Eachtra JournalIssue 10                                               [ISSN 2009-2237]             Archaeological Excavati...
EACHTRAArchaeological Projects                          Archaeological Excavation Report                          Post-med...
Archaeological Excavation Report                Post-medieval Ditches and Linear Features                                 ...
© Eachtra Archaeological Projects 2011  The Forge, Innishannon, Co Cork          Printed in Ireland
Table of ContentsSummary��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������...
List of Figures     Figure1:         TherouteoftheN8FermoytoMitchelstownBypassoverlainontheOrdnance                       ...
Gortore 2-e3973                                          http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3973-gortore2-co-cork/Summar...
iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237                          archaeoloGical excavation report              Acknowle...
Gortore 2-e3973                                          http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3973-gortore2-co-cork/1     ...
iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237                            archaeoloGical excavation report              2     ...
Gortore 2-e3973                                                                                                           ...
iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237                                                                                ...
Gortore 2-e3973                                          http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3973-gortore2-co-cork/     T...
iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237                                                                                ...
Gortore 2-e3973                                         http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3973-gortore2-co-cork/    The...
iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237                              archaeoloGical excavation report              Moor...
Gortore 2-e3973                                                   http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3973-gortore2-co-co...
iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237                              archaeoloGical excavation report              Plat...
Gortore 2            North facing section of ditch C.27, C.25 and C.29                                                    ...
iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237                                 archaeoloGical excavation report              P...
Gortore 2-e3973                                                 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3973-gortore2-co-cork...
iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237                                     archaeoloGical excavation report           ...
Gortore 2-e3973                                                 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3973-gortore2-co-cork...
iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237                             archaeoloGical excavation report              9    ...
Gortore 2-e3973                                          http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3973-gortore2-co-cork/Append...
iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237                          archaeoloGical excavation report              13      ...
Gortore 2-e3973                                http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3973-gortore2-co-cork/27         Cut o...
iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237   archaeoloGical excavation report              Appendix 2 Site Matrix20
Gortore 2-e3973                                            http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3973-gortore2-co-cork/Appe...
iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237                                 archaeoloGical excavation report              S...
Gortore 2-e3973                                        http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3973-gortore2-co-cork/Group 2 ...
Archaeological Report - Gortore 2, Co. Cork (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Gortore 2, Co. Cork (Ireland)
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Archaeological Report - Gortore 2, Co. Cork (Ireland)

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The site at Gortore 2 was discovered during Phase 2 geophysical testing when a possible ditched enclosure was identified. The excavated site comprised as series of ditches, linear features and furrows that were probably post-medieval in date.

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Archaeological Report - Gortore 2, Co. Cork (Ireland)

  1. 1. Eachtra JournalIssue 10 [ISSN 2009-2237] Archaeological Excavation Report E3973 - Gortore 2, Co. Cork Post-medieval Ditches and Linear Features
  2. 2. EACHTRAArchaeological Projects Archaeological Excavation Report Post-medieval Ditches and Linear Features Gortore 2 Co Cork May 2011 Client: Cork County Council Project: N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown E No: E3973Excavation Director: John Tierney Written by: John Tierney, Debbie Leigh and Penny Johnston
  3. 3. Archaeological Excavation Report Post-medieval Ditches and Linear Features Gortore 2 Co Cork Excavation Director John Tierney Written By John Tierney, Debbie Leigh and Penny Johnston EACHTRA Archaeological Projects CORK GALWAY The Forge, Innishannon, Co. Cork Unit 10, Kilkerrin Park, Liosbain Industrial Estate, Galwaytel: 021 4701616 | web: www.eachtra.ie | email: info@eachtra.ie tel: 091 763673 | web: www.eachtra.ie | email: galway@eachtra.ie
  4. 4. © Eachtra Archaeological Projects 2011 The Forge, Innishannon, Co Cork Printed in Ireland
  5. 5. Table of ContentsSummary���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������iiiAcknowledgements������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ iv1 Scopeoftheproject�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Routelocation��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 23 Receivingenvironment��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 24 Archaeologicalandhistoricalbackground��������������������������������������������������������������������� 5 Early medieval period (c. AD 500 to 1100) ......................................................................................... 5 High and later medieval periods (c. AD 1100 to 1650) ................................................................ 7 Post-medieval period (c. 1650 to the present). ................................................................................ 75 SiteLocationandTopography�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 86 Excavationmethodology������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 87 Excavationresults������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 108 Discussion�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 149 References�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 16Appendix1 StratigraphicIndex�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 17Appendix2 SiteMatrix������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 20Appendix3 Groupsandsubgroups������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 21 � i
  6. 6. List of Figures Figure1: TherouteoftheN8FermoytoMitchelstownBypassoverlainontheOrdnance SurveyDiscoverySeriesmap���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3 Figure2: TherouteoftheN8FermoytoMitchelstownBypassoverlainonthefirstedition OrdnanceSurveymapCO019,020,027and028��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4 Figure3: TherouteoftheN8FermoytoMitchelstownBypassoverlainontheRMPmap CO019, 020, 027 and 028� The map is based on the second edition Ordnance Surveymaps������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 6 Figure4: Post-excavationplanofGortore2E3973������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 9 Figure5: South-facing section through ditches C�25, C�29 and C�31, showing how C�25 truncatedtheothertwoditches�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 11 List of Plates Plate1: Sectionoftheditch(C�5),fromtheeast������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������10 Plate2: Sectionoftheditch(C�5),fromthenorth-east����������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Plate3: Sectionoftheditch(C�5),fromtheeast������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 12 Plate4: Sectionoftheditch(C�5),fromthesouth��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 13 Plate5: AerialviewofGortore2,showingthecurvilinearditch(C�5)andtheremaining linearditchesandfurrows�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 13 Plate6: Sectionshowingtherelationshipbetweentheditches(C�15andC�17),fromthe south������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 15 Plate7: Sectionoftheditch(C�19),fromtheeast����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 15 List of Tables Table1:DitchesexcavatedatGortore2������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 14 Table2:FurrowsatGortore2�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 14ii
  7. 7. Gortore 2-e3973 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3973-gortore2-co-cork/SummaryThe site at Gortore 2 was discovered during Phase 2 geophysical testing when a possibleditched enclosure was identified. The excavated site comprised as series of ditches, linearfeatures and furrows that were probably post-medieval in date.Road project name N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown BypassSite name Gortore 2Ministerial Order no. AO40E no. E3973Site director John TierneyTownland GortoreParish KilcrumperBarony FermoyOS Map Sheet No. CO27National Grid Reference 181741 101458 iii
  8. 8. iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report Acknowledgements The senior archaeologist was John Tierney and the post-excavation managers were Penny Johnston and Jacinta Kiely. Administration of the project was by Choryna Kiely and Fiona Greene. Illustrations are by Ben Blakeman and Maurizio Toscano. Photographs are by John Sunderland, Hawkeye and Eachtra Archaeological Projects. The project was funded by the Irish Government under the National Development Plan 2007-2013 and was commissioned by Cork County Council on behalf of the National Roads Authority. The project archaeologist was Ken Hanley.iv
  9. 9. Gortore 2-e3973 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3973-gortore2-co-cork/1 Scope of the projectThe archaeological works associated with the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown Bypass wascarried out on behalf of Cork County Council, National Road Design Office, Rich-mond, Glanmire, Co. Cork. The project was funded by the Irish Government under theNational Development Plan 2007-2013. The total archaeological cost was administeredby the National Roads Authority through Cork County Council as part of the Author-ity’s commitment to protecting our cultural heritage. The purpose of the archaeologicalservices project was to conduct archaeological site investigations within the lands madeavailable, to assess the nature and extent of any potential new sites uncovered and topreserve by record those sites of agreed archaeological significance, as approved by theDepartment of Environment, Heritage and Local Government in consultation with theNational Museum of Ireland. Phase 1 of the project (archaeological testing of the route) was carried out in October2005 under licence 05E1150 issued by Department of the Environment Heritage and Lo-cal Government (DoEHLG). The principal aim of this phase of the project was to test forany previously unknown sites by a programme of centreline and offset testing and to testsites of archaeological potential identified in the EIS and geophysical surveying. Five Cul-tural Heritage Sites were tested under individual excavation licences 05E1122-05E1126. Phase 2 of the project (resolution) involved the resolution of all archaeological sitesidentified within the proposed road corridor prior to commencement of the constructionof the bypass. This phase of the project was carried out from September 2006 to Septem-ber 2007 and excavations were conducted under the management of a Senior Archaeolo-gist. A total of 28 sites were excavated during this phase of works under separate licencesissued by DoEHLG. A post-excavation assessment and strategy document was prepared in Phase 3 of theproject to present a management strategy for dealing with post-excavation work arisingfrom archaeological works along the route of the new N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown By-pass. It included a proposal for post-excavation and archiving work and a budget for theworks. The document detailed the location of the route, the receiving environment, thearchaeological and historical background, the scope of the project and the circumstancesand scope of fieldwork. The document presented a scheme-wide summary of the archaeo-logical findings, a research framework within which the findings were dealt with and apublication plan and dissemination strategy for the end results. 1
  10. 10. iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report 2 Route location The route of the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown road is located in the rich pastureland of North Cork (Figures 1 and 2). The project involves the construction of c. 16 km of the N8 from Gortore north of Fermoy to Carrigane north-east of Mitchelstown. The N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown road passes through the townlands of Gortore, Ballynacarriga, Glen- wood, Ballinglanna North, Ballinrush, Caherdrinny, Gortnahown, Ballybeg, Turbeagh, Glenatlucky, Ballynamona, Kilshanny, Corracunna, Kildrum, Garryleagh, and Carrig- ane. The townlands are located in the parishes of Kilcrumper, Glanworth and Brigown and Barony of Condons Clangibbon, with the exception of Gortore, and Glenwood, which are located in the Barony of Fermoy. The route begins at the northern end of the Fermoy Bypass at Gortore, c. 2km north of Fermoy, and continues northwards across the River Funshion, and to the west of the Glencorra Stream, a tributary of the Funshion, for 4 km. At Caherdrinny, it crosses over the western extremities of the Kilworth Mountains. From there it descends north-east- wards onto the broad plain that extends east and north-eastwards from Mitchelstown. It crosses the existing N8 at Gortnahown and passes to the east of Mitchelstown, crossing the R665 Mitchelstown-Ballyporeen road and links up with the N8 Cashel Mitchelstown Road at Carrigane south of Kilbeheny and 2 km west of where the borders of the Cork, Limerick and Tipperary counties meet. 3 Receiving environment The topography of East Cork and Waterford consists of east/west valleys separated by in- tervening ridges. The ridges consist of sandstones and mudstones of the Devonian Period (Old Red Sandstone) laid down 355-410 million years ago and the valleys of Carbonifer- ous limestones laid down 290-355 million years ago. The sediments covering many of the rocks are mainly of glacial origin deposited by glacial ice or meltwater (Sleeman and McConnell. 1995, 1). The landscape of the area is dominated by the Galtee Mountains to the north, the Ballyhoura Mountains to the north-west, the Kilworth Mountains to the east and the Nagles to the south. The landscape is drained by the Blackwater River, the Funshion River (which flows into the Blackwater River c. 2 km north-east of Fermoy), and the Glencorra Stream, a tributary of the Funshion River. The largest population centres in the area, Fermoy and Mitchelstown, have developed on the banks of the River Blackwater and Gradoge (a tributary of the Funshion), respectively. The route begins at Gortore, c. 2 km north of Fermoy, at an elevation of c. 40 m OD. At Caherdrinny, it rises to its maximum elevation of c. 180 m OD as it crosses over the western extremities of the Kilworth Mountains, before descending onto the broad plain that that extends east and north-eastwards from Mitchelstown, at an elevation of 100-120 m OD.2
  11. 11. Gortore 2-e3973 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3973-gortore2-co-cork/ N Derry Donegal Antrim Tyrone Leitrim Fermanagh Armagh Down Sligo Cavan Garryleagh 1 Carrigane 1 Louth Mayo Roscommon Longford E2433 E2434 Meath Westmeath Dublin Gal ay w Offaly Kildare Clare Laois Wicklow Kildrum 1 Carlow E3971 Tippeary r Kilkenny Limerick Wexford Kilshanny 3 Kerry N8 Waterford E2432 Cork Kilshanny 2 E2431 Ballynamona 2 Kilshanny 1 E2429 E2430 Ballynamona 1 Glenatluckly 1 E2428 E2427 Gortnahown 2 E2426 Gortnahown 1 Gortnahown 3 E2423 E2477 Gortnahown 4 E3832 Caherdrinny 3 E2422 Caherdrinny 2 E2421 Caherdrinny 1 E2420 Ballinrush 1 E2419 Ballinglanna North 5 E2418 Ballinglanna North 4 E2417 Ballinglanna North 3 E2416 Ballinglanna North 6 E3972 Ballinglanna North 2 E2415 Ballinglanna North 1 E2414 Ballynacarriga 3 E2412 Ballynacarriga 2 E2413 Ballynacarriga 1 Key E2411 Post Medieval Gortore 1B Early Medieval E2410 Prehistoric Site Gortore 2 2 Gortore E3973 E3973 Prehistoric Settlement Site Burnt Mound Non-archaeological 0km 2km Townland BoundariesFigure1: TherouteoftheN8FermoytoMitchelstownBypassoverlainontheOrdnanceSurveyDiscoverySeriesmap� 3
  12. 12. iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report N Derry Donegal Antrim Tyrone Leitrim Fermanagh Armagh Down Sligo Cavan Garryleagh 1 Carrigane 1 Louth Mayo Roscommon Longford E2433 E2434 Meath Westmeath Dublin Gal ay w Offaly Kildare Clare Laois Wicklow Kildrum 1 Carlow E3971 Tippeary r Kilkenny Limerick Wexford Kilshanny 3 Kerry N8 Waterford E2432 Cork Kilshanny 2 E2431 Ballynamona 2 Kilshanny 1 E2429 E2430 Ballynamona 1 Glenatluckly 1 E2428 E2427 Gortnahown 2 E2426 Gortnahown 1 Gortnahown 3 E2423 E2477 Gortnahown 4 E3832 Caherdrinny 3 E2422 Caherdrinny 2 E2421 Caherdrinny 1 E2420 Ballinrush 1 E2419 Ballinglanna North 5 E2418 Ballinglanna North 4 E2417 Ballinglanna North 3 E2416 Ballinglanna North 6 E3972 Ballinglanna North 2 E2415 Ballinglanna North 1 E2414 Ballynacarriga 3 E2412 Ballynacarriga 2 E2413 Ballynacarriga 1 Key E2411 Post Medieval Gortore 1B Early Medieval E2410 Prehistoric Site Gortore 2 2 Gortore E3973 E3973 Prehistoric Settlement Site Burnt Mound Non-archaeological 0km 2km Townland BoundariesFigure2: The route of the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown Bypass overlain on the first edition Ordnance Survey map CO019,020,027and028�4
  13. 13. Gortore 2-e3973 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3973-gortore2-co-cork/ The soils on the southern portion of the route are characterised by acid brown earthsderived from mixed sandstone and limestone glacial till. These soils occur generally inthe valleys of Cork and Waterford (Gardiner and Radford 1980, 61), and have a wide userange, being suitable for tillage and grass production. The soils on the western limits ofKilworth Mountains are characterised by brown podzolics derived from sandstone. Thesoils on the northern portion of the route are characterised by brown podzolics derivedfrom sandstone and shale glacial till. They have a wide range of potential uses and are wellsuited to arable and pastoral farming (ibid., 67). Land use along the route was almost en-tirely grassland devoted to intensive dairying and cattle-rearing, with only an occasionaltillage field.4 Archaeological and historical backgroundArchaeological sites of numerous periods were discovered along the route of the newroad (Figure 2). The periods are referred to as follows: Mesolithic (c. 8000 to 4000 BC),Neolithic (c. 4000 to 2000 BC), Chalcolithic (Beaker) (c. 2500-2000 BC), Bronze Age(c. 2000 to 500 BC), and Iron Age (c. 500 BC to AD 500), early medieval period (c. AD500 to 1100), medieval period (c. AD 1100 to 1650), post-medieval period (c. AD 1650 tothe present).Early medieval period (c. AD 500 to 1100)The early medieval period is characterised by the arrival of Christianity to Ireland. Thecharacteristic monument type of the period is the ringfort. Ringforts are the most nu-merous archaeological monument found in Ireland, with estimates of between 30,000and 50,000 illustrated on the first edition of the Ordnance Survey 6” maps of the 1840’s(Barry 1987). As a result of continued research, the construction of these monuments hasa narrow date range during the early medieval period between the 7th and 9th centuriesAD. Although there are some very elaborate examples of ringforts, they often take theform of a simple earth or stone enclosure functioning as settlements for all classes of secu-lar society (Stout 1997). A major research excavation of two ringforts was undertaken at Lisleagh, c. 2.5 km tothe west of the N8 route, in the late 1980s/early1990s. Structural, domestic and industrialevidence was recorded at both sites. A number of stake and wattle round houses, andironworking were recorded in Lisleagh I, which had two phases of occupation, rangingfrom the early 7th century to the 9th century AD (Monk 1995, 105-116). Souterrains, frequently associated with ringforts and enclosures, are man made un-derground chambers linked by narrow passageways. The concealed entrance is locatedat ground level. It is thought souterrains were used for storage or places of refuge duringtimes of trouble (Clinton 2001). It has also been hypothesised that some may have beenused for housing slaves. 5
  14. 14. iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report N Derry Donegal Antrim Tyrone Leitrim Fermanagh Armagh Down Sligo Cavan Garryleagh 1 Carrigane 1 Louth Mayo Roscommon Longford E2433 E2434 Meath Westmeath Dublin Gal ay w Offaly Kildare Clare Laois Wicklow Kildrum 1 Carlow E3971 Tippeary r Kilkenny Limerick Wexford Kilshanny 3 Kerry N8 Waterford E2432 Cork Kilshanny 2 E2431 Ballynamona 2 Kilshanny 1 E2429 E2430 Ballynamona 1 Glenatluckly 1 E2428 E2427 Gortnahown 2 E2426 Gortnahown 1 Gortnahown 3 E2423 E2477 Gortnahown 4 E3832 Caherdrinny 3 E2422 Caherdrinny 2 E2421 Caherdrinny 1 E2420 Ballinrush 1 E2419 Ballinglanna North 5 E2418 Ballinglanna North 4 E2417 Ballinglanna North 3 E2416 Ballinglanna North 6 E3972 Ballinglanna North 2 E2415 Ballinglanna North 1 E2414 Ballynacarriga 3 E2412 Ballynacarriga 2 E2413 Ballynacarriga 1 Key E2411 Post Medieval Gortore 1B Early Medieval E2410 Prehistoric Site Gortore 2 2 Gortore E3973 E3973 Prehistoric Settlement Site Burnt Mound Non-archaeological 0km 2km Townland BoundariesFigure3: TherouteoftheN8FermoytoMitchelstownBypassoverlainontheRMPmapCO019,020,027and028�The mapisbasedonthesecondeditionOrdnanceSurveymaps�6
  15. 15. Gortore 2-e3973 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3973-gortore2-co-cork/ The monastery of Brigown (which gave the name to the modern parish in Mitchel-stown) was founded in the 7th century by Fanahan. Fanahan is reputed to have com-missioned seven smiths to make seven sickles which were used by him for self-mortifica-tion. The new monastery was named, Brí Gabhann, for the smiths (Power 1996, 3). Theecclesiastical remains comprise a church, graveyard, holy well and site of round tower(CO019:30/01-05). A possible enclosure site with evidence of metalworking was excavatedby John Purcell in Brigown. This was possibly the enclosure of Brigown. No dates wereobtained from the site (John Purcell personal communication). A ringfort and associated souterrain (CO027-109) were excavated on the route of theN8 Fermoy – Mitchelstown at Ballynacarriga 2 (E2413). Two circular houses and a com-prehensive range of metalworking activities were excavated at Gortnahown 2 (E2426).Sites with evidence of metalworking activities were also excavated at Ballynamona 2(E2429) and Ballinglanna North 1 (E2412).High and later medieval periods (c. AD 1100 to 1650)This period is characterized by the arrival of the Anglo-Normans and the building oftower houses. Mitchelstown was formerly known as Brigown / Mitchelstown (CO019-149). It was listed as a market town in 1299 and was located on the southern bank of theGradoge River, to the east of Mitchelstown Castle (Power et al. 2000, 595). The towndeveloped under the patronage of the House of Desmond. It passed into the hands of theEarls of Kingston in the 17th century (Power 1996, 23). The Condon family controlled the barony of Condons and Clongibbon. Two oftheir castles are located in close vicinity to the route of the N8 FM. Cloghleagh Castle(CO027:113) is located on the northern bank of the Funshion River to the east of thenew route. It was built on an outcrop of limestone bedrock. It is a 5-storey tower withassociated bawn wall (Power et al. 2000, 537). Caherdrinny Castle (CO019:97/02) is lo-cated to the west of the route. It was a 5-storey tower built within the hillfort enclosure(CO019:97/0103). Glanworth Castle (Boherash CO027-42) is located on a sheer lime-stone cliff overlooking the River Funshion 5 km to the west of the route. The 13th-centuryhall house is associated with a four-sided walled enclosure (ibid. 516).Post-medieval period (c. 1650 to the present).The post-medieval period is characterised by mills, limekilns, workhouses, country hous-es and associated demesnes, vernacular buildings and field systems. Three demesnes as-sociated with country houses are within the route of the N8 at Moorepark, Ballynacarrigaand Glenwood. The estate system was dismantled in Ireland in the early 20th century.Demesnes usually comprise of a large country house with associated stables, farm build-ings and gate lodges, areas of woodland and ornamental gardens etc. The demesne wasusually enclosed by a high stone wall such as that associated with Moorepark. Moore-park house and demesne was the seat of the Earls Mountcashell (Lewis 1998, 312). The 7
  16. 16. iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report Moorepark Estate covered an area around 800 acres and extended both north and south of the river Funshion. The house was sold to the British War Office c. 1903 by the 5th Earl’s daughter (Bence-Jones 1996, 211). It burned down in 1908 and was never rebuilt. No trace of it now survives The demesne is clearly defined by woodland on the 1841-2 and 1906 edition Ordnance Survey maps, which was most likely enclosed by a wall. It is likely that the demesne walls are contemporary with the mansion house and therefore date to the 18th century. The Cork to Dublin mail coach road originally ran to west of the demesne walls as it appears on the 1841-2 and 1906 Ordnance Survey maps. The site of a workhouse (C0019-11301-) built in 1852 is located in Kilshanny townland to the east of Mitchelstown. The complex of buildings, including a hospital chapel and mortuary, was enclosed within a three-metre high limestone wall and could accommo- date up to 600 people. Closed in 1916 and burned by the IRA in 1922, only the boundary wall and main entrance way survive today (Power 2002, 48). A late 19th century bridge of rubble limestone approached by a causeway at either end and carrying a tertiary road from Kilworth-Glanworth over the Glencorra Stream. A road crosses the stream at the same location on the 1841-2 Ordnance survey map, but the bridging structure is not named. The site is named Glencorra Bridge on the 1906 Ordnance Survey map. This site is of local architectural significance. 5 Site Location and Topography This site at Gortore 2 lies near the top of a hill overlooking the River Funshion. It was found on a north-facing slope, on raised ground between the Funshion to the north and the Blackwater c. 3 km to the south. 6 Excavation methodology The excavation was carried out under E-Number E3973 and complied with the method statement approved by the Department of Environment, Heritage, and Local Govern- ment, in consultation with the National Museum of Ireland. The site was mechanically stripped of topsoil under strict archaeological supervision. Stripping was done with a tracked machine with a flat toothless bucket. Where appropriate mini-diggers were used, and in the larger areas to be stripped multiple large tracked machines were used; all strip- ping operations involved the use of multiple dumpers for topsoil mounding. Topsoil strip- ping commenced in the areas of identified archaeology and continued radially outward until the limit of the road take was reached or until the limit of the archaeological re- mains was fully defined. A grid was set up in the excavation area(s) and all archaeological features were sufficiently cleaned, recorded and excavated so as to enable an accurate and meaningful record of the site to be preserved. The excavation, environmental sampling, site photographs, site drawings, find care and retrieval, on-site recording and site archive8
  17. 17. Gortore 2-e3973 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3973-gortore2-co-cork/ 181731 181754 ±101480 101480 5 19 31 O ) 43 m O.D. 13 27 29 25 7 3 15 17101440 101440 0 10 m 181731 181754 Figure4: Post-excavationplanofGortore2E3973� 9
  18. 18. iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report Plate1: Sectionoftheditch(C�5),fromtheeast� was as per the Procedures for Archaeological works as attached to the licence method statements for excavation licences. The site was excavated over a period of one week in September 2007 by a crew of five people. Only areas within the CPO were resolved. 7 Excavation results The archaeological remains at Gortore 2 comprised ditches and furrows (Figure 4). Full details of these archaeological features are found in the stratigraphic index (Appendix 1), the stratigraphic matrix (Appendix 2) and the groups and sub-groups text (Appendix 3). A total of seven ditches were excavated at Gortore 2 (C.3/C.5, C.15, C.17, C.25, C.27, C.29 and C.31). The largest ditch at the site was C.3/C.5. It was originally excavated as two separate features because they were separated by a gap, and hence they were excavated as two context numbers (C.3 and C.5). However, it is likely that these were two parts of the same ditch. The ditch curved from south to north to north-west and measured c. 50 m x 1.4 m x 0.5 m (Plates 1 and 2). The fills (C.4, C.8, C.10, C.11, C.22, and C.24) were mostly a firm mid brown sand silt with occasional pebbles (Plates 3 and 4). The ditch was truncated by a furrow (C.7) in the middle, by a furrow (C.13) at the north end and by another furrow (C.19) at the north-west. The remaining ditches were all linear in plan (Plate 5) and four of these were aligned north to south (C.5, C.25, C.27 and C.29), two were aligned north-west to south-east (C.17 and C.31), and two were aligned north-east to south-west (C.3 and C.15). Some10
  19. 19. Gortore 2 North facing section of ditch C.27, C.25 and C.29 Gortore 2-e3973 Natural C.30 C.28 C.26 C.29 C.27 C.25 Gortore 2 South facing section of ditch C.25, C.29 and C.31 Natural C.30 C.32 C.26 Natural C.31 C.29 Natural C.25 10 cm 0 50 cm http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3973-gortore2-co-cork/ Figure5: South-facingsectionthroughditchesC�25,C�29andC�31,showinghowC�25truncatedtheothertwoditches�11
  20. 20. iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report Plate2: Sectionoftheditch(C�5),fromthenorth-east� Plate3: Sectionoftheditch(C�5),fromtheeast�12
  21. 21. Gortore 2-e3973 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3973-gortore2-co-cork/Plate4: Sectionoftheditch(C�5),fromthesouth�Plate5: AerialviewofGortore2,showingthecurvilinearditch(C�5)andtheremaininglinearditches andfurrows�ditches were truncated by other ditches, for example ditch (C.15) truncated ditch (C.17),as shown in Plate 6, and ditch (C.25) truncated ditches C.29 and C.31, as shown in Figure5. These ditches probably represent the remains of drainage features and field boundariesand they are probably late medieval or post-medieval in date. Three furrows were excavated (C.7, C.13 and C.19). Two of the furrows (C.7 and C.13)were aligned from east to west, and the remaining furrow (C.19, Plate 7) was aligned from 13
  22. 22. iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report north-east to south-west. These three furrows were probably the most recent features at the site and all three truncated the linear (C.5). Ditch Length Width Depth Alignment Truncated by? Shape C.3/ 50 m 1.4 m 0.5 m S–N – NW C.7, C.13 Curvilinear C.5 C.19 C.15 7m 1.42 m 0.22 m NE – SW Linear C.17 15 m 0.74 m 0.38 m NW – SE C.3/C.5 C.15 Linear C.25 4.66 m 1.66 m 0.46 m N –S C.27 Linear C.27 5m 0.93 m 0.43 m N–S Linear C.29 7m 1.66 m 0.47 m N–S C.25 Linear C.31 5m 0.65 m 0.31 m NW –SE C.25 C.26 Linear Table1:DitchesexcavatedatGortore2 Furrow Length Width Depth Alignment C.7 15 m 0.45 m 0.07 m E–W C.13 5m 0.48 m 0.08 m E–W C.19 5m 0.7 m 0.06 m NE – SW Table2:FurrowsatGortore2 The archaeological features at this site appear to be associated with agricultural activ- ity and are relatively recent, probably post-medieval, in origin. 8 Discussion It is likely that the ditches at Gortore 2 are post-medieval in date. They may have served several functions; marking property boundaries, protecting arable fields against wild and domestic animals, enclosing domestic animals to protect from predators, lessening of wind velocity etc. (see Groenman-van Waateringe 1981, 285). As there were no finds in the ditches excavated at Gortore 2 there is no archaeological material to indicate the na- ture of the ditches and their use at this site but it most likely that these were field bounda- ries associated with early enclosure of the agricultural land. No obvious post-medieval house or farmstead associated with this field system was found during excavation or from a search of the First Edition Ordnance Survey map, although there is a possible settle- ment site within Gortore, located at the western part of the townland, almost adjacent to townland of Moorepark West. Ditch complexes were also found at Garryleagh, Carrigane and Kilshanny 1. It is likely that these ditches were also associated with enclosure, but, since enclosure hap- pened in stages, these sites are not necessarily contemporary.14
  23. 23. Gortore 2-e3973 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3973-gortore2-co-cork/Plate6: Sectionshowingtherelationshipbetweentheditches(C�15andC�17),fromthesouth�Plate7: Sectionoftheditch(C�19),fromtheeast� 15
  24. 24. iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report 9 References Barry, T. (1987) The Archaeology of Medieval Ireland. Methuen Co. Ltd. London. Bence-Jones, M. (1996) A Guide to Irish County Houses. Constable Co. Ltd. London. Clinton, M. (2001) The Souterrains of Ireland. Wordwell. Bray. Gardiner, M.J. Radford,T. (1980) Soil Assocaitions of Ireland and Their Land Use Potential. An Foras Talúntais. Groenman-van Waateringe, W. 1981. ‘Field boundaries in Ireland’, pp. 285-290 in Ó Corráin (ed.) Irish Antiquity. Four Courts Press. Dublin. Lewis, S. (1988) Lewis’ Cork: A Topographical Dictionary of the Parishes, Towns and Villages of Cork City and County. Collins Press. Cork. Monk, M. (1995) ‘A tale of two ringforts: Lisleagh I and II’, Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society 100, 105 – 116. Power, D., Lane, S. and Byrne, E., Egan, U., Sleeman, M., with Cotter, E., Monk, J. (2000) Archaeological Inventory of County Cork, Volume 4: North Cork Parts I II. The Stationery Office. Dublin. Power, B. (2002) Images of Mitchelstown. Stories and pictures of my own place. Mount Cashell Books. Power, B. (1996) From the Danes to Dairygold A History of Mitchelstown. Mount Cashell Books. Sleeman, A.G., and McConnell, B. (1995) Geology of East Cork-Waterford. Geological Survey of Ireland. Stout, M. (1997) The Irish Ringfort. Four Courts Press. Dublin.16
  25. 25. Gortore 2-e3973 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3973-gortore2-co-cork/Appendix 1 Stratigraphic IndexContext Context Fill Filled Strat Strat Short Description Dimen-# Type of with Above Below sions (m)3 Cut of 4 4 2 Linear in plan, square corners 8.50 x 1.40 linear on NE and NW, sharp break of x 0.40 ditch slope at top. Sides are concave, sloping moderately. Break of slope at base is gradual. Base is square in plan and concave in profile.4 Fill of 3 1 3 Softly compacted light orang- n/a x 1.25 x ditch ish brown sandy silt; occasional 0.56 inclusions of fine and medium sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles and small sub-angular and sub-rounded stones.5 Cut of 8, 10, 24 2 Linear in plan, corners are 41 x 1.30 x linear 11, square on NE and NW, break 0.50 feature 21, of slope at top is sharp. Sides 22, 24 slope moderately and are con- cave. Break of slope at base is gradual. Base is concave in plan. Truncated by furrow (C.7) in middle, furrow (C.13) in N and furrow (C.19) in NW.6 VOID Cancelled7 Cut of 9 9 2 Linear in plan, gradual break c.15 x 0.45 furrow of slope at top and base. Sides x 0.07 slope gently and are concave. Base is square in plan and con- cave in profile.8 Fill of 5 11, 22 24 Firmly compacted mid grey- 41 x 1.28 x ditch ish brown sandy silt; frequent 0.66 inclusions of fine medium and coarse angular and sub-angular pebbles and small angular and sub-angular stones, moderate inclusions of medium angular and sub-angular stones and occasional inclusions of large angular and sub-angular stones and charcoal flecks.9 Fill of 7 1 7 Softly compacted dark grey- c.15 x 0.45 furrow ish brown sandy silt; frequent x 0.07 inclusions of fine and medium angular and sub-angular peb- bles and charcoal flecks.10 Fill of 5 1 11 Firmly compacted mid brown 7 x 0.90 x ditch sandy clay, moderate inclusions 0.34 of coarse angular pebbles and occasional inclusions of fine angular pebbles, small angular stones, charcoal flecks and small charcoal pieces.11 Fill of 5 10 8 Softly compacted mid orangish 7 x 1 x 0.38 ditch brown sandy silt; occasional in- clusions of medium and coarse angular pebbles, small angular stones and charcoal flecks.12 VOID Cancelled 17
  26. 26. iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report 13 Cut of 14 14 2 Linear in plan, gradual break 5 x 0.48 x furrow of slope at the top. Sides slope 0.08 gently and are concave. Break of slope at the base is impercep- tible. Base is sub-rectangular in plan and concave in profile. 14 Fill of 13 1 13 Firmly compacted light yellow- 5 x 0.48 x furrow ish brown sandy clay; occasional 0.08 inclusions of fine and medium angular pebbles. 15 Cut of 16 16 2 Linear in plan, break of slope at 7 x 1.42 x ditch top and base is gradual. Sides 0.22 slope gently and are concave. Base is concave in profile. 16 Fill of 16 1 15 Mid brown silt; occasional 7 x 1.42 x ditch inclusions of fine rounded and 0.22 sub-rounded pebbles. 17 Cut of 18 18 2 Linear in plan, corners are 15 x 0.74 x ditch square, break of slope at top and 0.38 base is sharp. Sides slope steeply and are concave. Base is linear in plan and concave in profile. Truncated by ditch (C.3). 18 Fill of 17 1 17 Firmly compacted mid orangish 15 x 0.74 x ditch brown sandy silt; occasional 0.38 inclusions of fine sub-angular, sub-rounded and rounded peb- bles and small sub-angular and sub-rounded stones. 19 Cut of 20 20 19 linear in plan, gradual break 5 x 0.70 x furrow of slope at top and base. Sides 0.06 slope gently and are concave. Base is concave in profile. 20 Fill of 19 1 19 Firmly compacted light yellow- 5 x 0.70 x furrow ish brown sandy clay; frequent 0.06 inclusions of fine angular and sub-angular pebbles. 21 Deposit 1 22 Firmly compacted mid brown 5 x 0.53 x sandy silt. 0.16 22 Fill of 5 21 8 Softly compacted mid greyish n/a x 0.90 x ditch brown sandy silt; occasional 0.29 inclusions of fine and medium angular and sub-angular peb- bles, small angular stones and charcoal flecks. 23 VOID Cancelled 24 Fill of 5 8 5 Firmly compacted mid orangish 2 x 0.60 x ditch brown gritty silt; occasional 0.34 inclusions of fine pebbles. 25 Cut of 26 26 2 Linear in plan. W side slopes 4.66 x ditch moderately and is concave. 1.66 x 0.46 Break of slope at the base is gradual. Base is linear in plan and concave in profile. 26 Fill of 25 1 25 Softly compacted mid greyish linear brown clayey silt; occasional feature inclusions of fine and medium sub-angular, sub-rounded and rounded pebbles and small sub-angular and sub-rounded stones.18
  27. 27. Gortore 2-e3973 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3973-gortore2-co-cork/27 Cut of 28 28 2 Linear in plan, gradual break 5 x 0.93 x linear of slope at top and base. E side 0.43 feature is concave, sloping moderately. Base is linear in plan and con- cave in profile.28 Fill of 27 1 27 Firmly compacted mid orangish 5 x 0.93 x linear brown sandy silt; occasional 0.43 feature inclusions of fine sub-angular, sub-rounded and rounded pebbles.29 Cut of 30 30 2 Linear in plan, sharp break of 7 x 1.66 x ditch slope at top. Sides slope moder- 0.47 ately and are concave. Break of slope at base is gradual. Base is irregular in plan. Truncated by ditch (C.25).30 Fill of 29 1 29 Stiff mid orangish brown gritty 7 x 1.66 x ditch silt; occasional inclusions of fine 0.47 sub-angular, sub-rounded and rounded and medium sub-an- gular and sub-rounded pebbles and small sub-rounded stones.31 Cut of 32 32 2 Linear in plan, gradual break of 5 x 0.65 x linear slope at top. E side is irregular, 0.31 feature sloping gently, W side is cut by C.26.32 Fill of 31 1 31 Light greyish yellow silt; 5 x 0.65 x linear frequent inclusions of fine and 0.31 feature medium angular and sub-angu- lar pebbles. 19
  28. 28. iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report Appendix 2 Site Matrix20
  29. 29. Gortore 2-e3973 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3973-gortore2-co-cork/Appendix 3 Groups and subgroupsThe following context numbers were cancelled: C.1, C.2, C.6, C.12 and C.23Group 1 DitchesThis group describes the six ditches excavated.Subgroup {1a} Ditch C.3/C.5Contexts: C.3 (C.4), C.5, C.8, C.10, C.11, C.22 C.24Description: This subgroup describes the largest ditch on site. C.3 and C.5 were excavatedseparately and are separated by a gap, they are likely to be two parts of the one ditch. Thecurvilinear ditch has a sharp break of slope at top. Sides slope moderately and are concave.Break of slope at base is gradual. Base is concave in profile. The fills, C.4, C.8, C.10, C.11,C.22, and C.24 are mostly a firm mid brown sand silt with occasional pebbles. Truncatedby furrow (C.7) in middle, furrow (C.13) at the north end and furrow (C.19) at the north-west. The ditch curves from south to north to north-west. The ditch measures c.50 m x1.4 m x 0.5 mSubgroup {1b} Ditch C.15Contexts: C.15, C.16.Description: This subgroup describes the ditch C.15. The ditch is linear in plan, the breakof slope at top and base is gradual. Sides slope gently and are concave. The base is concavein profile. The fill is a mid brown silt with occasional inclusions of fine rounded and sub-rounded pebbles. The ditch measures more than 7 m from north-east to south-west by1.42 m x 0.22 m deep. This ditch truncates ditch C.17.Subgroup {1c} Ditch C.17Contexts: C.17, C.18.Description: This subgroup describes the ditch C.17. The ditch is linear in plan, cornersare square, break of slope at top and base is sharp. Sides slope steeply and are concave.Base is linear in plan and concave in profile. The fill is firm mid orange brown sand siltwith occasional inclusions of fine sub-angular, sub-rounded and rounded pebbles andsmall sub-angular and sub-rounded stones. The ditch measures 15 m north-west to south-east by 0.74 m by 0.38 m deep. Truncated by ditches C.3/C.5 and C.15. 21
  30. 30. iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report Subgroup {1d} Ditch C.25 Contexts: C.25, C.26. Description: This subgroup describes the ditch C.25. Linear in plan. The west side slopes moderately and is concave. Break of slope at the base is gradual. Base is linear in plan and concave in profile. The fill is soft mid grey brown clay silt with occasional fine and medium sub-angular, sub-rounded and rounded pebbles and small sub-angular and sub- rounded stones. The ditch measures more than 4.66 m from north to south by 1.66 m by 0.46 m deep. It truncates C.29 C.31, and is truncated by C.27. Subgroup {1e} Ditch C.27 Contexts: C.27, C.28. Description: This subgroup describes the ditch C.27. Linear in plan with a gradual break of slope at top and base. The east side is concave, sloping moderately. The base is linear in plan and concave in profile. The fill is a firm mid orange brown sand silt with occasional fine sub-angular, sub-rounded and rounded pebbles. The ditch measures 5 m from north to south by 0.93 m by 0.43 m deep. This ditch C.27 truncates ditch C.25. Subgroup {1f} Ditch C.29 Contexts: C.29, C.30. Description: This subgroup describes the ditch C.29. Linear in plan with a sharp break of slope at the top. Sides slope moderately and are concave. Break of slope at base is gradual. Base is irregular in plan. The fill is a stiff mid-orange brown gritty silt with occasional fine sub-angular, sub-rounded and rounded and medium sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles and small sub-rounded stones. The ditch measures more than 7 m from north to south by 1.66 m by 0.47 m deep. This ditch C.29 is truncated by ditch C.25. Subgroup {1g} Ditch C.31 Contexts: C.31, C.32. Description: This subgroup describes the ditch C.31. Linear in plan with a gradual break of slope at top. The east side is irregular, sloping gently, the west side is truncated by C.26. Light greyish yellow silt; frequent inclusions of fine and medium angular and sub-angular pebbles. The ditch measures 5 m north-west to south-east by 0.65 m by 0.31 m deep. Ditch C.31 is truncated by ditches C.25 26.22
  31. 31. Gortore 2-e3973 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3973-gortore2-co-cork/Group 2 Agricultural featuresThis group describes agricultural featuresSubgroup {2a} FurrowsContexts: C.7, C.9, C.13, C.14, C.19, C.20Description: This subgroup describes three furrows. Two, C.7 C.13 are orientated fromeast to west, and C.19 is orientated from north-east to south-west. Fills C.14 C.20 arefirm compact light yellow brown sand clay with occasional pebbles, fill C.9 is soft darkgrey brown sand silt; with frequent pebbles. The cuts have a gradual break of slope at top base, the sides slope gently and are concave, the bases are concave.Subgroup {2b} DepositContexts: 21Description: This group describes a firm mid brown sand silt deposit on top of ditch fillC.22. The origin of the deposit is unknown. 23

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