top in west and gradual to east.sides slope gradu- ally and undulating to east.Break of slope at base was gradual. Base was concave and undulating. IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park Natural has scorched appearance. 7 364 stake-hole 365 .12m x .09m x loose mid brown silty sand west of c.334 fill .19m 7 365 stake-hole 364 .12m x .09m x oval cut with a sharp break of slope at top and west of c.334 cut .19m vertical sides tapered into a blunt point77 04E0712-03E1692
  • 83. Area no C. No Cut/Fill Fill of/ Filled with Dimensions Description Structure/ Feature Artefacts Envir. Samples 7 366 stake-hole 367 .17m x .13m x moderately compacted dark brown fine silty clay fill .13m with occasional small pebbles 7 367 stake-hole 366 .17m x .13m x sub-circular cut with sharp breaks of slope at top cut .13m and base,vertical sides and pointed base. 7 368 stake-hole 369 .08m x .07m x loose yellow-brown silty sand fill .08m 7 369 stake-hole 368 .08m x .07m x circular cut with sharp breaks of slope at top and cut .08m vertical sides tapered into a blunt point. 7 370 stake-hole 371 .1m x .08m x loose yellow-brown silty sand fill .095m ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 7 371 stake-hole 370 .1m x .08m x oval cut with sharp breaks of slope at top and cut .095m vertical sides tapered into a blunt point. 7 372 stake-hole 373 diameter .08m moderately compacted dark brown coarse silty fill depth .07m sand 7 373 stake-hole 372 diameter .08m circular cut with sharp breaks of slope at top and cut depth .07m base,vertical sides and a pointed base.truncates post-hole 352/353 7 374 pit fill 334 1.45m x 1.9m x firm mottled pale orange-yellow sandy clay with .45m frequent manganese, occasional charcoal and moderate sub-angular stone. Re-deposited natural within cut. 6W 03E1692:03 Fill 7 0.16 m SE-NW Fill. Dark pinkish brown soft silty clay, occasional x 0.09 m x 0.07 possible packing pebbles, moderately occurring m charcoal flecks. Fill of stakehole, possibly burnt in-situ, cut Context 7. 6W 03E1692:04 Fill 9 0.12 m NW-SE Fill. Dark pinkish brown soft silty clay with occa- x 0.09 m x 0.09 sional pebbles and moderate charcoal flecks. Fill ofhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ m stakehole, possibly burnt in-situ, cut Context 9. 6W 03E1692:05 Fill 6 0.11 m x 0.11 m Fill. Dark pinkish brown soft silty clay with oc- x 0.08 m casional sub-rounded pebbles. Fill of a stakehole, cut Context 6. IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 6W 03E1692:06 Cut 5 0.11 m x 0.11 m Cut. Sharp break of slope top, vertical north side, x 0.08 m steep south side, rounded break of slope base. Top is orientated east of the base. Small charcoal plug at the base against the north side, burnt in-situ. Cut of stakehole filled with Context 5.78 04E0712-03E1692
  • 84. Area no C. No Cut/Fill Fill of/ Filled with Dimensions Description Structure/ Feature Artefacts Envir. Samples 6W 03E1692:07 Cut 3 0.16 m SE-NW Cut. Gradual break of slope top and north base, x 0.09 m x 0.07 gradual to south. Sides smooth and concave to m SW, irregular on NE. Sub-circular in plan. Top is orientated NW of base. Cut of stakehole, filled with Context 3. 6W 03E1692:08 Fill 0.3 m E-W x Fill. Mid-pinkish brown soft silty clay with oc- 0.18 m x 0.12 m casional sub-angular medium pebbles and flecks of charcoal. Moderately occurring small pieces of natural manganese. Fill of a stone-hole that became naturally backfilled after the stone was ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 removed. Fill of stone-socket. 6W 03E1692:09 Cut 4 0.12 m NW-SE Cut. Sharp break of slope top on south, gradual to x 0.09 m x 0.09 north. Sides smooth on east, irregular elsewhere. m Break of slope base imperceptible to NW, gradual elsewhere. Sub-circular in plan. Top perpendicular to base. Cut of stakehole, filled with Context 4. 6W 03E1692:10 Fill 13 0.6 m NNW- Fill. Mid-orangish brown soft silty clay with SSE, x 0.5 m x frequent fine sub-angular pebbles. Occasional 0.2 m sub-angular small stones and flecks of charcoal. Moderate decayed stone. Fill of a pit, cut Context 13. 6W 03E1692:11 Fill 18 0.44 m NW-SE Fill. Mottled pinkish yellowish brown soft silty x 0.35 m X 0.05 clay. Moderate fine and occasional medium sub- m angular pebbles, occasional flecks of charcoal. Fill of pit cut Context 18. 6W 03E1692:12 Fill 18 0.2 m E-W x 0.1 Fill. Light pinkish yellow soft silty clay with m x 0.02 m occasional sub-angular fine pebbles. Possibly re-http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ deposited natural. This is the fill of a small pit, cut Context 18. This context is above Context 14. 6W 03E1692:13 Cut 10 0.6 m NNW- Cut. Sharp break of slope top, sides steep and SSE, x 0.5 m x concave on the north and east, moderate and IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 0.2 m concave on the west. Break of slope base gradual on the north and west and sharp on the east. Half sectioned, south side excavated. Sub-circular in plan. Cut of pit filled fire waste, Context 10.79 04E0712-03E1692
  • 85. Area no C. No Cut/Fill Fill of/ Filled with Dimensions Description Structure/ Feature Artefacts Envir. Samples 6W 03E1692:14 Fill 18 0.33 m N-S x Fill. Dark pinkish brown soft silty clay. Moderate 0.29 m x 0.08 m medium and coarse sub-angular pebbles. Moder- ate flecks and occasional small pieces of charcoal. This is the fill of a waste pit, cut Context 18. This context is above Context 17. 6W 03E1692:15 Fill 16 0.26 m E-W x Fill. Mid orangish brown soft silty clay with 0.16 m x 0.12 m moderate medium burnt sub-angular pebbles and one sub-angular small stone. Occasional charcoal flecks. Postpipe fill of postpipe cut Context 16. 6W 03E1692:16 Cut 15 0.26 m E-W x Cut. Sharp break of slope top and base. Vertical ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 0.16 m x 0.12 m concave sides on the north and south, moderate and concave on the west. The west half of the feature was excavated. Sub-circular shape in plan. Postpipe cut filled with postpipe fill Context 15, posthole fill Context 22. 6W 03E1692:17 Fill 18 0.3 m N-S x Fill. Light pinkish yellow soft silty clay with oc- 0.28 m x 0.11 m casional and medium sub-angular pebbles, one medium stone. This is the basal fill of a small pit, cut Context 18. 6W 03E1692:18 Cut 11,12,14,17 0.34 m N-S x Cut. Break of slope top imperceptible on north, 0.33 m x 0.19 m gradual elsewhere. Sides moderate and smooth on the south, gentle and smooth on the NW, moderate and irregular on the east and gentle and concave on the NE. Break of slope base gradual. Possible rubbish pit, filled with Contexts 11, 12, 14, 17. Truncates Context 24 and 57. 6W 03E1692:19 Fill 20 0.3 m E-W x 0.2 Fill. Mid-yellowish brown firm silty clay with oc-http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ m x 0.14 m casional medium sub-angular and coarse angular pebbles. Fill of stakehole cut Context 20. 6W 03E1692:20 Cut 19 0.3 m E-W x 0.2 Cut. Sharp break of slope top, sides are gentle m x 0.14 m and smooth on the west, vertical and smooth IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park elsewhere. Break of slope base sharp on the east, gradual elsewhere. Oval in plan. Top perpendicu- lar to base. Cut of a stakehole, filled with Context 19. Truncates Contexts 21 and 33.80 04E0712-03E1692
  • 86. Area no C. No Cut/Fill Fill of/ Filled with Dimensions Description Structure/ Feature Artefacts Envir. Samples 6W 03E1692:21 Fill 33 1.8 m N-S x 0.45 Fill. Mid pinkish brown firm silty clay with m x 0.13 m angular moderate and occasional pebbles, occa- sional flecks of charcoal and manganese. This is the fill of a possible slot trench or irregular pit, cut Context 33. 6W 03E1692:22 Fill 23 0.26 m E-W x Fill. Mottled mid-pinkish yellow soft silty clay 0.22 m x 0.18 m with moderate sub-angular medium pebbles and small stones. Posthole fill of posthole cut Context 23. 6W 03E1692:23 Cut 22 0.26 m E-W x Cut. Sharp break of slope top, sides are steeply ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 0.22 m x 0.18 m sloping and the break of slope base is rounded. Sub-circular in plan. Posthole cut filled with post- hole fill Context 22, postpipe cut Context 16. 6W 03E1692:24 Fill 57 2.1m N-S x 0.6 Fill. Light pinkish brown soft silty clay with occa- m x 0.18 m sional sub-angular fine and medium sub-angular pebbles and occasional flecks of charcoal. Fill of possible linear pit, cut Context 57. Above Contexts 25 and 27. 6W 03E1692:25 Fill 26 0.2 m x 0.2 m x Fill. Mid pinkish brown soft silty clay with occa- 0.08 m sional charcoal flecks and small pieces of charcoal. Fill of stakehole, cut Context 26. 6W 03E1692:26 Cut 25 0.2 m x 0.2 m x Cut. Sub-circular in plan. Imperceptible break of 0.08 m slope top to east, gradual to north and east. Sides are gradual to the east, steep elsewhere. This is the cut of a stakehole, filled with Context 25. Trun- cates Context 57. 6W 03E1692:27 Fill 28 0.17 m E-W x Fill. Mid pinkish brown soft silty clay with oc-http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 0.14 m x 0.07 m casional charcoal flecks. Fill of stakehole, cut Context 28. 6W 03E1692:28 Cut 27 0.17 m E-W x Cut. Sub-circular in plan. Break of slope top 0.14 m x 0.07 m imperceptible to south, sharp to north and east. IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park Sides are smooth and concave. The break of slope base is imperceptible. Half-sectioned, east half was excavated. Stakehole cut, filled with Context 27. Truncates Context 57.81 04E0712-03E1692
  • 87. Area no C. No Cut/Fill Fill of/ Filled with Dimensions Description Structure/ Feature Artefacts Envir. Samples 6W 03E1692:29 Fill 30 0.14 m x 0.14 m Fill. Mid-pinkish yellow soft silty clay with oc- x 0.05 m casional sub-angular pebbles and manganese staining. This is the fill of a postpipe, postpipe cut Context 30. 6W 03E1692:30 Cut 29 0.14 m x 0.14 m Cut. Sharp break of sloe top, steeply sloping x 0.05 m convex sides, gradual break of slope base. Base a tapered blunt point in profile. Circular in plan. Cut of postpipe, postpipe fill Context 29, posthole fill Context 31. 6W 03E1692:31 Fill 32 0.23 m N-S x Fill. Redeposited natural. Fill of posthole, cut ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 0.2 m x 0.1 m Context 32. 6W 03E1692:32 Cut 31 0.23 m N-S x Cut. Sub-circular in plan. Break of slope sharp 0.2 m x 0.1 m at top, rounded at base. Sides steep and smooth. Southern half was excavated. Cut of posthole, posthole fill Context 31, postpipe cut Context 30. 6W 03E1692:33 Cut 21 1.8 m N-S x 0.45 Cut. Irregular, linear shape in plan. Gradual break m x 0.13 m of slope top on north and south, sharp on east and west. Sharp break of slope base. Sides are steep, smooth on the east and sharp on the west. Cut of possible slot trench filled with Context 21. 6W 03E1692:34 Fill 35 0.34 m E-W x Fill. Light pinkish yellowish brown soft silty clay. 0.18 m x 0.13 m Occasional fine sub-angular pebbles and flecks of charcoal. Fill of a linear pit, cut Context 35. 6W 03E1692:35 Cut 34 0.34 m E-W x Cut. Linear in shape. Gradual break of slope top 0.18 m x 0.13 m sharp on the north and NE, gradual on the south and east. Sides steep and smooth on the north, moderate and smooth on the SE. Break of slopehttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ base sharp on the north, gradual on the south, imperceptible on the east. Possibly the cut for two stakeholes or for a linear pit, filled with Context 34. IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 6W 03E1692:36 Fill 37 0.09 m E-W x Fill. Dark pinkish brown soft silty clay with occa- 0.07 m x 0.04 m sional small sub-angular pebbles. Fill of stakehole, cut Context 37.82 04E0712-03E1692
  • 88. Area no C. No Cut/Fill Fill of/ Filled with Dimensions Description Structure/ Feature Artefacts Envir. Samples 6W 03E1692:37 Cut 36 0.09 m E-W x Cut. Circular shape in plan. Gradual break of 0.07 m x 0.04 m slope top and base on the east, sharp elsewhere. Sides moderate slope on the east, vertical else- where. Top is orientated east of the base. Cut of a stakehole, filled with Context 36. 6W 03E1692:38 Fill 39 0.12 m x 0.12 m Fill. Mid-pinkish yellow soft silty clay with oc- x 0.06 m casional sub-angular pebbles and manganese stain- ing. This is the fill of a stakehole, cut Context 39. 6W 03E1692:39 Cut 38 0.12 m x 0.12 m Cut. Circular in plan. Gradual break of slope top, x 0.06 m imperceptible break of slope base. Sides concave ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 with moderate slope. Cut of stakehole, filled with Context 38. 6W 03E1692:40 Fill 0.28m NE-SW x Mid-pinkish brown firm silty clay with occasional 0.13m x 0.03m medium angular pebbles. Fill of a small hollow. 6W 03E1692:41 Fill 42 0.28 m NW-SE Fill. Mid pinkish brown firm silty clay with mod- x 0.18 m x 0.13 erately occurring medium angular pebbles and m occasional sub-angular small stones. Occasional pieces of natural manganese. Fill of a possible stakehole, cut Context 42. 6W 03E1692:42 Cut 41 0.28 m NW-SE Cut. Oval in plan. Sharp break of slope top and x 0.18 m x 0.13 base. Sides are steep and smooth. The cut of a pos- m sible stakehole, filled with Context 41. 6W 03E1692:43 Fill 44 0.5 m N-S x 0.25 Fill. Dark pinkish brown firm silty clay with oc- m x 0.13 m casional sub-angular medium stones and pebbles. Occasional flecks of charcoal and manganese. Fill of possible dumping pit, cut Context 44. Find 03E1692:11, flint.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 6W 03E1692:44 Cut 43 0.5 m N-S x 0.25 Cut. Irregular shape in plan. Sharp break of slope m x 0.13 m top, gradual at base. Sides are steep and smooth. The northern half was excavated. Possible dump- ing pit, filled with Context 43. IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 6 03E1692:45 Fill 48 0.25 m E-W x Fill. Light greyish brown very soft clay with occa- 0.2 m x 0.07 m sional sub-angular fine pebbles. This is the fill of a pit, cut Context 48. This context is above Context 46.83 04E0712-03E1692
  • 89. Area no C. No Cut/Fill Fill of/ Filled with Dimensions Description Structure/ Feature Artefacts Envir. Samples 6 03E1692:46 Fill 48 1.05 m E-W x Fill. Dark reddish brown soft clayey silt with 0.45 m x 0.5 m moderate sub-angular medium pebbles and small stones. Moderate flecks and occasional small pieces of charcoal. The fill of a pit cut Context 48. This context is above Context 47. 6 03E1692:47 Fill 48 0.48 m N-S x Fill. Dark pinkish brown soft silty clay with occa- 0.28 m x unexca- sional sub-angular fine pebbles. This is the fill of a vated fully pit, cut Context 48. 6 03E1692:48 Cut 45,46,47 0.5 m N-S x 0.5 Cut. Sub-circular in plan. Gradual break of slope m x 0.15 m top on the north, sharp on the south and west. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 The eastern half was not excavated. The sides are moderate and concave. The break of slope base is gradual on the north, sharp on the south and imperceptible on the east. This is the cut of a pit filled with Contexts 45, 46 and 47. 6 03E1692:49 Fill 58 0.8 m N-S x Fill. Mottled dark pinkish orangish brown silty 0.64 m x 0.2 m clay with occasional small and medium pebbles, moderate flecks and occasional small pieces of charcoal. This is the fill of a hearth waste pit, cut Context 58. 6 03E1692:50 Fill 51 c. 5 m N-S x Fill. Mid greyish brown silty clay with frequent 0.74 x 0.3 m small pebbles and occasional angular stones and flecks of charcoal. Contained 5 pieces of flint, Finds 03E1692:12-16. Fill of linear ditch, cut Context 51 6 03E1692:51 Cut 50 c. 5 m N-S x Cut. Steeply sloping sides on the east and west. 0.74 x 0.3 m Sharp break of slope top. The base slopes upwardshttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ toward the west. Partially excavated in a sondages. Cut of linear ditch, filled with Context 50. 6 03E1692:52 0.8 m N-S x 0.7 Spread. Pinkish brown clay with occasional char- m x 0.1 m coal flecks and two sub-angular stones on the west IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park side of the deposit and three pieces of flint, Find 03E1692:18-19. This is a thin spread south of pit cut Context 54.84 04E0712-03E1692
  • 90. Area no C. No Cut/Fill Fill of/ Filled with Dimensions Description Structure/ Feature Artefacts Envir. Samples 6 03E1692:53 Fill 54 0.42 m E-W x Fill. Pinkish brown silty clay with moderate 0.41 m x 0.19 m charcoal flecks and occasional small sub-angular pebbles. Fill of pit cut Context 54. 6 03E1692:54 Cut 53 0.42 m E-W x Cut. Sharp break of slope top, sides vertical, break 0.41 m x 0.19 m of slope base gradual, base flat, circular in plan. Cut of possible fire waste pit, filled with Context 53. 6 03E1692:55 Fill 56 0.35 m N-S x Fill. Pinkish brown silty clay with occasional 0.33 m x 0.12 m flecks of red burnt clay and flecks of charcoal, red burnt clay, and small sub-angular pebbles. Fill of a ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 possible fire waste pit, cut Context 56. 6 03E1692:56 Cut 55 0.35 m N-S x Cut. Sharp break of slope top, steeply sloping con- 0.33 m x 0.12 m cave sides, gradual break of slope base, flat base. Oval in plan. Possibly truncates cut Context 54, only the northern half section was excavated. Cut of a possible fire waste pit, filled with Context 55. 6W 03E1692:57 Cut 1. m NW-SE x Cut. Irregular shape in plan. Break of slope top 0.4 m x 0.2 m sharp on the northwest, imperceptible on the southeast. The sides are irregular on the north- west, truncated on the southeast. Possibly heavily truncated from above or possibly a natural hollow. This is possibly a slot trench cut, or the cut of an irregular pit. Truncated by Contexts 18, 26, 28 and 35. 6 03E1692:58 Cut 49 0.8 m N-S x 0.55 Cut. Sub circular in plan. The northern half was m x 0.2 m excavated. The north, west and east break of slope top is sharp, sides are steep and concave and breakhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ of slope base is rounded. Cut of a hearth waste pit, filled with Context 49. 6 03E1692:59 Fill 62 1.0 m E-W x 0.8 Fill. Redeposited natural. This is the fill of a pos- m x unexcavated sible pit, cut Context 62 and it is above Context 60 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park and 61. 6 03E1692:60 Fill 62 +0.2 m x 0.2 m x Fill. Mid pinkish brown silty clay. Not fully unexcavated exposed and not excavated. Fill of pit, cut Context 62.85 04E0712-03E1692
  • 91. Area no C. No Cut/Fill Fill of/ Filled with Dimensions Description Structure/ Feature Artefacts Envir. Samples 6 03E1692:61 Fill 62 +0.6 m N-S x 0.5 Fill. Mid yellowish brown clayey silt. Not fully x unexcavated exposed and not excavated. Fill of pit, cut Context 62. 6 03E1692:62 Cut 59,60,61 1.3 m E-W x 0.8 Cut of pit, filled with Contexts 59, 60, 61. m x unexcavated. 6 03E1692:63 Fill 64 0.24 m N-S x Fill. Light pinkish brown silty clay with occasional 0.18 m x 0.23 m small stones and medium pebbles. Fill of stake- hole, cut Context 64. 6 03E1692:64 Cut 63 0.24 m N-S x Cut. Sub-circular in plan. Southern half excavated. 0.18 m x 0.23 m Break of slope top and base rounded. Sides vertical ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 and concave. Base is tapered blunt point in profile. Cut of stakehole, filled with Context 63. 6 03E1692:65 Fill 67 0.26 m E-W x Fill. Mid pinkish brown clayey silt. Fill of feature, 0.24 m x 0.05 m cut context 67. Above Context 66. 6 03E1692:66 Fill 67 0.26 m E-W x Fill. Light pinkish yellow clayey silt. Fill of feature, 0.24 m x 0.11 m cut context 67. 6 03E1692:67 Cut 65,66 0.26 m E-W x Cut. Sub-oval shape in plan. Rounded break of 0.24 m x 0.16 m slope top and base. Sides steep and concave. Base flat. Cut of small possible dumping pit, filled with Contexts 65 and 66. 6 03E1692:68 Fill 69 0.5 m E-W x 0.3 Fill. Purplish brown silty clay with frequent flecks m x 0.15 m of charcoal. Fill of fire waste pit, cut Context 69. 6 03E1692:69 Cut 68 0.5 m E-W x 0.3 Cut. Sub-circular shape in plan. Cut of fire waste m x 0.15 m pit, filled with Context 68. 6 03E1692:70 Fill 72 0.34 m E-W x Fill of feature, cut Context 72. No other informa- 0.26 m x 0.11 m tion. 6 03E1692:71 Fill 72 0.34 m E-W x Fill of feature, cut Context 72. No other informa-http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 0.26 m x 0.11 m tion. 6 03E1692:72 Cut 70,71 0.34 m E-W x Cut. Sub-circular shape in plan. Sides vertical and 0.26 m x 0.22m concave. No other information. Cut of feature filled with Contexts 70 and 71. IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 6 03E1692:73 Fill 74 0.2 m x 0.2 m x Fill of stakehole, cut Context 74. No other infor- unrecorded mation. 6 03E1692:74 Cut 73 0.2 m x 0.2 m x Cut of stakehole, circular shape in plan, filled with unrecorded Context 73. No other information.86 04E0712-03E1692
  • 92. Area no C. No Cut/Fill Fill of/ Filled with Dimensions Description Structure/ Feature Artefacts Envir. Samples 12 03E1692:77 1.2 m N-S x 1.0 Spread. Burnt stone and mid-blackish grey clayey m x 0.05 m silt. Burnt spread, above Context 78. 12 03E1692:78 1.2 m N-S x 1.0 Spread. Charcoal rich burnt deposit. This is a m x 0.05 m burnt spread and does not appear to fill a cut. 12 03E1692:79 Fill 80 1.0 m E-W x 0.8 Fill. Light grey charcoal rich stony silt. Fill of a m x 0.09 m shallow dumping pit. Possibly originally a burnt spread that became imbedded over time resulting in a supposed cut. 12 03E1692:80 Cut 79 1.0 m E-W x 0.8 Cut. Cut of a possible shallow pit, filled with m x 0.09 m Context 79. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 12 03E1692:81 1.4 m N-S x 1.0 Spread. Mid grey silt with moderately occur- m x 0.1 m ring medium pieces of charcoal. Irregular shaped spread, thin spread of burnt mound material. 12 03E1692:82 10 m NE-SW x Spread. Dark greyish black burnt stone rich silty 2.5 m x 0.1 m material. Spread of burnt mound material, above Context 83. 12 03E1692:83 Fill 85 4.0 m NE-SW x Spread. Dark blackish grey burnt stone rich silty 2.5 m x 0.08 m material. Spread of burnt mound material, above Context 84. 12 03E1692:84 Fill 85 2.6m NE-SW x Fill. Grey silt. Basal fill of trough, cut Context 85. 2.5 m x 0.02 m 12 03E1692:85 Cut 83,84 2.5 m NW-SE x Cut. Southeast side of the trough is sloping con- 2.5 m x 0.2 m cavely and the break of slope base is rounded Cut of trough of burnt mound, filled with Contexts 83 and 84.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park87 04E0712-03E1692
  • 93. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 14.2 Appendix 2: Stratigraphic Matrix Please see attached CD for matrixhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 88
  • 94. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 14.3 Appendix 3: Finds Register Site Code Context Find Area Grid square Description 04E0712 1 1 Surface finds A7 to the west of structure D 04E0712 1 2 Surface finds A7 to the west of structure D 04E0712 1 3 Surface finds A7 to the west of structure D 04E0712 1 4 Scrapers. stray finds from topsoil 04E0712 1 5 Scrapers. stray finds from topsoil 04E0712 1 6 Flint slug knife 04E0712 1 7 5 5 Possible rhyolite flake 04E0712 1 8 5 5 Flint flake 04E0712 1 9 5 5 Possible rhyolite flake 04E0712 1 10 7 7 Retouched flint artefact 04E0712 21 1 3 1 Flint flake 04E0712 21 2 3 1 Flint flake 04E0712 21 3 3 1 Flint flake 04E0712 21 4 3 1 Flint flake 04E0712 25 1 3 1 Flint flake 04E0712 25 2 3 1 Flint core 04E0712 25 3 3 1 Flint flake 04E0712 25 4 3 1 Flint split Pebble Fragment 04E0712 25 5 3 1 Flint flake 04E0712 25 6 3 1 Flint flake 04E0712 25 7 3 1 Flint split Pebble 04E0712 25 8 3 1 Flint flake 04E0712 25 9 3 1 Flint core 04E0712 25 10 3 1 Flint split Pebble 04E0712 25 11 3 1 Flint core 04E0712 25 12 3 1 Flint split Pebble Fragment 04E0712 25 13 3 1 Flint flake 04E0712 25 14 3 1 Flint flake 04E0712 25 15 3 1 Flint flake 04E0712 25 16 3 1 Flint flake 04E0712 25 17 3 1 Flint flake 04E0712 25 18 3 1 Flint flake 04E0712 25 19 3 1 Flint scraper 04E0712 25 20 3 1 Flint flake 04E0712 25 21 3 1 Flint split Pebble 04E0712 25 22 3 1 Flint core 04E0712 32 1 6 Fragment of Vessel 1 04E0712 32 2 6 Fragment of Vessel 1 04E0712 32 3 6 3 Bodysherd of Vessel 2 04E0712 32 4 6 3 Fragment of Vessel 1 04E0712 32 5 6 3 Rounded stone 04E0712 32 6 6 3 Bodysherd of Vessel 2 04E0712 32 7 6 3 Bodysherd of Vessel 2 04E0712 32 8 6 3 Fragment of Vessel 1 04E0712 32 9 6 3 Fragment of Vessel 1 04E0712 33 1 6 Flint blade 04E0712 33 2 6 3 Flint flake 04E0712 34 1 5 Postmedieval pottery 04E0712 36 1 5 Flint scraper 04E0712 38 1 6 3 Bodysherd of Vessel 2 04E0712 38 2 6 3 Rim fragment of Vessel 1 04E0712 38 3 6 3 Rim sherd of Vessel 2 04E0712 38 4 6 3 Fragment of Vessel 1http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 89
  • 95. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 Site Code Context Find Area Grid square Description 04E0712 38 5 6 3 Fragment of Vessel 1 04E0712 38 6 6 3 Fragment of Vessel 1 04E0712 38 7 6 3 Fragment of Vessel 1 04E0712 38 8 6 3 Fragment of Vessel 2 04E0712 38 9 6 3 Bodysherd of Vessel 2 04E0712 38 10 6 3 Fragment of Vessel 1 04E0712 73 1 6 Fragment of Vessel 3 04E0712 73 2 6 Bodysherd of Vessel 3 04E0712 73 3 6 Fragment of Vessel 3 04E0712 73 4 6 Fragment of Vessel 3 04E0712 73 5 6 Fragment of Vessel 3 04E0712 73 6 6 Fragment of Vessel 3 04E0712 73 7 6 Fragment of Vessel 3 04E0712 73 8 Flint flake 04E0712 73 9 6 Flint retouched Artefact 04E0712 73 10 6 Flint scraper 04E0712 73 11 6 Flint flake 04E0712 98 1 Flint core 04E0712 98 2 Flint split Pebble Fragment 04E0712 98 3 Flint debitage 04E0712 98 4 2 Quernstone 04E0712 107 1 2 Quernstone 04E0712 107 2 2 Flint split pebble 04E0712 121 1 7 Bodysherd of Vessel 4 04E0712 121 2 7 Rimsherd of Vessel 4 04E0712 121 3 7 Fragment of Vessel 4 04E0712 121 4 7 Bodysherd of Vessel 4 04E0712 121 5 7 Bodysherd of Vessel 4 04E0712 121 6 7 Bodysherd of Vessel 4 04E0712 121 7 7 Fragment of Vessel 4 04E0712 129 1 Flint blade 04E0712 135 1 Flint natural chunk 04E0712 136 1 Pottery, too small and indistinct to be assigned to vessel. 04E0712 136 2 Flint natural chunk 04E0712 145 1 7 Bodysherd of Vessel 6 04E0712 155 1 7 Fragment of Vessel 7 04E0712 170 1 7 1 Bodysherd of Vessel 5 04E0712 182 1 7 Fragment of Vessel 6 04E0712 211 1 7 Possible hammerstone 04E0712 211 2 7 5 base-angle fragments, 2 bodysherds, 4 fragments of Vessel 8 04E0712 225 1 7 Flint flake 04E0712 290 1 7 Flint retouched Artefact 04E0712 333 1 7 Possible loom weight 03E1692 Feature 1 6W Flint, possible debitage, mid grey flint with cortex (found during 3 monitoring) 03E1692 Feature 2 6W Flint, piece of debitage with cortex or possible retouched scraper? 3 Mid grey flint (found during monitoring) 03E1692 Feature 3 6W Flint, piece of unworked mid grey flint (found during monitoring) 4 03E1692 43 11 6W Unworked white stone 03E1692 50 12 6 Flint, possible debitage, mid grey flint with cortex 03E1692 50 13 6 Chert, possible debitage, pinkish white chert with cortex 03E1692 50 14 6 Flint, mid brown debitage with cortex 03E1692 50 15 6 Flint, mid brown core with cortex 03E1692 50 16 6 Flint, mid brown corehttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 90
  • 96. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 Site Code Context Find Area Grid square Description 03E1692 50 17 6 Flint, unworked flint cortex 03E1692 52 18 6 Flint, unworked flint cortex 03E1692 52 19 6 Flint, pebble, unworked http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 91
  • 97. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 14.4 Appendix 4: Plant remains from Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow 04E0712 By Mary Dillon The site is located at Ballynattin in the coastal town of Arklow, Co. Wicklow. It consisted of a three potentially Bronze Age structures and associated features. This report deals with the charred plant remains retrieved from the site and looks at the information produced on environment, agricultural practices and diet. The site was divided into seven areas and most of the samples came from Structure C in Area 7. Methodology Bulk soil samples were collected on site and were processed post-excavation using a simple flotation method. Each sample was saturated in water to allow the carbonised plant material to float, this was then poured off into a series of sieves (1mm and 250µm), trapping the ‘flot’ (floating material) which was air-dried and stored in air-tight plastic bags. The flots were sorted and scanned for plant material and charcoal using a low-powered binocular microscope (magnification x10 to x 40). Nomenclature and taxonomic orders follows Stace (1997). All twenty-five samples were scanned for botanical mate- rial. Results Eleven samples contained plant remains. Area 2 produced one sample with plant remains (sample 34, C107). This came from a furnace, lined with stones and containing a broken saddle quern. A possible flue was also identified. Only one cereal grain of indeterminate type was recovered. If this furnace was used for drying cereals it was very well cleaned out. Area 4 produced two samples with plants remains (sample 31; C82 and sample 33, C.83). Sample 31 came from a hearth. It contained a large quantity of oat grains (228) and a small amount of rye (7). Grass seeds were frequent. Sample 33 came from a posthole. It produced seven grains of emmer wheat and one seed from the knotgrass family. Area 7 produced nine samples with plant remains. Eight samples came from Structure C slot trenches (Sample 60, C.208; sample 68, C.149; sample 47; C. 149; sample 63, C.199; sample 48, C.150; sample 45, C.145; sample 33, C.83 and sample 46, C155) and one sample came from a posthole associated with Structure C (sample 56; C.181). It is postulated that there were two phases of construction, as the slot trench consisted of two cuts. Samples from both cuts were analsyed. The largest sample came from the posthole C.181, which was situated within the structure. It produced 56 barley grains, several of which were probably naked barley because they had several characteristics of naked barley, but they could not be fully identified due to poor conditions of preservation. Twenty-two emmer wheat grains and 31 indeterminate wheat grains were identified. The indeterminate wheat grains were also prob- ably emmer as no chaff from other wheat types was found. Nine emmer wheat spikelets (the piece that holds the grain to the stem) were also recognized. Sample 47 from C.149 from the secondary cut ofhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 92
  • 98. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 the slot trench of Structure C was very interesting. It contained a large amount of knotgrass seeds (130, however, this represented only one third of the seeds). Weeds from the knotgrass family 25% Indeterminate cereals 20% Plantain 4% Wheat (mostly Cleavers identified as Emmer) 3% 26% Barley 22% Fig. 1 Pie chart showing the percentage frequency of cereals and weeds seeds from Area 7 at Ballynattin Discussion There are a number of differences between the plant remains assemblages from Areas 4 and 7 at Bal- lynattin. A large amount of oat grains were identified in the hearth sample from Area 4, in contrast to their absence from Area 7. Oat originated as a weed of barley and wheat crops and was widely culti- vated in temperate regions because of its suitability to damp and cool climates (Kelly, 1998). It first ap- pears as a cultivated cereal in Ireland during the Early Christian period, although it may occasionally appear up as a weed of wheat and barley in the prehistoric period (Monk 1985/86). The amount of grains in this sample suggests that it was cultivated, and this implies that this context is not prehistoric. The author of an eight century law text Bretha Déin Chécht classes oat as being the least valued cereal, probably because it didn’t make good bread and was quite common (Kelly, 1998). As well as being used as a human food stuff, it was used as an animal fodder. The presence of oat in this sample from Area 2 is very important as it means that the hearth it came from is unlikely to date to earlier then the Early Christian period. The oats will be radiocarbon dated in order to establish their age, and the age of the hearth. The sample from Area 4 which contained the oats also contained a number of rye grains. Rye is ranked as the second most important cereal in the Bretha Déin Chécht and is found widely, but in small amounts, on Early Christian sites (Kelly, 1998; Monk et al. 1998). Rye was absent from Area 7. Most of the samples came from Structure C in Area 7. This cereal probably represents material which was swept from the floor of the building to the sides, where it accumulated against the base of thehttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 93
  • 99. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 walls and eventually in the slot trenches. It could also represent material that was used to pack the slot trenches, therefore preceding the use of the structure. The largest sample from Structure C comes from a posthole that was located within the structure. Emmer wheat is the most dominant cereal grain in the samples from Structure C Emmer wheat is not rated highly in the Bretha Déin Chécht, possibly for the reason that it is unsuitable for bread mak- ing (Kelly, 1998, 225). It has been found at Neolithic sites across Ireland, such as at settlement site at Tankardstown, Co. Limerick (Monk 1988), a Neolithic habitation layer at Townley Hall, Co. Meath (Monk 1987, 41) and for the most part has been the most common cereal found on such sites (Monk 1988). Emmer wheat was the main wheat species cultivated in Ireland until the Early Christian Period (Monk 1987, 41). Three of the samples from Structure C had emmer wheat spikelets present, thus confirming the identification of the grains. Although both wheat and barley were grown in the Bronze Age, excavations, including those at Fota Island, Co. Cork (Rutter and O’Connell 1992), Ballyveelish, Co. Tipperary (Monk 1987) and Doon- moon and Elton, both in Co. Limerick (Monk 1988, 191), have indicated that barley was the dominant crop. Barley, which originated as a wild grass in the Near East, was probably introduced to Ireland in the Neolithic (Monk 1986, 1), but became widespread during the Bronze Age period. Barley was likely an important food source as well as possible animal fodder and, significantly, can be harvested regardless of bad weather (Tierney and Hannon 2003, 155). It was well represented in the samples from Structure C. It possible that the barley here is naked barley, although the degraded nature of the surface of the grains makes definitive identification impossible. A large amount of weed seeds were identified in the assemblage. From sample 31 from Area 4, there was a significant amount of grass seeds, probably growing and harvested alongside the oats. From Area 7, weeds from the knotgrass family predominate (Fig. 1). Sample 47 produced vast quantities of such seeds, which are tiny, barely visible to the naked eye. These weeds normally are associated with dis- turbed and arable ground, but it has also been suggested that they were purposely collected and used to supplement the diet. Helbaek thought that knotgrass family weeds were eaten in Prehistoric Denmark (Helbaek, 1954) and faecal material from an 11th century house in Dublin City revealed many weed seeds, both from the knotgrass and goosefoot families (Mitchell, 1987). It is possible that, given the hundreds of weed seeds of one specific type, these seeds were purposely collected and possibly added to food stuffs. Summary The plant remains assemblage from Ballynattin provides information on agriculture and diet in the Bronze Age. The identification of oats from Area 4 is very useful as it highlights that at least some of the features here are later than Bronze Age in date. The large amount of emmer wheat identified from Structure C contrasts with the evidence from other Bronze Age sites in Ireland, where barley was the main cereal cultivated.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 94
  • 100. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 References Helbaek, H. 1954 Prehistoric food plants and weeds in Denmark. A survey of archaeological botanical research. Danmarks Geoligishe. Unders, 11, no. 80, 250-261. Copenhagen. Jones, G. 1998 Wheat grain identification – why bother? Environmental Archaeology, Vol. 2, pp. 29- 34. Kelly, F. 1998 Early Irish Farming. Dublin, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. Mitchell, G F 1951 ‘Studies in Irish Quaternary deposits’. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 53B, 111-206 Mitchell, G. F. 1987 Archaeology and Environment in Early Dublin (with contributions from C.A. Dickson and J.H. Dickson). Dublin. National Museum of Ireland/Royal Irish Academy. Monk, M. 1985/86. ‘Evidence from macroscopic plant remains for crop husbandry in prehistoric and early historic Ireland: A review’, Journal of Irish Archaeology 3. Monk, M.A. 1987 The charred plant remains from Ballyveelish. In: Cleary, R.M., Hurley, M.F and Twohig, E.A Archaeological excavations on the Cork – Dublin Gas Pipeline (1981-82), Department of Archaeology, University College Cork, Cork pp. 30-31. Monk, M.A. 1988 Archaeobotanical study of samples from pipeline sites. In: Gowen , M. Three Irish Gas Pipelines: New archaeological evidence in Munster, Wordwell, Dublin, pp. 185-191. Monk, M., Tierney, J. and Hannon M. 1998 Archaeobotanical studies. In: Monk, M. and Sheehan, J. (eds.) Early Medieval Munster. Archaeology, History and Society, Cork University Press, Cork. pp. 65-75. Rutter, E. and O’Connell, P. 1992 Fota, Co. Cork. In Digging up Cork: archaeological excavations Cork, 1992, Cork Public Museum, Cork, pp. 11-13. Stace, C.A. 1997 New Flora in the British Isles (2nd edition), Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Tierney, J. and Hannon, M. 2003 Charred plant remains. In: Cleary, R.M. Enclosed Late Bronze Age habitation site and boundary wall at Lough Gur, Co. Limerick, Royal Irish Academy, Vol. 103C, No. 4, pp. 152-157.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 95
  • 101. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 14.5 Appendix 5: Pottery Report Helen Roche and Eoin Grogan The Assemblage An assemblage of forty eight sherds was found during the excavation. Three rimsherds, six base-angle sherds, thirteen bodysherds and twenty six fragments are present, representing a minimum of eight Late Bronze Age coarse vessels (c. 1150-800 BC). Sherds representing vessels 1 and 2 were found in the slot trenches of Structure A (Contexts 32 and 38) and vessel 3 was found in a cremation pit (Context 73) in Area 6W. Sherds representing vessels 4 and 5 were associated with Structure B, coming from the fill of a slot trench (Context 121) and a stakehole (Context 170). Vessels 7 and 8 were found in primary and secondary cuts associated with Structure C (Contexts 155 and 211). The two sherds rep- resenting vessel 6 came from different areas with one sherd associated with Structure B (Context 182: external posthole) and the other associated with Structure C (Context 145:secondary cut). However, the similarity in fabric suggests that they are either part of the same vessel or represent sherds from two very similar vessels. A fragment too small to be assigned to a particular vessel was found in a posthole associated with Structure B (Context 136) The sherds are poorly preserved and fragmented but the surviving evidence demonstrates that the eight vessels were upright or tub-shaped, flat-based coarse vessels, an identification based on the featured sherds and fabric consistency. The fabric is medium to thick-walled, ranging from 7.9mm to 17.1mm in thickness with a medium to high content of inclusions. Vessels 1-6 display clear evidence in the form of carbonised matter and fire-blackening on the both surfaces, for domestic use. While varying in thickness, vessels 1, 3-5, 7 and 8 show similarities in fabric and in preservation. All examples the crumbly slightly sandy-textured fabric has a moderate to high content of inclusions and the exterior surfaces are either weathered or completely missing. The sherds representing vessels 2 and 6, although also showing evidence for weathering appear to have been more skilfully fired, with the fabric having a harder consistency and showing evidence that the exterior surfaces had been smoothed with a slurry was before firing. Few featured sherds survive with the exception of three rimsherds from vessels 1, 2 and 4 and por- tion of the base from vessel 8. Rimsherd 38:21 (vessel 1) is rounded with a slight constriction on the exterior surface. The sherd, while small, shows that the vessel was more straight-sided than curved in profile, coming from a rather small vessel probably only about 18cm in height and 16-17cm in rim diameter. The simple rounded rim 38:3 (vessel 2) is from a larger vessel measuring up to 23cm in height and 19cm in rim diameter. The curvature of the sherd shows that the vessel was tub-shaped. Rimsherd 121:2 (vessel 4) appears to represent a similarly shaped and sized vessel to the previous 1 The excavation number 04E0712 is omitted throughout; only the feature number followed by the find number is included. Where the pottery is listed the feature numbers are in bold: e.g. Rimsherd 38:2.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 97
  • 102. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 example. However, this rim is flat with a constriction on the exterior surface below which is a low raised cordon-like feature which would have given the upper portion of the vessel a bulbous profile. The profile of the base-angle sherds from vessel 8 is gently stepped and again would have represented a tub-shaped vessel. Comparative Assemblages The Late Bronze Age assemblage from Ballynattin is a welcome and important addition to our under- standing of this prehistoric period in Co. Wicklow. Regionally it represents one of a growing number of similarly dated sites displaying comparative pottery assemblages, for example, Johnstown, Co. Wicklow (Fitzpatrick 1998), Rathgall, Co. Wicklow (Raftery 1995, 154-5; Roche forthcoming) [30 km to west of IDA Business Park Arklow], Lugg, Co. Dublin (Kilbride-Jones 1950; Roche forthcom- ing) and Freestone Hill, Co. Kilkenny (Raftery 1969). The overall fabric construction, shape and rim type of the Ballynattin vessels can be widely paralleled throughout the country and has been found in both domestic and funerary contexts. Significant Late Bronze Age ceramic assemblages from both domestic and funerary contexts have been studied from the Knockadoon peninsula in Co. Limerick (Ó Ríordáin 1954; Grogan and Eogan 1987; Cleary 1995), the Grange Stone Circle (Ó Ríordáin 1951; Roche 2004), several occupation and burial sites in southeast Limerick (Gowen 1988) and the settle- ment site at Knocknalappa, Co. Clare (Raftery, J. 1942; Grogan et al. 1999). Catalogue Vessel 1. Rim fragment 38:2 and ten fragments 32:1, 2, 4, 8, 9; 38:4-6, 7, 10. Rounded rim with slight constriction on the exterior surface just below the rim. Poor quality friable fabric with a moderate content of inclusions (≤5.0mm). Much of the exterior surface is missing but where it survives it has been smoothed. Carbonised matter is present on areas of the interior surface. Colour: orange/grey-black/black-buff. Thickness: 9.8-10.0mm. Vessel 2. Rimsherd 38:3, four bodysherds 32:3, 6/7; 38:1, 9 and a fragment 38:8. Slightly in-turned rounded rim. Hard, brittle fabric, slightly sandy in texture with a moderate to high content of inclusions (≤5.2mm). The surfaces are weathered and inclusions protrude through the sur- face but the exterior surface had been originally smoothed. Carbonised matter is present on areas of the interior surface. Colour: orange-grey/black/black-grey. Thickness: 10.8-12.9mm. Vessel 3. A bodysherd 73:2 and six fragments 73:1, 3-7. Hard friable fabric with a high content of inclusions (≤7.0mm). The surfaces are weathered and rough to touch and inclusions protrude, the exterior surface is missing. Carbonised matter is present on areas of the interior surface. Colour: orange/grey-black/grey-black. Thickness: 9.5-10.4mm. Vessel 4. Rimsherd 121:2, four bodysherds 121:1, 4, 5, 6 and two fragments 121:3, 7. Flat rim with a slight constriction on the exterior surface, below which is low raised ridge/cordon- like feature. Thick-walled, hard, good quality slightly brittle fabric with a high content of inclusionshttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 98
  • 103. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 (≤7.1mm). Much of the exterior surface is weathered and rough to touch but the rimsherd is relatively smooth. Traces of carbonised matter are present on the interior surface and on the exterior surface just below the rim. Colour: orange-black/grey-black/grey-black. Thickness: 12.1-17.1mm. Vessel 5. Bodysherd 170:1. Hard coarse fabric with a high content of inclusions (≤4.1mm). The exterior surface is weathered and missing with inclusions protruding. Slight traces of carbonised matter are present on the interior sur- face. Colour: orange/grey/orange-grey. Thickness: 11.0mm. Vessel 6. A bodysherd 145:1 and a fragment 182:1. Thick-walled, hard compact fabric with a moderate to high content of inclusions (≤3.9mm). Little of the exterior surface survives but the surviving area shows that it had been smoothed. Small cavities are present on both surfaces. The interior surface is fire-blackened. Colour: orange/orange-black/grey- black. Thickness: 11.3-13.9mm. Vessel 7. A fragment 155:1. Hard friable, slightly sandy textured fabric with a moderate to high content of inclusions (≤2.9mm). The sherd is weathered and the exterior surface is missing. Colour: orange/orange/buff. Thickness: 8.1mm. Vessel 8. Five base-angle fragments 211:2a-e, two bodysherds 211:2f-g and four fragments 211:h-k. Gently stepped base-angle. Poorly preserved coarse friable fabric with a high content of inclusions (≤9.5mm). The surfaces are weathered and inclusions protrude through the surfaces. Colour: orange/ black/orange. Thickness: 9.1-10.9mm. A fragment too small and indistinct to be included as a vessel - 136:1. Friablt fabric with a moderate content of inclusions (≤2.3mm). The exterior surface is abraded and little survives. Colour: orange/black/black. Thickness: 7.9mm.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 99
  • 104. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 References Cleary, R. 1995 Later Bronze Age Settlement and Prehistoric Burials, Lough Gur, Co. Limerick, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 95C, 1-92. Fitzpatrick, M. 1998 Johnstown South enclosure, Co. Wicklow, in I. Bennett (ed.) Excavations 1997, 199-200, Wordwell, Dublin. Gowen, M. 1988 Three Irish Gas Pipelines: New Archaeological Evidence in Munster. Wordwell, Dublin. Grogan, E. and Eogan, G. 1987 Lough Gur excavations by Seán P. Ó Ríordáin: further Neolithic and Beaker habitations on Knockadoon, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 87C, 299-506. Grogan, E., O’Sullivan, A., O’Carroll F. and Hagen, I. 1999 Knocknalappa, Co. Clare: a reappraisal, Discovery Programme Reports 6, 111-123, The Discovery Programme/Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. Kilbride-Jones, H. 1950 The excavation of a composite Early Iron Age monument with “Henge” features at Lugg, Co. Dublin, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 53C, 311-32. Ó Ríordáin, S.P. 1951 Lough Gur excavations: The Great Stone Circle (B) in Grange townland, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 54C, 37-74. Ó Ríordáin, S.P. 1954 Lough Gur Excavations: Neolithic and Bronze Age Houses on Knockadoon, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 56C, 297-459. Raftery, J. 1942 Knocknalappa crannóg, Co. Clare. North Munster Antiquarian Journal 3, 53-72. Raftery, B. 1969 Freestone Hill, Co. Kilkenny: an Iron Age hillfort and Bronze Age cairn. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 68C, 1-108. Raftery, B. 1995 The Conundrum of Irish Iron Age Pottery, 149-156. In B. Raftery (ed.) Sites and Sights of the Iron Age. Oxbow Monograph 56, Oxford. Roche, H. 2004 The Dating of the Embanked Stone Circle at Grange, Co. Limerick. In H. Roche, E. Grogan, J. Bradley, J. Coles and B. Raftery (eds) From Megaliths to Metals, 109-116. Oxbow Books. Oxford. Roche, H. forthcoming The Prehistoric Pottery Assemblage from Rathgall, Co. Wicklow. In B. Raftery Excavations at Rathgall, Co. Wicklow. Roche, H. forthcoming The Late Bronze Age Pottery Assemblage from Lugg, Co. Dublin.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 100
  • 105. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 14.6 Lithics Finds Report for 03E1692 and 04E0712 Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow Farina Sternke Department of Archaeology, University College Cork The lithic assemblage from Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow (03E1692 and 04E0712) presented for analysis consists of 65 pieces, 62 of which are flints, two are volcanics, possibly rhyolites, and one is a piece of quartz. Condition: The majority of the lithics are fresh or slightly patinated and nineteen lithics are patinated, while a few are weathered, waterrolled and four are burnt and heatfractured (see Table 1). Condition Amount Fresh 19 Slightly Patinated 17 Patinated 19 Slightly Weathered 1 Weathered 2 Waterrolled 3 Burnt 4 Total 65 Table 1 Assemblage Conditionhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 101
  • 106. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 Context: The majority of finds are associated with a spread of re-deposited natural and possibly the dumping of burnt deposits in a natural hollow (Table 2). Four finds 04E0712:73:8-11 were recovered from a potential cremation pit, while 04E0712:107:2 was associated with the fill of a furnace. Find Number Context Description Type 03E1692:20 Surface Stray Find Natural Chunk 04E0712:1:1 Surface Topsoil Core 04E0712:1:2 Surface Topsoil Flake 04E0712:1:3 Surface Topsoil Flake 04E0712:1:4 Surface Topsoil Flake 04E0712:1:5 Surface Topsoil Flake 04E0712:1:6 Surface Topsoil Slug Knife 04E0712:1:7 Surface Topsoil Flake 04E0712:1:8 Surface Topsoil Flake 04E0712:1:9 Surface Topsoil Flake 04E0712:1:10 Surface Topsoil Flake 04E0712:25:1 25 re-deposited natural + dumping of burnt deposits in natural hollow Flake 04E0712:25:2 25 re-deposited natural + dumping of burnt deposits in natural hollow Core 04E0712:25:3 25 re-deposited natural + dumping of burnt deposits in natural hollow Flake 04E0712:25:4 25 re-deposited natural + dumping of burnt deposits in natural hollow Split Pebble Fragment 04E0712:25:5 25 re-deposited natural + dumping of burnt deposits in natural hollow Flake 04E0712:25:6 25 re-deposited natural + dumping of burnt deposits in natural hollow Flake 04E0712:25:7 25 re-deposited natural + dumping of burnt deposits in natural hollow Split Pebble 04E0712:25:8 25 re-deposited natural + dumping of burnt deposits in natural hollow Flake 04E0712:25:9 25 re-deposited natural + dumping of burnt deposits in natural hollow Core 04E0712:25:10 25 re-deposited natural + dumping of burnt deposits in natural hollow Split Pebble 04E0712:25:11 25 re-deposited natural + dumping of burnt deposits in natural hollow Core 04E0712:25:12 25 re-deposited natural + dumping of burnt deposits in natural hollow Split Pebble Fragment 04E0712:25:13 25 re-deposited natural + dumping of burnt deposits in natural hollow Flake 04E0712:25:14 25 re-deposited natural + dumping of burnt deposits in natural hollow Flake 04E0712:25:15 25 re-deposited natural + dumping of burnt deposits in natural hollow Flake 04E0712:25:16 25 re-deposited natural + dumping of burnt deposits in natural hollow Flake 04E0712:25:17 25 re-deposited natural + dumping of burnt deposits in natural hollow Flake 04E0712:25:18 25 re-deposited natural + dumping of burnt deposits in natural hollow Flake 04E0712:25:19 25 re-deposited natural + dumping of burnt deposits in natural hollow Scraper 04E0712:25:20 25 re-deposited natural + dumping of burnt deposits in natural hollow Flake 04E0712:25:21 25 re-deposited natural + dumping of burnt deposits in natural hollow Split Pebble 04E0712:25:22 25 re-deposited natural + dumping of burnt deposits in natural hollow Core 04E0712:73:8 73 potential cremation pit Flake 04E0712:73:9 73 potential cremation pit Retouched Artefact 04E0712:73:10 73 potential cremation pit Scraper 04E0712:73:11 73 potential cremation pit Flake 04E0712:107:2 107 fill of a furnace Split Pebble Table 2 Context Information (where known) for the Stratified Lithicshttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 102
  • 107. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 Technology: The worked lithic material includes the technologically classifiable items shown in the Table 3 below. The technology is marked by an exploitation of beach flint pebbles which were split on an anvil, how- ever, find 03E1692:15 is a simple single platform core. This core is a reasonably large example. It is commonly suggested that the bipolar technique would frequently be used when the core becomes too small to be handheld during reduction, it therefore is not unusual to find single-platform cores in as- sociation with bipolar cores. Two more unusual core forms, 04E0712:25:9 and 04E0712:25:11, were found within the same context (C25). They are split pebble halves which have been worked on 60 percent of its circumference in cen- tripetal fashion. Exploitation ceased when the removal surface became too flat and the resulting flakes became more reduced in size due to an increase in hinge fractures. This distinct reduction was prob- ably carried out by a more inexperienced knapper, while the remainder of the assemblage does contain evidence for experienced knappers in the form of well prepared core rejuvenation flakes. Finds 04E0712:25:21 and 04E0712:107:2 are split pebbles, which were tested, found to be unsuitable and then discarded. Find 03E1692:19 is an unmodified beach pebble which was probably found to be unsuitable for reduction. Flake 04E0712:33:2 is comparatively large and was possibly brought in from a region to the north were flint is more abundant and the general nodule size larger. Of particular interest are the two volcanic, possibly rhyolite, flakes (04E0712:1:7 and 04E0712:1:9) which were probably produced on the same nodule. Type Amount Core 8 Flake 33 Blade 2 Debitage 2 Retouched Artefact 7 Split Pebbles 9 Natural Pebble/Flake/Chunk 4 Total 65 Table 3 Assemblage Compositionhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 103
  • 108. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 Retouched Artefacts: The retouched component of the assemblage is dominated by end scrapers (04E0712:25:19, 04E0712:36:1 and 04E0712:73:10) (Table 4). An unfinished slug knife (04E0712:1:6) was recovered from the surface. Type Amount Slug Knife 1 Scraper 3 Miscellaneous Retouched Artefact 3 Total 7 Dating: The end scrapers and the unfinished slug knife suggest a dating of the assemblage to the Bronze Age. This is supported by the bipolar core technology and the suggested overall interpretation of the exca- vated features at the site. Interpretation: The lithic finds from Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow represent predominantly waste products from flake production as well as a few retouched tool forms associated with hide processing and other general domestic tasks. The fact that none of the flint pieces refit supports the suggestion that many of the deposits were the result of dumping. It is likely that the flintknapping activity took place elsewhere on the site. Overall, the assemblage supports the dating of the excavated cremation pits and furnace to the Bronze Age.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 104

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