Archaeological Report - Gortore 1 b, Co. Cork (Ireland)
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Archaeological Report - Gortore 1 b, Co. Cork (Ireland)

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The excavation of the site at Gortore 1b E2410 comprised three areas, 1, 2 and 3. The site was located on the southern bank of the River Funshion. A truncated house and a group of pits and post-holes ...

The excavation of the site at Gortore 1b E2410 comprised three areas, 1, 2 and 3. The site was located on the southern bank of the River Funshion. A truncated house and a group of pits and post-holes were excavated in Area 1. A group of pits, some dating to the Mesolithic period, were excavated in Area 2. A large concentration of pits, post-holes and hearths, which formed at least two possible structures, were excavated in Area 3. The underlying limestone geology and the formation of sink holes in Area 3 were problematic.
An important assemblage of lithic artefacts, dating from the Early Mesolithic to the Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age, was recovered, in particular from Area 2 and Area 3. An assemblage of Early Neolithic carinated bowls and Middle Neolithic gobular bowls was also recovered from the site. A corn-drying kiln dated to the early medieval period was recorded in Area 1.

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Archaeological Report - Gortore 1 b, Co. Cork (Ireland) Archaeological Report - Gortore 1 b, Co. Cork (Ireland) Document Transcript

  • Eachtra JournalIssue 10 [ISSN 2009-2237] Archaeological Excavation Report E2410 - Gortore 1b, Co. Cork Mesolthic, Neolithic, and Early Bronze Age activity on the banks of the River Funshion
  • EACHTRAArchaeological Projects Archaeological Excavation Report Mesolthic, Neolithic, and Early Bronze Age activity on the banks of the River Funshion at Gortore 1b Co. Cork Prehistoric settlement site Date: May 2011 Client: Cork County Council Project: N8 Fermoy Mitchelstown E No: E2410Excavation Director: Julianna ODonoghue Written by: Julianna ODonoghue
  • Archaeological Excavation Report Mesolthic, Neolithic, and Early Bronze Age activity on the banks of the River Funshion at Gortore 1b Co. Cork Excavation Director Julianna ODonoghue Written By Julianna ODonoghue EACHTRA Archaeological Projects CORK GALWAY The Forge, Innishannon, Co. Cork Unit 10, Kilkerrin Park, Liosbain Industrial Estate, Galwaytel: 021 4701616 | web: www.eachtra.ie | email: info@eachtra.ie tel: 091 763673 | web: www.eachtra.ie | email: galway@eachtra.ie
  • © Eachtra Archaeological Projects 2011 The Forge, Innishannon, Co Cork Set in 12pt Garamond Printed in Ireland
  • Table of Contents Summary��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� v Acknowledgements�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� vi1 Scope of the project �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Route location��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 13 Receiving environment ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 34 Archaeological and historical background ��������������������������������������������������������������������� 45 Site Location and Topography ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 116 Excavation methodology ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 117 Excavation results ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 12 Area1��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������12 Area2��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������24 Area3��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������33 Lithicfinds���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 48 Pottery������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������52 Plantremains��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 54 � Crematedbone���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 54 Radiocarbondate������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 548 Discussion ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������56 Mesolithic����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������56 Neolithic������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 60 LateNeolithic/EarlyBronzeAge����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 64 Earlymedieval������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 649 References ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 65Appendix 1 Stratigraphic index �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 67Appendix 2 Site matrix �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������179Appendix 3 Groups and subgroups ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������184 �Appendix 4 Finds register ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 214Appendix 5 Lithic artefact report ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������230Appendix 6 Pottery Report ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������279Appendix 7 Plant remains report����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������295Appendix 8 Osteoarchaeological Report ������������������������������������������������������������������������307 �Appendix 9 Finds catalogue ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 318 i
  • List of Figures Figure 1: The route of the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown Bypass overlain on the Ordnance Survey Discovery Series map� ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 Figure 2: The route of the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown Bypass overlain on the first edition Ordnance Survey map CO010, 011, 019, 020, 027 and 028� ��������������������������������������������������������� 5 Figure 3: The route of the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown Bypass overlain on the RMP map CO010, 011, 019, 020, 027 and 028� The map is based on the second edition Ordnance Survey maps� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������10 Figure 4: Plan of location of Areas 1-3 in Gortore 1b� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 13 Figure 5: Post-excavation plan of Area 1 Gortore 1b� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 15 Figure 6: Section plan of pit C�57 in Area 1 Gortore 1b� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 17 Figure 7: Section plans of pit C�456 and kiln C�93, C�94 and C�456 Area 1 in Gortore 1b� ����������������� 19 Figure 8: Section plans of ditches C�80 and C�116 in Area 1 Gortore 1b� ������������������������������������������������22 Figure 9: Post-excavation plan of Area 2 Gortore 1b� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������25 Figure 10: Profile plans of pits C�527 and C�260 in Area 2 Gortore 1b� ������������������������������������������������������26 Figure 11: Section and profiles plans of pits C�622 and C�548 and ditch C�1189 in Area 2 Gortore 1b� �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������28 � Figure 12: Post-excavation plan of Area 3 Gortore 1b� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������34 Figure 13: Post-excavation plan of NW area of Area 3 Gortore 1b showing location of Structure 2� �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������35 Figure 14: Section plan of pit C�1063 in Area 3 Gortore 1b� ���������������������������������������������������������������������������39 Figure 15: Section plans of pits C�585, C�1270, C�1271, 1272, C�1280, C�1273 and C�1313 in Area 3 Gortore 1b� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������43 Figure 16: Plan of Structure 3 in Area 3 Gortore 1b� �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������45 Figure 17: E2410:1:231 Early Mesolithic axe from Gortore 1b� ����������������������������������������������������������������������49 � Figure 18: E2410:1:58 Moynagh Point from Gortore 1b� ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������49 � Figure 19: E2410:548:1 Kerry Point from Gortore 1b� ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������51 Figure 20: Sherds of Early Neolithic carinated bowls from vessels 1, 11 and 13 and sherds of Middle Neolithic globular ware from vessels 21 and 22 from Gortore 1b� �������������������������53 � Figure 21: Plan of Area 2 and 3 in Gortore 1b showing distribution of lithic artefacts� ����������������������57 Figure 22: Reconstuction drawing of Mesolithic activity at Gortore 1b� ��������������������������������������������������58 Figure 23: Plan of Areas 1-3 at Gortore 1b E2410 on the route of the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown and Area 1 and 2 at Gortore E2119 on the route of the N8 Rathcormac to Fermoy� �������59 � Figure 24: Plan of Area 1 in Gortore 1b showing distribution of Neolithic pottery� ����������������������������� 61 Figure 25: Plan of Area 2 and 3 in Gortore 1b showing distribution of Neolithic pottery� �����������������62ii
  • List of PlatesPlate 1: View of Structure 1 in Area 1 Gortore 1b (Photo: John Sunderland) ������������������������������������� 14Plate 2: Pre-excavation of slot trench C�56 and 103 from west in Area 1 Gortore 1b� �������������������� 14Plate 3: Post-excavation view of slot trench C�211 in Area 1 Gortore 1b� �������������������������������������������� 16Plate 4: Post-excavation view of kiln C�93 and C�94 from south in Area 1 Gortore 1b� �������������������20Plate 5: Post-excavation view of the ditch C�67 in Area 1 Gortore 1b� ��������������������������������������������������23Plate 6: Aerial view of Area 2 in Gortore 1b (Photo: Hawkeye)� ���������������������������������������������������������������24Plate 7: View of pit C�527 in Area 2 Gortore 1b (Photo: John Sunderland)� ����������������������������������������27Plate 8: View of pit C�622 from south in Area 2 Gortore 1b (Photo: John Sunderland)� �����������������30Plate 9: Aerial view of Area 3 in Gortore 1b from south-west (Photo: Hawkeye)� �����������������������������33Plate 10: View of pit C�1063 from south in Area 3 Gortore 1b (Photo: John Sunderland)� ���������������40Plate 11: View of pits C�1154 and C�1119 in foreground and pit C�1228 in background from west in Area 3 Gortore 1b (Photo: John Sunderland)� ����������������������������������������������������������������� 41Plate 12: View of pit C�1204 in Area 3 in Gortore 1b� �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������44Plate 13: View of postholes C�534, C1302 and C�1316 that formed part of Structure 3 in Area 3 Gortore 1b� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������44Plate 14: Early Mesolithic limestone axe E2410:1:231 and flint blade E2410:1:128 from Gortore 1b (Photo: John Sunderland)� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������49Plate 15: Group of Late Mesolithic artefacts from Gortore 1b (L–R) (a) Kerry Point E2410:548:1, (b) retouched artefact E2410:1:60, (c) Moynagh point E2410:1:58 and (d) blade (recovered during testing) 05E1150:1:1 (Photo: John Sunderland)� ��������������������50Plate 16: Group of coarse stone tools from Gortore 1b� �������������������������������������������������������������������������������50Plate 17: Group of blue flint (a) E2410:1:66, (b) E2410:1:67, (c) E2410:1:69, (d) E2410:1:59 (e) E2410:1:64, (f) E2410:1:82, (g) E2410:1108:4 and (h) E2410:1:61 from Gortore 1b E2410 (Photo: John Sunderland)� ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������51Plate 18: Late Mesolithic Points E2410:548:1 and E2410:1:58 from Gortore 1b� �����������������������������������52 iii
  • List of Tables Table 1 Corresponding area and field numbers of the three main areas of excavation at Gortore��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Table 2 Dimensions of slot trenches ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Table 3 Dimensions of pits C�95, C�136 and C�160 ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 18 Table 4 Dimensions of hearths C�9 and C�82 �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������20 Table 5 Dimensions of the ditches in Area 1 ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������21 Table 6 Dimensions and dates of crescent-shaped pits in Area 2 and Area 3� ����������������������������������29 Table 7 Dimensions of large pits in Area 3� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������36 Table 8 Stake-holes associated with pits ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������46 Table 9 Dimensions of occupation layers ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������47 Table 10 Radiocarbon dates for Gortore 1b E2410�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������55 Table 11 Late Mesolithic dates and artefacts recovered from pits in Area 2 and 3 at Gortore� �����58 Table 12 Dimensions and dates of Neolithic rectangular houses on the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown and the N8 Rathcormac to Fermoy and of Structure 1 at Gortore 1b� �����60iv
  • Gortore 1b-e2410 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/SummaryThe excavation of the site at Gortore 1b E2410 comprised three areas, 1, 2 and 3. Thesite was located on the southern bank of the River Funshion. A truncated house and agroup of pits and post-holes were excavated in Area 1. A group of pits, some dating tothe Mesolithic period, were excavated in Area 2. A large concentration of pits, post-holesand hearths, which formed at least two possible structures, were excavated in Area 3. Theunderlying limestone geology and the formation of sink holes in Area 3 were problematic.An important assemblage of lithic artefacts, dating from the Early Mesolithic to the LateNeolithic/Early Bronze Age, was recovered, in particular from Area 2 and Area 3. Anassemblage of Early Neolithic carinated bowls and Middle Neolithic gobular bowls wasalso recovered from the site. A corn-drying kiln dated to the early medieval period wasrecorded in Area 1.Road project name N8 Fermoy to MitchelstownSite name GortoreE no. E2410Ministerial Order no. A040Site director Julianna O’DonoghueTownland GortoreParish KilcrumperBarony FermoyOS Map Sheet No. CO27National Grid Reference 181757 101500 – 1818658 101599 v
  • iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report Acknowledgements The senior archaeologist was John Tierney and the post-excavation managers were Penny Johnston and Jacinta Kiely. Administration of the project was by Choryna Kiely and Fiona Greene. Illustrations are by Ben Blakeman and Maurizio Toscano. Photographs are by John Sunderland, Hawkeye and Eachtra Archaeological Projects. Reconstruc- tion drawing by Rhoda Cronin and specialist analysis was carried out by Mary Dillon, Eoin Grogan and Helen Roche, Penny Johnston, Ian McGee, Farina Sternke, and the 14 Chrono Centre at Queen’s University Belfast. The project was funded by the Irish Government under the National Development Plan 2007-2013 and was commissioned by Cork County Council on behalf of the National Roads Authority. The project archaeolo- gist was Ken Hanley.vi
  • Gortore 1b-e2410 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/1 Scope of the projectThe archaeological works associated with the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown Bypass wascarried out on behalf of Cork County Council, National Road Design Office, Rich-mond, Glanmire, Co. Cork. The project was funded by the Irish Government under theNational Development Plan 2007-2013. The total archaeological cost was administeredby the National Roads Authority through Cork County Council as part of the Author-ity’s commitment to protecting our cultural heritage. The purpose of the archaeologicalservices project was to conduct archaeological site investigations within the lands madeavailable, to assess the nature and extent of any potential new sites uncovered and topreserve by record those sites of agreed archaeological significance, as approved by theDepartment of Environment, Heritage and Local Government in consultation with theNational Museum of Ireland. Phase 1 of the project (archaeological testing of the route) was carried out in October2005 under licence 05E1150 issued by Department of the Environment Heritage and Lo-cal Government (DoEHLG). The principal aim of this phase of the project was to test forany previously unknown sites by a programme of centreline and offset testing and to testsites of archaeological potential identified in the EIS and geophysical surveying. Five Cul-tural Heritage Sites were tested under individual excavation licences 05E1122-05E1126. Phase 2 of the project (resolution) involved the resolution of all archaeological sitesidentified within the proposed road corridor prior to commencement of the constructionof the bypass. This phase of the project was carried out from September 2006 to Septem-ber 2007 and excavations were conducted under the management of a Senior Archaeolo-gist. A total of 28 sites were excavated during this phase of works under separate licencesissued by DoEHLG. A post-excavation assessment and strategy document was prepared in Phase 3 of theproject to present a management strategy for dealing with post-excavation work arisingfrom archaeological works along the route of the new N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown By-pass. It included a proposal for post-excavation and archiving work and a budget for theworks. The document detailed the location of the route, the receiving environment, thearchaeological and historical background, the scope of the project and the circumstancesand scope of fieldwork. The document presented a scheme-wide summary of the archaeo-logical findings, a research framework within which the findings were dealt with and apublication plan and dissemination strategy for the end results.2 Route locationThe route of the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown road is located in the rich pastureland ofNorth Cork (Figure 1). The project involves the construction of c. 16 km of the N8 fromGortore north of Fermoy to Carrigane north-east of Mitchelstown. The N8 Fermoy toMitchelstown road passes through the townlands of Gortore, Ballynacarriga, Glenwood,Ballinglanna North, Ballinrush, Caherdrinny, Gortnahown, Ballybeg, Turbeagh, Glena- 1
  • iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report N Derry Donegal Antrim Tyrone Leitrim Fermanagh Armagh Down Sligo Cavan Garryleagh 1 Carrigane 1 Louth Mayo Roscommon Longford E2433 E2434 Meath Westmeath Dublin Gal ay w Offaly Kildare Clare Laois Wicklow Kildrum 1 Carlow E3971 Tippeary r Kilkenny Limerick Wexford Kilshanny 3 Kerry N8 Waterford E2432 Cork Kilshanny 2 E2431 Ballynamona 2 Kilshanny 1 E2429 E2430 Ballynamona 1 Glenatluckly 1 E2428 E2427 Gortnahown 2 E2426 Gortnahown 1 Gortnahown 3 E2423 E2477 Gortnahown 4 E3832 Caherdrinny 3 E2422 Caherdrinny 2 E2421 Caherdrinny 1 E2420 Ballinrush 1 E2419 Ballinglanna North 5 E2418 Ballinglanna North 4 E2417 Ballinglanna North 3 E2416 Ballinglanna North 6 E3972 Ballinglanna North 2 E2415 Ballinglanna North 1 E2414 Ballynacarriga 3 E2412 Ballynacarriga 2 E2413 Ballynacarriga 1 Key E2411 Post Medieval Gortore 1B1B Gortore Early Medieval E2410 E2410 Gortore 2 Prehistoric Site E3973 Prehistoric Settlement Site Burnt Mound Non-archaeological 0km 2km Townland BoundariesFigure 1: The route of the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown Bypass overlain on the Ordnance Survey Discovery Series map� 2
  • Gortore 1b-e2410 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/tlucky, Ballynamona, Kilshanny, Corracunna, Kildrum, Garryleagh, and Carrigane. Thetownlands are located in the parishes of Kilcrumper, Glanworth and Brigown and Baronyof Condons & Clangibbon, with the exception of Gortore, and Glenwood, which arelocated in the Barony of Fermoy. The route begins at the northern end of the Fermoy Bypass at Gortore, c. 2km northof Fermoy, and continues northwards across the River Funshion, and to the west of theGlencorra Stream, a tributary of the Funshion, for 4 km. At Caherdrinny, it crosses overthe western extremities of the Kilworth Mountains. From there it descends north-east-wards onto the broad plain that extends east and north-eastwards from Mitchelstown. Itcrosses the existing N8 at Gortnahown and passes to the east of Mitchelstown, crossingthe R665 Mitchelstown-Ballyporeen road and links up with the N8 Cashel MitchelstownRoad at Carrigane south of Kilbeheny and 2 km west of where the borders of the Cork,Limerick and Tipperary counties meet.3 Receiving environmentThe topography of East Cork and Waterford consists of east/west valleys separated by in-tervening ridges. The ridges consist of sandstones and mudstones of the Devonian Period(Old Red Sandstone) laid down 355-410 million years ago and the valleys of Carbonifer-ous limestones laid down 290-355 million years ago. The sediments covering many ofthe rocks are mainly of glacial origin deposited by glacial ice or meltwater (Sleeman andMcConnell 1995, 1). The landscape of the area is dominated by the Galtee Mountains to the north, theBallyhoura Mountains to the north-west, the Kilworth Mountains to the east and theNagles to the south. The landscape is drained by the Blackwater River, the FunshionRiver (which flows into the Blackwater River c. 2 km north-east of Fermoy), and theGlencorra Stream, a tributary of the Funshion River. The largest population centres inthe area, Fermoy and Mitchelstown, have developed on the banks of the River Blackwaterand Gradoge (a tributary of the Funshion), respectively. The route begins at Gortore, c. 2 km north of Fermoy, at an elevation of c. 40 m OD.At Caherdrinny, it rises to its maximum elevation of c. 180 m OD as it crosses over thewestern extremities of the Kilworth Mountains, before descending onto the broad plainthat that extends east and north-eastwards from Mitchelstown, at an elevation of 100-120m OD. The soils on the southern portion of the route are characterised by acid brown earthsderived from mixed sandstone and limestone glacial till. These soils occur generally inthe valleys of Cork and Waterford (Gardiner and Radford 1980, 61), and have a wide userange, being suitable for tillage and grass production. The soils on the western limits ofKilworth Mountains are characterised by brown podzolics derived from sandstone. Thesoils on the northern portion of the route are characterised by brown podzolics derivedfrom sandstone and shale glacial till. They have a wide range of potential uses and are well 3
  • iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report suited to arable and pastoral farming (ibid., 67). Land use along the route was almost en- tirely grassland devoted to intensive dairying and cattle-rearing, with only an occasional tillage field. 4 Archaeological and historical background Archaeological sites of numerous periods were discovered along the route of the new road (Figure 2). The periods are referred to as follows: Mesolithic (c. 8000 to 4000 BC), Neolithic (c. 4000 to 2000 BC), Chalcolithic (Beaker) (c. 2500-2000 BC), Bronze Age (c. 2000 to 500 BC), and Iron Age (c. 500 BC to AD 500), early medieval period (c. AD 500 to 1100), medieval period (c. AD 1100 to 1650), post-medieval period (c. AD 1650 to the present). A number of Giant Irish Deer (Megaloceros giganteus) skulls, large antlers, antler frag- ments and various long-bones were retrieved from the clay sediments, c. 1.5 m below the peat stratum at Ballyoran Bog (04E1014) on the route of the N8 Rathcormac Fermoy. A radiocarbon date of cal BC 11201-10962 was returned for the Giant Irish Deer. Gi- ant Irish Deer are extinct but are known to have inhabited Ireland during two separate periods in the Pleistocene (from 37,000-32,000 BP and 11,750-10,950 BP), with examples from lake deposits beneath peat bogs frequently dating to the period between 11,750 BP and 10,950 BP (Woodman et al. 1997). The Ballyoran Bog examples were found in this typical location of lacustrine (lake ) sediments beneath peat and they therefore pre-date the beginnings of bog formation and the first human settlement of the area. Mesolithic (c. 8000 to 4000 BC) The earliest known human settlement in Ireland dates from the Mesolithic period (c. 8000 BC - 4000 BC). In Munster, the majority of the evidence (flint scatters) for Meso- lithic occupation has ‘come from the Blackwater valley in Co. Cork’ (Woodman 1989, 116). Flint scatters were recorded in the townlands of Kilcummer Lower (CO034-060) on the northern bank of the Blackwater c. 13 km to the south-west of the route and in Ballynamona (CO018-099) and Wallstown (CO018-100) on the northern and southern sides of the Awbeg river respectively c. 20 km to the west of the route (Power et al. 2000, 2). Mesolithic sites and find spots were recorded on other road schemes in Co. Cork, these included; Rath-healy 3 03E1678 and Curraghprevin 3 03E1138 (N8 Rathcormac Fermoy Bypass), Ballynacarriaga 1 01E0567 (N25 Youghal Bypass), Ballinaspig More 5 01E0546 (N22 Ballincollig Bypass) and Carrigrohane 3 02E0431 (N22 BG). Mesolithic activity was recorded on the route of the N8 Fermoy-Mitchelstown at Gortore 1b E2410 and at Caherdrinny 3 E2422 and Mesolithic stone tools were recovered from Ballinglanna North 1 E2414, Ballinglanna North 3 E2416 and Ballinglanna North 6 E3972.4
  • Gortore 1b-e2410 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/ N Derry Donegal Antrim Tyrone Leitrim Fermanagh Armagh Down Sligo Cavan Garryleagh 1 Carrigane 1 Louth Mayo Roscommon Longford E2433 E2434 Meath Westmeath Dublin Gal ay w Offaly Kildare Clare Laois Wicklow Kildrum 1 Carlow E3971 Tippeary r Kilkenny Limerick Wexford Kilshanny 3 Kerry N8 Waterford E2432 Cork Kilshanny 2 E2431 Ballynamona 2 Kilshanny 1 E2429 E2430 Ballynamona 1 Glenatluckly 1 E2428 E2427 Gortnahown 2 E2426 Gortnahown 1 Gortnahown 3 E2423 E2477 Gortnahown 4 E3832 Caherdrinny 3 E2422 Caherdrinny 2 E2421 Caherdrinny 1 E2420 Ballinrush 1 E2419 Ballinglanna North 5 E2418 Ballinglanna North 4 E2417 Ballinglanna North 3 E2416 Ballinglanna North 6 E3972 Ballinglanna North 2 E2415 Ballinglanna North 1 E2414 Ballynacarriga 3 E2412 Ballynacarriga 2 E2413 Ballynacarriga 1 Key E2411 Post Medieval Gortore 1B1B Gortore Early Medieval E2410 E2410 Gortore 2 Prehistoric Site E3973 Prehistoric Settlement Site Burnt Mound Non-archaeological 0km 2km Townland BoundariesFigure 2: The route of the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown Bypass overlain on the first edition Ordnance Survey map CO010, 011, 019, 020, 027 and 028� 5
  • iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report Neolithic (c. 4000 to 2000 BC) The Neolithic Period is characterised by the introduction of agriculture and the begin- nings of the clearance of the woodlands. The population increased and became more sedentary in nature. A substantial Neolithic settlement site has been recorded at Lough Gur, Co. Limerick. Previously the nearest known Neolithic house was located in Pepper- hill (CO016-226/01) c. 30 km to the northwest of the route. It was recorded during the construction of the Bruff-Mallow gas pipeline (Gowen 1988, 44-51). The material culture includes the manufacture of pottery, flint and stone arrowheads, scrapers, axes etc. The range of monuments types includes Megalithic tombs, single burial graves and stone circles. Megalithic tombs can be sub-divided into court tombs, portal tombs, passage tombs and wedge tombs. There are few wedge tombs or stone circles known from north or east Cork. Two of the exceptions are wedge tombs located at Lab- bacallee (CO027-086), which is one of the largest wedge tombs in the country, and at Manning (CO027-091) both located c. 4 km west of the N8. Recent infrastructural work on the N8 Rathcormac to Fermoy and the Ballincollig Bypass have added significantly to the number of Neolithic sites in the county. A Neo- lithic house was excavated at Gortore (E2119), on the N8 Rathcormac to Fermoy road and another Neolithic house was excavated at Barnagore (02E0384), along the route of the Ballincollig Bypass. Both of these Cork examples produced essentially the same ra- diocarbon results (cal BC 3940-3620 at Barnagore and cal BC 3928-3655 from Gortore) and they represent the oldest known houses in the county. A single pit at Fermoy town- land (05E0078), located c. 3 km to the south of Gortore, produced 12 sherds of a Middle Neolithic Globular bowl, and another site at Curraghprevin (c.12 km south of Gortore) produced Western Neolithic (Early Neolithic) pottery and a radiocarbon date of 3090- 2580 BC (Late Neolithic). Rectangular Neolithic houses were recorded on the route of the N8 FM at Gortore 1b (E2410), Ballinglanna North 3 (E2416) and Caherdrinny 3 (E2422). A large enclosure containing several structures associated with Late Neolithic pottery was excavated at Bal- lynacarriaga 3 (E2412). Activity dating to the Neolithic was also recorded at Ballynamona 1 (E2428), Ballynamona 2 (E2429), and Gortnahown 2 (E2426) and Gortore 2 (E3973). Bronze Age (c. 2000 to 500BC) The Bronze Age is characterised by the introduction of metallurgy and an increase in settlement and burial sites. Copper ores were mined and copper, bronze and gold items manufactured. The range of burial site types includes cist graves, pit and urn burials, cremation cemeteries, barrows, ring-ditches and wedge tombs. Stone circles and stand- ing stones also date to the Bronze Age. Both enclosed and unenclosed settlement sites are known. The most prolific Bronze Age site type is the fulacht fiadh; over 2,000 examples have been recorded in County Cork alone. These monuments survive as low mounds of charcoal rich black silt, packed with heat-shattered stones, and generally situated close to a water source. Fulachta fiadh are generally classified as ‘cooking places’, whereby stones6
  • Gortore 1b-e2410 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/were heated in a hearth and subsequently placed in a trough of water, the water continuedto boil with the addition of hot stones and wrapped food was cooked within the hot wa-ter. The trough eventually filled with small stones, ash and charcoal that were removed,forming the basis of the familiar mound. The Bronze Age cemetery site at Mitchelstowndown West, c. 16 km to the north ofMitchelstown, contains 53 small barrows. The Discovery Programme Report 1 (Daly andGrogan 1992, 44) selected four of this group for excavation. Until recently, Bronze Age settlement sites were a rarity in North Cork. A Bronze Ageoccupation site was recorded underlying the medieval ringfort Lisleagh I (CO027-158)c. 2.5 km to the west of the N8 (Power et al. 2000, 210). A house site was excavated atKillydonoghoe on the route of the N8 Glanmire-Watergrasshill Bypass (Sherlock 2003).Three circular houses dating to the Middle Bronze Age were excavated at Mitchelstown(04E1072) on the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road. A large Bronze Age settlement site con-sisting of three circular enclosures and three circular houses was excavated in 2003 atBallybrowney (03E1058), on the route of the N8 Rathcormac-Fermoy (Cotter 2005, 40). Bronze Age round houses were recorded on the route of the N8 Fermoy – Mitchel-stown at Kilshanny 1 (E2432) and Ballynamona 2 (E2429). Burnt mounds/fulachta fiadhsites were recorded at Ballinglanna North 1 (E2414), Ballinglanna North 3 (E2416), Ball-inglanna North 6 (E3972), Ballynamona 2 (E2429), Caherdrinny 1 (E2420), Kilshanny3 (E2432) and Kildrum 1 (E3971). Two ring ditches and associated cists and pits burialswere recorded at Ballynacarriga 3 (E2412). Portions of several encrusted urns and foodvessels dating to the Early Bronze Age were recorded in association with the burials. Acremation burial and associated Early Bronze Age urn were also recorded at Glenatlucky(E2427).Iron Age (c. 500 BC to AD 500)Until the last decade there was little evidence of a significant Iron Age presence in theCork region. Settlement sites are few and far between as well as being difficult to identify(Woodman, 2000) while the material culture of this period is limited. Linear earthworks,believed to have marked tribal boundaries, and hillforts are two of the most visible monu-ments of the period. Recent infrastructural work on the N22 Ballincollig Bypass, the N8Glanmire Watergrasshill Bypass and the M8 Rathcormac Fermoy has altered the pictureconsiderably. Three separate stretches of a linear boundary, the Claidh Dubh, have been recorded inCounty Cork. The longest stretch, c. 24 km in length extends from the Nagle Mountains,across the Blackwater valley and into the Ballyhoura Hills. Radiocarbon dating followingexcavation of a section of it revealed it dated to some time before AD100 (Doody 1995,23). Two of the four hillfort sites in Cork are located in North Cork (Power et al. 2000,205). Caherdrinny (CO019:97/01&03) is located at the western end of the KilworthMountains, c. 700 m to the west of the N8, Corrin (CO035:49/01) is located at the east- 7
  • iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report ern end of the Nagle Mountains, overlooking a pass between the Blackwater and Bride river valleys just south of Fermoy. Iron Age dates were returned from a roundhouse at Ballinaspig More 5 01E0546, a possible bowl furnace at Curraheen 1 01E1209 and the fulacht fiadh at Curraheen 4 02E1297 on the N22 Ballincollig Bypass; the Iron Age structure at Muckridge 1 01E0429 on the N25 Youghal Bypass; iron working sites at Kilrussane 01E0701 and Trabstown 01E0501 on the N8 Glanmire Watergrasshill Bypass; the iron working site at Lisnagar De- mesne 1 03E1510, the pit at Maulane East 1 03E1286, the pit at Scartbarry 3 03E1800, the corn-drying kiln at Rath-healy 1 03E1139, the burnt mound at Fermoy Wood 04E1014 and the ring ditch at Ballybrowney Lower 3 05E0233 all on the M8 Rathcormac Fermoy. Activity dating to the Iron Age was recorded on the route of the N8 Fermoy – Mitch- elstown at Ballinglanna North 3 E2416, Ballinglanna North 4 E2417, Ballynacarriaga 3 E2412, Gortnahown 1 E2423, Gortnahown 3 E2477 and Caherdrinny 3 E2422. The sites, with the exception of a single fire pit at Ballinglanna North 4 E2417, did not date exclusively to the Iron Age. Early medieval period (c. AD 500 to 1100) The early medieval period is characterised by the arrival of Christianity to Ireland. The characteristic monument type of the period is the ringfort. Ringforts are the most nu- merous archaeological monument found in Ireland, with estimates of between 30,000 and 50,000 illustrated on the first edition of the Ordnance Survey 6” maps of the 1840’s (Barry 1987). As a result of continued research, the construction of these monuments has a narrow date range during the early medieval period between the 7th and 9th centuries AD. Although there are some very elaborate examples of ringforts, they often take the form of a simple earth or stone enclosure functioning as settlements for all classes of secu- lar society (Stout 1997). A major research excavation of two ringforts was undertaken at Lisleagh, c. 2.5 km to the west of the N8 route, in the late 1980s/early1990s. Structural, domestic and industrial evidence was recorded at both sites. A number of stake and wattle round houses, and ironworking were recorded in Lisleagh I, which had two phases of occupation, ranging from the early 7th century to the 9th century AD (Monk 1995, 105-116). Souterrains, frequently associated with ringforts and enclosures, are man made un- derground chambers linked by narrow passageways. The concealed entrance is located at ground level. It is thought souterrains were used for storage or places of refuge during times of trouble (Clinton 2001). It has also been hypothesised that some may have been used for housing slaves. The monastery of Brigown (which gave the name to the modern parish in Mitchel- stown) was founded in the 7th century by Fanahan. Fanahan is reputed to have com- missioned seven smiths to make seven sickles which were used by him for self-mortifica- tion. The new monastery was named, Brí Gabhann, for the smiths (Power 1996, 3). The ecclesiastical remains comprise a church, graveyard, holy well and site of round tower8
  • Gortore 1b-e2410 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/(CO019:30/01-05). A possible enclosure site with evidence of metalworking was excavatedby John Purcell in Brigown. This was possibly the enclosure of Brigown. No dates wereobtained from the site (John Purcell personal communication). A ringfort and associated souterrain (CO027-109) were excavated on the route of theN8 Fermoy – Mitchelstown at Ballynacarriga 2 (E2413). Two circular houses and a com-prehensive range of metalworking activities were excavated at Gortnahown 2 (E2426).Sites with evidence of metalworking activities were also excavated at Ballynamona 2(E2429) and Ballinglanna North 1 (E2412).High and later medieval periods (c. AD 1100 to 1650)This period is characterized by the arrival of the Anglo-Normans and the building oftower houses. Mitchelstown was formerly known as Brigown / Mitchelstown (CO019-149). It was listed as a market town in 1299 and was located on the southern bank of theGradoge River, to the east of Mitchelstown Castle (Power et al. 2000, 595). The towndeveloped under the patronage of the House of Desmond. It passed into the hands of theEarls of Kingston in the 17th century (Power 1996, 23). The Condon family controlled the barony of Condons and Clongibbon. Two oftheir castles are located in close vicinity to the route of the N8 FM. Cloghleagh Castle(CO027:113) is located on the northern bank of the Funshion River to the east of thenew route. It was built on an outcrop of limestone bedrock. It is a 5-storey tower withassociated bawn wall (Power et al. 2000, 537). Caherdrinny Castle (CO019:97/02) is lo-cated to the west of the route. It was a 5-storey tower built within the hillfort enclosure(CO019:97/01&03). Glanworth Castle (Boherash CO027-42) is located on a sheer lime-stone cliff overlooking the River Funshion 5 km to the west of the route. The 13th-centuryhall house is associated with a four-sided walled enclosure (ibid. 516).Post-medieval period (c. 1650 to the present).The post-medieval period is characterised by mills, limekilns, workhouses, country hous-es and associated demesnes, vernacular buildings and field systems (Figure 3). Three de-mesnes associated with country houses are within the route of the N8 at Moorepark,Ballynacarriga and Glenwood. The estate system was dismantled in Ireland in the early20th century. Demesnes usually comprise of a large country house with associated stables,farm buildings and gate lodges, areas of woodland and ornamental gardens etc. The de-mesne was usually enclosed by a high stone wall such as that associated with Moorepark.Moorepark house and demesne was the seat of the Earls Mountcashell (Lewis 1988, 312).The Moorepark Estate covered an area around 800 acres and extended both north andsouth of the river Funshion. The house was sold to the British War Office c. 1903 bythe 5th Earl’s daughter (Bence-Jones 1996, 211). It burned down in 1908 and was neverrebuilt. No trace of it now survives The demesne is clearly defined by woodland on the1841-2 and 1906 edition Ordnance Survey maps, which was most likely enclosed by a 9
  • iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report N Derry Donegal Antrim Tyrone Leitrim Fermanagh Armagh Down Sligo Cavan Garryleagh 1 Carrigane 1 Louth Mayo Roscommon Longford E2433 E2434 Meath Westmeath Dublin Gal ay w Offaly Kildare Clare Laois Wicklow Kildrum 1 Carlow E3971 Tippeary r Kilkenny Limerick Wexford Kilshanny 3 Kerry N8 Waterford E2432 Cork Kilshanny 2 E2431 Ballynamona 2 Kilshanny 1 E2429 E2430 Ballynamona 1 Glenatluckly 1 E2428 E2427 Gortnahown 2 E2426 Gortnahown 1 Gortnahown 3 E2423 E2477 Gortnahown 4 E3832 Caherdrinny 3 E2422 Caherdrinny 2 E2421 Caherdrinny 1 E2420 Ballinrush 1 E2419 Ballinglanna North 5 E2418 Ballinglanna North 4 E2417 Ballinglanna North 3 E2416 Ballinglanna North 6 E3972 Ballinglanna North 2 E2415 Ballinglanna North 1 E2414 Ballynacarriga 3 E2412 Ballynacarriga 2 E2413 Ballynacarriga 1 Key E2411 Post Medieval Gortore 1B1B Gortore Early Medieval E2410 E2410 Gortore 2 Prehistoric Site E3973 Prehistoric Settlement Site Burnt Mound Non-archaeological 0km 2km Townland BoundariesFigure 3: The route of the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown Bypass overlain on the RMP map CO010, 011, 019, 020, 027 and 028� The map is based on the second edition Ordnance Survey maps� 10
  • Gortore 1b-e2410 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/wall. It is likely that the demesne walls are contemporary with the mansion house andtherefore date to the 18th century. The Cork to Dublin mail coach road originally ran towest of the demesne walls as it appears on the 1841-2 and 1906 Ordnance Survey maps. The site of a workhouse (C0019-11301-) built in 1852 is located in Kilshanny townlandto the east of Mitchelstown. The complex of buildings, including a hospital chapel andmortuary, was enclosed within a three-metre high limestone wall and could accommo-date up to 600 people. Closed in 1916 and burned by the IRA in 1922, only the boundarywall and main entrance way survive today (Power 2002, 48). A late 19th century bridge of rubble limestone approached by a causeway at eitherend and carrying a tertiary road from Kilworth-Glanworth over the Glencorra Stream.A road crosses the stream at the same location on the 1841-2 Ordnance survey map, butthe bridging structure is not named. The site is named Glencorra Bridge on the 1906Ordnance Survey map. This site is of local architectural significance.5 Site Location and TopographyThe site at Gortore 1b was located on a north-facing slope on the southern bank of theRiver Funshion. The Funshion rises in the Galtee Mountains and drains into the RiverBlackwater south of Kilworth.6 Excavation methodologyThe excavation was carried out under E-Number E2410 and complied with the methodstatement approved by the Department of Environment, Heritage, and Local Govern-ment, in consultation with the National Museum of Ireland. The site was mechanicallystripped of topsoil under strict archaeological supervision. Stripping was done with atracked machine with a flat toothless bucket. Where appropriate mini-diggers were used,and in the larger areas to be stripped multiple large tracked machines were used; all strip-ping operations involved the use of multiple dumpers for topsoil mounding. Topsoil strip-ping commenced in the areas of identified archaeology and continued radially outwarduntil the limit of the road take was reached or until the limit of the archaeological re-mains was fully defined. A grid was set up in the excavation area(s) and all archaeologicalfeatures were sufficiently cleaned, recorded and excavated so as to enable an accurate andmeaningful record of the site to be preserved. The excavation, environmental sampling,site photographs, site drawings, find care and retrieval, on-site recording and site archivewas as per the Procedures for Archaeological works as attached to the licence methodstatements for excavation licences. The site was excavated from 18 September 2007 to 2 February 2008. Only areas with-in the CPO were resolved. The full extent of the area of excavation measured 11767 m2. 11
  • iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report The full record of excavated contexts is recorded in the context register (Appendix 1) and the stratigraphic matrix (Appendix 2). Detailed stratigraphic descriptions are found in the groups and sub-groups text (Appendix 3). 7 Excavation results Archaeological stratigraphy was recorded in three cuttings in three separate fields; Areas 1-3 (Figure 4). These were referred to as Fields 3, 4 and 5 in the excavation archive. Area Number Field Number Area m2 1 3 5,400 2 4 2,200 3 5 2,800 Table 1 Corresponding area and field numbers of the three main areas of excavation at Gortore� Area 1 was located 120 m to the south of the Area 2 and 3. Area 2 and 3 were located adjacent to one another separated by a field boundary on the southern bank of the Fun- shion River, Area 2 to the east and Area 3 to the west. Area 1 Area 1 was the southernmost of the excavation cuttings at Gortore. The archaeology comprised the remnants of a structure, two groups of pits, a corn-drying kiln and field boundaries. Preservation of the structure was limited to the northeast side, making it im- possible to discern the overall dimensions. The surviving structural elements comprised three slot trenches, eight postholes and three stakeholes (Figure 5). Structure 1 The truncated remains of Structure 1 were recorded in Area 1 (Plate 1). Two contiguously set slot trenches (C.56 and C.103) represented the northern wall of the heavily truncated structure. The return in C.103 marked the northeast corner of the building. The fill of slot trenches C.56 and C.103 contained evenly dispersed medium and large stones, which served as packing stones (Plate 2). There was no evidence of the position or nature of the uprights they supported but in view of the absence of postholes within the trench it is most likely a split plank wall. The fill contained a minimal amount of charred remains and no evidence of burnt planks indicating that the structure was most likely dismantled. A Chalcolithic date of cal BC 2570–2350 (UB–13224) was returned from the fill of slot trench C.103. A flint scraper (E2410:78:1) was recovered from the slot trench C.56. Context Dimensions (m) C.56 2.18 x 0.53 x 0.31 C.103 4.5 x 0.53 x 0.23 C.211 2.68 x 0.62 x 0.24 Table 2 Dimensions of slot trenches12
  • Gortore 1b-e2410 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/ 181658 181780 Area 3 899 1063 ± 878 1056 1122 930 337 1304 1000 527 402 133 1189 622 221 Area 2 242 1323 889 1374 585 260 345 1297 548 1376 606 897 276 1368 1190 592 517 1159 1207 767 553 1164 591101780 101780 O ) 33 m O.D. Area 1 81 55 1080 99 74 79 57 155 144101640 101640 71 456 454 69 31 95 9 50 16 34 93 15 82 67 6 116 131 0 50 m 181658 181780 Figure 4: Plan of location of Areas 1-3 in Gortore 1b� 13
  • iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report Plate 1: View of Structure 1 in Area 1 Gortore 1b (Photo: John Sunderland) Plate 2: Pre-excavation of slot trench C�56 and 103 from west in Area 1 Gortore 1b� The slot trench C.211 was located 1.8m south and parallel to C.56. The shadow of three depressions recorded on the base of C.211 may mark the position of posts. The slot trench may have formed part of an internal partition (Plate 3). Eight postholes (C.265, C.267, C.269, C.271, C.340, C.399, C.422, and C.473) out- lined the structure. They varied in plan between circular (C.340), sub-circular (C.267,14
  • 181720 181775 ± Gortore 1b-e2410 Corn-drying kiln 55 1080 94 74 99 80 101650 101650 79 Structure 1 155 144 93 71 97 101 454 0 2m 1046 69 1048 50 9 16 31 95 34 160 94 51 136 24 33 93 Corn-drying 43 37 15 kiln 115 340 67 82 Structure 1 269 271 103 57 56 267 101618 101618 6 408 327 282 399 63 346 211 116 325 456 473 420 131 52 357 422 265 0 25 m 0 5m 181720 181775 Figure 5: Post-excavation plan of Area 1 Gortore 1b� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/15
  • iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report Plate 3: Post-excavation view of slot trench C�211 in Area 1 Gortore 1b� C.399, C.422 and C.473) and sub-rectangular (C.269). In general their sides were vertical and smooth or concave and their bases are flat or concave. The fills varied between silty sand and clayey silt with varying amounts of pebbles, charcoal and small stones. They ranged in size from 0.20m by 0.17m by 0.16m to 0.54m by 0.38m by 0.34m. Four of the postholes (C.271, C.340, C.269, and C.267) were located 0.8m from and roughly parallel to slot trenches C.56 and C.103. Another four postholes (C.399, 473, 422 and C.265) were set at a right angle to the south of these. The postholes were not evenly spaced and were not uniform in size. However C.271, C.340, C.269, and C.267, formed a line 4.2m in length, clearly flanking the slot trenches forming part of the structure. It seems likely that they may have acted as roof supports. As the full extent of the structure was not revealed it is not possible to ascertain whether the postholes C.399, 473, 422 and C.265 formed the external wall or an internal division, some 5 m in length. A Chalcolithic date of cal BC 2467–2299 (UB–13225) was returned from the fill of posthole C.473. Four stakeholes (C.63, C.325, C.357 and C.420) were associated with the area of the structure. Three of them C.357, C.420 and C.63 were aligned east-west 3.5m to the south of slot trenches C.56 and C.103. An Iron date of cal AD 77–215 (UB–13233) was returned from the fill of stakehole C.420. A group of ten small pits (C.52, C.57, C.115, C.282, C.327, C.346, C.408, C.422, C.454 and C.456) were located within and in close proximity to the structure. Four small16
  • N8FM Gortore 1B E2410 Sections and Profiles of Area 1 Gortore 1b-e2410 South East Facing of Pit C.57 C.88 C.89 C.110 C.90 C.92 C.93 C.57 0m 0.5m Figure 6: Section plan of pit C�57 in Area 1 Gortore 1b� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/17
  • iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report pits (C.282, C.327 and C.346) were located within the structure and one C.408 was ad- jacent to the terminal of slot trench C.56. They varied in size from 0.27m by 0.17m by 0.08m to 1.01m by 0.46m by 0.18m. A sherd of an Early Neolithic pottery (E2410:328:1) was recovered from C.327 indicating a domestic use. An additional four pits (C.52, C.115, C.422 and C.454) were located on what appears to be the periphery of the structure. Three were located to the southwest of the main structural elements. The fourth, C.115, was located just outside the NE corner of the structure. C.456 and C.57 were large pits located immediately east of the structure. C.57 meas- ured 1.7m in diameter but appears to have been a smaller archaeological pit which col- lapsed into a geological swallow hole (Figure 6). Pit C.456 was located 1.5m to the south and measured 2.52m by 1.32m by 0.41m (see Figure 7). Only three samples with plant remains (from cut features C.399, C.420 and C.473) were associated with the house at Gortore 1b. The remains were very poor and included just a small amount of hazelnut shell fragments, some indeterminate cereal grains and possible tuber fragments. Pits located to south-east of Structure 1 A group of 13 pits (C.6, C.15, C.24, C.31, C.33, C.34, C.37, C.43, C.51, C.95, C.136, C.144 and C.160) were located c. 23 m to the south-east of Structure 1. The pit C.160 was truncated by the ditch C.67. Ten of the pits were small and shallow (C.6, C.15, C.24, C.31, C.33, C.34, C.37, C.43, C.51 and C.144). They were located for the most part, with the exception of pits C.6 and C.144, in a group and formed a semi-circular pattern. Pit C.6 was located on the eastern side of the ditch C.67. Pit C.144 was located further to the north. The pits ranged in size between 0.13 and 0.73m in length, 0.10 and 0.55m in width and 0.08 and 0.23m in depth. Three sherds of Early Neolithic carinated bowls (E2410:14:1, 2 and 3) representing two vessels were recovered from pit C.15 and 18 sherds of Early Neolithic pottery (body- sherds E2410:25:1 and 2) was recovered from pit C.33. The sherds were from the same vessels as those recovered from pit C.136. Three of the pits (C.95, C.136 and C.160) were larger in size. Context Dimensions (m) 95 3 x 1.50 x 0.35 136 1.80 x 0.64 x 0.24 160 1.60 x 1.60 x 0.42 Table 3 Dimensions of pits C�95, C�136 and C�160 Pit C.136 was the most westerly of the three. The upper fill C.83 contained 19 sherds of pottery representing four Early Neolithic carinated bowls (E2410:83:2, 3 and 4) and a split flint pebble (E2410:83:1). The middle fill C.100 contained three sherds of pottery (E2410:100:1 and 2a and b) representing two Early Neolithic carinated bowls. The basal fill C.135 also contained four fragments of Early Neolithic carinated bowls representing one vessel.18
  • N8FM Gortore 1B E2410 Sections and Profiles of Area 1 Gortore 1b-e2410 South Facing Section of Kiln C.93 and C.94 C.72 # # # # # C.13 C.73 C.96 # # # C.12 C.137 C.93 C.138 C.93 # # # # # # # # # # # # # # ## # # # # # C.147 # # # # # # C.243 C.94 West Facing Section of C.456 C.425 C.456 0m 0.5m Figure 7: Section plans of pit C�456 and kiln C�93, C�94 and C�456 Area 1 in Gortore 1b� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/19
  • iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report Plate 4: Post-excavation view of kiln C�93 and C�94 from south in Area 1 Gortore 1b� Corn-drying kiln A corn-drying kiln (C.93 and C.94) and two small pits or hearths (C.9 and C.82) were recorded in the eastern portion of Area 1. The kiln was a simple key-hole kiln, orientated north-south, and was located 2m to the east of the ditch C.67. A possible furrow C.73 truncated the surface of the chamber. The flue of the kiln C.93 measured 2.69 m in length by 1.21 m wide by 0.37 m in depth (Figure 7). It may have been stone-lined originally as some large stones were in- cluded in the fills. The chamber C.94 was oval in plan and measured 2.03 m by 1.84 m by 0.35 m. The central section of the base was scorched (Plate 4). Four fills (C.12, C.13, C.96 and C.147) were recorded in the flue C.93 and three in the chamber C.94. Charred cereals were recovered from four of the fills (see Appendix 7). Over 80% of the grain was indeterminate, but of the identifiable remains, roughly equal quantities of wheat and barley were recovered. Two hearths C.9 and C.82 were located 2.2 m and 4.2 m respectively north and south of the kiln. Over 80% of the fills of hearth C.82 comprised charcoal and large amounts of charcoal and burnt clay were recorded in hearth C.9. Context Dimensions (m) 9 1.5 x 0.94 x 0.19 82 1.03 x 0.9 x 0.26 Table 4 Dimensions of hearths C�9 and C�8220
  • Gortore 1b-e2410 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/ An early medieval date of cal AD 661–771 (UB–12984) was returned from cerealfrom the kiln.Pits in the western portion of the siteA group of 12 pits (C.16, C.50, C.55, C.74, C.79, C.97, C.99, C.101, C.155, C.1080, C.1046and C.1048) were recorded to the west of Structure 1. Four of the pits in this group(C.155, C.1046, C.1048 and C.1080) were truncated by a ditch (C.81). Three of the pits(C.74, C.97 and C.101) were small in size and contained a single fill. The remaining ninepits were larger in size (C.55, C.99, C.79, C.155, C.50, C.16, C.1080, C.1046 and C.1048).Some of the pits were located in small groups for example four (C.97, C.101, C.1046 andC.1048) were located close together in the south-western corner of the site. Many of theothers were scattered across the western portion of the site. Five sherds of Middle Neolithic globular bowl (E2410:70:1a-e) were recovered fromthe fill of pit C.74. A fragment of iron and a clay pipe stem (E2410:42:1 and 2) were re-covered from pit C.55.Field BoundariesTwo ditches were recorded in Area 1. They were located 55 m apart and were roughlyparallel. Both were orientated NNE by SSW. Both extended beyond the area of the exca-vation to the north and south. The eastern ditch was discontinuous it extended across the eastern limits of Area 1 fora distance of c. 57 m. Three separate segments (C.67, C.116 and C.131) of the ditch wererecorded (Figure 8 and Plate 5). There was a gap of 0.53 m between the northern portionof the ditch C.67 and the central portion of the ditch C.116 and a gap of 0.64 m betweenthe central portion of the ditch C.116 and southern portion C.131. Context Dimensions (m) Ditch 67 20 x 0.6 x 0.45 Eastern ditch 116 8.7 x 0.82 x 0.34 Eastern ditch 131 6.4 x 0.7 x 0.32 Eastern ditch 80 46.2 x 1.3 x 0.55 Western ditchTable 5 Dimensions of the ditches in Area 1 Summary of Area 1Evidence of at least five phases of activity, Early Neolithic, Middle Neolithic, Late Neo-lithic/Early Bronze Age, Iron Age and early medieval, were recorded in Area 1. Structure 1 was initially interpreted as the truncated remains of an Early Neolithicrectangular house on the basis of its morphology. It measured 7.2 m by 4.8 m (externaldimensions) and 6.5 m by 4.6 x m (internal dimensions) and occupied an area of c. 24 m2The four post-holes that formed the western wall of the structure, were set in pairs closetogether and the gap of 2.4 m between them may have formed the entrance. The plan andthe level of truncation were very similar to an Early Neolithic rectangular house recorded, 21
  • 22 N8FM Gortore 1B E2410 Sections and Profiles of Area 1 South South West Facing Section of Ditch C.80 C.81 iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 C.80 North Facing Section of Ditch Slot 6 C.116 C.117 C.116 0m 0.5m Figure 8: Section plans of ditches C�80 and C�116 in Area 1 Gortore 1b� archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Gortore 1b-e2410 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/ Plate 5: Post-excavation view of the ditch C�67 in Area 1 Gortore 1b�and dated to the Early Neolithic, at Gortore E2119 located only 80 m to the east (see Fig-ure 22). That house was recorded during the construction of the N8 Rathcormac FermoyBypass. However the two dates that were returned from a slot trench and a posthole atGortore 1b E2410 were both Chalcolithic dates. A third date from a stakehole was IronAge. There were very few artefacts associated with the structure. Early Neolithic potterywas recorded in only one of the features associated with the structure. The flint scraper(E2410:78:1) associated with the structure dated to the Neolithic. There were no artefactsrecovered from the area from the Early Bronze Age. A single pit was located 100m tothe south of the Neolithic house, excavated on the route of the N8 Rathcormac FermoyBypass (Gortore E2119) (see Illus N27). The pit dated to the Chalcolithic 2458–2151 BC(UBA-6768) and sherds of Beaker pottery and a cache of flint pebbles were recoveredfrom the pit (O’Donoghue 2010). The majority of the Early Neolithic pottery recovered from Area 1 came from a groupof pits located 23 m to the south-east of the structure. But a flint pebble (E2410:83:1),recovered from the pit C.136 that contained the majority of the sherds, was Late Neo-lithic/Early Bronze Age in date. A small but significant assemblage of Middle Neolithicglobular pottery was recovered from a single isolated pit. The corn-drying kiln returned an early medieval date. It was a small example of akeyhole kiln and was the only kiln from the early medieval period recorded on the routeof the Fermoy to Mitchelstown. 23
  • iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report Plate 6: Aerial view of Area 2 in Gortore 1b (Photo: Hawkeye)� It is difficult to assign a date on the basis of typology to the two field boundary in Area 1. No evidence for a bank was recorded during the excavation but it is likely that a bank was associated with each of the ditches. A corn-drying kiln, dated to the early medieval period, was located 2 m east of the eastern ditch. This ditch could be dated to the early medieval field period because of the close association with the kiln and two as- sociated hearths. Two gaps, less than 1 m in width, were recorded in the eastern ditch, wide enough for a person or animal. Two of the ditch termini were slightly staggered, a feature which has been recorded in many other early ditches. The associated bank could have alternated from one side of the ditch to the other at this point. Area 2 Area 2 was located 120 m to the north of Area 1 and was separated from Area 3 by a modern insitu field boundary (Figure 9, plate 6). The field was bound to the north by the River Funshion. A group of nine large pits, six crescent-shaped pits, 19 smaller pits and five hearths were located in Area 2. Large pits A group of nine large pits (C.260, C.337, C.479, C.482, C.548, C.607, C.889, C.1000 and C.1008) were excavated in Area 2. Five of the pits (C.260, C.482, C.479, C.548 and C.607) were located in the central portion of the site in close proximity to one another.24
  • Gortore 1b-e2410 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/ 1154 181692 181712 ± 1088 1122 337 410 143 1000 Crescent 953 shaped pits 527 1186 1184 1185 914 133 622 1189 395101824 101824 228 141 347 244 221 274 296 242 144 889 305 607 260 139 Large pits 287 345 548 424 479 350 606 482 556 612 276 # 0 897 592 611 792 905 517 767 616 553101792 101792 591 # 0 Burial Hearth 0 25 m 181692 181712 Figure 9: Post-excavation plan of Area 2 Gortore 1b� 25
  • 26 N8FM Gortore 1B E2410 Sections and Profiles of Area 2 South East facing profile of C.527 iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 C.527 South West Facing Profile of C.260 C.260 0m 1m Figure 10: Profile plans of pits C�527 and C�260 in Area 2 Gortore 1b� archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Gortore 1b-e2410 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/ Plate 7: View of pit C�527 in Area 2 Gortore 1b (Photo: John Sunderland)� C.260 was a linear pit measuring 1.1 m by 0.34 m by 0.32 m (Figure 10). Seven lithicfinds including flint flakes and debitage were recovered from two of the fills (C.151 andC.390). The lithics were assigned to the Early Neolithic period. Over 20 fragments of flint, chert and sandstone lithic finds were recovered from threeof the fills (C.121, C.264 and C.341) of pit C.479. The majority of the flint was assignedto the Neolithic period but two fragments were assigned to the Later Mesolithic Period.A Late Mesolithic date of cal BC 6441–6262 (UB–12983) was returned from the pit.Hazelnut shell fragments were found in abundance in samples from the large pit C.479. Pit C.482 measured 1.68 m by 0.90 m by 0.31 m in depth. No lithic finds were recov-ered from the pit. Pit C.548 was a large irregular pit measuring 3.53 m by 2.41 m (Figure 11). It was recutby pit C.923. Over 30 fragments of lithic finds, including flint debitage, flakes, a blade, acore and a rubbing stone, were recovered from four of the fills (C.519, C.593, C.594 andC.658). Some of the flint was assigned to the Early Neolithic period but two fragmentswere assigned to the Later Mesolithic Period. A Late Mesolithic date of cal BC 4724–4553(UB–13223) was returned from the pit. Pit C.607 was sub-circular in plan measuring 1.7 m by 1.05 m by 0.52 m in depth. Sixpieces of flint debitage were recovered from one of the fills (C.542). 27
  • 28 N8FM Gortore 1B E2410 Sections and Profiles of Area 2 West facing section of C.622 North west facing section of C.1189 C.950 C.125 C.954 iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 C.539 C.1189 C.622 South east facing section of C.923 and C.548 C.548 0m 1m C.923 Figure 11: Section and profiles plans of pits C�622 and C�548 and ditch C�1189 in Area 2 Gortore 1b� archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Gortore 1b-e2410 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/ Pit C.337 was located c.2.5 m from the northern edge of the excavation. It was an ir-regular shaped pit measuring 1.42 m by 1.28 m by 0.3 m in depth. No lithic finds wererecovered from the pit. Three of the pits (C.889, C.1000 and C.1008) were located on the western side of thearea of excavation. Pit C.889 measured 1.52 m by 0.72 m by 0.20 m in depth. A singlelithic find was recovered from one of the fills (C.894). Pit C.1000 was located 9.5 m northof Pit C.889. It was truncated by the ditch C.1189. Over 30 lithic finds, including some ofthe blue flint, flint debitage, flakes, blades, a core and a scraper, were recovered from fourof the fills (C.1039, C.1040, C.1091 and C.1108). Inclusions of burnt stones were recordedin fill C.1039. The lithics were assigned to the Neolithic period. Pit C.1088 was located6.5 m north of pit C.1000. It measured 2.44 m by 1.4 m by 0.72 m in depth. Eight lithicfinds assigned to the Neolithic period, a sherd of Early Neolithic pottery (E2410:948:4)and a sherd of Middle Neolithic pottery (E2410:948:5) were recovered from two of thefills (C.922 and C.948). Pit C.591 was located 14.5 m from the southern edge of the excavation. It may be aswallow hole associated with the adjoining hearth C.553. The cremated remains of a single individual, a young adult C.611, were recoveredfrom the southern section of Area 2 (see Appendix 8). The cremated bone was recoveredfrom a small deposit which measured 0.52 m by 0.38 m by 0.09 m in depth. The burialhad been truncated by a furrow. It was located 4.5 m to the south of pit C.479 and 2.6 mnorth-east of pit C.592.Crescent-shaped pitsSix large irregular pits were located on the northern edge of the area of excavation in Area2 and Area 3. Three were located in Area 2 (C.527, C.622 and C.1122) and three in Area3 (C.1154, C.1228 and C.1253). All of these pits were crescent-shaped in plan and one ofthe fills in each pit was a distinctive compact sand fill which was difficult to excavate. Thissoil type did not occur naturally on the site, nor was it found in any of the other featureson the site. Context Length (m) Width (m) Depth (m) 2 sigma cal BC date C.527 3.58 1.32 0.96 6207–6016 C.622 2.2 1.2 1.3 5979–5770 C.1122 3.15 0.65 0.52 C.1154 2.7 0.7 0.13 6021–5901 & 6060–5986 C.1228 2.81 0.64 0.52 C.1253 2.31 0.29 0.32Table 6 Dimensions and dates of crescent-shaped pits in Area 2 and Area 3� A Late Mesolithic date of cal BC 6207–6016 (UB 10500) was returned from hazelnutshell from pit C.527. A total of ten lithic finds, including flint debitage, flakes, blades,a core and a sandstone rubbing stone, were recovered from two of the fills (C.130 andC.528) (see Figure 10, plate 7). All were assigned to the Neolithic period. An abundance 29
  • iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report Plate 8: View of pit C�622 from south in Area 2 Gortore 1b (Photo: John Sunderland)� of hazelnut shells and a small quantity of other plant items, associated with food waste, were recovered from samples from the pit (see Appendix 7). Pit C.622 was located 6 m to the west (see Figure 11, plate 8). Lithic artefacts dated to the Early Neolithic were recovered from the fill C.531. A Late Mesolithic date of cal BC 5979–5770 (UB–13222) was returned from charcoal from the pit. Hazelnuts were also recovered from this pit. Pit C.1122 was located 9 m to the north-west of pit C.622. A single lithic, flint debit- age, was recovered from the compact sandy fill C.1001. Three pits (C.1154, C.1128 and C.1253) were located in close proximity to one an- other in Area 3, 14 m west of pit C.1122 in Area 2 (see plate 11). A total of 16 lithic finds, including debitage, flakes and a blade, were recovered from four of the fills (C.1083, C.1084, C.1104 and C.11240 of pit C.1154. Some of the lithic artefacts were assigned to the Late Neolithic period. The pit was cut by pit C.1119. A Late Mesolithic date of cal BC 6021–5901 (UB 13401) was returned from hazelnut shell from pit C.1154 and cal BC 6060–5986 (UB 13404) from pit C.1119. Hazelnut shells were also recovered from this pit. Pit C.1228 was located 1 m west of pit C.1154 and cut pit C.1253. No lithic finds were recovered from either of the westernmost pits. Smaller pits Area 2 A total of 19 small pits (C.133, C.141, C.143, C.221, C.228, C.244, C.276, C.287, C.296, C.305, C.345, C.347, C.350, C.424, C.592, C.606, C.767, C.897 and C.914) were record-30
  • Gortore 1b-e2410 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/ed in Area 2. The pits were similar in size and were shallow in depth. They all containeda single fill except for C.276, which contained two fills (C.275 and C.278). Five of the pits (C.424, C.592, C.606, C.767 and C.897) were located to the westof the central group of large pits. These ranged between 0.56 and 1.13 m in length, 0.32and 0.77 m in width and 0.14 and 0.36 m in depth. A split pebble (E2410:604:1) datedto the Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age and a rubbing stone (E2410:502:2) dated to theNeolithic were recovered from pits C.606 and C.592 respectively. Early Neolithic pottery(E2410:602:1) was also recovered from pit C.592. Two pieces of flint debitage and a sherd of Early Neolithic pottery (E2410:792:1-3)was recovered from occupation material in a hollow to the north of pit C.767. Six of the pits (C.221, C.244, C.276, C.287, C.345 and C.350) were located to the eastof the central group of large pits. These ranged between 0.48 and 1.10 m in length, 0.41and 0.82 m in width and 0.10 and 0.45 m in depth. The remaining eight pits (C.133, C.141, C.143, C.228, C.296, C.305, C.347 andC.914) were located in the northern section of Area 2. These ranged between 0.14 and1.10m in length, 0.14 and 0.74m in width and 0.11 and 0.26m in depth. Four of these pits (C.133, C.141, C.143 and C.347) were clustered around two of thehearths (C.242 and C.395). They may have provided shelter for the hearths or have beenassociated with domestic activities focused on the hearth.HearthsFive hearths (C.139, C.242, C.395, C.517 and C.553) were located in Area 2. They rangein size from 1.6 m by 0.74 m by 0.2 m to 2.1 m by 1.32 m by 0.31 m in depth. Traces ofin-situ burning were recorded in all of them. Two of the hearths (C.242 and C.395) were set close together. Two flint flakes(E2410:123:1 and 2) and a retouched artefact (E2410:123:3) were recovered from a fill ofhearth C.242. A layer of stone was recorded in hearth C.395. Hearth C.139 was located8 m to the south. A flint core (E2410:129:1), assigned to the Late Neolithic and debitage(E2410:129:2) were recovered from a fill of the hearth. Two of the hearths (C.517 and C.553) were located within 6 m of each other in thesouthern section of the site. Burnt stone was included in a fill of hearth C.517. HearthC.553 was truncated by a swallow hole to the south-west. A flint core (E2410:554:1), as-signed to the Late Neolithic, was recovered from a fill of the hearth.Stake-holesA total of seven stake-holes (C.274, C.279, C.410, C.491, C.538, C.905, C.953, C.1184,C.1185 and C.1186) were recorded in Area 2. Four were associated with the large pitC.1000 and one with the hearth C.242.DitchA boundary ditch, orientated SW—NE was recorded as C.1189 in Area 2 and C.1190 inArea 3. It extended in a SW-NE direction from the south-eastern corner of Area 3 under 31
  • iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report an extant tree-lined boundary ditch and into the north-west corner of Area 2 and beyond the limits of the excavation. It was similar to the ditches recorded in Area 1. In area 2 the ditch (C.1189) had a U-shaped profile, maximum width of 1.35 m and depth of 1 m (see Figure 11). The ditch truncated pits C.1000 and C.1122. Two flint flakes (E2410:1:136 and E2410:1:163) and a hammer stone (E2410:1:138) were recovered from topsoil overlying the ditch. Summary of Area 2 The archaeological activity in Area 2 extended from the Early Mesolithic Period through to the Neolithic Period. Evidence of Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age activity was indi- cated by a small quantity of lithic artefacts. The Early Mesolithic was defined by lithic artefacts that were recovered from the topsoil. Four of the pits (two of the large pits and two of the crescent-shaped pits) in Area 2 were dated to the Later Mesolithic Period. Three of the dates spanned from the latter half of the seventh millennium BC to the first half of the sixth millennium BC. Two of these dates were returned from fills of the crescent-shaped pits. The fourth date was from the mid fifth millennium. Three Early Neolithic bowls and one Middle Neolithic globular bowl were recovered from pits C.592 and C.1008 in Area 2. Both kinds of pottery were recovered from the pit C.1008 on the north-western edge of the area of excavation. It is impossible to know which of the pits belong to the Late Mesolithic phase of ac- tivity and which to the Neolithic phase. In some instances lithic artefacts from the Late Mesolithic and Neolithic were found in the same pits. For example flint flakes and a Kerry point (E2410:264:1 and 2, E2410:519:3 and 4 and E2410:548:1), dated to the Late Mesolithic, were recovered from pits C.479 and C.548 respectively. But dozens of lithic artefacts, dated to the Neolithic, were also recovered from these two crescent-shaped pits, radiocarbon dated to the Late Mesolithic. The crescent-shaped pits were a very distinctive feature on site, it is likely that these belong to the Late Mesolithic phase of activity. They were all located close to one another, at the northern end of both Area 2 and 3, close to the Funshion River. Did they form the component parts of a temporary structure or were they associated with riverine hunt- ing activities. Have they been altered substantially by the underlying limestone and the prevalence of limestone sink-holes. The cremated remains of a single individual, a young adult C.611, were recovered from the southern section of Area 2. It was the only cremation recovered from Gortore 1b. The proximity of the burial to pits of Late Mesolithic dates means it could be Late Mesolithic in date or alternatively the proximity to a pit dated to the Early Neolithic, by association with Early Neolithic pottery, means it could be Early Neolithic in date.32
  • Gortore 1b-e2410 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/Plate 9: Aerial view of Area 3 in Gortore 1b from south-west (Photo: Hawkeye)�Area 3Area 3 was located to the west of Area 2 in an area of sand subsoil close to the southernbank of the river (Figure 12, Plate 9). The area was characterised by swallow-holes andintensive animal burrowing activity. The northern portion of Area 3 was located on theedge of a limestone reef, marked on the 25 inch edition of the Ordnance Survey map,which extended to the west of the site for a length of at least 300 m. Many of the featureswere damaged and some completely destroyed by the action of swallow-holes. Swallow-holes, caused by water steeping through joints in the carboniferous limestone, appear toform preferentially beneath archaeological features as the subsoil has already been under-mined. The features were further disturbed by burrowing activity of animals. The sidesand bases of some features were absent, and it was difficult to distinguish the boundariesbetween fills. Many of the cut features disappeared within days of their excavation, thesides collapsing into the feature and the base of some collapsing into underlying voids.Features in North-West portion of Area 3A group of pits, post-holes, stake-holes, hearths and a group of occupation layers thathad accumulated in hollows were recorded in the north-western part of Area 3 in an areathat measured c. 20 m north-south by 25 m east-west (Figure 13). Due to the nature ofthe geology and animal burrows no definite structure could be discerned in the area butit is likely that at least one structure did exist in this area, possibly rectangular or sub-rectangular in plan. 33
  • iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report 181640 181667 1030 1116 1035 ± 1063 1034 865 1033 867 1121 1127 899 1381 891 817 1380 467 727 440 1349 349 1228 448 406 841 848 1119 1110 1072 405 407 1057 849 547 404 774 798 1267 773 877 709 825 827 546 770 789 1253 866 1234101844 101844 543 450 701 843 903 895 1082 1154 590 816 378 901 959 444 589 918 687 1335 388 250 1362 802 772 947 530 1369 1363 677 536 555 670 680 771 465 673 811 663 946 797 348 669 331 434 302 335 826 662 878 187 433 822 1255 273 1056 908 217 823 803 329 361 875 820 786 196 215 759 810 281 167 165 214 761 796 787 239 1254 258 226 210 280 1353 206 1225 207 229 681 238 601 873 1360 600 1226 545 598 930 1326 488 608 1304 1330 1280 1390 1299 800 1273 1271 1202 1216 1270 1389 1337 1388 1387 1230 1242 1334 1220 12181204 1382 1239 655 999 806 1244 1383 372 402 617 1236 615 613 1233 436 604 675 1307 1287 1262 475 603 576 1306 437 625 1208 443 610 1316 520 534 540 1281 514 657 1313 551 1227 1333 513 541 1327 585 1329 1323 1302 552 666 1310 487 1312 588 1374 994 1336 524 532 1345 967 1357 1297 1376 1365 1340 1368 1190101798 101798 1159 1166 1207 1164 1132 Layer Hearth 0 25 m 181640 181667 Figure 12: Post-excavation plan of Area 3 Gortore 1b� 34
  • Gortore 1b-e2410 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/ ± 849 407 1057 404 774 791 798 1267 547 773 546 405 789 709 877 701 825 827 770 1267 866 543 450 903 850 843 895 590 901 816 959 918 687 589 444 378 1335 250 772 1362 802 1369 1363 677 771 530 555 812 813 680 536 670 465 811 673 663 797 669 348 331 434 875 433 187 302 335 826 662 273 822 329 361 823 803 810 215 820 786 217 196 759 787 167 796 761 214 165 258 280 239 226 206 210 207 Structure 2 Hearth 0 5 mFigure 13: Post-excavation plan of NW area of Area 3 Gortore 1b showing location of Structure 2� 35
  • iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report Pits The pits were spatially associated with a series of post-holes, hearths and stake-holes were excavated in the north-western area of the site. These pits were located within an area of intense archaeological activity. They are grouped together on the basis of similarity of morphology and fills, close spatial proximity, and the underlying geology. There may have been associated with a structure or shelter in the immediate area. Four of the pits (C.378, C.444, C.899 and C.959) were large in size. Context Length (m) Width (m) Depth (m) C.378 2 1.5 0.66 C.444 2.8 1.45 0.65 C.899 1.99 1.85 0.1 C.959 1.28 0.85 0.63 Table 7 Dimensions of large pits in Area 3� Pit C.378 truncated pit C.444. Nine fills were recorded in pit C.378, and five in pit C.444. One piece of flint debitage (E2410:387:1) from recovered from a fill of pit C.444 and a flake (E2410:100:115) was recovered from the topsoil beside this pit. Pit C.899 was truncated by a hearth C.865, posthole C.867 and two stakeholes C.884 and C.886. A hammer stone, a rubbing stone (E2410: 877:1 and 2) were recovered from the fill while a flake and a blade (E2410:1:49 and 60) were found just 0.6m to the east of the pit. There were at least 25 small pits evenly dispersed throughout this area. Five of the pits (C.677, C.680, C.770, C.771 and C.772) were small oval shaped pits. Pit C.770 was located west of pit C.959 and the other four were located in proximity to one another. Pit C.677 truncated C.680 and 0.6 m to the northwest C.772 truncated C.771. A sherd of Middle Neolithic pottery was recovered from C.770 (E2410:754:1). A further 20 pits (C.217, C.258, C.273, C.348, C.349, C.361, C.450, C.465, C.530, C.759, C.761, C.774, C.786, C.810, C.843, C.895, C.903, C.918, C.1349, and C.1363) ranged in size from 0.32 m by 0.25 m by 0.10 m to 0.80 m by 0.73 m by 0.76 m. Five of these pits (C.217, C.258, C.349, C.465 and C.530) were circular in plan. All the fills included pebbles and charcoal. Three retouched artefacts and flint debitage (E2410:218:1a-d & 2), assigned to the Neolithic, were recovered from the fill of pit C.217 and fired clay fragments (E2410:182:1a-d) were recovered from the pit C.465. Six of the pits (C.759, C.761, C.786, C.895, C.1349, and C.1363) were oval or sub-cir- cular in plan. Their fills consisted of clayey silt or sandy silt and included varying amount of charcoal and pebbles. C.843 had an additional fill – a stony deposit which contained two sandstone rubbing stones (E2410:705:1 and 2). Two of the pits (C.273 and C.889) were small sub-rectangular cuts. A flint flake (E2410:894:1) was recovered from the fill of pit C.889. Pit C.903 was an irregular shaped pit. A further four possible pits (C.215, C.239, C.791 and C.802) were recorded in this area. The fills included pebbles, stones and charcoal. No artefacts were recovered from the pits themselves but a rubbing stone was recovered from a deposit adjacent to C.239.36
  • Gortore 1b-e2410 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/Post-holesA total of at least 27 post-holes (C.165, C.210, C.214, C.250, C.280, C.281, C.335, C.434,C.536, C.543, C.546, C.555, C.589, C.590, C.670, C.681, C.787, C.797, C.803, C.816,C.848, C.849, C.850, C.866, C.867, C.877, C.1335 and C.1362) were identified in thisarea. Although there was no discernible pattern, these postholes may represent elementsof one or more structures. However the extensive subsidence and animal disturbanceinhibits a definitive interpretation. Features interpreted as possible pits may in fact havebeen post-holes which have been distorted beyond recognition. Six of post-holes (C.250, C.543, C.546, C.555, C.589, C.590 and C.670) were almostcompletely destroyed by animal burrowing. Post-holes (C.555 and C.250) were imme-diately adjacent to one another and shared the same fill. Both appear to have originallybeen circular in plan, although C.555 was much enlarged and irregular as a result of theburrowing. Other possible post-holes (C.165, C.210, C.280, C.281, C.590, C.670, C.788, C.797,C.849, C.866 and C.877), showed signs of geological disturbance but to a lesser extent.The majority of these were filled with sandy silt and varied from sub-circular to oval inplan. The remaining post-holes (C.335, C.434, C.536, C.681, C.803, C.848, C.850, C.867,C.1335 and C.1362) in this sub-group were more convincing. All were circular in planand had vertical or steep sides. A fragment of flint debitage (E2410:809:1) was recoveredfrom post-hole C.803 and a core (E2410:654:1) from C.681, which was assigned to theLate Neolithic. Three configurations of post-holes are noteworthy; three post-holes (C.165, C.214and C.787) were aligned in an east-west direction, they measured c. 8.5 m in length. Twoother post-holes (C.434, and C.536) formed a perpendicular line with post C.214, meas-uring 5.6 m in length. The two linear arrangements may represent upright posts formingan exterior and interior wall of a structure. Thirdly a cluster of post-holes (C.877, C.866,C.849, C.850 and C.816) was recorded to the north-east of the two pits C.895 and C.918. Fragments of both Early Neolithic carinated bowls and Middle Neolithic globularbowls were recovered from the immediate environs of the post-holes suggesting that all ofthe post-holes may not be contemporary. An Early Bronze Age date of cal BC 2009–1882 (UB–13403) was returned from post-hole C.1335.Stake-holesNine stake-holes (C.329, C.331, C.663, C.673, C.773, C.813, C.884, C.886 and C.891)were associated with this group of features. Two (C.329 and C.331) were recorded ateither end of pit C.302. Two (C.663 and C.673) were located close to hearth C.669, andtwo (C.773 and C.891) were located in close proximity to the large pit C.899. A flake(E2410:1:49) and a Later Mesolithic blade (E2410:1:60) were recovered 0.7 m from thestake-hole. A stake-hole C.813 was located in pit C.811. 37
  • iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report Hearths Three hearths (C.662, C.669 and C.865) were recorded in this group of features. Two (C.662 and C.669) were located within 2 m of one another. Hearth C.865 cut the large pit C.899. Archaeological layers A series of occupational layers were recorded in hollows which have been described as natural. However some of these hollows are likely to be cut feature such as pits or post- holes severely truncated by recent animal burrowing or completely collapsed due to the underlying geology. The artefacts recovered from the hollows date to the Neolithic period. A total of 11 of the layers C.310, C.372, C.388 (and fill C.293), C.404 (and fill C.309), C.405 (and fill C.360), C.406 (and fill C.394), C.407 (and fills C.383, C.307), C.603 (and fill C.583), C.687, C.875 (and fill C.176), and C.547 (and fill C.525) were recorded as animal burrows. Some of the hollows containing the layers were given cut numbers. The layers/hollows varied in plan between irregular, linear, and oval ranged in size from 0.4m by 0.5m by 0.19m to 1.66m x 1.1m x 0.26m. A natural flint pebble, a chert core and a rubbing stone (E2410:525:1-3) were recovered from hollow C.547. A flint manuport (E2410:360:1) was recovered from hollow C.405. A flint flake (E2410:372:1) was recovered from hollow C.372. Flint debitage and a blade (E2410:309:1 and 2) were recovered from C.404 and a scraper (E2410:1:34) was recovered from the overlying topsoil. C.598 and C.768 were contained in hollows originating from tree root activity. C.598 consisted of charcoal while C.768 consisted of reddish brown silt with occasional inclu- sions of charcoal flecks. They may be archaeological in nature though it is more likely that these fills represent decayed and burnt tree roots. Deposit C.158 was excavated from a swallow hole C.229. The remaining layers were contained within small shallow hollows or depressions. The four most substantial hollows were allocated a cut number (C.192, C.216, C.230 andC.234) and recorded. The remainder of the layers were a mixture of sandy silt layers (C.167, C.187, C.206, C.207, C.226, C.653, C.687, C.709, and C.762), silty sand layers (C.173, C.177, C.288, C.839, and C.837) and sand (C.196 and C.199, C.470). Most of the deposits contained pebbles and charcoal. A rubbing stone (E2410:173:1), a rubbing /hammer stone (E2410:230:1), sherd of a Middle Neolithic globular bowl (E2410:314:1), and three sherds of Early Neolithic Cari- nated bowls (E2410:469:1a & b and E2410:471) were recovered from these layers. Features in North-East section of Area 3 In the north-east corner of the site 17 pits (C.878, C.946, C.947, C.1063, C.1072, C.1078, C.1081, C.1082, C.1110, C.1121, C.1127, C.1135, C.1147, C.1157, C.1162, C.1169 and C.1381) were recorded. Four of the pits (C.1078, C.1081, C.1121 and C.1135) had cut the large pit C.1063. Four of the pits (C.1157, C.1147, C.1162 and C.1169) had cut the large pit C.1127.38
  • N8FM Gortore 1B E2410 Sections and Profiles of Area 3 Gortore 1b-e2410 South West Facing Section of C.1135 and C.1063 C.1042 C.1143 C.1037 C.1136 C.1041 C.1331 C.1138 C.1209 C.1135 C.1141 C.1063 C.1300 0m 1m Figure 14: Section plan of pit C�1063 in Area 3 Gortore 1b� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/39
  • iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report Plate 10: View of pit C�1063 from south in Area 3 Gortore 1b (Photo: John Sunderland)� Pit C.1063 (Plate 10) was one of the largest in the group. It was located on the northern edge of the excavation. It measured 3.65 m by 2.35 m and 1.35 m in depth. This pit con- tained eight fills, three hearth deposits and two layers (Figure 14). They were composed of silty sand and sandy silt and included flint, pottery and macro tools. The two layers were composed of stones and the hearth deposits contained a lot of charcoal. Over time this pit had been cut by four smaller pits (C.1078, C.1081, C.1135 and C.1121), a hearth (C.1144), a posthole (C.1116) and several stakeholes (C.1077, C.1078, C.1067, C.1068, C.1066, C.1263 and C.1031). The smaller pits ranged between 0.38 and 0.60 m in length, 0.38 and 0.57 m in width and 0.12 and 0.39 m in depth and contained fills of sandy silt. Four rubbing stones (E2420:1140:1, E2420:1141:1-3), two flakes (E2420:1138:1 and E2420:1209:1), a blade (E2420:266:1), and three pieces of debitage (E2420:1211:1 and 2 and E2420:1263:1) were recovered from the pit. Sherds from two Early Neolithic carinat- ed bowls (E2410:138: 4, 5, 6, 8, 10 and 15, E2410:1209:2, E2410:1041:10,13,17 and 20 and E2410:1170:2a and 2b) and one Middle Neolithic Globular bowl (E2410: 1041:21c) were also recovered from the fills of the pit. An Early Bronze Age date of cal BC 2012–1783 (UB–13402) was returned from the pit C.1121. Located 5 m to the east of pit C.1063, was another large pit (C.1127) measuring 1.80 m in length, 1.30 m in width and 0.65 m in depth. It also extended beyond the area of the excavation to the north. This pit contained nine fills of primarily sandy silt with inclusions of pebbles and charcoal. C.1231 produced a fragment of a leaf-shaped ar- rowhead (E2410:1231:4b) and eleven pieces of debitage (E2420:1231:1-4a). A split pebble (E2420:1123:1), a core (E2420:1123:4), seven flakes (E2420:1123:3, 6, 8, 11, 13, 15 and40
  • Gortore 1b-e2410 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/Plate 11: View of pits C�1154 and C�1119 in foreground and pit C�1228 in background from west in Area 3 Gortore 1b (Photo: John Sunderland)�16), seven pieces of debitage (E2420:1123:2, 5, 9, 12, 14, and 18) and a possible rough-outfor a barbed-and-tanged arrowhead (E2420:1123:17) were found in fill C.1123. C.1256produced a fragment of a leaf-shaped arrowhead (E2410:1256:11) and three pieces of deb-itage (E2420:1126:2, 3 and 5). Some of the lithic finds were assigned to the Neolithicperiod and others to the Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age period. This pit had been cutby four pits (C.1157, C.1147, C.1162 and C1169) and three stakeholes (C.1252, C.1251and C.1250). The four pits all contained four fills generally of clayey or sandy silt withinclusions of pebbles and charcoal; they also all contained one fill composed only ofpebbles and stones. Two fragments of a middle Neolithic globular bowl (E2410:1146:1and 2) were recovered from pit C.1147. A Middle Neolithic date of cal BC 3497–3105(UB–13400) was returned from the pit C.1127. The remaining seven pits in this north-eastern corner of Area 3 (C.878, C.946, C.947,C.1072, C.1082, C.1110 and C.1381) were all smaller, ranging in size between 0.61 and1.16 m in length, 0.44 and 0.76 m in width and 0.13 and 0.33 m in depth. C.1381 wastruncated by a hearth (C.1380); it contained two fills of silty sand, the basal fill (C.1378)produced a piece of flint debitage. The other pits contained fills mostly of silty clay andsandy silt with inclusions of charcoal. A single post-hole C.908 was located beside pitC.878. The three crescent-shaped pits (C.1154, C.1228 and C.1253) which were dated to theLate Mesolithic were described with the other three crescent-shaped pits in Area 2 (seeTable 4) (Plate 11). Six pits (C.806, C.930, C.999, C.1225, C.1254, and C.1304) were located 12 m to thesouth, on the eastern edge of the area of excavation. They ranged between 0.40 and 4 m 41
  • iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report in length, 0.40 and 2.50 m in width and 0.14 and 4.50 m in depth. C.930 was located furthest to the east and was truncated by the eastern field ditch and four furrows. Two stake-holes (C.1076 and C.915) cut the pit. It contained six predominantly silty and sandy fills with inclusions of pebbles, stones and charcoal. A sherd of Middle Neolithic globular bowl (E2419:927:1), flint debitage, rubbing stones and a schist polished axe (E2410:782:1- 5), were recovered from the fills. Adjoining this pit to the north-west was a small pit (C.1254) containing three fills. Flint debitage (E2410:862:1) was recovered from one of the fills. The three other pits (C.806, C.999 and C.1304) were located 5 m to the south. They all contained a single silty fill with pebble, stone and charcoal inclusions. A sherd of Middle Neolithic globular bowl and a rubbing/hammer stone (E2410:763:1 and 2) were recovered from pit C.806. Features in the Central section of Area 3 A group of 11 pits were located c. 12 m to further towards the south-west (C.524, C.585, C.588, C.610, C.967, C.1208, C.1227, C.1297, C.1310, C.1323 and C.1329). They ranged between 0.41 and 3.60 m in length, 0.36 and 1.50 m in width and 0.09 and 0.43 m in depth (Figure 15). A flint flake and retouched artefact (E2410:500:2 and 586:1) were re- covered from the fill of pit C.585 and a flake (E2410:1268:1) from C.1297. A flint blade, debitage, a flint core and a rubbing stone (E2410:957:1-4) were recovered from pit C.967. The lithic artefacts were assigned to the Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age. Post-hole C.994 was located in the middle of a cluster of pits that included C.585 and C.1297 and hearth C.532. Post-hole C.1312 was located 1.2 m to the north. It had cut pit C.1313. A further ten pits (C.402, C.513, C.514, C.540, C.552, C.606, C.608, C.615, C.625 and C.800) were located to the middle of the Central Section of Area 3. These ranged be- tween 0.32 and 2.36 m in length, 0.17 and 2.22 m in width and 0.10 and 0.48 m in depth. They were all circular to oval in plan and contained fills generally of silt or silty clay with inclusions of pebbles, stones and charcoal. A total of 18 pits were excavated in the western extent of the Central Section of Area 3. They ranged between 0.22 and 2.28 m in length, 0.16 and 1.70 m in width and 0.07 and 0.40 m in depth. Ten of the pits (C.1239, C.1262, C.1287, C.1307, C.1326, C.1330, C.1334, C.1337, C.1353 and C.1360) contained silty fills with pebble and charcoal in- clusions and nine (C.1204, C.1226, C.1242, C.1271, C.1270, C.1273, C.1281, C.1299 and C.1313) contained silty clay fills with inclusions of stones, pebbles and charcoal (see Figure 15, plate 12). Six of the fills from these pits produced flint artefacts; a flake and debitage from C.1350 (E2410:1350:1and 2); a retouched artefact, a flake and debitage (E2410:1212:1-3) from C.1212; three pieces of debitage (E2410:1317:1, 2 and 3) from C.1317; debitage (E2410:1221:1) from C.1221; a flake (E2410:1275:1) from C.1275; a blade (E2410:1282:1) from C.1282 and a flake and debitage (E2410:1314:1) from C.1313. Pits C.1262, and C.1326 produced sherds of Early Neolithic carinated bowls and C.1330 produced sherds from a Middle Neolithic globular bowl.42
  • N8FM Gortore 1B North east facing section of C.1313 E2410 Sections and Profiles of Area 3 C.1 Gortore 1b-e2410 C.1314 C.1313 North East Facing Section of C.1270, C.1271, C.1272, C.1273 and C.1280 C.1278 C.1275 C.1276 C.1277 C.1274 C.1271 C.1273 C.1272 C.1293 C.1280 C.1270 South east facing section of C.585 C.500 C.586 0m 1m C.585 Figure 15: Section plans of pits C�585, C�1270, C�1271, 1272, C�1280, C�1273 and C�1313 in Area 3 Gortore 1b� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/43
  • iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report Plate 12: View of pit C�1204 in Area 3 in Gortore 1b� Plate 13: View of postholes C�534, C1302 and C�1316 that formed part of Structure 3 in Area 3 Gortore 1b�44
  • Gortore 1b-e2410 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/ 372 402 655 615 617 ± 613 436 675 604 437 475 576 603 443 534 540 625 520 1316 514 Structure 3 1333 513 657 541 551 1302 552 666 487 585 Hearth 5880 5mFigure 16: Plan of Structure 3 in Area 3 Gortore 1b� The six remaining pits (C.1132, C.1207, C.1336, C.1368, C.1374 and C.1376) were dis-persed throughout the southern extent of Area 3. These pits ranged between 0.59 and 6.60m in length, 0.50 and 0.87 m in width and 0.11 and 0.47 m in depth. They all containeda single fill generally of silty clay or sandy to clayey silt, with inclusions of pebbles, stonesand charcoal. A flint flake (E2410:1377:1), and two pieces of debitage (E2410:1206:1,1359:1) were recovered from pits C.1376, C.1207 and C.1368.Post-holesA total of 35 postholes were recorded in the midst of the pits the central section of Area3. A cluster of 11 post-holes (C.475, C.487, C.541, C.551, C.613, C.617, C.655, C.657,C.1302, C.1316 and C.1333) were located in the central section of the site (Plate 13). Theyformed a sub-circular structure enclosing several of the small pits (C.402, C.513, C.514,C.540, C.615 and C.625) and a hearth (C.443). They ranged in size between 0.12 and 0.45m in length, 0.10 and 0.34 m in width and 0.08 and 0.30 m in depth. They all contained asingle fill, generally of clayey or sandy silt with inclusions of pebbles, small charcoal piecesand charcoal flecks. The sub-circular setting of post-hole may have formed a small, insub-stantial structure enclosing several small pits, a hearth and internal central post may haveexisted (Figure 16). Located in the centre of this sub-circle of post-holes were six morepost-holes ranging between 0.12 and 0.76-m in length, 0.12 and 0.59-m in width and 0.08and 0.44-m in depth. Two of these (C.436 and C.437) were located inside of a pit (C.402). 45
  • iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report The remaining four postholes (C.520, C.534, C.603 and C.604) contained single fills of silty sand and sandy silt with stone, pebble and charcoal inclusions. In the western extent of Area 3 there were nine postholes (C.238, C.488, C.1202, C.1216, C.1218, C.1220, C.1230, C.1233 and C.1306) ranging between 0.20 and 0.63m in length, 0.15 and 0.44m in width and 0.10 and 0.45m in depth. These were all orientated north/south and contained fills of clayey silt with inclusions of pebbles, stones and char- coal, C.1233 was the exception, containing two clay fills. It was located to the immediate east of hearth C.1236. A small quantity of cereals, barley and wheat were recovered from the post. Three of the posts (C.1220, C.1218 and C.1202) and a pit C.1204 were intercut. Two isolated post-holes (C.1365 and C.1377) were located near the south-eastern boundary of the site and south of structure 3 respectively. Three post-holes (C.1159, C.1164 and C.1166) were clustered together near the southern boundary of the site near the pit C.1132. Stake-holes A total of 22 stake-holes (C.1031, 1033, C.1034, C.1035, C.1263, C.1066, C.1067, C.1068, C.1077, C.1387, C.1388, C.666, C.675, C.873, C.915, C.1076, C.1382, C.1383, C.1327, C.1250, C.1251 and C.1252) were recorded in Area 3. They were all associated with pits located inside or close to the pit. Pit Associated internal stake-holes Associated external stake-holes C.1063 C.1031, C.1066, C.1067, C.1068, C.1077 and C.1263 C.1033, C.1034 and C.1035 C.1127 C.1250, C.1251 and C.1252 C.1242 C.1387 and C.1388 C.1382 and C.1383 C.615 C.675 C.1310 C.1327 C.930 C.915 and C.1076 C.873 Table 8 Stake-holes associated with pits Hearths Seven hearths (C.443, C.532, C.1110, C.1144, C.1236, C.1340 and C.1380) were recorded in Area 3, in addition to the three described in the section on the features in the north- west portion of the site. These features ranged between 0.43 and 1.27 m in length, 0.42 and 0.74 m in width and 0.05 and 0.38 m in depth. The hearths appeared to be associated with the Neolithic occupation of the site. The hearths were for the most part associated with groups of pits and/or postholes and are indicators of areas of activity. The hearths were widely dispersed across the entire area of the site. Two of them (C.1110 and C.1380) were located in the north-east corner of Area 3. Hearth C.1380 was cut by a pit. The crescent-shaped pits were located c. 3 m to the south-east and an oc- cupation layer C.817 to the north-west. Some 28 lithic artefacts, dated to the Late Neo- lithic and sherds of Middle Neolithic pottery were recovered from the occupation layer. including 12 pieces of debitage, a hollow scraper (E2410:817:12) and polished stone axe46
  • Gortore 1b-e2410 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/fragments (E2410:817:26). Several lithics, dated to the Neolithic were also recovered frompits C.1119 and C.1154. Hearth C.1236 was located in the western central area of Area 3 in the middle of agroup of pits and posthole. The area measured c. 8 m north-south by 16 m east-west. Aconcentration of lithic artefacts dated to the Late Neolithic and the Late Neolithic/EarlyBronze Age were recovered from the topsoil and the pits to the north-west of the hearthin particular. Early and Middle Neolithic pottery was also recovered from this area. Thelocation of the hearth may define an area of activity which comprised at least 15 pits andgroup of posts including a single post-hole C.1233 located immediately east of the hearth. Hearth C.443 was situated in the middle of the central section of Area 3. The areameasured c. 9 m north-south by 13 m east-west. The hearth was located on the southernside of a large pit C.402 and in the midst of a group of pits and post-holes. It may haveserved as a hearth in the interior of a possible sub-circular structure (see Figure 16). Incontrast to the other three hearths described above, very few lithic artefacts and no pot-tery was recovered from the vicinity of this hearth. Hearth C.532 was located in the eastern central area of Area 3 positioned betweenpits C.524 and C.1297. The location of the hearth may define an area of activity whichcomprised at least eight pits and a single post-hole which was located 0.4 m north-east ofthe hearth. A small number of lithic artefacts dated to the Late Neolithic and the LateNeolithic/Early Bronze Age and no pottery were recovered from four of the pits and thetopsoil. Hearth C.1340 was located at in the southern end of the site. The features were dis-persed in this area. It was sited 2 m south of a large irregular pit C.1376. A single flintflake was recovered from the pit.Occupation LayersFour occupation layers (C.817, C.1030, C.1255 and C.1321) were recorded in Area 3. Layer Dimensions m Associated artefacts Nos 817 6.0 x 4.5 x 0.07 lithic artefacts & Middle Neolithic pottery 1-34 1030 1.5 x 0.85 x 0.08 None 1255 3.82 x 1.52 x 0.42 Lithic artefacts & Early and Middle Neolithic pottery 1-8 1321 3.82 x 1.52 x 0.01 Lithic artefacts 1-4Table 9 Dimensions of occupation layers The occupation layer C.817 was located between the crescent-shaped pits and PitC.1063 on the northern fringe of the site. Some 28 lithic artefacts, dated to the LateNeolithic and six sherds of Middle Neolithic pottery were recovered from the occupationlayer. The lithics included 12 pieces of debitage, a hollow scraper (E2410:817:12) and pol-ished porcellanite axe fragments (E2410:817:26). The layer C.1030 was located to the south-west of the large pit C.1063. Several lithicartefacts and Early and Middle Neolithic pottery were recovered from the pit C.1063. 47
  • iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report Layers C.1255 and C.1321 were located to the west of Structure 2 and to the north of pit C.1353. Six pieces of flint and one sherd of Early and one sherd of Middle Neolithic pottery were recovered from the layer C.1255. Three pieces of flint debitage and one flake were recovered from the layer C.1321. Boundary Ditch A boundary ditch, orientated SW by Ne and extended beyond the limits of excavation was recorded as C.1189 in Area 2 and C.1190 in Area 3. It extended in a SW-NE direction from the south-eastern corner of Area 3 under an extant tree-lined boundary ditch and into the north-west corner of Area 2. It was similar to the ditches recorded in Area 1. In Area 3 the ditch (C.1190) had a U-shaped profile with of 1.3 m and depth of 0.41 m. A rubbing stone (E2410:1192:1) was recovered from one of the fills. Summary of Area 3 Archaeological activity dating to the Late Mesolithic, all phases of the Neolithic and the Early Bronze Age were recorded in Area 3. Five radiocarbon dates were returned from features located in Area 3. Two were Late Mesolithic dates and were from the crescent- shaped pits. But there were Neolithic artefacts and Early Neolithic pottery associated with one of the crescent-shaped pits, C.1119 in particular. Pit C.1127 was located on the northern fringe of Area 3 and was dated to the Middle Neolithic. Lithic artefacts, dated to Neolithic and Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age and Early and Middle Neolithic pottery were recovered from the pit. Two Early Bronze Age dates were returned from Area 3. A posthole C.1335 that may have formed part of Structure 2 in the north-western portion of the site was dated to the Early Bronze Age. Pit C.1121 which cut pit C.1063, on the northern fringe of the excava- tion, also dated to the Early Bronze Age. At least two possible structures, Structures 2 and 3, were recorded in Area 3. Struc- ture 2 was located in the north-western section of the site (see Figure 13) and may have been rectangular or sub-rectangular in plan. A small number of lithic artefacts dated to the general Neolithic Period were recorded in the area. An Early Bronze Age date was returned from one of the postholes. Structure 3 was located in the middle of the central section of Area 3 (see Figure 16). Both Early Neolithic and Middle Neolithic pottery from recovered from Area 3. The pottery was concentrated in two main areas; it was recovered from the large pits on the northern fringe of Area 3, which were dated to the Late Mesolithic, the Middle Neolithic and the Early Bronze Age and in the western central area of activity centred on the hearth C.1236. Lithic finds The lithic assemblage was examined by Farina Sternke (Appendix 5). The assemblage has to be regarded typologically and technologically as a palimpsest including Early Me-48
  • Gortore 1b-e2410 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/Figure 17: E2410:1:231 Early Mesolithic axe from Figure 18: E2410:1:58 Moynagh Point from Gortore Gortore 1b� 1b� Plate 14: Early Mesolithic limestone axe E2410:1:231 and flint blade E2410:1:128 from Gortore 1b (Photo: John Sunderland)�solithic, Late Mesolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age diagnostic elements. It can be di-vided into four groups: (1) artefacts clearly associated with the Early Mesolithic suchas a number of blades and the polished stone axe (E2410:1:231) (Figure 17, plate 14),which represent a residual component present only in the topsoil; (2) a distally trimmedblade, a few large patinated flakes, the Kerry point (E2410:1:231), and the Moynagh point(E2410:1:58) (Figure 18), which are Later Mesolithic in date and most of which derived 49
  • iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report Plate 15: Group of Late Mesolithic artefacts from Gortore 1b (L–R) (a) Kerry Point E2410:548:1, (b) re- touched artefact E2410:1:60, (c) Moynagh point E2410:1:58 and (d) blade (recovered during test- ing) 05E1150:1:1 (Photo: John Sunderland)� Plate 16: Group of coarse stone tools from Gortore 1b�50
  • Gortore 1b-e2410 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/ Figure 19: E2410:548:1 Kerry Point from Gortore 1b�Plate 17: Group of blue flint (a) E2410:1:66, (b) E2410:1:67, (c) E2410:1:69, (d) E2410:1:59 (e) E2410:1:64, (f) E2410:1:82, (g) E2410:1108:4 and (h) E2410:1:61 from Gortore 1b E2410 (Photo: John Sunderland)�from a single pit (Plate 15); (3) the majority of artefacts are associated with the Neolithichouse and its environs and include the leaf-shaped arrowheads, the hollow scrapers, themiscellaneous retouched artefacts as well as the majority of the single platform cores and(4) despite the general absence of diagnostic artefacts, a limited use of the site during theLate Neolithic/Early Bronze Age. 51
  • iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report Plate 18: Late Mesolithic Points E2410:548:1 and E2410:1:58 from Gortore 1b� The 674 lithic finds from the archaeological excavation at Gortore 1b are 581 flaked pieces of flint, five flaked pieces of chert, one flaked piece of quartz, one piece of worked rock crystal, one mudstone flake, two porcellanite flakes, three worked slate pieces, two polished stone axes, a small sandstone bead, 52 utilised stones of mainly granite, quartzite and sandstone (Plate 16) as well as 24 natural chunks and pebbles of predominately flint and a piece of slag. The flaked assemblage contains 41 cores, 52 blades, 224 flakes, 59 retouched arte- facts, four chunks, eight split pebbles, five potlids and 201 pieces of debitage. The as- semblage is dominated by an Early Neolithic typological and technological component which includes single platform cores and leaf-shaped arrowheads (Plate 17). In addition, a residual Early Mesolithic element in the assemblage comprising of a polished stone axe and a number of blades and flakes was recovered from the topsoil. One feature (C. 548) contained Later Mesolithic artefacts, including a Kerry point (Figure 19, Plate 18). An occupation of the site in the second half of the Neolithic is represented by four hollow scrapers and two porcellanite axe flakes, while the presence of a series of scalar and bipolar cores as well as a possible barbed-and-tanged arrowhead roughout attest to a limited use of the site in the Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age. Pottery The pottery assemblage was examined by Eoin Grogan and Helen Roche (Appendix 6). An assemblage of 213 sherds of pottery were recovered from Areas 1, 2 and 3, represent- ing 14 Early Neolithic carinated bowls and eight Middle Neolithic globular bowls: this52
  • Gortore 1b-e2410 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/ E2410, 14:2 E2410, 14:3q E2410, 1138:4 Vessel 1 Vessel 1 Vessel 11 E2410, 1146:2 E2410, 1084:7e E2410, 1146:1 E2410, 1041:21e Vessel 21 Vessel 13 Vessel 21 Vessel 11 E2410, 254a E2410, 254b Vessel 21 Vessel 21 E2410, 1058:5e Vessel 22Figure 20: Sherds of Early Neolithic carinated bowls from vessels 1, 11 and 13 and sherds of Middle Neo- lithic globular ware from vessels 21 and 22 from Gortore 1b�material appears to represent domestic activity. Area 1 produced a small assemblage of 53Early Neolithic carinated, round bottomed bowl sherds (five rim-, three neck-, one shoul-der-, 10 bodysherds and 34 fragments) representing up to five separate domestic vessels.In addition five fragments of Middle Neolithic pottery (Vessel 6) were found in pit C.74in Area 1 (Figure 20). Area 2 produced three Early Neolithic carinated bowls and one Middle Neolithicglobular bowl. The four Early Neolithic carinated, round bottomed bowl sherds (oneshoulder-, two bodysherds and one fragment; total weight: 12g) represented up to threeseparate domestic vessels (Nos 7–9). Three fragments (one rim fragment, one bodysherdand one fragment;) of Middle Neolithic pottery (Vessel 10) were found in pit C.1008 inArea 2. Area 3 produced seven Early Neolithic carinated bowls and six Middle Neolithicglobular bowls. The Early Neolithic comprised 86 sherds and represents up to seven sepa-rate carinated, round bottomed bowls (Vessels 11–17; two rim-, two neck-, three shoul-der-, and 12 bodysherds, 61 fragments and six crumbs). The Middle Neolithic comprisedsixty two sherds (three rim fragments, seven bodysherds, 39 fragments and 13 crumbs)(Vessels 18–23). These were found in pits, postholes, occupation layers and a possible slottrench, as well as some surface finds. Early Neolithic pottery of the type found in Areas 1, 2 and 3 has been found on bothsettlement sites and funerary contexts throughout the country, within portal and courttombs. The contexts at Gortore 1b appear to be domestic, belonging to the beginning ofthe Neolithic in this region, c. 4000–3700 BC. This type of pottery has also been found 53
  • iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report on other sites excavated on the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown, small assemblages were found at Ballynamona 2 E2429, Ballinglanna North 3 E2416, Caherdrinny 3 E2422 and Gortnahown 2 E2426. Small assemblages were also found during the excavation of sites on the N8 Cashel Bypass; and on the N8 Rathcormac to Fermoy Bypass. The vessels have a wide variety of parallels on other Neolithic domestic sites, including those with characteristic Early Neolithic rectangular houses, and early court tombs. Assemblages of Middle Neolithic pottery have been found during the excavation of several court tombs and in portal tombs. This material has less frequently been recovered from settlement sites. This type of pottery was certainly still in use c. 3000 BC with elabo- rate faceted rims representing the most developed and latest type. Although no associated structures were identified at the Gortore 1b sites the assemblages appears to represent dumped material and there seems little doubt that the locally produced pottery originally had a domestic function. Middle Neolithic pottery was also recovered at Caherdrinny 3 E2422 and Ballynacarriaga 3 E2412. Plant remains The plant remains were examined by Penny Johnston (Appendix 7). A total of 99 samples were scanned and plant remains were present in 54 of the samples. Hazelnut shells were recovered from two of the pits C.479 and C.527 dated to the Late Mesolithic. A small quantity of other plant remains, representing food waste, was recovered mostly from pit C.527. Some of the plant remains included berries and fruit stones. Only three samples with plant remains were associated with Structure 1, in Area 1. The remains were very poor and included just a small amount of hazelnut shell fragments, some indeterminate cereal grains and possible tuber fragments. Hazelnut shells were also recovered from features of known and unknown prehistoric date including the pits on the northern fringes of Area 3. A small quantity of cereals were recovered from posthole C.1233 adjacent to hearth C.1236. The riches assemblage of plant remains came from the early medieval kiln in Area 1. Preservation was poor and the majority of the cereals were not determined to species. Of the were identifiable remains equal amounts of wheat and barley were identified. Cremated bone The cremated bone was examined by Ian McGee (Appendix 8). The assemblage from Area 2 in Gortore 1b represented the cremation and subsequent partial deposit of the remains of one individual, a young adult. Radiocarbon date Radiocarbon analysis was carried out by the 14 Chrono Centre in Queen’s University Belfast. Dates were calibrated using Calib Rev5.0.2 (©1986-2005 M.Stuiver & P.J. Re- imer) and in conjunction with Stuiver & Reimer 1993 and Reimer et al. 2004.54
  • Gortore 1b-e2410 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/Lab Con- Material Un-calibrated δ 13 C 2 sigma 1 sigma Periodcode text date calibration calibrationUB- C.130 Hazelnut from 7219 +/- 29 -24.1 BC 6207 - BC 6094 Late10500 pit C.527 in BP 6138 6115 -6026 Mesolithic Area 2 - 6016UB- C.341 Hazelnut from 7509+/-29 -23.4 cal BC cal BC Late12983 pit C.479 in 6441-6351 6428-6379 Mesolithic Area 2 6310-6262UB- C.96 Emmer wheat 1303+/-21 -19.8 cal AD 661- cal AD 667- Early12984 from pit C.93 in 723 739-771 694702-706 medieval Area 1 748-765UB- C.539 Pomoideae 6981+/-31 -25.4 cal BC cal BC Late13222 charcoal from 5979-5946 5968-5955 Mesolithic pit C.622 in 5923-5770 5906-5836 Area 2 5824-5812UB- C.538 willow/poplar 5807+/-29 -26.6 cal BC cal BC Late13223 charcoal from 4724-4553 4711-4652 Mesolithic pit C.548 in 4641-4617 Area 2UB- C.102 Oak from slot 3962+/-26 -26.4 cal BC cal BC Chalcol-13224 trench C.103 of 2570-2514, 2561-2536, ithic house in Area 1 2501-2438, 2492-2464 2420-2404, 2378-2350UB- C.474 Hazel from 3896+/-25 -26.6 cal BC cal BC Chalcol-13225 posthole C.473 2467-2332, 2461-2398, ithic of house in 2327-2299 2384-2346 Area 1UB- C.421 Cereal and 1873+/-21 -21.2 cal AD cal AD 81- Iron Age13233 nutshell from 77-215 138, 160-165, stakehole C.420 197-207 in Area 1UB- C.1123 Hazelnut from 4576+/-35 -25.9 cal BC cal BC Middle13400 pit C.1127 in 3497-3456 3488-3472 Neolithic Area 3 3377-3312 3372-3334 3294-3287 3212-3190 3274-3266 3153-3135 3238-3105UB- C.1124 Hazelnut from 7089+/-29 -26.6 cal BC cal BC Late13401 pit C.1154 in 6021-5966 6007-5979 Mesolithic Area 3 5957-5901 5945-5924UB- C.1120 Hazelnut from 3565+/-23 -27.1 cal BC cal BC Early13402 pit C.1121 in 2012-1999 1940-1888 Bronze Area 3 1977-1877 Age 1841-1823 1794-1783UB- C.1331 Hazelnut from 3572+/-19 -26.9 cal BC cal BC Early13403 pit C.1335 in 2009-2001 1941-1894 Bronze Area 3 1975-1882 Age UB- C.1104 Hazelnut from 7141+/-24 -26.7 cal BC cal BC Late 13404 pit C.1119 in 6060-5986 6046-6045 Mesolithic Area 3 6032-5995Table 10 Radiocarbon dates for Gortore 1b E2410� 55
  • iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report 8 Discussion The site at Gortore 1b was located on the southern bank of the River Funshion. The northern edge of the area of excavation came within c. 25 m of the edge of the modern course of the river. The ground sloped from the south to the river while on the northern bank of the river the land was level and was prone to flooding. Area 3 in particular due to its location on the edge of a limestone reef was characterised by swallow-holes. Many of the cut features had collapsed into underlying voids. This geological activity caused prob- lems with the definition of many of the features. In addition intensive animal burrowing activity had taken place in the sandy subsoil. The southern bank of the Funshion Fiver was occupied intermittently in the Meso- lithic Period and may have been occupied through out the Neolithic period. The archae- ology recorded in Gortore E2119, on the route of the N8 Rathcormac to Fermoy, was located to the east of Areas 1, 2 and 3 in Gortore 1b, on the route of the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown. It is quite likely that further archaeology is preserved in situ in the vicinity of the two sites. Mesolithic The earliest known human settlement in Ireland dates from the Mesolithic period (c. 8000 BC - 4000 BC). In Munster, the majority of the evidence (flint scatters) for Me- solithic occupation has come from the Blackwater valley in Co. Cork (Woodman 1989, 116). The site of Gortore 1b on the banks of the Funshion River is an important addition to the small number of Mesolithic sites in Munster. Early Mesolithic Period The site on the southern bank of the Funshion River was used by people in the Early Mesolithic Period c. 8000-7000 BC. None of the features can be assigned to this period but at least 29 lithic artefacts including blades, flakes, a polished limestone axe and points were recovered from the top soil in Area 2 and Area 3 (see Plate 14). Recovery of the lithic artefacts was for the most part concentrated in two locations in Area 3, in proximity to the large pits in the north-east corner and in the vicinity of the pits centred on the hearth C.1236 in the western part of the central section of activity (Figure 21). Late Mesolithic Period The site on the southern bank of the Funshion River was used by people in the Late Me- solithic Period c. 7000-4000 BC (Figure 22). Six Late Mesolithic radiocarbon dates were returned from five pits in Area 2 and Area 3. The artefact assemblage, from the pits that dated to the Late Mesolithic, was mixed.56
  • BC 3497-3105 Mesolithic, Early [24] Neolithic (Generic) [147] Neolithic, Late [102] 1127 1063 1121 899 BC Mesolithic, Late [6] Neolithic, Early [34] Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age [53] ± 2012-1783 BC 404 Structure 2 1267 1119 6060-5986 547 405 Gortore 1b-e2410 1253 1228 543 689 BC 1154 6021-5901 378 959 BC 444 1335 388 322 Outdoor work 2009-1882 area 1 555 Structure 3 1088 875 662 878 302 1122 215 1254 337 Outdoor work 527 area 2 BC 1360 930 1330 1273 1000 5979-5770 1390 BC 1304 622 6207-6010 1242 395 1334 402 806 615 1262 1189 1287 Structure 4 627 242 552 1310 1329 305 889 607 1323 585 524 588 1006 1336 260 139 532 1345 1297 967 BC BC 1376 6441-6262 4724-4553 479 548 482 350 606 276 1190 517 1207 553 0 20 m Figure 21: Plan of Area 2 and 3 in Gortore 1b showing distribution of lithic artefacts� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/57
  • iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report Figure 22: Reconstuction drawing of Mesolithic activity at Gortore 1b� Area Context 2 sigma cal BC date Lithics Pottery 2 C.527 6207–6016 Neolithic 2 C.622 5979–5770 Neolithic 2 C.479 6441–6262 Mesolithic and Neolithic 2 C.548 4724–4553 Mesolithic and Neolithic Early Neolithic 3 C.1154 6021–5901 & 6060–5986 Neolithic Table 11 Late Mesolithic dates and artefacts recovered from pits in Area 2 and 3 at Gortore� The six crescent-shaped pits, three of which were dated to the Late Mesolithic, were a very distinctive feature on site, it is likely that these belong to the Late Mesolithic phase of activity. They were all located close to one another, at the northern end of Area 2 and 3, close to the Funshion River. The shape and form of the pits was not replicated anywhere else on site. They may have formed part of a temporary structure or structures or were associated with riverside hunting and processing activities. Recovery of the lithic artefacts was concentrated in particular within and near three of the large pits, C.260, C.479 and C.548, in the centre of Area 2. These lithics and those recovered from the topsoil, particularly the Moynagh point (E2410:1:58:) and the Kerry point (E2410:548:1) demonstrate that fishing and fish processing took place at the site. No artefacts dating to the Mesolithic were recovered from Area 1 which was located upslope of the river.58
  • Gortore 1b-e2410 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/ 181680 181800 ± Fun shion (Riv er) Area 2101805 101805 Area 3 Gortore E2410 Area 1101640 101640 Gortore E2119 0 100 m 181680 181800 Figure 23: Plan of Areas 1-3 at Gortore 1b E2410 on the route of the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown and Area 1 and 2 at Gortore E2119 on the route of the N8 Rathcormac to Fermoy� 59
  • iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report Neolithic The Neolithic Period is characterised by the beginning of agriculture from c. 4000 BC. Rectangular Neolithic houses were recorded on the route of the N8 Fermoy to Mitchel- stown at Ballinglanna North 3 E2416 and Caherdrinny 3 E2422 and at Gortore E2119 on the route of the N8 Rathcormac Fermoy. A large enclosure containing several struc- tures associated with Late Neolithic pottery was excavated at Ballynacarriaga 3 E2412. Activity dating to the Neolithic was also recorded at Ballynacarriga 3 E2412, Ballyna- mona 1 E2428, Ballynamona 2 E2429, and Gortnahown 2 E2426 and Gortore 2 E3973. The riverine site at Gortore 1b was used throughout the Neolithic period. The Neolithic in Area 1 Prior to the return of the radiocarbon dates the structure in Area 1 had been designed as an Early Neolithic house, despite the evident truncation and the partial footprint. It was designated as an Early Neolithic structure because of the similarity to a structure, dated to the Early Neolithic, that was excavated c. 80 m to the west in same townland in 2004, Gortore E2119 (Figure 23). Site Name Structure Internal Area 2-sigma cal Artefacts Dimensions date Gortore1b E2410 Structure 1 6.5 x 4.6 24 m2 2570–2350 (UB–13224) Gortore E2119 Structure 1 6.3 x 5.1 33 m2 3928–3655 Early Neo- (UB–6769) lithic pottery Ballinglanna North 3 E2416 Structure 1 7.5 m x 5.2 39 m2 3766–3656 Early Neo- (UB–10499) lithic pottery Ballinglanna North 3 E2416 Structure 2 c. 9.6 m x 4.5 m c. 43 m2 3938–3708 Early Neo- (UB–13145) lithic pottery Caherdrinny 3 E2422 Structure 1 8.5 m x 5.7 m 43 m2 3766–3650 Early Neo- (UB–13286) lithic pottery Table 12 Dimensions and dates of Neolithic rectangular houses on the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown and the N8 Rathcormac to Fermoy and of Structure 1 at Gortore 1b� Structure 1 in Area 1 was dated to the Chalcolithic/Early Bronze Age by two radio- carbon dates. A small quantity of Early Neolithic pottery was recovered from one of the features associated with the structure. With the exception of a lithic recovered from a pit located to the south-east of the structure, no artefacts were recovered that dated to the Chalcolithic. Beaker pottery was recovered from a pit located c. 80 m to the east in Gor- tore E2119 on the route of the N8 Rathcormac to Fermoy. Early Neolithic pottery was also recovered from a group of pits located to the south- east of the structure in Area 1 (Figure 24). It was recovered from the pits in the northern part of Area 3 and from the area of Structure 2. The Neolithic in Areas 2 and 3 The lithic assemblage was dominated by an Early Neolithic typological and technological component and included cores and leaf-shaped arrowheads. Cores, flakes, blades and deb-60
  • Pottery type (15) Early Neolithic carinated bowls (14) ± Middle Neolithic Globular Bowl (1) Gortore 1b-e2410 0 25 m Figure 24: Plan of Area 1 in Gortore 1b showing distribution of Neolithic pottery� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/61
  • 62 Pottery type (81) Early Neolithic carinated bowls (48) ± Middle Neolithic Globular Bowl (33) iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 0 20 m Figure 25: Plan of Area 2 and 3 in Gortore 1b showing distribution of Neolithic pottery� archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Gortore 1b-e2410 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/itage were recovered from pits C.260, C.527, C.622, and C.548 in Area 2 and pit C.1313 inthe western part of the central section of Area 3. Dozens of other lithic artefacts, were as-signed to the Middle and Late Neolithic and the generic Neolithic period and were recov-ered from the pits in the northern section of both Area 2 and Area 3. These artefacts areevidence that a variety of domestic work was undertaken in the vicinity. The assemblagewhich included coarse stone tools, concave and hollow flint scrapers, several retouchedforms, a burin and debitage, indicate that food processing, hide-working, wood-working,bone or antler work and hunting took place at the site. With the exception of those recovered from the topsoil, the lithics were concentratedin two places in Area 3, in the north-east corner and the western central section of thesite (Figure 21). This suggests that both these areas were used as outdoor work areas. Theamount and size of features differed in the two areas which may indicate that they wereused at different times or for different processes. The northern outdoor work area was only partially excavated as it extended beyondthe area of excavation further to the north and closer to the river. It comprised a groupof at least pits, two hearths and an occupation layer which measured 6 m by 4.5 m by0.07 m in depth (see Figure 12). The occupation layer overlay one of the hearths andone of the large pits. Some 28 lithics, including 12 pieces of debitage, a hollow scraper(E2410:817:12), a fragment from a porcellanite stone axe (E2410:817:26), a rubbing stoneand six sherds of Middle Neolithic pottery were recovered from the occupation layer. Two large pits located on the edge of the cutting, were associated with the work area.An Early Bronze Age date of 2012–1783 BC (UBA-13402) was obtained from hazel-nut shell from a later re-cut of pit C.1063. A variety of flint, pottery (Early and MiddleNeolithic), hammerstones and rubbing stones were recovered from the pit. Pit C.1127was located 6 m to the east. It measured 1.8 m by 1.3 m by 0.65 m. It had been cut byat least four pits and three stake-holes. The only Middle Neolithic radiocarbon date, of3497–3105 BC (UBA-13400), from Gortore 1b was obtained from hazelnut shell fromthis pit. A large concentration of flint cores, debitage, leaf-shaped arrowhead fragmentsand arrowhead production flakes were recovered from the pit and the occupation layersto the west. Both Early and Middle Neolithic pottery was also recovered from the pit. Afurther 12 pits located on the eastern edge of Area 3 and a group on the western side ofArea 2 were probably associated with the work area. Some Middle Neolithic pottery and aschist axe (E2410:782:5) recovered with flint debitage and two rubbing stones came fromthe largest of the pits (C.930). Over 30 lithics, including cores and debitage, was recoveredfrom within and adjacent to pit C.1000 on the western edge of Area 2. The second work area was located on the western edge of the excavation. A total ofat least 18 pits, a hearth and nine post-holes were located in very close proximity to oneanother. One post-hole, located on the eastern side of the hearth, contained a small quan-tity of charred plant remains, included barley and wheat. An occupation surface, whichmeasured 3.82 m by 1.52 m by 0.42 m in depth, was located to the north of the pits. Earlyand Middle Neolithic pottery and a group of lithic artefacts were recovered from the area.The lithics included debitage and a burin (E2410:1058:5) and were mostly dated to the 63
  • iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report Middle/Late Neolithic. These pits and post-holes formed an organised work space associ- ated with food processing, flint knapping and wood and/or bone working. No structures were definitely identified in Area 3 but it is probable that at least two (Structures, 2 and 3), were located adjacent to the work areas. The complete footprint of the houses could not be discerned due to the problems caused by the underlying geology. Few artefacts were recovered from the area of habitation in contrast to the numbers re- covered from the work areas. This suggests that the buildings were upstanding when the work areas were in use, thus preventing the spread of debris from the work areas into the space occupied by the structures. The remains of at least 25 pits, 27 post-holes, nine stake-holes and three hearths were recorded in the area where Structure 2 was located, sandwiched between the two outdoor work areas. It is difficult to be precise about the numbers of associated features or the plan of the structure/s as the combination of geological disturbance and animal burrowing was most intensive in this part of the site. Structure 3, located to the east of work area 2, may have been sub-circular in plan and measured c. 6.5 m north to south by 9 m east to west. It comprised an arc of at least ten post-hole which varied in size from 0.12–0.45 m in length by 0.1–0.34 m in width by 0.08–0.3 m in depth. A number of post-holes, pits and a hearth were located in the inte- rior. One of the internal posts may have functioned as a central roof support. Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age A small quantity of lithic artefacts dated to the Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age was recovered from features in Area 2 and 3. Two Early Bronze Age dates from Area 3 were re- turned from charcoal and hazelnut shells indicating that the site was used in this period. Early medieval The early medieval activity at the site was located in Area 1. It comprised a small corn- drying kiln and two associated pits. No other kiln was excavated on the route although three other sites dated to the early medieval period were recorded on the route; a D- shaped enclosure at Ballynacarriga 2 E2413, an iron working site at Ballinglanna North 1 E2414 and a settlement site with evidence for iron working and a bell forge at Gortna- hown 2 E2426.64
  • Gortore 1b-e2410 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/9 ReferencesBarry, T. (1987) The Archaeology of Medieval Ireland. London, Methuen & Co. Ltd.Bence-Jones, M. (1996) A Guide to Irish County Houses. London, Constable & Co. Ltd.Clinton, M. (2001) The Souterrains of Ireland. Bray, Wordwell.Cotter, E., Buckley, K. & Drumm, M. (2006) N8 Fermoy Mitchelstown Phase 1 – final archaeological testing report, unpublished report for licence no. 05E1150.Cotter, E. (2005) ‘Bronze Age Ballybrowney, Co. Cork’, Recent Archaeological Discoveries on National Road Schemes 2004. National Roads Authority Monograph Series No.2.Daly, A. and Grogan, E (1992) ‘Excavation of Four Barrows in Mitchelstowndown West, Knocklong, Co. Limerick’, Discovery Programme Reports 1. Dublin, Royal Irish Academy.Doody, M. (1995) ‘Ballyhoura Hills project’, Discovery Programme Reports 2, 12-44. Dublin, Royal Irish Academy.Doody, M. (1999) ‘Ballyhoura Hills project’, Discovery Programme Reports 5, 97-110. Dublin, Royal Irish Academy.Gardiner, M.J. and Radford,T. (1980) Soil Assocaitions of Ireland and Their Land Use Potential. Dublin, An Foras Talúntais.Gowen, M. (1988) Three Irish Gas pipelines: new archaeological evidence in Munster. Dublin, Wordwell.Lewis, S. (1988) Lewis’ Cork: A Topographical Dictionary of the Parishes, Towns and Villages of Cork City and County. Cork, Collins Press.Monk, M. (1995) ‘A Tale of Two RIngforts Lisleagh I and II’, Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society Vol.100,105-116.O’Donoghoe, J 2010 ‘Neolithic house at Gortore, Co. Cork (E2119)’, Eachtra Archaeological Projects Journal, Issue 6 (part 19). Accessed online 11 January 2011 at http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2119-gortore-co-cork/.Power, D., Lane, S. and Byrne, E., Egan, U., Sleeman, M., with Cotter, E., Monk, J. (2000) Archaeological Inventory of County Cork, Volume 4: North Cork Parts I & II. Dublin, The Stationery Office. 65
  • iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeoloGical excavation report Power, B. (1996) From the Danes to Dairygold A History of Mitchelstown. Mount Cashell Books. Power, B. (2002) Images of Mitchelstown, Stories and pictures from my own place. Mount Cashell Books. Reimer, P.J., Baillie, M.G.L., Bard, E., Bayliss, A., Beck, J.W., Bertrand, C., Blackwell, P.G., Buck, C.E., Burr, G., Cutler, K.B., Damon, P.E., Edwards, R.L., Fairbanks, R.G., Friedrich, M., Guilderson, T.P., Hughen, K.A., Kromer, B., McCormac, F.G., Manning, S., Bronk Ramsey, C., Reimer, R.W., Remmele, S., Southon, J.R., Stuiver, M., Talamo, S., Taylor, F.W., van der Plicht, J. and Weyhenmeyer, C.E. (2004) ‘IntCal04 Terrestrial Radiocarbon Age Calibration, 0–26 Cal Kyr BP’, Radiocarbon 46, 1029-1058. Stuiver, M., and Reimer, P.J. (1993) ‘Extended (super 14) C data base and revised CALIB 3.0 (super 14) C age calibration program’, Radiocarbon 35, 215-230. Sherlock, R. (2003) ‘Killydonoghoe’ Bennett, I. (Ed) Excavations 2001. Bray, Wordwell. Sleeman, A.G., & McConnell, B. (1995) Geology of East Cork-Waterford. Dublin, Geological Survey of Ireland. Stout, M. (1997) The Irish Ringfort. Dublin, Four Courts Press. Woodman, P. McCarthy, M. and Monaghan, N.T. (1997) ‘The Irish Quaternary Fauna Project’, Quaternary Science Reviews 16 (2), 129-159. Woodman, P.C. (1989) ‘The Mesolithic in Munster: a preliminary assessment’, pp. 116 – 124 in Bonsall, C. (Ed) The Mesolithic in Europe. Edinburgh, John Donald. Woodman, P.C. (2000) ‘Hammers and Shoeboxes: New Agendas for Prehistory’., pp. 1 -10 in Desmond, A., Johnson, G., McCarthy, M., Sheehan, J. and Shee Twohig, E. New Agendas in Irish Prehistory. Papers in commemoration of Liz Anderson. Bray, Wordwell.66
  • Appendix 1 Stratigraphic index Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 3 1 Fill Fill of pit 6 6 1 6 Firmly compacted compacted dark brown silty clay, oc- 0.44 x 0.19 x 0.14 casional inclusions of small charcoal pieces and frequent Gortore 1b-e2410 inclusion of charcoal flecks. 4 1 Fill Fill of hearth 82 82 1 77 softly compacted compacted mid reddish to yellowish 1.03 x 0.90 x 0.17 brown sandy silt, occasional inclusions of coarse pebbles, small and medium sub-angular and sub-rounded stones, and small charcoal pieces. 5 1 Fill Fill of hearth 9 9 1 54 softly compacted compacted dark brown silty clay, occa- 0.72 x 0.69 x 0.11 sional inclusions of coarse sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles and large charcoal pieces, moderate inclusions of medium charcoal pieces and frequent charcoal flecks. 6 1 Cut Cut of pit 3 3 2 Oval in plan, rounded corner. Break of slope at top and 0.44 x 0.19 x 0.14 base is sharp. Sides are vertical and smooth. Base is oval in plan and concave in profile. 7 1 Cancelled 8 1 Fill Fill of hearth 9 9 1 54 softly compacted compacted mid orangish to brown- 0.52 x 0.42 x 0.07 ish red silty clay, occasional coarse sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles and moderate inclusions of small medium and large charcoal pieces. 9 1 Cut Cut of hearth 5, 8, 54 54 2 Oval in plan, rounded corners. Break of slope at top is 1.50 x 0.94 x 0.19 gradual on north and sharp on south. NE and SW sides slope moderately and are concave, NW side slopes gently and is concave and SE side slopes steeply and is concave. 10 1 Fill Fill of pit 20 1 20 softly compacted compacted dark brown silt, moderate 2.80 x 0.49 x 0.08 inclusions of sub-angular and sub-rounded medium peb- bles and occasional inclusions of small sub-angular stones. 11 1 Fill Fill of ditch 67 67 20, 84, 39 108, 142 softly compacted compacted black clayey silt, moder- 5.20 x 0.70 x 0.28 ate inclusions of charcoal flecks, medium and coarse sub-angular pebbles and occasional inclusions of large sub-angular stones. 12 1 Fill Fill of pit 93 93 96 147 softly compacted compacted mid brown sandy silt, occa- 1.73 x 0.93 x 0.25 sional inclusions of coarse sub-angular pebbles moderate inclusions of medium sub-rounded and sub-angular pebbles. http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/67
  • 68 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 13 1 Fill Fill of pit 93 93 73 96 softly compacted compacted mid brown sandy silt, oc- casional inclusions of medium and coarse sub-angular pebbles and sub-angular stones, moderate inclusions of charcoal flecks and small charcoal pieces. 14 1 Fill Fill of pit 15 15 1 15 Firmly compacted compacted black silty clay, occasional 0.61 x 0.50 x 0.09 charcoal flecks and pieces. 15 1 Cut Cut of pit 14 14 2 Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners. Break of slope at 0.61 x 0.50 x 0.09 top is sharp. Sides are concave, sloping moderately on N iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 and steeply elsewhere. Base is oval in plan and concave in profile. 16 1 Cut Cut of linear pit 17 17 2 Linear in plan, square corners at N, rounded elsewhere. 2.94 x 0.74 x 0.41 Break of slope at top is gradual at N and S and sharp at E and W. N side slopes moderately and is concave. S side slopes gently and is concave. E side slopes steeply and is smooth. W side slopes vertically and is smooth. Break of slope at base is gradual on N and S and sharp on E and W. Base is irregular in plan and concave in profile. 17 1 Fill Fill of pit 16 16 1 16 loosely compacted compacted mid yellowish brown silty 2.94 x 0.74 x 0.41 sand, moderate inclusions of small sub-angular stones, occasional inclusions of large sub-angular stones and charcoal flecks. 18 1 Fill Fill of pit 24 24 1 24 loosely compacted compacted dark greyish brown clayey 0.45 x 0.3 x 0.14 sand, occasional inclusions of medium pebbles. 19 1 Fill Fill of furrow 84 84 1 84 loosely compacted compacted brown silty sand with oc- 0.80 x 0.50 x 0.10 casional medium angular and sub-angular pebbles. 20 1 Cut Cut of pit 10 10 11 Oval in plan, rounded corners. Break of slope at top and 2.80 x 0.49 x 0.08 base is sharp on NW and SW and imperceptible on NE and SE. NW and SW sides slope steeply and are concave. NE and SE sides slope gently and are smooth. Break of slope at base is gradual. Base is oval in plan and flat in profile. 21 1 Pit Fill Fill of pit 50 50 1 50 Firmly compacted compacted mid yellowish brown silty 2.01 x 0.78 x 0.19 sand. Moderate inclusions of coarse sub-angular pebbles and occasional charcoal flecks . 22 1 Fill Fill of possible 31 1 31 Compact mid brown silty sand, occasional inclusions of 0.24 x 0.13 x pit 31 fine and medium sub-angular pebbles, occasional char- 0.06 coal flecks and small pieces. archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 23 Cancelled 24 1 Cut Cut of pit 18 18 2 Sub-rectangular in plan; rounded corners, sharp break of 0.45 x 0.30 x slope at top. Sides are smooth, sloping vertically on N and 0.14 gently on other sides. Break of slope at base is sharp on N and gradual elsewhere. Base is sub-circular in plan and Gortore 1b-e2410 flat in profile. 25 1 Pit Fill Fill of pit 33 33 32 33 Firmly compacted compacted brownish black silty clay. 0.73 x 0.69 x 0.23 Occasional inclusions of coarse sub-angular pebbles and small sub-angular stones. Moderate inclusions of charcoal flecks and small and medium pieces. 26 1 Fill Fill of pit (cut 95) 95 1 95 Fairly Firmly compacted compacted medium angular and 3 x 1.5 x 0.35 sub-angular stones (60%) and clayey silt (40%). Frequent inclusions of charcoal flecks and occasional inclusions of small charcoal pieces. 27 1 Fill Fill of possible 34 1 34 Firmly compacted compacted light brown silty clay 0.60 x 0.40 x pit 34 without inclusions. 0.25 28 1 Fill Fill of possible 160 67 160 softly compacted compacted mid brown silt, occasional 170? x 0.32 x 0.14 pit 160 inclusions of medium pebbles and charcoal flecks. 29 1 Fill Fill of furrow 39 39 1 39 softly compacted compacted mid brown sandy silt, oc- 0.4 x 0.18 x 0.13 casional inclusions of coarse pebbles and charcoal flecks. 30 1 Fill Fill of ditch 67 67 85, 112 59 softly compacted compacted mid brown silt, occasional 1.60 x 0.13 x 0.30 inclusions of coarse angular pebbles and moderate inclu- sions of charcoal flecks. 31 1 Cut Cut of possible 22 22 2 Irregular in plan, rounded corners. Break of slope at top 0.24 x 0.13 x 0.06 pit is sharp on W and gradual elsewhere. N and S sides slope moderately and are smooth, E side slopes steeply and is irregular, W side slopes gently and is smooth. Break of slope at base is gradual on N, S, and NE, imperceptible on E and sharp on W. Base is irregular in plan and has a tapered blunt point in profile. 32 1 Pit Fill Fill of pit 33 33 1 25 Firmly compacted compacted mid brown silty clay. 0.32 x 0.19 x 0.08 33 1 Pit Cut cut of pit 25, 32 25 2 Sub-circular in plan with rounded corners. Break of slope 0.73 x 0.64 x 0.23 at top is gradual on W and sharp elsewhere. Sides are vertical and smooth. Break of slope at base is gradual on W and sharp elsewhere. http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/69
  • 70 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 34 1 Cut Cut of possible 27 27 2 Oval in plan. Gradual break of slope at top and base. 0.60 x 0.40 x 0.25 pit Sides slope gently and are concave. 35 1 Pit fill Fill of pit 37 37 1 36 loosely compacted compacted dark greyish brown sandy 0.17 x 0.10 x 0.10 silt, occasional inclusions of fine sub-rounded pebbles. 36 1 Fill Fill of pit 37 37 35 37 loosely compacted compacted dark greyish brown clayey 0.17 x 0.10 x 0.5 sand, occasional inclusions of medium pebbles. 37 1 Cut Cut of pit 35, 36 36 2 Circular in plan, break of slope at top is gradual on W and 0.17 x 0.10 x 0.10 sharp elsewhere. W side slopes gently and is convex, other iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 sides slope steeply and are convex. Break of slope at base is gradual in W and sharp elsewhere. Base is circular in plan and concave in profile. 38 1 Cut Cut of Ditch 11, 108, 145, 68 28, 105 Linear in plan, ditch with moderate-steep sides and a 20 x 0.60 x 0.45 142, 112, concave base. 30, 59, 145, 68 39 1 Cut Cut of ditch 29 29 11 Elongated oval cut with steep, smooth edges and tapered 0.16 x 0.21 x 0.14 base. 40 1 Stony surface Stony surface Compact sub-angular small and medium stones (60%) 0.7 x 0.85 x 0.14 and mid brown sand (40%). 41 1 Possible pit fill Fill of possible 43 1 43 loosely compacted compacted dark greyish brown sandy 0.13 x 0.12 x 0.08 pit 43 clay, occasional inclusions of small stones. 42 1 Pit fill Fill of pit 55 55 softly compacted compacted mid-brown silt, occasional 0.84 x 0.70 x 0.69 inclusions of medium sub-angular stones. 43 1 Possible pit cut Fill of possible pit 41 41 2 Circular in plan. Break of slope at top is gradual on W 0.13 x 0.12 x 0.08 and sharp elsewhere. Sides are smooth and slope mod- erately in N and W and steeply in the S and E. Base is circular in plan and flat in profile. 44 1 Deposit Deposit 1 2 loosely compacted compacted dark greyish brown clayey 0.10 x 0.13 x 0.09 sand. Occasional inclusions of fine pebble and sub- angular stones. 45 1 Burnt spread Burnt spread 1 2 loosely compacted compacted mid orangish brown clayey sand, occasional inclusions of medium pebbles and small stones, moderate inclusions of charcoal flecks and pieces. 48 1 Pit Fill Fill of pit 51 1 51 Firmly compacted compacted mid brown silty clay. 0.18 x 0.14 x 0.10 49 1 Pit fill Fill of pit 52 1 52 Fairly compact mid greyish brown silty sand, occasional 0.28 x 0.41 x 0.17 inclusions of fine and medium pebbles. archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 50 1 Pit cut Cut of pit 21 21 2 Sub-rectangular in plan, rounded corners. Break of slope 2.01 x 0.78 x 0.19 at top is gradual in E and sharp elsewhere. E side slopes gently and is smooth, N side slopes vertically and is smooth, S side slopes steeply and is smooth, W side slopes moderately and is irregular. Break of slope at base is sharp Gortore 1b-e2410 on N and S and gradual on E and W. Base is irregular in plan and flat in profile. 51 1 Pit Cut Cut of pit 48 48 2 Circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top and base. N 0.18 x 0.16 x 0.10 and E sides are vertical and smooth. W and S sides are steep and concave. Base is circular in plan and concave in profile. 52 1 Possible pit cut Cut of possible 49 49 2 Irregular in plan, square corners in SW, rounded else- 0.28 x 0.41 x 0.17 pit where. Break of slope at top is gradual on S and sharp elsewhere. Sides are steep and convex in S and E, steep and irregular in N, and vertical and concave in W. Base is irregular in plan and concave in profile. 53 1 Cancelled 54 1 Fill Fill of possible 9 5 9 softly compacted compacted mid reddish brown clayey 1.50 x 1.08 x 0.10 hearth 9 silt, occasional inclusions of coarse sub-angular and sub- rounded pebbles, moderate inclusions of charcoal flecks and pieces. 55 1 Cut Cut of pit 42 42 2 Oval in plan, rounded corners. Break of slope at top is 0.84 x 0.70 x 0.69 imperceptible. Sides slope gently and are undercut. Break of slope at base is gradual. Base is oval in plan and concave in profile. 56 1 Cut Cut of slot trench 78 78 2 Linear in plan, rounded corners. Break of slope at top is 2.18 x 0.53 x 0.31 sharp. E side slopes vertically and is smooth, W side slopes steeply and is concave, N side slopes moderately and is concave, S side slopes vertically and is smooth. Break of slope at base is gradual on N and sharp elsewhere. Base is sub-rectangular in plan and flat in profile. 57 1 Pit Cut Cut of possible 86, 87, 88, There are a number of swallow holes on the site. This may pit 89, 90, 92, have been a smaller archaeological pit which collapsed 91 into a swallow hole over time. The feature was not fully excavated due to Health and Safety concerns. http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/71
  • 72 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 58 1 Pit Fill Fill of pit 69 69 1 69 loosely compacted compacted dark greyish brown clayey 0.50 x 0.48 x 0.25 sand, occasional inclusions of medium sub-angular peb- bles and large sub-rounded stones. 59 1 Fill Fill of ditch 67 67 30 145 softly compacted compacted mid greyish brown sandy 8.0 x 0.62 x 0.42 silt, occasional medium sub-rounded and coarse sub- angular pebbles, and small and medium sub-angular stones. 60 1 Linear ditch Cut of ditch Linear in plan. Break of slope at top is sharp. Sides are 20 x 0.60 x 0.45 iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 steep and concave. Break of slope at base is gradual. Base is linear in plan and concave in profile. 63 1 Stakehole Stakehole 1 2 Fill: Firmly compacted compacted black silty clay, 0.10 x 0.09 x 0.10 frequent inclusions of charcoal flecks. Cut: circular in plan. Break of slope at top and base is sharp. Sides are vertical and smooth. Base is circular in plan and concave in profile. 64 1 Pit Fill Fill of pit 115 115 1 114 Firmly compacted compacted mid brown silty clay. No 0.12 x 0.08 x 0.1 inclusions. 67 1 Cut Cut of ditch 11, 108, 68, 145 28, 105 Curved linear ditch with moderate to steep sides and a 20 x 0.60 x 0.45 142, 112, concave base. 30, 59, 68, 145 68 1 Fill Fill of ditch 67 67 142 67 Mid orangish brown sandy silt with occasional pebbles and stones and flecks of charcoal. 69 1 Cut Cut of pit 58 58 2 Sub-rectangular in plan, square corners on N and E, 0.50 x 0.48 x 0.25 rounded on S and W. Break of slope at top is gradual on SW, sharp elsewhere. Sides are smooth and slope steeply on N and W and vertically on S and E. Break of slope at base is gradual on SW and sharp elsewhere. Base is sub- rectangular in plan and concave in profile. 70 1 Fill Fill of pit 74 74 1 74 Fairly compact mid-orangish brown silty sand. Occasion- 0.71 x 0.40 x 0.14 al inclusions of sub-angular and sub-rounded medium pebbles and small and medium sub-rounded stones. 71 1 Stakehole Stakehole 1 2 Fill: loosely compacted compacted dark brown clayey sand, occasional inclusions of small angular pebbles. Cut: circular in plan, break of slope at top is sharp, rounded base. archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 72 1 Fill Fill of furrow 73 73 1 73 softly compacted compacted mid brown sandy silt with 2.18 x 0.86 x 0.06 moderate inclusions of medium and coarse pebbles. 73 1 Cut Cut of furrow 72 72 13 Sub-rectangular in plan, square corners. Break of slope at 2.42 x 1.07 x 0.05 top is imperceptible. Sides slope gently and are smooth. Break of slope at base is imperceptible. Base is sub-circular Gortore 1b-e2410 in plan and concave in profile. 74 1 Cut Cut of pit 70 70 2 Irregular in plan, square corners on S, rounded elsewhere. 0.71 x 0.40 x 0.14 (possible) Break of slope at top sharp on SW and NW, gradual elsewhere. N side slopes moderately and is irregular, S side slopes moderately and is smooth, E side slopes steeply and is smooth, W side slopes steeply and is irregular. Break of slope at base is sharp on N, E and W, gradual on NE, SE and SW and imperceptible on S. Base is irregular in plan and concave in profile. 75 1 Fill Fill of pit 97 97 1 97 loosely compacted compacted dark greyish brown clayey 0.41 x 0.50 x sand. Occasional fine and coarse sub-angular and sub- 0.26 rounded pebbles, charcoal flecks. 76 1 Fill Fill of pit 101 101 1 101 loosely compacted compacted dark greyish brown clayey 0.36 x 0.25 x 0.10 sand. Occasional medium and coarse sub-rounded peb- bles and charcoal flecks. 77 1 Fill Fill of hearth 82 82 4 82 softly compacted black silt (80% charcoal), occasional 0.94 x 0.88 x 0.09 inclusions of medium and coarse sub-angular and sub- rounded pebbles . 78 1 Fill Fill of slot/foun- 56 1 56 Fairly loosely compacted compacted light reddish brown 2.18 x 0.53 x 0.31 dation trench 56 silty sand (70%) and medium and large sub-angular stones (30% - limestone and sandstone), occasional me- dium charcoal pieces. 79 1 Cut Cut of pit 111 111 2 Oval in plan, rounded corners. Break of slope at top is 1.45 x 1.20 x 0.58 sharp. Sides slope gently and are concave. Break of slope at base is imperceptible. Base is oval in plan and concave in profile. 80 1 Cut Cut of linear 1049, 1054 1045, 1047, Linear in plan. Breaks of slope at top is sharp. Sides slope 45.42 x 1.3 ditch 1050, 1092 moderately to steeply and are irregular. Break of slope 1051, 1052, at base is gradual. Base is linear in plan and concave in 1053, 1054 profile. Truncates pits c.1080, c.1046 and c.1048. 81 1 Fill Fill of ditch 80 80 80 80 2 1.30 max width 0.55 max depth http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/73
  • 74 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 82 1 Cut Cut of hearth 4, 77 77 2 Sub-circular in plan. Break of slope at top is sharp. Sides 1.03 x 0.90 x 0.26 slope moderately and are concave. Break of slope at base is gradual. Base is sub-circular in plan and flat in profile. 83 1 Fill Fill of pit 136 136 1 100 Firmly compacted compacted light brown silty clay, 1.20 x 0.60 x 0.24 frequent inclusions of charcoal flecks and moderate inclu- sions of small and medium pieces. 84 1 Cut Cut of furrow 19 19 11 Oval in plan. Break of slope at top is imperceptible on 0.80 x 0.50 x NE, and gradual elsewhere. Sides slope gently and are 0.10 iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 smooth. Base is oval in plan and flat in profile. 85 Fill Fill of ditch 67 67 1 30 softly compacted compacted mid brown silty sand, mod- 1.00 x 1.00 x 0.10 erate inclusions of medium angular and sub-rounded peb- bles and small sub-angular and sub-rounded, occasional inclusions of charcoal flecks. 86 1 Pit fill Fill of possible 87 1 87 Firmly compacted compacted mid-brown silty clay, no 0.48 x 0.21 x 0.10 pit 87 inclusions. 87 1 Pit cut Cut of possible 86 86 90, 2 Linear in plan. Rounded corners at NE and SE, square 0.48 x 0.21 x 0.10 pit at NW and SW. Break of slope at top is imperceptible on W, sharp elsewhere. W side slopes gently and is concave, elsewhere sides are vertical and smooth. Base is sub- rectangular in plan and concave in profile. 88 1 Pit Fill Fill of pit 57 57 Firmly compacted compacted dark brownish grey silty 0.80 x 0.80 x 0.20 clay, occasional inclusions of small sub-angular stones. 89 1 Pit Fill Fill of possible 57 88 90 Firmly compacted compacted mid brown silty clay, oc- 0.80 x 0.80 x 0.20 pit 57 casional inclusions of small, medium and large angular and sub-angular stones. 93 1 Cut Cut of pit 12, 13, 96, 147 107 Oval in plan. Break of slope at top is gradual on N and 2.69 x 1.21 x 0.37 147 sharp elsewhere. Sides are concave, sloping gently on NW, vertically on SW and steeply elsewhere. Break of slope at base is imperceptible at N, sharp at S and E and gradual at W. Base is sub-circular in plan and concave in profile. 94 1 Cut Cut of pit 137, 138, 243 2 Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners. Break of slope at 2.03 x 1.84 x 0.35 243 top is sharp on N and E and gradual on S and W. N,E, and west sides slope steeply and are concave, S side slopes moderately and is concave. Base is sub circular in plan and concave in profile. Clear evidence of in-situ burning at base. Truncates pit C.93 archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 95 1 Cut Cut of pit 26 26 2 Oval in plan, rounded corners. Break of slope at top is 3 x 1.50 x 0.35 gradual. N and W sides slope gently and are convex. S and E sides slope moderately and are convex. Break of slope at base is gradual. Base is oval in plan and concave in profile. 96 1 Fill Fill of pit 93 93 13 12 softly compacted compacted mid brownish black sandy 1.28 x 0.30 x 0.20 Gortore 1b-e2410 silt, occasional inclusions of medium and coarse sub-an- gular pebbles and moderate inclusions of charcoal flecks. 97 1 Cut Cut of pit 75 75 2 Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners. Break of slope at 0.41 x 0.50 x top is sharp. N and W sides slope steeply and are smooth. 0.26 S side slopes steeply and is undercut, and E side slopes steeply and is convex. Break of slope at base is sharp. Base is sub-circular in plan and flat in profile. 98 1 Fill of pit Fill of possible 99 1 99 Fairly compact reddish brown sand, occasional inclusions 0.75 x 0.62 x 0.36 pit 99 of coarse angular pebbles, moderate inclusions of medium and large sub-rounded stones. 99 1 Cut of pit Cut of possible 98 98 2 Irregular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top and base. 0.75 x 0.62 x 0.36 pit Sides are vertical and undercut. Base is irregular in plan and concave in profile. 100 1 Fill of Fill of pit 136 136 83 135 Firmly compacted compacted dark brown silt, frequent 1.28 x 0.04 x 0.04 inclusions of charcoal flecks and small pieces. 101 1 Pit cut Cut of pit 76 76 2 Sub-rectangular in plan with rounded corners. Sharp 0.36 x 0.25 x 0.10 break of slope at top and base. Sides slope steeply and are smooth, except SW which is irregular. Base is sub-rectan- gular in plan and flat in profile. 102 1 Foundation Fill of foundation 103 1 103 loosely compacted compacted light reddish brown silty 2.56 x 0.53 x 0.23 trench fill trench 103 sand, moderate inclusions of medium sub-angular coarse pebbles, large sub-angular, sub-rounded, angular and rounded stones and medium charcoal pieces. 103 1 foundation Cut of founda- 102 102 2 Irregular linear cut, rounded corners. Sharp break of 3.15 x 0.53 x 0.23 trench cut tion trench. slope at top on N, gradual elsewhere. N and S sides slope moderately and are smooth, E and W sides slope gently and are smooth. Break of slope at base is gradual. Base is irregular in plan and flat in profile. 104 1 Pit Fill Fill of pit 109 109 1 109 Fairly compact greyish brown silty sand, moderate inclu- 0.90 x 0.84 x 0.18 sions of fine and medium sub-angular pebbles and small sub-angular stones. http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/75
  • 76 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 105 1 Fill Fill of pit and 160 83 160 loosely compacted compacted light black clayey sand 1.50 x 1.30 x 0.25 ditch 160 without inclusions. 106 Cancelled 107 1 Fill Fill of possible 134 93 134 softly compacted compacted mid yellowish brown sandy 0.56 x 0.49 x 0.24 animal burrow silt, occasional inclusions of medium sub-angular pebbles 134 and charcoal flecks, moderate inclusions of coarse sub- angular pebbles. 108 1 Fill Fill of ditch 67 67 11 112 loosely compacted compacted mid brown silty sand, 1.00 x 0.30 x 0.20 iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 occasional inclusions of small angular stones, moderate inclusions of medium angular and sub-angular pebbles, large angular stones and charcoal flecks and small pieces. 109 1 Pit Cut Cut of pit 104 104 2 Sub-circular in plan with rounded corners. Sharp break of slope at top and base. Sides slope steeply and are concave. Base is sub-circular in plan and has a tapered rounded point in profile. 110 1 Cancelled 111 1 Pit Fill Fill of pit 79 79 1 79 softly compacted compacted mid brown silt, occasional 1.45 x 1.20 x 0.58 inclusions of medium angular stones. 112 1 Fill Fill of ditch 67 67 108 30 softly compacted compacted dark brown sandy silt, oc- 1.00 x 0.30 x 0.20 casional inclusions of medium sub-rounded pebbles, and small and medium angular stones, frequent inclusions of charcoal flecks and small pieces. 113 Cancelled 114 1 Pit Fill Fill of pit 115 115 64 115 Firmly compacted compacted mid yellowish brown silty 0.37 x 0.25 x 0.23 clay, no inclusions. 115 1 Pit cut Cut of pit 114, 64 114 2 Oval in plan with rounded corners. Sides slope verti- 0.37 x 0.25 x 0.23 cally and are smooth. Break of slope at top and base is gradual on E and sharp elsewhere. Base is oval in plan and concave in profile. 116 1 Cut Cut of ditch 117 117 2 Curved linear ditch segment with steep (SE) to gentle 8.70 x 0.82 x 0.34 (NW) smooth sides, curving towards the SE. Associated with ditches 131 and 67. 117 1 Fill Fill of ditch 116 116 1 116 Mid brown sandy silt with occasional pebbles and smaller 8.70 x 0.82 x 0.34 stones. archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 119 2 Fill of hearth Fill of hearth 553 553 495 554 loosely compacted compacted dark blackish grey silty sand, occasional sub-angular and sub-rounded fine pebbles and small and medium stones, frequent charcoal flecks and moderate small charcoal pieces. Not fully excavated for reasons of Health and Safety. Gortore 1b-e2410 120 2 Fill Fill of pit 517 517 1 515 softly compacted compacted mid brown clayey silt, occa- 1.77 x 1.40 x sional inclusions of small sub-angular stones and frequent 0.10 inclusions of charcoal flecks and pieces. 121 2 Fill Fill of pit 154 154 1 154 Compact mid pinkish-brown sandy silt, moderate 1.2 x 0.99 x 0.26 inclusions of medium sub-angular pebbles and stones. Occasional inclusions of small charcoal pieces. 123 2 Fill Fill of pit/hearth 242 1 242, 241, 2 loosely compacted compacted mid greyish black silty 1.98 x 0.6 x 0.17 242 sand, occasional inclusions of fine medium and coarse sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles and occasional inclusions of small and medium sub-angular stones. 124 2 Fill Fill of pit 337 337 1 297 softly compacted compacted dark brown silty clay, 1.02 x 0.5 x 0.12 occasional inclusions of medium sub-angular pebbles, moderate inclusions of medium sub-angular stones and frequent inclusions of medium charcoal pieces. 125 2 Fill Fill of pit 622 622 624, 1 539 softly compacted compacted mid orangish brown silt, 1.40 x 0.80 x 0.90 occasional inclusions of small sub-angular stones and charcoal flecks. 126 2 Fill Fill of possible 141 1 141 Compact mid reddish brown sandy silt, occasional 0.57 x 0.51 x 0.26 pit 141 inclusions of sub-angular pebbles, moderate inclusions of sub-angular pebbles and large charcoal pieces. 127 2 Fill Fill of pit 133 133 1 133 Compact mid greyish brown silty sand with occasional 0.53 x 0.52 x inclusions of sub-angular and sub-rounded fine pebbles, 0.205 sub-angular coarse pebbles and angular and sub-angular small stones, moderate inclusions of flecks and occasional small pieces of charcoal. 128 2 Fill Fill of pit 143 143 1 143 Firmly compacted compacted mid brown silty clay, oc- 0.55 x 0.4 x 0.18 casional sub-rounded fine, medium and coarse pebbles, sub-rounded small stones, and charcoal flecks. http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/77
  • 78 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 129 2 Fill Fill of hearth 139 139 1 149 Compact mid greyish brown silty sand, occasional inclu- 1.6 x 0.74 x 0.2 sions of sub-angular and sub-rounded fine and medium pebbles, angular, sub-angular and sub-rounded medium stones, moderate inclusions of angular, sub-angular and sub-rounded small stones and occasional, flecks and small pieces of charcoal. Some of the stones display evidence of burning. 130 2 Fill Fill of pit 527 527 1, 382 528 Stiff mid brown silt, moderate inclusions of medium 3.03 x 1.03 x 0.73 sub-angular pebbles, occasional inclusions of coarse sub- iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 angular pebbles and small sub-angular stones, frequent charcoal flecks and small pieces, moderate inclusions of small medium and large pieces. 131 1 Cut Cut of ditch 132 2 Linear ditch with steep-vertical sides and a sub-rectangu- 6.40 x 0.70 x 0.32 lar flat base, orientated NW-SE. 132 1 Fill Fill of ditch 131 131 1 131 Mid brown clayey silt with occasional large pebbles and 6.40 x 0.70 x 0.31 stones of varying sizes, with flecks of charcoal. 133 2 Cut Cut of pit 127 127 2 Sub-circular in plan with rounded corners. Break of slope 0.53 x 0.52 x at top is sharp on all sides. N side is moderate-steeply slop- 0.205 ing and convex; S side is steep and smooth, and E and W sides are also steep and smooth. The break of slope at base is gradual at the N and is sharp at all other sides. The base is sub-circular in plan and flat in profile. 134 1 Cut Cut/ animal 107 107 138 Irregular linear cut with irregular edges. 2.27 x 0.59 x activity 0.25 135 1 Fill Fill of pit 136 136 100 136 Firmly compacted compacted light yellowish brown silty 1.80 x 0.64 x 0.24 clay, occasional inclusions of small sub-angular and sub- rounded stones, frequent charcoal flecks and small pieces. 136 1 Cut Cut of pit 83, 100, 135 2 Irregular in plan, rounded corners. Gradual break of slope 1.80 x 0.64 x 0.24 135 at top and base. S side slopes moderately and is concave , elsewhere sides slope gently and are concave. 137 1 Fill Fill of pit 94 94 138 243 softly compacted compacted mid greyish brown silt, 1.24 x 0.27 x 0.35 occasional inclusions of medium and coarse sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles and moderate inclusions of charcoal flecks. 138 1 Fill Fill of pit 94 94 134 137 Very softly compacted compacted mid brown silt, occa- 1.97 x 1.32 x 0.42 sional inclusions of coarse sub-angular pebbles and small sub-angular stones, and charcoal flecks. archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 139 2 Cut Cut of hearth 129, 149 149 2 Sub rectangular in plan, rounded corners at E, SE and 1.6 x 0.74 x 0.2 SW and square corner at NE. Break of slope at top is gradual except at NE where it is sharp. N side slopes moderately and is irregular, E sides slopes gently and is stepped, W side slopes gently and is smooth and S side Gortore 1b-e2410 slopes moderately and is smooth. Gradual break of slope at base. Base is sub-rectangular in plan and irregular in profile. 140 1 Pit Fill Fill of pit 144 144 1 144 loosely compacted compacted dark greyish brown clayey 0.64 x 0.55 x 0.09 sand, occasional inclusions of medium and coarse sub-angular pebbles, occasional inclusions of small sub- rounded stones. 141 2 Cut Cut of possible 126 126 2 Circular in plan, rounded corners. Sharp break of slope at 0.57 x 0.51 x 0.26 pit top. N side slopes vertically and is concave, E side slopes moderately and is concave, S and W sides slope vertically and are undercut. Break of slope at base is gradual on N and E, and sharp on S and W. Base is circular in plan and concave in profile. 142 1 Fill Fill of ditch 67 67 11 68 Dark grey fine sand with moderate medium pebbles and 1.80 x 0.40 x frequent small stones and occasional flecks of charcoal. 0.28 143 2 Cut Cut of pit 128 128 2 Sub-circular in plan, gradual break of slope at top. Sides 0.55 x 0.4 x 0.18 slope moderately and are smooth. Break of slope at base is imperceptible. Base is sub-circular in plan and pointed in profile. 144 1 Pit Cut Pit cut 140 140 2 Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners. Break of slope at 0.64 x 0.55 x 0.09 top is sharp on NE and NW, gradual on SE, and imper- ceptible SW. N side slopes steeply and is convex, S and W sides slope steeply and are smooth and E side slopes moderately and is and convex. Break of slope at base is gradual on N, E, NE, SE and NW, sharp on S and W, and imperceptible on SW. Base is sub-circular in plan and concave in profile. 145 1 Fill Fill of ditch 67 67 59 67 Mid brown clayey silt with occasional inclusions of 8.00 x 0.74 x 0.50 larger pebbles and smaller stones and occasional flecks of charcoal. 146 Cancelled 147 1 Fill Fill of pit 93 93 12 93 Small and medium sub-angular and sub-rounded stones. 1.89 x 0.66 x 0.32 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/79
  • 80 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 149 2 Fill Fill of hearth 139 139 129 139 loosely compacted compacted light reddish brown sandy 1.6 x 0.74 x 0.2 clay, occasional small sub-angular and sub-rounded stones and medium sub-angular stones. 150 2 Fill Fill of pit 260/ 260 523 260 loosely compacted compacted dark greyish brown clayey 0.58 x 0.55 x 0.32 possible post sand, occasional inclusions of medium and coarse sub- packing angular pebbles, and charcoal flecks, moderate inclusions of small and medium sub-angular stones. 151 2 Fill Fill of pit 260 260 1 263 loosely compacted dark greyish brown clayey sand. 1.1 x 0.34 x 0.14 iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 Occasional coarse sub-angular pebbles, occasional small sub-angular stones. Moderate charcoal flecks. 152 1 Pit Fill Fill of pit 155 155 1 153 softly compacted compacted mid brown silt. Occasional 2.25 x 2.40 x 0.44 inclusions of charcoal flecks and small sub-rounded stones. 153 1 Pit Fill Fill of pit 155 155 152 155 softly compacted compacted dark brown silt. Occasional 2.25 x 2.40 x 0.48 inclusions of small sub-rounded stones. 154 2 Cut Cut of pit 121 121 2 Oval in plan, rounded corners, gradual break of slope at 1.2 x 0.99 x 0.26 top on N, E and W and sharp on S. N side slopes moder- ately and is concave, S side slopes steeply and is smooth, E side slopes gently and is smooth, W side slopes gently and is irregular. Break of slope at base is imperceptible at N, E and W and gradual at S. Base oval in plan and concave in profile. Inclined towards west. 155 1 Pit Cut Cut of pit 152, 153 153 2 Oval in plan with rounded corners. Truncated by ditch 2.25 x 2.40 x 0.55 [80] on W. 156 3 Fill Fill of pit 361 361 1 361 Firmly compacted compacted dark brown sandy silt, 0.58 x 0.38 x 0.17 occasional inclusions of medium sub-angular stones, charcoal flecks and small pieces. 157 Furrow Fill Furrow 158 3 Fill Fill of swallow 229 1 229 softly compacted compacted mid bluish brown sandy silt, 0.44 x 0.40 x 0.60 hole occasional inclusions of small flecks of charcoal, angular and medium sub-rounded stones and charcoal flecks. archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 160 1 Cut Cut of pit 28, 105 28, 105 2 Oval in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. NE and SE 1.60 x 1.60 x 0.42 sides slope moderately and are concave, NW and SW sides slope moderately and are smooth. Break of slope at base is imperceptible on NE and NW, gradual on SE and sharp on NW. Base is sub-circular in plan and flat in Gortore 1b-e2410 profile. 161 3 Fill Fill of pit/hearth 273 217 273 Firmly compacted compacted mid brown silty clay, occa- 0.40 x 0.38 x 0.16 273 sional inclusions of small angular and sub-angular stones and occasional flecks of charcoal. 165 3 Cut Cut of posthole 169 169 2 Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners. Sharp break of 0.40 x 0.28 x 0.30 (poss.) slope at top and base. N side slopes vertically and is smooth, S, E and W sides slope steeply and are concave. Base is oval in plan and concave in profile. 167 3 Fill Fill of natural Natu- 1 2 Mid brown sandy silt without inclusions. 0.22 x 0.15 x hollow ral 0.05 hollow 169 3 Fill Fill of posthole/ 165 1 165 Compact light brownish yellow sandy silt. No inclusions 0.40 x 0.28 x 0.30 small pit 165 171 3 Fill Fill of small pit 258 1 258 softly compacted compacted mid greyish brown fine 0.50 x 0.40 x 258 sand, occasional inclusions of pebbles and charcoal 0.10 flecks. 172 3 Fill Fill of shallow 298 1 298 Mid brown silty sand with moderate inclusions of me- 1.10 x 0.66 x 0.15 pit 298 dium sized pebbles and occasional inclusions of flecks of charcoal. 173 3 Fill Fill of natural Natu- 1 2 Mid brown silty sand with moderate inclusions of me- 0.94 x 0.70 x 0.12 hollow ral dium sized stones and occasional inclusions of flecks of hollow charcoal. 174 3 Fill Fill of pit 759 759 1 759 softly compacted compacted mid brown silty sand, oc- 0.67 x 0.42 x 0.19 casional inclusions of angular and sub-angular medium and coarse pebbles and charcoal flecks. 176 3 Fill Fill of posthole 875 1 875 loosely compacted compacted mid brown silty sand, oc- 1.12 x 0.83 x 0.31 (poss.) 875 casional inclusions of coarse pebbles and small stones and charcoal flecks. 177 3 Fill Fill of natural Natu- 1 2 Mid brown silty sand with occasional inclusions of flecks 0.38 x 0.34 x 0.15 hollow (removed ral of charcoal. stone) hollow http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/81
  • 82 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 179 3 Fill Fill of pit/possi- 433 1 433 Firmly compacted compacted dark brown sandy silt, no 0.20 x 0.18 x 0.09 ble posthole 433 inclusions. 180 3 Fill Fill of posthole 434 1 434 Firmly compacted compacted dark brown silty clay, oc- 0.20 x 0.18 x 0.14 434 casional inclusions of charcoal flecks. 181 Cancelled 182 3 Fill Fill of pit 465 465 1 465 Firmly compacted compacted dark brown silty clay, 0.8 x 0.73 x 0.76 moderate inclusions of angular, sub-angular and sub- rounded small stones, occasional inclusions of angular, iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 sub-angular and sub-rounded medium stones, frequent inclusions of charcoal flecks and occasional inclusions of small charcoal pieces. 183 3 Fill Fill of large pit 302 1 300, 324 softly compacted compacted mid brown sandy silt, occa- 1.10 x 0.80 x 0.30 302 sional inclusions of medium and coarse sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles. 184 3 Fill Fill of posthole 348 1 348 softly compacted compacted mid brown sandy silt, oc- 0.43 x 0.38 x 0.29 348 casional inclusions of larger medium and coarse angular and sub-angular pebbles and charcoal flecks. 185 3 Fill Fill of possible Post- 1 522 softly compacted compacted mid brown sandy silt, oc- 3.15 x 1.20 x 0.25 posthole 522 hole casional inclusions of small pieces of charcoal. (poss.) 186 3 Fill Fill of posthole 219 1 219 softly compacted compacted mid brown sandy silt, occa- 0.72 x 0.46 x 0.50 219 sional inclusions of medium and coarse sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles and charcoal flecks. 187 3 Fill Fill of natural Natu- 1 2 softly compacted compacted mid brown sandy silt with- 0.21 x 0.14 x 0.09 hollow ral out inclusions. hollow 192 3 Fill Fill of natural 239 1 239 Mid brown sandy silt with occasional inclusions of 0.53 x 0.33 x 0.24 hollow smaller pebbles. 193 Furrow Fill Furrow 194 Furrow 195 Furrow Fill Furrow 196 3 Fill Fill of natural Natu- 1 2 Mid brown sand with occasional inclusions of medium 0.32 x 0.28 x 0.13 hollow ral sized pebbles. hollow 198 3 Fill Fill of posthole 210 1 210 softly compacted compacted light brownish yellow sandy 0.33 x 0.20 x 0.48 210 silt, occasional inclusions of small sub-rounded stones. archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 199 3 Fill Fill of natural Natu- 1 2 Mid brown fine sand with occasional inclusions of fine 0.29 x 0.29 x hollow ral pebbles. 0.06 hollow 201 3 Fill Fill of possible 280 1 280 Very softly compacted compacted mid brown silty sand 0.23 x 0.23 x 0.13 posthole 280 with moderate inclusions of medium sub-angular pebbles. Gortore 1b-e2410 203 3 Fill Fill of posthole 238 1 238 softly compacted compacted dark brownish black silty 0.25 x 0.17 x 0.43 238 clay, occasional inclusions of small sub-rounded and medium angular stones, frequent flecks and occasional medium charcoal pieces. 206 3 Fill Fill of natural Natu- 1 2 Firmly compacted compacted mid reddish brown sandy 0.20 x 0.15 x 0.05 hollow ral silt, no inclusions. hollow 207 3 Fill Fill of natural Natu- 222 2 softly compacted compacted mid orangish brown sandy 0.10 x 0.08 x 0.03 hollow ral silt, no inclusions. hollow 208 2 Fill Fill of pit 221 221 1 221 softly compacted compacted mid brown silt, occasional 1.1 x 0.67 x 0.22 inclusions of small sub-angular stones and occasional charcoal flecks. 209 Cancelled 210 3 Cut Cut of posthole 198 198 2 Oval in plan. Break of slope at top and base is sharp. N 0.33 x 0.20 x 0.48 and S sides slope steeply and are undercut, W side slopes steeply and is concave, E side is vertical and smooth. Base is circular in plan and concave in profile. 211 1 Cut Cut of pit/possi- 212 212 2 Linear in plan, rounded corners. Break of slope at top is 2.68 x 0.62 x ble slot trench sharp at N, E and W, gradual elsewhere. SW, NW and SE 0.24. side slope moderately and are concave, the NE side slopes gently and is smooth. Break of slope at base is gradual, except on N where it is sharp. Base is irregular in plan and flat in profile. 212 Fill Fill of pit/pos- 211 1 211 loosely compacted compacted mid brown silty sand, 2.68 x 0.62 x 0.24 sible slot trench moderate inclusions of medium and coarse sub-angular 211 pebbles, small rounded stones and medium and large sub- angular stones and medium charcoal pieces. 213 3 Fill Fill of posthole 214 1 214 softly compacted compacted mid brownish grey silty sand 0.45 x 0.39 x 214 with occasional fine angular and sub-angular pebbles. 0.32 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/83
  • 84 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 214 3 Cut Cut of posthole 213 213 2 Sub-circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top and base. 0.45 x 0.39 x 0.44 N side is vertical and convex, S ,E, and W sides are verti- cal and smooth. Base is circular in plan and flat in profile. 215 3 Cut Natural hollow 216 216 2 Irregular pit with varying sides and an irregular concave 0.46 x 0.42 x 0.19 base. 216 3 Fill Fill of natural 215 273 215 Mid brownish yellow sandy silt without inclusions. 0.60 x 0.42 x 0.19 hollow 215 217 3 Cut Cut of pit/ 218 218 161 Circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. S and W 0.52 x 0.50 x 0.60 iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 posthole sides slope steeply and are convex, E and N sides are verti- cal and convex. Break of slope at base is gradual in plan and concave in profile. 218 3 Fill Fill of posthole 217 1 217 softly compacted compacted mid greyish brown clayey 0.52 x 0.50 x 0.60 217 silt, occasional inclusions of small sub-angular and sub- rounded and medium angular stones, frequent inclusions of charcoal flecks and small pieces of charcoal. 219 3 Cut Cut of posthole 186 186 2 Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners. Sharp break of 0.72 x 0.46 x 0.50 slope at top. N and S sides slope gently and are concave, E and W sides are vertical and concave. Break of slope at base is gradual. Base is sub-circular in plan and concave in profile. 220 2 Fill Fill of possible 228 1 228 loosely compacted compacted dark greyish brown clayey 0.14 x 0.14 x 0.07 pit 228 sand. Occasional inclusions of coarse sub-angular peb- bles, moderate inclusions of small and medium charcoal inclusions. 221 2 Cut Cut of pit 208 208 2 Oval in plan. Break of slope at top and base is gradual. 1.1 x 0.67 x 0.22 Sides slope gently and are concave. Base is oval in plan and concave in profile. 222 3 Furrow Cut Furrow 223 Furrow Cut Furrow 224 3 Furrow Cut Furrow 225 3 Furrow Cut Furrow 226 3 Fill Fill of natural Natu- 223 2 Mid yellowish brown sandy silt without inclusions. 0.18 x 0.10 x 0.04 hollow ral hollow archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 228 2 Cut Cut of pit/natu- 220 220 2 Circular in plan. Break of slope at top is gradual on SE 0.14 x 0.14 x 0.07 ral hollow and NE and sharp elsewhere. N side slopes steeply and is smooth, S, E and W sides slope steeply and are convex. Base is circular in plan and concave in profile. 229 3 Cut Swallow hole 158 158 2 Circular pit with vertical smooth edges all round and no 0.44 x 0.40 x 0.64 Gortore 1b-e2410 real base. 230 3 Fill Natural depres- 240 1 240 Very softly compacted compacted mid brown sandy silt, 0.26 x 0.18 x 0.12 sion/small pit occasional inclusions of fine and medium sub-angular 240 pebbles, small sub-rounded stones and charcoal flecks. 231 3 Fill Natural hollow Natu- 1 2 Mid brown sandy silt with occasional fine pebbles. 0.46 x 0.30 x 0.09 ral hollow 234 3 Fill Natural hollow/ 281 1 281 Very softly compacted compacted mid greyish brown 0.34 x 0.2 x 0.29 small posthole sandy silt, occasional inclusions of fine, medium and 281 coarse sub-angular pebbles. 236 2 Fill Fill of pit 244 244 1 244 softly compacted compacted mid brown silt, occasional 0.52 x 0.50 x 0.29 inclusions of small angular stones, medium sub-angular stones and charcoal flecks. 238 3 Cut Cut of posthole 203 203 2 Oval in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. Sides are verti- 0.25 x 0.17 x 0.43 cal and smooth. Base is circular in plan and pointed in profile. 239 3 Cut natural depres- 192 192 2 Sub oval in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. E sides 0.53 x 0.33 x 0.24 sion/ Possible slopes sttply and is smooth, N, S and W sides are vertical posthole and smooth. Break of slope at base is imperceptible. Base is sub-oval in plan and concave in profile. 240 3 Cut Natural hollow 230 230 2 Oval pit with irregular edges and an irregular base. 0.26 x 0.18 x 0.12 241 2 Burnt clay Burnt natural 242, 123, 2 2 Weakly cemented light reddish brown sandy clay, oc- 1.98 x 0.96 subsoil under casional fine and medium sub-angular and sub-rounded hearth 242 pebbles and small and medium sub-angular and sub- rounded stones. Natural clay sub-soil showing evidence of in-situ burning. 242 2 Cut Cut of hearth 123, 241 123 241, 2 Irregular in plan, rounded corners. Gradual break of slope 1.98 x 0.6 x 0.17 at top and base. SW and NE sides slope moderately and are stepped, NW and SE sides slope moderately and are irregular. Base is irregular in plan and profile. Displays evidence of in-situ burning. http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/85
  • 86 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 243 1 Fill Fill of pit 94 94 137 94 softly compacted compacted dark brown silt, occasional 1.17 x 1.04 x 0.07 medium and coarse sub-angular pebbles and small stones and frequent flecks, small and medium pieces of charcoal. 244 2 Cut Cut of pit 236 236 2 Oval in plan, rounded corners on S, E and W, square 0.52 x 0.5 x 0.29 corner on N. Gradual break of slope at top. N side slopes steeply and is undercut, S, E and W sides slope gently and are and undercut. Break of slope at base imperceptible on W, sharp at S, E and W. Base is oval in plan and concave in profile. iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 246 3 Fill Fill of pit 530 530 1 529 Firmly compacted compacted mid brown silty clay, occa- 1.02 x 0.8 x 0.28 sional inclusions of medium sub-angular stones, moderate charcoal flecks and occasional medium charcoal pieces. 249 3 Fill Fill of pit 334 334 1 352 Mid brown sandy silt, occasional inclusions of frequent 0.83 x 0.76 x 0.25 larger pebbles and moderate medium sized stones. 250 3 Cut Cut of possible 584 584 2 Circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top and base. 0.37 x 0.34 x 0.24 posthole N, E, and W sides slope steeply and are concave, S side is vertical and smooth. Base is circular in plan and concave in profile. 251 3 Fill Fill of posthole 589 1 589 Firmly compacted compacted mid yellowish brown silty 0.56 x 0.38 x 0.4 589 clay, occasional inclusions of sub-angular and sub-round- ed coarse pebbles and small stone. 252 Cancelled 253 Cancelled 254 3 Fill Fill of possible 543 1 543 Very softly compacted compacted mid yellowish grey 2.05 x 1.03 x 0.40 posthole 543 sandy clay, frequent inclusions of sub-angular and sub- rounded fine to medium pebbles. 255 3 Fill Fill of pit 378 378 1 376, 386 Firmly compacted compacted dark brownish black silty 2.68 x 2.53 x 0.06 clay without inclusions. 258 3 Cut Cut of pit 171 171 2 Circular in plan. Gradual break of slope at top. N, E and 0.48 x 0.46 x 0.10 W sides slope gently and are smooth, S side slopes moder- ately and is smooth. Break of slope at base is imperceptible on N, S and W and gradual on E. Base ia circular in plan and concave in profile. archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 260 2 Cut Cut of slot 263, 151, 263 2 Linear in plan, square corners on N, S and E, rounded 1.1 x 0.34 x 0.32 trench/pit 381, 390, corner on W. Sharp break of slope at top. N side slopes 150, 523, steeply and is undercut, S side slopes steeply and is ir- 526 regular, E side slopes steeply and is stepped, W side slopes steeply and is smooth. Break of slope at base is sharp on Gortore 1b-e2410 N, S and E and gradual on W. Base is irregular in plan and concave in profile. 261 3 Cut Cut of possible 262 262 2 Oval in plan. Sharp break of slope at top and base S ,E 0.33 x 0.20 x 0.20 posthole and W sides slope steeply and are concave, N side is verti- cal and smooth. Base is circular in plan and pointed in profile. 262 3 Fill Fill of pit 261 261 256 261 softly compacted compacted mid bluish brown sandy clay 0.33 x 0.20 x 0.20 without inclusions. 263 2 Fill Fill of slot 260 151 260 loosely compacted compacted mid greyish brown clayey 0.85 x 0.37 x 0.18 trench/pit 260 sand, occasional inclusions of fine and medium sub- angular pebbles, moderate charcoal flecks and occasional small charcoal pieces. 264 2 Fill Fill of recut pit 277 1 277 Compact mid reddish brown sandy silt, moderate inclu- 0.65 x 0.39 x 0.28 277 (within pit sions of sub-angular medium pebbles and occasional an- 479) gular medium stones. Moderate large charcoal inclusions. 265 1 Cut Cut of posthole 393,266 393 2 Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners. Sharp break 0.50 x 0.50 x 0.36 of slope at top. N side slopes steeply and is concave, E side slopes steeply and is smooth, W side is vertical and convex, S side is vertical and smooth. Break of slope at base is gradual on N and E and sharp on S and W. Base is sub-circular in plan and tapered blunt point in profile. 266 1 Fill Fill of posthole 265 1 393 softly compacted compacted mid brown silty clay, 0.37 x 0.31 x 0.26 265 occasional inclusions of sub-angular medium pebbles and charcoal flecks, moderate inclusions of medium sub- angular stones. 267 1 Cut Cut of posthole 268 268 2 Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners. Break of slope at 0.45 x 0.39 x 0.13 top is gradual on NE and E and elsewhere sharp. N and W sides slope steeply and are concave, east side slopes moderately and is concave. Break of slope at base is gradual. Base is sub-circular in plan and flat in profile. 268 1 Fill Fill of posthole 267 1 267 Compact mid brown silty sand, occasional inclusions of 0.45 x 0.39 x 0.13 267 medium pebbles and small stone and charcoal flecks. http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/87
  • 88 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 269 1 Cut Cut of posthole 270 270 2 Sub-rectangular in plan, rounded corners at N and S, 0.88 x 0.36 x 0.19 square corners at E and W. Sharp break of slope at top. N and S sides are vertical and concave, W side is vertical and smooth. Gradual break of slope at base. Base is oval in plan and flat in profile. 270 1 Fill Fill of posthole 269 1 269 Compact mid brown silty sand with occasional inclusions 0.87 x 0.36 x 0.19 269 of angular coarse and sub-angular medium pebble inclu- sions, sub-angular medium and large stones, moderate inclusions of small charcoal pieces. iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 271 1 Cut Cut of posthole 272 272 2 Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners. Sharp break of 0.54 x 0.38 x 0.34 slope at top. Sides are vertical and concave. Break of slope at base is sharp on S and gradual elsewhere. Base is oval in plan and concave in profile. 272 1 Fill Fill of posthole 271 1 271 loosely compacted compacted mid brown silty sand. 0.54 x 0.38 x 0.34 271 Occasional inclusions of sub-angular medium pebble, charcoal pieces. 273 3 Cut Cut of pit 161 161 216 Sub-rectangular in plan. S and E sides are vertical and 0.40 x 0.38 x 0.16 smooth, N sides slopes gently and is smooth, W side slopes moderately and is smooth. Base is sub-rectangular in plan and concave in profile. 274 2 Stakehole Stakehole 123 2 Fill: loosely compacted compacted mid greyish black silty 0.17 x 0.12 x 0.23 sand, occasional fine, medium and coarse sized pebbles. Cut: sub-circular in plan, rounded corners. Sharp break of slope at top. Sides slope steeply. Inclined towards E. 275 2 Fill Fill of pit 276 276 1 278 softly compacted compacted dark brown silt, occasional 0.91 x 0.82 x 0.43 inclusions of small sub-rounded stones and moderate small charcoal. 276 2 Cut Cut of pit 275, 278 278 2 Oval in plan, square corners on N and S, rounded corners 0.91 x 0.82 x 0.43 on E and W. Gradual break of slope at top, sides slope steeply and are smooth. Break of slope at base impercepti- ble on N and S, gradual on E and W. Base is oval in plan and concave in profile. archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 277 2 Cut Cut of pit (recut 264 264 2 Irregular in plan, rounded corners. Sharp break of slope 0.65 x 0.39 x 0.28 into pit 479) at top. N side slopes moderately and is concave, S side is vertical and undercut, E side slopes steeply and is smooth and W side slopes steeply and is irregular. Break of slope at base is imperceptible on N, gradual on NE and NW Gortore 1b-e2410 and sharp on S, E and W. Base is oval in plan and concave in profile. 278 2 Fill Fill of pit 276 276 275 276 softly compacted compacted mid brown silt, occasional 0.91 x 0.82 x 0.43 inclusions of small sub-rounded stones. 279 2 Stakehole Stakehole Fill: compact black sandy silt, frequent charcoal flecks, oc- 0.22 x 0.14 x 0.26 casional pebbles and small stones. Cut: oval in plan. Sharp break of slope at top and base. Sides slope steeply and are smooth. Base is oval in plan and concave in profile. 280 3 Cut Cut of possible 201 201 2 Circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. N, S and 0.23 x 0.23 x 0.13 posthole E side is vertical and smooth, W side slopes moderately and is concave. Break of slope at base gradual on N and W, Sharp on S and imperceptible on E. Base is circular in plan and flat in profile. 281 3 Cut Cut of possible 234 234 2 Sub-circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. Sides are 0.34 x 0.2 x 0.29 posthole/natural undercut, sloping gently on N and smooth, sloping verti- hollow cally elsewhere. Break of slope at base is imperceptible. Base is irregular in plan and in profile. Cut is inclined W. 282 1 Cut Cut of possible 283 283 2 Sub-rectangular in plan, rounded corners on NE and 1.01 x 0.46 x 0.18. pit SE, square corners on NW, SW. Gradual break of slope at top and base. S, E and W sides slope moderately and are smooth, N side slopes gently and is smooth. Base is irregular in plan and flat in profile. 283 1 Fill Fill of possible 282 1 282 Firmly compacted mid brown stony sandy clay, moder- 1.01 x 0.46 x 0.18 pit 282 ate angular and sub-angular medium stone inclusions, occasional sub-angular medium and coarse pebble and charcoal flecks. 284 2 Fill Fill of pit 296 296 1 296 Softly compacted compacted mid brown silt, moderate 0.76 x 0.56 x 0.16 inclusions of sub-angular and sub-rounded coarse peb- bles and occasional inclusions of sub-angular small stones and charcoal flecks. 285 Cancelled http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/89
  • 90 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 286 2 Fill Fill of possible 287 1 287 Firmly compacted compacted mid reddish brown silty 0.86 x 0.66 x 0.22 pit 287 clay, occasional inclusions of medium sub-angular pebbles and stones, moderate inclusions of charcoal flecks and occasional inclusions of small charcoal pieces. 287 2 Cut Cut of possible 286 286 2 Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners, gradual break of 0.86 x 0.66 x 0.22 pit slope at top and base. NW side slopes steeply and is un- dercut, SE side slopes gently and is convex. NE side slopes moderately and is smooth. SW side slopes gently and is smooth. Base is irregular in plan and flat in profile. iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 288 3 Fill Fill of natural Natu- 1 2 Mid brown silty sand with moderate smaller pebbles and 0.90 x 0.80 x 0.50 hollow ral 2 large stones. hollow 292 3 Fill Fill of possible 379 1 379 Very softly compacted compacted mid brown sandy silt, 0.94 x 0.60 x 0.19 pit 379 occasional inclusions of medium and coarse, frequent inclusions of fine sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles. 293 3 Fill Animal activity/ 388 1 388 Very softly compacted compacted mid brown sandy 1.33 x 0.70 x 0.56 fill of possible silt, occasional inclusions of fine medium and coarse posthole 388 sub-angular pebbles and small stones and occasional inclusions of charcoal flecks. 296 2 Cut Cut of pit 284 284 2 Sub-circular in plan, rounded corner. Gradual break 0.78 x 0.57 x 0.17 of slope at top. N, S and W sides slope gently and are concave, E side slopes moderately and is concave. Break of slope at base is gradual on S and E and imperceptible on N and W. Base is sub-circular in plan and concave in profile. 297 2 Fill Fill of pit 337 337 124 304, 306 Firmly compacted mid brown silty clay. Moderate inclu- 1.53 x 1.32 x 0.09 sions of coarse sub-rounded pebbles. 299 2 Fill Fill of pit 350 1 350 Loosely compacted mid greyish brown silty sand, oc- 0.75 x 0.60 x 0.10 casional inclusions of medium and coarse sub-angular pebbles. 300 3 Fill Fill of pit 302 302 183 301 Mid brown pebbly silt. 1.00 x 0.90 x 0.30 301 3 Fill Fill of pit 302 302 300 302 Mid brown sandy silt with occasional larger pebbles and 1.53 x 0.96 x 0.63 flecks of charcoal. archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 302 3 Cut Cut of pit 301, 300, 301 2 Sub-oval in plan, rounded corners. NE and SW sides 1.53 x 0.96 x 0.63 183 slope steeply and are concave, NW side slopes moderately and is concave Se sides slopes steeply and is irregular. Base is oval in plan and concave in profile. 303 2 Fill Fill of pit 305 305 1 305 Softly compacted compacted mid orangish-brown silt, 1.08 x 0.72 x 0.12 Gortore 1b-e2410 moderate inclusions of medium and coarse sub-angular pebbles and occasional small sub-angular stones, charcoal flecks and small pieces. 304 2 Fill Fill of pit 337 337 297, 124 306 Softly compacted compacted mid brownish grey silty clay, 0.38 x 0.2 x 0.08 occasional inclusions of fine sub-rounded pebbles and moderate inclusions small charcoal pieces. 305 2 Cut Cut of pit 303 303 2 Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners. Imperceptible 1.1 x 0.74 x 0.13 break of slope at top and base. Sides slope gently and are concave. Base is sub-circular in plan and concave in profile. 306 2 Fill Fill of pit 337 337 297, 124, 337 Compact light pinkish brown sandy silt. Moderate inclu- 1.42 x 1.28 x 0.10 304 sions of sub-angular medium pebbles and occasional inclusions of small rounded stones. 307 3 Fill Fill of possible 407 1 383 Softly compacted mid brown silty sand, moderate inclu- 1.00 x 0.40 x 0.15 slot 407 sions of sub-angular medium pebbles. 308 3 Fill Possible animal 546 1 546 Loosely compacted mid brown sand with moderate angu- 0.67 x 0.44 x 0.18 activity within lar to sub-angular fine pebbles. posthole 546 309 3 Fill Fill of animal 404 1 404 Loosely compacted compacted mid brown silty sand, 1.40 x 0.80 x 0.23 burrow or man- moderate inclusions of fine and coarse angular and sub- made slot 404 angular pebbles. 310 3 Fill Fill of animal pos- 1 2 Cancelled 1.20 x 0.20 x 0.13 burrow sible slot trench 311 3 Fill Fill of pit 349 349 1 336 Very softly compacted mid reddish brown clayey sand, 0.58 x 0.56 x 0.15 occasional inclusions of charcoal flecks and medium angular pebbles and frequent inclusions of medium angular stones. 312 3 Fill Fill of possible 448 1 448 Loosely compacted mid brown silty sand, sub-angular to 0.45 x 0.35 x 0.19 posthole 448 occasional sub-rounded pebbles. http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/91
  • 92 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 314 3 Fill Natural Natu- 1 2 Very softly compacted compacted mid reddish brown 1.75 x 0.8 x 0.1 depression ral silty sand. Occasional inclusions of fine angular pebbles, de- moderate angular and sub-angular pebbles and charcoal pres- flecks. sion 317 3 Fill Fill of natural Natu- 1 2 loosely compacted mid brown silty sand with occasional 0.25 x 0.25 x 0.10 depression ral fine angular and medium sub-angular pebbles. de- pres- iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 sion 324 3 Fill Fill of Stakehole 329 183 329 Mid brown sandy silt without inclusions. 0.16 x 0.15 x 0.18 329 325 1 Stakehole Cut of stakehole 326 326 2 Fill: loosely compacted compacted mid brown silty sand, 0.10 x 0.10 x 0.15 occasional inclusions of coarse angular pebbles and charcoal flecks. Cut: circular in plan, rounded corners. Sharp break of slope at top and base. Sides are vertical and smooth. Base is oval in plan and has a tapered blunt point in profile. 326 1 Fill Fill of stakehole 325 1 325 Loosely compacted compacted mid brown silty sand, oc- 0.10 x 0.10 x 0.15 325 casional inclusions of coarse angular pebbles and charcoal flecks. 327 1 Cut Cut of pit 328 328 2 Oval in plan, rounded corners. Gradual break of slope at 0.90 x 0.45 x 0.25 top. Sides slope moderately and are smooth. Imperceptible break of slope at base. Base is oval in plan and concave in profile. 328 1 Fill Fill of pit 327 327 346 327 Stiffly compacted reddish brown sandy clay, occasional 0.90 x 0.45 x 0.25 sub-angular small stones. frequent charcoal flecks. Mod- erate small charcoal inclusions. Small fragment of pottery has been recovered from within the pit. 329 3 Cut Stakehole within 324, 183 324 2 Cut: Circular in plan. Sides are vertical. Base is circular in 0.16 x 0.15 x 0.18 pit 302 plan and flat in profile. Fill: Mid brown sandy silt without inclusions. 330 3 Fill Fill of stakehole 331 301 331 0.15 x 0.12 x 0.20 331 archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 331 3 Cut Stakehole within 330 330 2 Fill: Mid brown sandy silt without inclusions. Cut : 0.15 x 0.12 x 0.20 pit 302 Circular in plan. Sides are vertical and concave, Base is circular in plan and has a circular tapered round point in profile. 332 3 Fill Fill of pit 334 334 1 352 Softly compacted compacted mid yellowish brown 0.70 x 0.45 x 0.25 Gortore 1b-e2410 sandy silt, occasional inclusions of small sub-angular and rounded stones and charcoal flecks. 333 3 Fill Fill of posthole 335 222 335 Firmly compacted compacted mid brown silt, occasional 0.48 x 0.40 x 0.26 335 inclusions of charcoal flecks. 334 3 Cut Cut of pit 352, 332, 352 2 Oval in plan. Gradual break of slope at top and base. 1.68 x 1.22 x 0.29 249 Sides slope steeply and are concave. Base is oval in plan and concave in profile. 335 3 Cut Cut of posthole 333 333 2 Circular in plan. Break of slope at top is gradual on N and 0.48 x 0.4 x 0.26 E, and sharp on S and W. E and S sides slope moderately and are concave, N side slopes gently and is concave. W side slopes steeply and is concave. Break of slope at base is sharp on S and gradual elsewhere. Base is sub-circular in plan and concave in profile. 336 3 Fill Fill of pit 349 349 311 349 Layer of small and medium angular and sub-angular 0.48 x 0.45 x 0.10 limestone. 337 2 Cut Cut of pit 124, 297, 306, 304 2 Irregular in plan, rounded corners. Gradual break of slope 1.42 x 1.28 x 0.3 304, 306 at top. N side slopes gently and is irregular, S side slopes moderately and is concave, E side slopes moderately and is irregular and W side slopes steeply and is concave. Break of slope at base is gradual on N, and sharp on S, E and W. Base is irregular in plan and concave in profile. Cut is truncated by furrow along E and SE. 338 1 Fill Fill of pit 346 346 1 346 Firmly compacted compacted dark grey silty clay, occa- 0.25 x 0.08 x 0.03 sional inclusions of small and medium sub-angular stone, frequent inclusions of charcoal flecks and small pieces. 339 1 Fill Fill of posthole 340 1 340 loosely compacted compacted mid reddish brown silty 0.41 x 0.34 x 0.30 340 sand, occasional inclusions of medium and coarse sub- angular pebbles, moderate inclusions of small charcoal pieces. http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/93
  • 94 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 340 1 Cut Cut of posthole 399 339 2 Circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. N, S and 0.41 x 0.34 x 0.30 E sides are vertical and smooth. W side is vertical and stepped. Break of slope at base is gradual on N and E and sharp on S and W. Base is sub-circular in plan and concave in profile. 341 2 Fill Fill of recut pit 1223 1 1223 Fairly compact mid pinkish brown sandy clay, moderate 0.5 x 0.6 x 0.35 1223 (within pit inclusions of medium sub-angular pebbles and large sub- 479) angular stones. iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 342 2 Fill Fill of pit/post- 345 1 345 softly compacted compacted light brown silt, occasional 0.48 x 0.41 x 0.43 hole 345 inclusions of small rounded stones. 343 2 Fill Fill of pit 347 347 1 347 loosely compacted compacted mid brown silty sand, oc- 0.54 x 0.4 x 0.11 casional inclusions of fine and medium and coarse sub- angular and sub-rounded pebbles and charcoal flecks. 344 Cancelled 345 2 Cut Cut of pit/ 342 342 2 Oval in plan. Gradual break of slope at top. Sides all 0.48 x 0.41 x 0.45 posthole steeply sloped and undercut. Break of slope base gradual all around. Base is oval in plan and concave in profile. 346 1 Cut Possible recut of 338 338 328 Linear in plan, rounded corners. Gradual break of slope at 0.25 x 0.08 x 0.03 pit 327 top and base. Sides slope moderately and are smooth. Base is sub-rectangular in plan and concave in profile. 347 2 Cut Cut of pit 343 343 2 Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners. Break of slope at 0.54 x 0.4 x 0.11 top and base is sharp on S and gradual elsewhere. N side slopes moderately and is irregular, S side slopes steeply and is irregular, W side slopes moderately and is concave, E side slopes moderately and is smooth. Base is sub-circular in plan and concave in profile. 348 3 Cut cut of posthole 184 184 2 Circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. SE side is 0.43 x 0.38 x 0.29 vertical and concave, elsewhere sides slope steeply and are concave. Base is circular in plan and concave in profile. 349 3 Cut Cut of pit 311, 336 336 2 Circular in plan. N, S, and E sides are vertical and 0.60 x 0.58 x 0.21 smooth, W side slopes moderately and is smooth. 350 2 Pit Cut Cut of pit 299 299 2 Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners. Break of slope at 0.75 x 0.6 x 0.1 top and base is imperceptible at N and NE and gradual elsewhere. S, E and W sides slope moderately and are concave, N side slopes gently and is smooth. Base is sub- circular in plan and concave in profile. archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 352 3 Fill Fill of pit 334 334 249, 332 334 Light brownish yellow silty clay without inclusions. 1.36 x 0.77 x 0.29 357 1 Cut Cut of Stakehole 358 358 2 Cut: Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners. Sharp break 0.15 x 0.12 x 0.11 of slope at top. N, S and W slope steeply and are smooth, E side slopes moderately and is smooth. Gradual break of slope at base. Base is sub-circular in plan and concave in Gortore 1b-e2410 profile. 358 1 Fill Fill of stakehole 357 1 357 Firmly compacted mid brown silty clay, occasional inclu- 0.15 x 0.12 x0.11 357 sions of sub-angular coarse pebbles. 359 3 Fill Fill of small 440 1 440 softly compacted compacted mid pinkish brown sandy 0.1 x 0.08 x 0.13 posthole/stake- silt, occasional inclusions of medium angular pebbles. hole 440 360 3 Fill Fill of possible 405 1 405 Very softly compacted compacted mid brown silty sand, 1.2 x 0.35 x 0.25 slot trench/pit occasional medium angular and sub-angular and coarse 405 sub-rounded pebbles, small angular stones and charcoal flecks. 361 3 Cut Cut of pit 156 156 362 Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners. Break of slope at 0.58 x 0.38 x 0.17 top is gradual on N and E and sharp on S and W. NE and NW sides slope moderately and are concave, SW side slopes gently and is concave. Base is sub-rectangular in plan and concave in profile. 362 3 Fill Fill of natural Natu- 361 2 Firmly compacted dark brown sandy silt without 0.55 x 0.38 x 0.19 hollow ral inclusions. hollow 363 Cancelled 364 3 Fill Fill of pit 378 378 380, 376, 375 Firmly compacted compacted dark black silty clay, fre- 0.40 x 0.37 x 0.22 374 quent inclusions of charcoal flecks. 365 Furrow Fill Furrow 366 3 Fill Possible fill of pit 402 437, 436 472 softly compacted compacted light grey/pinkish brown 2.36 x 2.22 x 0.35 402 silty clay, moderate inclusions of fine, medium and coarse sub-angular pebbles and occasional small sub-rounded stones, moderate inclusions of charcoal flecks and small and medium pieces. 367 3 Fill of posthole Fill of posthole 437 1 437 Softly compacted mid brown silty clay; occasional inclu- 0.14 x 0.14 x 0.16 437 sions of medium sub-angular pebbles. http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/95
  • 96 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 368 3 Fill Fill of hearth 443 443 1 441 softly compacted compacted mid reddish brown clayey 0.39 x 0.22 x 0.12 silt, occasional inclusions of coarse sub-angular and sub- rounded pebbles and small pieces of charcoal. 369 3 Fill Fill of small 475 1 475 softly compacted compacted mid brown silty clay, occa- 0.20 x 0.17 x 0.16 posthole 475 sional inclusions of medium sub-angular to sub-rounded pebbles, moderate charcoal flecks and occasional small pieces. 371 Furrow Fill Furrow iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 372 3 Fill Animal burrow Ani- 1 2 Very softly compacted compacted mid brown sandy silt, 0.51 x 0.37 x 0.30 mal occasional inclusions of coarse sub-angular pebbles and activ- charcoal flecks. ity 373 Cancelled 374 3 Fill Fill of Pit 378 378 1 364 Stiffly compacted light orangish grey silty clay without 0.26 x 0.19 x 0.18 inclusions. 375 3 Fill Fill of pit 378 378 364 392 Firmly compacted compacted mid brown silty clay, oc- 0.68 x 0.18 x 0.56 casional inclusions of medium charcoal pieces. 376 3 Fill Fill of pit 378 378 255 364 Firmly compacted compacted light brownish orange silty 1.22 x 0.37 x 0.31 clay without inclusions. 377 3 Fill Fill of pit 378 378 392, 386 378 Very softly compacted compacted light reddish yellow 1.44 x 1.50 x 0.16 sandy silt with moderate inclusions of fine sub-rounded and rounded medium pebbles. 378 3 Cut Cut of pit 377, 392, 377 2 Sub-oval in plan, square corners at NE and SE, rounded 2.00 x 1.50 x 0.66 386, 375, corners at NW and SW. Sharp break of slope at top. N 364, 374, and S sides slope steeply and are concave, W side slopes 380, 376, gently and is concave. E side is truncated by cut 444. 255 Gradual break of slope at base was. The base is sub-rec- tangular in plan and concave in profile . 379 3 Cut Shallow pit/natu- 292 292 2 Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners. Break of slope at 0.94 x 0.60 x 0.19 ral depression top is gradual on N and E, sharp on S and imperceptible on W. N side slopes gently and is smooth, S side slopes gently and is irregular, W side slopes steeply and is ir- regular. Break of slope at base is imperceptible. Base is irregular in plan and concave in profile. 380 3 Fill Fill of pit 378 378 1 364 Firmly compacted compacted mid reddish brown silty 0.37 x 0.42 x 0.25 clay without inclusions. archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 381 2 Fill Fill of slot 260 1 151, 263 loosely compacted compacted mid pinkish brown 1.80 x 0.90 x 0.20 trench/pit 260 clayey sand, occasional inclusions of medium and coarse rounded pebbles and small stones. 382 2 Fill Fill of pit 527 527 1 130 Very softly compacted compacted mid brown silt, oc- 1.07 x 0.74 x 0.18 casional inclusions of medium and coarse sub-angular Gortore 1b-e2410 and sub-rounded pebble, medium stones, and occasional charcoal flecks. 383 3 Fill Fill of possible 407 307 407 loosely compacted compacted yellow and brown silty 0.50 x 0.40 x 0.32 posthole 407 sand, moderate inclusions of medium sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles, occasional angular coarse pebbles and occasional flecks of charcoal. 385 2 Hearth Fill Fill of hearth 395 395 389 395 80% small and medium angular and rounded stones, 1.62 x 1.5 x 0.18 20% sub-angular and sub-rounded fine, medium and coarse pebbles (5% of the stones are display evidence of burning). 386 3 Fill Fill of pit 378 378 444, 255 377 Stiffly compacted light yellow silty clay without 0.87 x 0.18 x 0.30 inclusions. 387 3 Fill Fill of pit 444 444 445 446 Firmly compacted compacted dark brown silty clay 1.37 x 1.04 x 0.60 without inclusions. 388 3 Cut Animal activity/ 293 293 2 Crescent shaped cavity with irregular base and undercut 1.33 x 0.70 x 0.56 possible previous sides. posthole 389 2 Hearth Fill Fill of hearth 395 395 1 385 loosely compacted compacted mid brown silty sand, 2.06 x 1.32 x 0.13 occasional inclusions of sub-angular and sub-rounded fine, medium and coarse pebbles and small stones, and charcoal flecks. 390 2 Pit Fill Fill of slot 260 1 260 loosely compacted compacted dark greyish brown clayey 0.35 x 0.27 x 0.2 trench/pit 260 sand, occasional inclusions of medium and coarse sub- angular pebbles, small sub-rounded stones and charcoal flecks. 391 3 Fill Fill of pit 444 444 446 447 Stiffly compacted light yellowish brown clayey silt with- 0.37 x 0.22 x 0.12 out inclusions. 392 3 Fill Small patch 378 375 377 Stiffly compacted light orangish grey silty clay without 0.08 x 0.06 x 0.04 possible burnt inclusions. clay 378 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/97
  • 98 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 393 1 Fill Fill of posthole 265 266 265 Firmly compacted compacted mid greyish brown silty 0.25 x 0.25 x 0.09 265 clay, moderate inclusions of fine and medium sub-angular and sub-rounded pebble, occasional inclusions of small sub-angular stones. 394 3 Fill Fill of possible 406 1 406 loosely compacted compacted mid brown silty sand, oc- 0.75 x 0.40 x 0.26 slot 406 casional inclusions of medium angular and sub-angular pebbles and occasional small sub-angular stones. 395 2 Hearth Cut Cut of hearth 389, 385 385 464 Irregular in plan, rounded corners. Break of slope at top 2.1 x 1.32 x 0.31 iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 and base is gradual. Sides slope gently sloped and are ir- regular. Base is irregular in plan and in profile. 396 1 Natural Spread Natural Spread 1 2 Stiffly compacted light yellowish brown silty clay, occa- sional inclusions of sub-angular coarse pebbles and small stones. 397 1 Natural Spread Natural stony 1 2 Firmly compacted compacted mid reddish orangish 2.80 x 1.20 x 0.10 spread brown stony silty clay with a Firmly compacted compac- tion. Frequent inclusions of small and medium sub-an- gular stones. Moderate inclusions of medium and coarse sub-angular pebbles. 398 1 Fill Fill of posthole 399 1 399 softly compacted compacted light brownish orange clayey 0.60 x 0.41 x 0.20 399 silt, occasional inclusions of small sub-angular stones. 399 1 Cut Cut of posthole 398 398 2 Oval n plan, rounded corners. Sharp break of slope at 0.60 x 0.41 x 0.20 top. Sides slope steeply and are concave. Gradual break of slope at base. Base is oval in plan and concave in profile. 400 2 Fill Fill of pit 424 424 1 424 softly compacted compacted mid reddish brown silty clay, 0.8 x 0.7 x 0.32 occasional medium sub-angular stones and small charcoal pieces. 401 Cancelled 402 3 Cut Cut of pit 472, 366 472 2 Sub-circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. N side 2.36 x 2.22 x slopes steeply and is concave, S, W and E sides slope 0.40 steeply and are stepped. Gradual break of slope at the base. Base is oval in plan and flat in profile. The edges were difficult to distinguish. 403 Cancelled archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 404 3 Cut Animal activity 309 309 2 Irregular (curved linear) in plan, rounded corners. Break 1.66 x 1.10 x 0.26 or possible man- of slope at top is sharp on N and E, and imperceptible on made slot S and W. N and E sides slope steeply and are smooth, W side slopes moderately and is smooth, S side is irregular. Break of slope at top is gradual on N, S and E, impercep- Gortore 1b-e2410 tible on W. Base is flat in plan and irregular in profile. 405 3 Cut Possible man 360 360 2 Linear in plan, square corners on SE and NW, rounded 1.80 x 0.40 x 0.35 made slot corner on NE. Break of slope at top is sharp on N, E and W, imperceptible on S. S side slopes gently and is smooth, N, E and W sides slope steeply and are smooth. Break of slope at base is gradual on N, E and W, and imperceptible on S. Orientation is E-W. 406 3 Cut Possible man 394 394 2 Oval in plan, rounded corners. Gradual break of slope 0.76 x 0.40 x 0.30 made slot at top. N side slopes gently and is smooth, S and E sides later disturbed by slope vertically and are smooth, and W side slopes steeply animal and is smooth. Break of slope at base is sharp on E, and imperceptible on N and W. Base is oval in plan and concave in profile. 407 3 Cut Possible posthole 383, 307 383 2 Circular in plan. Break of slope at top is sharp on N, S 0.40 x 0.40 x 0.28 in later distur- and W, and gradual on E. N side slopes steeply and is bance (animal/ smooth, S and W sides are vertical and smooth, and E collapse) side slopes moderately and is stepped. Gradual break of slope at base. Base is irregular in and disturbed by animal activity. 408 1 Cut Cut of pit 409 409 2 Sub-rectangular in plan, rounded corners on NW, SE, 0.27 x 0.17 x 0.08 and NE, square corners on SW. Break of slope at top is imperceptible on N, and gradual elsewhere. N side slopes moderately and is smooth, S and E sides slope steeply and are smooth, and W side slopes gently and is smooth. Break of slope at base is gradual on S, E and W and imperceptible on N. Base is sub-rectangular in plan and flat in profile. 409 1 Fill Fill of pit C408 408 1 408 Firmly compacted compacted mid reddish-orangish 0.27 x 0.17 x 0.08 brown silty clay, occasional inclusions of medium sub- angular pebbles, small sub-angular stones and charcoal flecks. http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/99
  • 100 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 410 2 Posthole Cut Cut of possible 337 2 Square in plan. Sharp break of slope at top and base sharp 0.15 x 0.15 x 0.11 posthole all around. Sides steep and smooth W and S, vertical and smooth E and N. Base square in plan, flat in profile. 411 3 Fill Fill of possible 488 1 488 softly compacted mid brown sandy silt with occasional 0.20 x 0.19 x 0.13 posthole 488 inclusions of flecks of charcoal. 412 Furrow Fill Furrow 413 Furrow Fill Furrow 418 3 Fill Fill of possible 545 1 545 Softly compacted compacted dark brown silt, occasional 0.49 x 0.43 x 0.37 iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 pit/posthole inclusions of fine sub-rounded and rounded pebbles, disturbed by later small angular and sub-rounded, medium angular and animal activity sub-angular stones and charcoal flecks. 545 419 3 Fill Fill of natural Natu- 1 2 Firmly compacted dark brown silty clay without 1.00 x 0.50 x 0.10 hollow ral inclusions. hollow 420 1 Cut Cut of stakehole 421 421 2 Oval in plan, rounded corners. Sharp break of slope at 0.20 x 0.14 x 0.16 top. N and S sides slope steeply and are smooth, E and W sides are vertical and smooth. Gradual break of slope at base. Base is oval in plan and has a tapered rounded point in profile. 421 1 Fill Fill of Stakehole 420 1 420 Firmly compacted mid greyish brown silty sandy clay. 0.20 x 0.14 x 0.16 420 Moderate inclusions of medium sub-angular pebbles, occasional inclusions of small sub-angular stones and moderate inclusions of small and medium charcoal pieces. 422 1 Cut Cut of pit 423 423 2 Oval in plan, rounded corners. Break of slope at top is 0.57 x 0.46 x 0.17 sharp on N, NE, E and SE and gradual on S, W, SW and NW. N side is vertical and irregular, S and W sides slope moderately and are concave, and E side slopes steeply and is concave. Gradual break of slope at base. Base is sub- circular in plan and concave in profile. 423 1 Fill Fill of pit 422 422 1 422 Softly compacted mid brown clayey silt, occasional inclu- 0.57 x 0.46 x 0.17 sions of medium and coarse angular and sub-angular pebbles, moderate inclusions of medium angular and sub-angular stones, occasional charcoal flecks. archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 424 2 Cut Cut of pit 400 400 2 Sub-circular in plan. Break of slope at top is gradual 0.8 x 0.7 x 0.32 on N, E, W, NE and N and sharp on S, SE and SW. S side vertical slope and concave, N side gentle slope and smooth, E side moderate slope and smooth and W side steep and smooth. Break of slope at base gradual N, E and Gortore 1b-e2410 W, imperceptible at S. Base sub-circular in plan and flat in profile. 425 1 Fill Fill of pit 456 456 1 456 Firmly compacted mid pinkish/orangish brown sandy silt, 2.52 x 1.37 x 0.41 frequent inclusion of coarse sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles, moderate inclusions of fine and medium sub- angular and sub-rounded pebbles and small and medium sub- angular and sub-rounded stones, and occasional inclusions of charcoal flecks. 426 3 Fill Fill of possible 513 1 513 Firmly compacted mid brown sandy silt with occasional 0.60 x 0.48 x 0.38 pit 513 sub-angular fine and medium pebbles and occasional flecks of charcoal. 427 3 Fill Fill of posthole 487 1 487 Firmly compacted mid brown sandy silt with occasional 0.24 x 0.24 x 0.18 487 fine sub-angular and medium and coarse sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles and charcoal flecks. 428 Cancelled 429 3 Fill Fill of posthole 520 1 520 Softly compacted mid greyish brown sandy silt, oc- 0.30 x 0.30 x 0.44 520 casional fine, medium and coarse sub-angular pebbles, small sub-angular and sub-rounded stones and charcoal flecks and small pieces. 430 3 Fill Fill of shallow 514 1 514 Firmly compacted dark blackish brown sandy silt with 0.37 x 0.36 x 0.22 posthole or pit occasional fine, medium and coarse sub-angular pebbles, 514 small sub-angular and sub-rounded stones and moderate inclusions of charcoal flecks. 433 3 Cut Possible 179 179 2 Circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. N, W and 0.20 x 0.18 x 0.09 stakehole/small E sides are vertical and concave, S side is vertical and posthole stepped. Break of slope at base is gradual in N and E, and sharp in S and W. The base is circular in plan and concave in profile. 434 3 Cut Cut of possible 180 180 2 Circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top and base. 0.20 x 0.18 x 0.14 posthole Sides slope steeply and are concave. Base is circular in plan and pointed in profile. http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/101
  • 102 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 435 3 Fill Fill of small 436 1 436 Softly compacted mid brown silty clay, occasional inclu- 0.15 x 0.15 x 0.17 posthole/stake- sions of small charcoal pieces and moderate charcoal hole 436 flecks. 436 3 Cut Cut of small 435 435 366 Circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top and base. 0.15 x 0.15 x 0.17 posthole/ Sides are vertical and smooth. Base is circular in plan and stakehole concave in profile. 437 3 Cut Cut of small 367 367 366 Fill: Softly compacted mid brown silty clay, occasional 0.14 x 0.14 x 0.16 posthole/ medium sub-angular pebbles. Cut: Circular in plan. iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 stakehole Sharp breaks of slope at top and base. Sides are vertical and smooth. Base is circular in plan and flat in profile. 440 3 Cut Cut of small 359 359 2 Sub-circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top and base. 0.10 x 0.08 x 0.13 posthole/ Sides are vertical and smooth. Base is sub-circular in plan stakehole and flat in profile. 441 3 Fill Fill of hearth 443 443 368 442 Firmly compacted dark brownish black clayey silt, fre- 0.36 x 0.30 x 0.16 quent inclusions of charcoal flecks and small pieces, and moderate inclusions of medium charcoal pieces. 442 3 Fill Fill of hearth 443 443 441 443 Softly compacted dark greyish brown clayey silt, moderate 0.24 x 0.10 x 0.09 inclusions of charcoal flecks and small pieces. 443 3 Cut Cut of hearth 441, 442, 442 2 Circular in plan. Break of slope at top is sharp on N and 0.43 x 0.42 x 0.16 368 W, gradual on E and imperceptible on S. N side is vertical and smooth, S side slopes gently and is smooth, E side slopes moderately and is concave, W side slopes gently and is stepped. Breaks of slope at base is sharp on N and S, imperceptible on E and W. Base is sub-circular in plan and flat in profile. 444 3 Cut Cut of pit 447, 391, 447 386 Sub-rectangular in plan, rounded corners. Gradual break 2.80 x 1.45 x 0.65 446, 387, of slope at top and base. N and S sides slope gently and are 445 concave, E side slopes moderately and is concave, and W side slopes steeply and is concave. Base is irregular in plan and concave in profile. 445 3 Fill Fill of pit 444 444 1 387 Firmly compacted mid greyish brown sandy silt, frequent 1.40 x 0.66 x 0.60 inclusions of sub-angular and sub-rounded coarse pebbles and small stones. 446 3 Fill Fill of pit 444 444 387 391 Loosely compacted light bluish grey silty sand, frequent 0.50 x 0.09 x 0.12 inclusions of fine and medium sub-angular and sub- rounded pebbles. archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 447 3 Fill Fill of pit 444 444 391 444 Loosely compacted mid yellowish grey silty sand, frequent 2.80 x 1.45 x 0.07 inclusions of fine and medium sub-angular and sub- rounded and coarse rounded pebbles. 448 3 Cut Cut of pos- 312 312 2 Oval in plan. Break of slope at top and base is sharp on 0.60 x 0.35 x 0.20 sible disturbed N and gradual elsewhere. N side is vertical and smooth, S Gortore 1b-e2410 posthole and W sides slope moderately and are smooth and E side slopes moderately and is stepped. Base is oval in plan and flat in profile. 449 3 Stakehole Stakehole Stake- 1 2 Fill: Softly compacted brownish yellow silty clay without 0.08 x 0.07 x 0.09 hole inclusions. Cut: Circular in plan. Vertical sides. Base tapers to a point. 450 3 Cut Cut of possible 494 494 2 Oval in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. N side slopes 0.30 x 0.28 x 0.14 pit steeply and are smooth, S side is vertical and smooth, SW side slopes moderately and is smooth and the SW side is vertical and concave. Base is oval in plan and concave in profile. E side is truncated by 451. 451 3 Fill Fill of posthole 590 1 590 Very softly compacted light bluish grey sandy silt with 1.75 x 0.21 x 0.31 590 frequent inclusions of sub-angular and sub-rounded fine and medium pebbles. 452 Cancelled 453 1 Fill Fill of pit 454 454 1 454 Firmly compacted dark reddish brown silty clay, oc- 0.64 x 0.57 x casional inclusions of sub-angular medium pebbles and 0.275 small stone. 454 1 Cut Cut of pit 453 453 2 Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners. Break of slope 0.64 x 0.57 x at top was gradual on SW and sharp elsewhere. Sides 0.275 slope steeply and are smooth. Break of slope at base was imperceptible on SW and gradual elsewhere. Base is sub- circular in plan and concave in profile. 455 3 Fill Fill of possible 467 1 467 Loosely compacted mid brown silty sand, moderate inclu- 0.15 x 0.14 x 0.08 posthole 467 sions of medium angular to sub-angular pebbles. 456 1 Cut Cut of pit 425 425 2 Sub-oval in plan, rounded corners. Break of slope at top 2.52 x 1.32 x 0.41 was gradual on W and NW and sharp elsewhere. N and S sides slope steeply and are concave, E side slopes moderately and is smooth, W side slopes moderately and is irregular. Break of slope at base is gradual on N, E and NE, imperceptible elsewhere. Base is irregular in plan and concave in profile. http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/103
  • 104 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 464 2 Fill Burnt natural 395 2 Stiffly compacted, light reddish brown silty clay, moder- 2.1 x 1.32 subsoil ate inclusions of fine sub-angular and sub-rounded peb- bles, occasional inclusions of medium sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles. 465 3 Cut Cut of pit 182 182 2 Circular in plan. Break of slope at top is sharp on S and 0.80 x 0.73 x 0.76 gradual elsewhere. N side slopes gently and is concave, S side is vertical and stepped, and E and W sides slope gen- tly and are stepped. Gradual break of slope at base. Base is sub-circular in plan and concave in profile. iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 466 Cancelled 467 3 Cut Cut of possible 455 455 2 Circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. N and W 0.15 x 0.14 x 0.08 posthole sides slope steeply and are smooth, S and E sides are vertical and smooth. Break of slope at base is sharp on S and gradual elsewhere. Base is circular in plan and flat in profile. 468 2 Fill Fill of pit 527 527 1, 528 527 Firmly compacted, mid brownish yellow silt, occasional 1.87 x 0.32 x 0.89 inclusions of fine, medium and coarse sub-angular peb- bles and charcoal flecks. 469 3 Fill Fill of natural Natu- 1 2 loosely compacted mid reddish brown clayey sand with 0.50 x 0.50 x 0.10 depression ral occasional angular to sub-angular fine and medium peb- de- bles and occasional flecks of charcoal. pres- sion 470 3 Fill Fill of natural Natu- 1 2 loosely compacted pinkish/brownish grey sand with oc- 0.40 x 0.38 x 0.10 depression ral casional inclusions of angular fine and moderate angular de- to sub-angular medium pebbles and moderate flecks of pres- charcoal. sion 471 3 Fill Fill of natural Natu- 1 2 Firmly compacted mid brown silt without inclusions. 0.50 x 0.18 x 0.04 depression ral de- pres- sion 472 3 Fill Fill of pit 402 402 366 402 Hard light greyish brown silty clay, moderate inclusions of 0.87 x 0.36 x 0.40 fine and medium angular and sub-rounded pebbles and moderate inclusions of charcoal flecks and small pieces. archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 473 1 Cut Cut of posthole 474 474 396 Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners. Sharp break of 0.40 x 0.34 x 0.30 slope at top. Sides are vertical and smooth. Break of slope base is imperceptible. Base is sub-circular in plan and flat in profile. 474 1 Fill Fill of posthole 473 1 473 Firmly compacted mid dark brown clayey silt, moderate 0.40 x 0.34 x 0.30 Gortore 1b-e2410 473 inclusions of medium sub-angular and sub-rounded peb- ble inclusions, frequent inclusions of charcoal flecks and small pieces. 475 3 Cut Cut of posthole 369 369 2 Circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top and base. 0.20 x 0.17 x 0.16 Sides are vertical and smooth. Base is circular in plan and flat in profile. 478 2 Fill Fill of pit 482 482 1 482 Firmly compacted mid pinkish brown sandy clay, moder- 0.90 x 1.68 x 0.31 ate inclusions of sub-angular coarse pebbles and medium and large stones, occasional inclusions of charcoal flecks and small pieces. 479 2 Pit Cut Cut of pit (recut 481, 279, 481 2 Linear in plan, rounded corners on NE and SW. Break of by 3 pits) 264, 277, slope at top is gradual at N and NE and sharp elsewhere. 341, 480, N side slopes steeply and is concave, S side is vertical and 348, 121, irregular, E side slopes moderately and is stepped, and W 154 side slopes steeply and is stepped. Break of slope at base is sharp on S, E and SW and gradual elsewhere. Base is irregular in plan and flat in profile. 480 2 Pit Fill Fill of pit 479 479 1 348 Compact light pinkish yellow silty clay, occasional inclu- 0.64 x 0.42 x 0.15 sions medium and coarse of sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles and small sub-rounded stones. 481 2 Pit Fill Fill of pit 479 479 277 479 Softly compacted mid greyish yellow sandy silt, occasional 1.9 x 0.48 x 0.24 inclusions of fine and medium sub-angular and sub- rounded pebbles, moderate inclusions of charcoal flecks. 482 2 Cut Cut of pit 478 478 2 Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners. Break of slope at 1.68 x 0.90 x 0.31 top and base is sharp on S, E, W, SE and SW and gradual on N, NE and NW. N side slopes gently and is concave, S and E sides slope steeply and are irregular, W side slopes steeply and is smooth. Base is irregular in plan and flat in profile. 483 3 Furrow Cut Furrow 484 3 Furrow Cut Furrow http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/105
  • 106 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 486 Furrow 487 3 Cut Cut of posthole 427 427 2 Circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top and base. 0.24 x 0.24 x 0.18 Sides are vertical and smooth. Base is circular in plan and flat in profile. 488 3 Cut Cut of posthole 411 411 2 Circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. Sides are 0.20 x 0.19 x 0.13 vertical and smooth. Gradual break of slope at base. Base is circular in plan and flat in profile. 489 3 Furrow Cut Furrow iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 490 3 Furrow Cut Furrow 491 2 Fill Stakehole within Stake- 274 241 Loosely compacted mid brown silty sand, occasional 0.91 x 0.74 x 0.26 hearth 242 hole inclusions of sub-angular and sub-rounded fine and medium pebbles and small stones. 494 3 Fill Fill of pit (cut 450 1 450 Softly compacted light yellowish grey sandy silt, frequent 0.30 x 0.28 x 0.14 450) inclusions of fine and medium sub-rounded pebbles. 495 2 Fill Fill of hearth 553 553, 1 660 Loosely compacted mid-brown silty sand, occasional 2.08 x 0.83 x 0.83 591 inclusions of sub-angular and sub-rounded fine and medium pebbles, small stones, and charcoal flecks. 496 2 Fill Burnt natural 553 554 553 Firmly compacted mid reddish brown sandy clay, moder- 1.69 x 0.9 subsoil under ate inclusions of fine angular, sub-angular, rounded and hearth 553 sub-rounded pebbles, occasional inclusions of medium sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles. Depth not re- corded as excavation too deep to continue. 497 3 Fill Fill of hearth 532 1 535 Softly compacted mid brown clayey silt, occasional 0.63 x 0.49 x 0.38 532 inclusions of fine, medium and coarse angular and sub- rounded pebbles, small angular and sub-rounded stones and occasional flecks of charcoal. Swallow hole at base of feature. 498 3 Fill Fill of shallow pit 524 1 524 Softly compacted mid brown clayey silt, occasional 1.46 x 1.24 x 0.18 (cut 524) inclusions of fine angular pebbles, moderate inclusions of medium angular and sub-angular pebbles, occasional angular and sub-rounded coarse pebbles, small angular and medium sub-angular stones and charcoal flecks. 499 Furrow archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 500 3 Fill Fill of pit 585 585 1 586 Softly compacted mid brown clayey silt, moderate inclu- 3.6 x 1.5 x 0.3 sions of sub-angular, sub-rounded and rounded pebbles, occasional sub-angular and sub-rounded small stones, and moderate inclusions of charcoal flecks and small pieces. Gortore 1b-e2410 501 Furrow Fill Furrow 502 Furrow Fill Furrow 504 3 Fill Fill of shallow pit 610 1 610 Softly compacted mid brown clayey silt, occasional inclu- 0.80 x 0.77 x 0.10 (cut 610) sions of medium angular and sub-angular angular, coarse sub-rounded pebbles and occasional charcoal flecks. 506 3 Fill Fill of pit (cut 625 626 625 Softly compacted mid brown clayey silt, occasional inclu- 0.56 x 0.37-0.63 625) sions fine and coarse of angular and sub-angular pebbles x 0.36 and moderate inclusions of medium charcoal pieces. 507 3 Fill Fill of pit (cut 552 1 552 Firmly compacted mid yellowish brown sandy silt, mod- 1.29 x 1.03 x 0.36 522) erate inclusions of fine, medium and large sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles, occasional inclusions of small sub-angular and rounded stones, charcoal flecks and small pieces. 508 3 Fill Fill of posthole 541 1 541 Softly compacted light yellowish brown sandy silt, oc- 0.28 x 0.26 x 0.16 (cut 541) casional inclusions of sub-angular fine pebbles, moderate inclusions of sub-rounded and rounded coarse pebbles, occasional small sub-angular and rounded stones and moderate charcoal flecks. 509 3 Fill Fill of small post- 551 1 551 Firmly compacted light yellowish brown sandy silt, oc- 0.24 x 0.21 x 0.18 hole (cut 551) casional inclusions of fine and coarse sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles and charcoal flecks and medium pieces. 511 3 Posthole fill Fill of posthole 534 1 534 Softly compacted mid greyish brown sandy silt with fre- 0.23 x 0.20 x 0.35 (cut 534) quent inclusions of small angular and sub-angular stones and occasional inclusions of charcoal flecks and medium pieces. 512 3 Pit/large post- Fill of pit/large 540 1 540 Softly compacted dark blackish brown sandy silt, occa- 0.53 x 0.40 x 0.30 hole fill posthole (cut sional inclusions of small angular and sub-angular stones, 540) moderate inclusions of charcoal flecks and small pieces and occasional medium charcoal pieces. http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/107
  • 108 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 513 3 Cut Cut of pit (af- 426 426 2 Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners. Break of slope 0.60 x 0.48 x 0.38 fected by animal at top is gradual on W, sharp elsewhere. N and E sides activity) are vertical and smooth, W side slopes moderately and is irregular, S side slopes steeply and is undercut. Break of slope at base is imperceptible on S side and gradual elsewhere. Base is irregular in plan and flat in profile. 514 3 Cut Cut of pit/ 430 430 2 Sub-circular in plan, square corners in NW and SW, 0.37 x 0.36 x 0.22 posthole rounded elsewhere. Sharp break of slope at top. N side is vertical and stepped, S side is vertical and undercut, W iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 side is vertical and concave, E side is vertical and smooth. Break of slope at base is sharp on N and S, and gradual on E and W. Base is sub-circular in plan and flat in profile. 515 2 Fill Fill of pit 517 517 120 516 Softly compacted black silt, frequent inclusions of char- 1.77 x 1.40 x 0.06 coal flecks and small pieces. 516 2 Fill Fill of pit 517 517 515 517 Softly compacted mid reddish-brown silt, occasional 1.77 x 1.40 x 0.07 inclusions of charcoal flecks. 517 2 Cut Cut of pit 120, 515, 516 2 Oval in plan, sharp corners. Break of slope at top and base 1.77 x 1.40 x 0.25 516 is imperceptible. Sides slope gently and are concave. Base is oval in plan and concave in profile. 519 2 Fill Fill of pit 548 548 1 538 Firmly compacted mid reddish brown silty clay, occasion- 1.15 x 0.81 x 0.44 al inclusions of sub-rounded medium pebbles. Frequent inclusions of sub-angular medium stones. Occasional charcoal flecks. 520 3 Cut Cut of posthole 429 429 2 Circular cut with rounded corners and sharp breaks of 0.30 x 0.30 x 0.44 slope at top and base all around. Also smooth vertical sides all around and a flat oval base. 522 3 Cut Cut of possible 185 185 2 Sub-circular cut with rounded corners, sharp breaks of 1.03 x 0.72 x 0.27 posthole dis- slope at top and gradual at base. N and S sides are concave turbed by animal and vertical, E and W sides are concave and steep. The activity base is concave and sub-circular. 523 2 Fill Fill of possible 260 526 150 Dark greyish brown clayey sand with a loosely compacted 0.58 x 0.32 x 0.33 post within slot compaction. The fill contains moderate inclusions of trench/pit 260 amounts of sub-angular coarse pebbles and small stones. Moderate charcoal flecks. archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 524 3 Cut Cut of shallow 498 498 2 Irregular cut with rounded corners. Gradual breaks of 1.46 x 1.24 x 0.18 pit slope at top in N, S, NE and NW, imperceptible in E, W, SW, SE. NE side is gentle and concave, SW, NW, SE are gentle and irregular. Break of slope at base is impercepti- ble all around. Base irregular concave. Gortore 1b-e2410 525 3 Fill Fill of pit (cut 547 1 547 loosely compacted mid brown silty sand with moderate 1.70 x 0.92 x 0.38 547) inclusions of angular to sub-angular fine and medium pebbles. 526 2 Fill Fill of slot 260 1 523, 390, Mid orangish brown clayey sand with a loosely compact- 0.50 x 0.20 x 0.18 trench/ pit 260 381 ed compaction. Occasional inclusions of medium sub- angular pebble and sub-rounded coarse pebble inclusions. Moderate inclusions of charcoal flecks. 527 2 Cut Cut of pit 382, 130, 468 2 Irregular shaped pit, all rounded corners. Break of slope at 3.58 x 1.32 x 0.96 528, 468 top: sharp at N, W, NE, SW and NW, gradual at S, E and SE. Sides: N is vertical and irregular, S steep and concave, E moderate and concave and W vertical and concave. Break of slope at base: sharp at N, W, NE, SW and NW, gradual at S, E and SE. Base irregular and concave. 528 2 Fill Fill of pit 527 527 1, 130 468 Hard light yellowish white sandy silt. Occasional inclu- 2.92 x 0.46 x 0.62 sions of sub-angular fine and medium pebbles and small stone inclusions. Moderate inclusions of flecks and oc- casional small and medium charcoal inclusions. Moderate flecks of ash. 529 3 Fill Fill of pit (cut 530 246 530 Stiff light yellowish brown sandy clay with frequent inclu- 1.02 x 0.80 x 0.32 530) sions of sub-angular to sub-rounded fine pebbles, moder- ate inclusions of angular medium pebbles and occasional sub-rounded small stones. 530 3 Cut Cut of pit 529, 246 529 2 Circular cut with rounded corners and sharp breaks of 0.82 x 0.75 x 0.49 slope at top and base all around. Also smooth vertical sides all around. A circular concave base. 531 2 Fill Fill of pit 622 662 1 621 Mid brown silt with a softly compacted compaction. oc- 1.20 x 1.0 x 0.23 casional inclusions of sub-angular small stones. occasional inclusions of charcoal flecks. http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/109
  • 110 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 532 3 Cut Cut of probable 497, 535 497 2 Irregular cut (slightly oval) with round corners all around. 1.27 x 0.49 x 0.38 hearth Gradual break of slope at top on N and NE sides, sharp everywhere else. Sides: moderate inclusions of irregular (N), steep irregular (S), vertical irregular (E and W). Base is destroyed by sinkhole but break of slope was probably gradual and the base itself concave irregular. 533 Cancelled 534 3 Cut Cut of posthole 511 511 2 Circular cut with rounded corners and sharp break of 0.23 x 0.20 x 0.35 iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 slope at top all around. Sides are smooth and vertical. Gradual break of slope at base at S and W, sharp at N and E. Sub-circular irregular base. 535 3 Fill Fill at base of 532 497 532 Softly compacted mid black clayey silt with occasional 1.27 x 0.49 x 0.38 hearth (cut 532) inclusions of burnt clay, fine, medium and coarse angular and sub-rounded pebbles, small sub-angular and sub- rounded stones, frequent charcoal flecks and small pieces. 536 3 Cut Cut of posthole 537 537 2 Circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top and base. 0.37 x 0.20 x 0.19 (poss.) Sides slope steeply and are concave. Base is circular in plan and pointed in profile. 537 3 Fill Fill of possible 536 1 536 Firmly compacted mid yellowish brown silty clay without 0.37 x 0.20 x 0.19 posthole (cut inclusions. 536) 538 2 Fill Fill of driven 548 519 593 Firmly compacted mid greyish brown silty clay, oc- 0.23 x 0.18 x 0.34 posthole within casional inclusions of medium sub-angular stones and pit 548 charcoal flecks. 539 2 Fill Fill of pit 622 622 125 622 Strongly cemented light greenish white sand, occasional 0.42 x 0.38 x 1.20 inclusions of angular small stones and charcoal flecks. 540 3 Cut Cut of pit/large 512 512 2 Circular in plan. Break of slope on top is gradual on S, 0.53 x 0.40 x 0.30 posthole and sharp elsewhere. N, E, and W sides are vertical and smooth, S side slopes steeply and is irregular. Break of slope at base is sharp on W and SW and gradual else- where. Base is sub-circular in plan and concave in profile. 541 3 Cut Cut of posthole 508 508 2 Circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top and base. 0.28 x 0.26 x 0.16 Sides are vertical and smooth. Base is circular in plan and flat in profile. archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 542 2 Fill Fill of double 607 1 623, 607 Loosely compacted dark greyish brown clayey sand, occa- 0.94 x 0.76 x 0.5 posthole 607 sional inclusions of fine, medium and coarse sub-angular pebbles, small sub-angular and sub-rounded stones. moderate inclusions of charcoal flecks and small pieces. 543 3 Cut Cut of posthole 254 254 2 Irregular in plan, square corners on S and SW, rounded 1.40 x 0.70 x 0.44 Gortore 1b-e2410 (affected by elsewhere. Sharp break of slope at top. E side slopes gently animal activity) and is smooth, N, S and W sides are vertical and smooth. Break of slope at base is imperceptible on W and gradual elsewhere. Base is irregular in plan and flat in profile. 544 Cancelled 545 3 Cut Cut of pit/post- 418 418 2 Oval in plan. Break of slope at top and base is sharp on 0.49 x 0.43 x 0.37 hole (with later N, E and W, gradual on S. N side is vertical and concave, animal activity) E and W sides are vertical and irregular and S side slopes steeply and is stepped. Base is irregular in plan and con- cave in profile. 546 3 Cut Cut of posthole 308 308 2 Oval in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. N side slopes 0.67 x 0.44 x 0.18 (affected by steeply and is undercut, S side slopes moderately and is animal activity) concave, E side slopes steeply and is concave and W side slopes steeply and is convex. Gradual break of slope at base. Base is oval in plan and concave in profile. 547 3 Cut Cut of pit 525 525 2 Oval in plan. Sharp break of slope at top on N and S 1.70 x 0.92 x 0.38 (affected by sides, gradual on E and W. all around. N side slopes collapse/animal gently and is stepped, S side slopes steeply and is stepped, activity) E side slopes gently and is irregular, W side slopes moder- ately and is irregular. Gradual break of slope at base. Base is oval in plan and flat in profile. 548 2 Cut Cut of large pit 618, 658, 594 2 Irregular in plan, rounded corners. Sharp break of slope 3.53 x 2.41 538, 593, at top. N and W sides slope steeply and are smooth, SW 519, 594 side slopes gently and is smooth, S and E slope moderately and are smooth. Break of slope at base is sharp. Base is irregular in plan and profile. 549 3 Furrow 550 3 Furrow http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/111
  • 112 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 551 3 Cut Cut of small 509 509 2 Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners on N and E , square 0.24 x 0.21 x 0.18 posthole on W and S. Break of slope at top is gradual on S, sharp elsewhere. N side slopes steeply and is smooth , S and W sides slope steeply and are stepped, and E side is vertical and smooth. Break of slope at base is gradual on E, sharp elsewhere. Base is sub-circular in plan and concave in profile. 552 3 Cut Cut of pit/hearth 507 507 2 Oval in plan. Break of slope at top is gradual on N, and 1.29 x 1.03 x 0.36 sharp elsewhere. E and S sides are vertical and irregular, N iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 side slopes steeply and is irregular, W side is vertical and undercut. Gradual break of slope at base. Base is oval in plan and concave in profile. 553 2 Cut Cut of hearth 496, 554, 496 2 Oval in plan. Break of slope at top is sharp on E and W, 1.64 x 0.87 x 0.61 119 and gradual on NE. NE side slopes moderately and is irregular, E side slopes moderately and is smooth, W side slopes steeply and is undercut. Gradual break of slope at base. Base is oval in plan and concave in profile. Trun- cated by C.591 at the SW side. 554 2 Fill Fill of hearth 553 553 119 496 Loosely compacted, mid greyish brown silty sand, oc- 1.64 x 0.87 x 0.61 casional inclusions of fine and coarse angular, sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles, small and medium sub-angular and sub-rounded , medium and large burned stones, and charcoal flecks. 555 3 Cut Cut of posthole 584 584 2 Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners. Gradual break of 0.46 x 0.40 x 0.29 slope at top and base. N and E sides slope steeply and are concave, Sand W sides slope moderately and are concave. Base is sub-circular in plan and concave in profile. 556 2 Fill Deposit Natu- 1 2 Firmly compacted mid brown clayey silt and burnt bone, 0.36 x 0.20 x 0.06 ral occasional inclusions of medium sub-angular pebbles. hollow 557 Cancelled 558 Furrow Fill Furrow 559 Furrow Fill Furrow 560 Furrow Fill Furrow 561 Furrow Fill Furrow 562 Furrow Fill Furrow archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 573 3 Fill Fill of pit 800 800 1 800 Dark brown Firmly compacted silty clay. occasional 0.57 x 0.52 x 0.48 inclusions of small and medium angular, sub-angular and sub-rounded stones. 574 Cancelled Gortore 1b-e2410 575 3 Fill Fill of slot trench 576 1 576 Softly compacted light brown sandy silt, moderate inclu- 0.88 x 0.24 x 0.15 576 sions of medium charcoal inclusions. 576 3 Cut Cut of slot trench 575 575 2 Linear in plan rounded corners. Breaks of slope at top is 0.88 x 0.24 x 0.15 sharp on N and S, and gradual on E and W. Sides: N, S and W slope steeply and are smooth, E side slopes mod- erately and is smooth. Breaks of slope at base is gradual on N and S, imperceptible on E, and sharp on W. Base is irregular in plan and concave in profile. 577 3 Fill Fill of posthole 613 1 613 Softly compacted light reddish brown clayey silt without 0.18 x 0.14 x 0.08 (cut 613 inclusions. 578 Fill Fill of posthole 617 1 617 Softly compacted light reddish brown clayey silt without 0.12 x 0.10 x 0.20 (cut 617) inclusions. 579 3 Fill Fill of pit (cut 615 1 615 softly compacted mid brown silt, occasional inclusions of 1.20 x 1.10 x 0.27 615) medium angular to sub-angular pebbles, small sub-angu- lar stones and charcoal flecks. 580 3 Fill Fill of posthole 655 1 655 Weakly cemented light reddish brown silty sand with 0.26 x 0.17 x 0.30 655 occasional inclusions of fine and medium sub-angular pebbles. 582 3 Fill Fill of stakehole 604 1 604 Weakly cemented mid brown silty sand without 0.12 x 0.12 x 0.08 (cut 604) inclusions. 583 3 Fill Fill of posthole 603 1 603 Weakly cemented mid reddish brown silty sand with oc- 0.43 x 0.43 x 0.38 (cut 603) casional inclusions of medium sub-angular pebbles, small angular stones and charcoal flecks. 584 3 Fill Fill of postholes 555, 2 555, 250 Very softly compacted light bluish grey sandy clay with 1.60 x 0.87 x 0.47 555 and 250 (dis- 250 frequent sub-rounded to rounded fine and medium turbed by animal pebbles and occasional inclusions of sub-rounded small activity) stones. http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/113
  • 114 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 585 3 Cut Cut of pit 500, 586 500, 586 2 Sub-oval cut in plan, rounded corners. Break of slope at 3.6 x 1.5 x 0.43 top is sharp on N, and gradual elsewhere. N side slopes steeply and is concave, S side slopes gently and is smooth, E side slopes moderately and is concave, W side slopes gently and is convex. Break of slope at base is sharp on S and gradual elsewhere. Base is sub-circular in plan and concave in profile. 586 3 Fill Fill of pit 585 585 500 585 Softly compacted mid yellowish brown clayey silt, moder- 1.1 x 0.75 x 0.43 ate inclusions of sub-angular and sub-rounded coarse iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 pebbles and small stones, occasional inclusions of charcoal flecks, frequent inclusions of small and moderate inclu- sions of medium charcoal pieces. 587 3 Fill Fill of pit (cut 588 1 588 Softly compacted mid brown clayey silt, moderate inclu- 1.06 x 0.68 x 0.11 588) sions of small angular and sub-rounded stones, medium sub-angular to sub-rounded stones, charcoal flecks and small and medium charcoal pieces. 588 3 Cut Cut of pit 587 587 2 Oval in plan. Break of slope at top is imperceptible on N 1.06 x 0.68 x 0.11 and W, gradual on S and sharp on E. Sides. N side slopes gently and is smooth, S side slopes steeply and is concave, E and W sides slopes gently and are concave. Break of slope at base is imperceptible on S and W, and gradual on N and E. Base is sub-circular in plan and flat in profile. 589 3 Cut Cut of posthole 251 251 2 Circular cut with rounded corners. Sharp break of slope at 0.56 x 0.38 x 0.40 top and gradual at base all around. Smooth vertical sides. Flat circular base. 590 3 Cut Cut of posthole 451 451 2 Oval in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. N side slopes 0.52 x 0.38 x 0.33 steeply and is concave, S side slopes steeply and is smooth, and E and W slope gently and are concave. Sharp break of slope at base on N and S, imperceptible on E and W. Base is oval in plan and concave in profile. 591 2 Cut Cut of pit 495, 661, 672 Not Circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. Sides slope 660, 659, excavated steeply and are smooth. Pit not fully excavated due to 614, 672 Health and Safety regulation. archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 592 2 Cut Cut of pit 602 602 2 Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners. Sharp break of 0.66 x 0.60 x 0.19 slope at top. N and W sides slope steeply and are smooth, S and E sides slope steeply and are convex. Gradual break of slope at the base was gradual. Base is sub-circular in plan and concave in profile. Gortore 1b-e2410 593 2 Fill Fill of pit 548 548 538 594 Firmly compacted mid reddish brown silty clay and 1.28 x 0.38 x 0.53 stones, occasional inclusions of medium sub-rounded pebbles, large sub-angular stones, charcoal flecks and small pieces. 594 2 Fill Fill of pit 548 548 593 548 Stiff light pinkish red sandy clay, moderate inclusions 2.03 x 0.54 x 0.25 of medium sub-angular pebbles and frequent medium angular stones. 598 3 Fill Possible burnt Natu- 1 2 Pocket of charcoal (moderate inclusions of flecks, occa- 0.24 x 0.19 x 0.08 roots ral sional inclusions of small, moderate inclusions of medium hollow and occasional inclusions of large fragments). 599 3 Fill Fill of pit/hearth 608 1 608 Firmly compacted dark brownish black silty clay with 0.32 x 0.17 x 0.10 (cut 608) moderate inclusions of small, medium and large sub- angular stones, frequent flecks of charcoal, moderate inclusions of small and medium and occasional inclusions of large charcoal pieces. 600 3 Stakehole Stakehole 1 2 Fill: Very softly compacted reddish yellow silty sand, 0.10 x 0.14 x 0.13 occasional inclusions charcoal flecks. Cut: Oval in plan. Sharp top break of slope. Sides are vertical and smooth. Sharp break of slope at base. Base is circular in plan and pointed in profile. 601 3 Stakehole Stakehole 1 2 Fill: Very softly compacted yellowish brown silty sand. 0.05 x 0.04 x 0.08 Cut: Circular in plan. Vertical smooth sides. Sharp break of slope at base. Base is pointed. 602 2 Fill Fill of pit 592 592 1 592 Firmly compacted mid brown clayey silt, occasional 0.60 x 0.60 x 0.19 medium and coarse sub-angular pebble inclusions. Occasional small sub-angular stone inclusions. Frequent charcoal inclusions. 603 3 Cut Cut of posthole 583 583 2 Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners. Sharp break of 0.76 x 0.59 x 0.35 (with later ani- slope at top. N, S and E are vertical and smooth, W side mal activity) slopes moderately and is irregular. Break of slope at base at is sharp on N and gradual elsewhere. Base is irregular in plan and flat in profile. http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/115
  • 116 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 604 3 Cut Cut of stakehole 582 582 2 Circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top and base. 0.12 x 0.12 x 0.08 Smooth vertical sides. Base is circular in plan and flat in profile. 605 2 Fill Fill of pit 606 606 1 606 Compact reddish brown sand, occasional small sub- 1.13 x 0.77 x 0.23 rounded pebble and moderate inclusions of charcoal flecks. 606 2 Cut Cut of pit 605 605 2 Sub-circular in plan rounded corners. Gradual break of 1.13 x 0.77 x 0.23 slope at top. N side slopes gently and convex, S side slopes iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 moderately and is convex, E and W sides slopes moder- ately and is smooth. Break of slope at base is imperceptible on N and gradual elsewhere. Base is sub-circular in plan and concave in profile. 607 2 Cut Cut of pit/ 542, 609, 542 2 Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners. Break of slope at 1.7 x 1.05 x 0.52 posthole 620, 623 top is gradual on N, S and NW, and sharp on E, W, NE, SE and SW. N sides slope moderately and are smooth, S side slopes gently and is smooth, E and W sides slope steeply and are smooth, W side slopes steeply and is smooth. Break of slope at base is gradual on N and NW and sharp on S, E, W, NE, SE and SW. Base is sub-circu- lar in plan and flat in profile. 608 3 Cut Cut of pit 599 599 2 Oval in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. Sides steeply 0.32 x 0.17 x 0.10 and are convex. Sharp break of slope at base. Base is oval in plan, and concave in profile. 609 2 Fill Fill of pit/possi- 607 1 607, 623 Loosely compacted mid greyish brown clayey sand, oc- 0.52 x 0.48 x 0.12 ble posthole 607 casional inclusions of medium and coarse sub-angular pebbles and charcoal flecks. 610 3 Cut Cut of shallow 504 504 2 Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners. Gradual break of 0.80 x 0.77 x 0.10 pit slope at top and base. Sides slope smoothly and are gentle. Base is sub-circular in plan and flat in profile. 611 2 Fill Deposit Fur- 1 2 Firmly compacted burnt bone and dark brown clayey silt, 0.52 x 0.38 x 0.09 row occasional inclusions of sub-angular coarse pebbles and small stones, moderate inclusions of charcoal flecks. 612 2 Fill Deposit Fur- 1 2 Firmly compacted burnt bone and dark brown clayey silt, row occasional inclusions of charcoal flecks. archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 613 3 Cut Cut of possible 577 577 2 Square in plan, rounded corners. Gradual break of slope 0.18 x 0.14 x 0.08 posthole at top on W, sharp elsewhere. N and S sides are vertical and smooth, E sides slopes steeply and is undercut, W side slopes steeply and is smooth. Sharp break of slope at base. Base is oval in plan and flat in profile. Gortore 1b-e2410 614 2 Fill Fill of pit 591 591 661 672 Loosely compacted dark blackish brown silty sand, oc- 0.83 x 0.68 casional inclusions of fine and coarse sub-angular and sub-rounded pebble, frequent inclusions of flecks, small and medium size charcoal inclusions. Depth not available for reasons of Health and Safety. 615 3 Cut Cut of pit (with 579 579 2 Oval in plan. Break of slope at top is imperceptible on N, 1.20 x 1.10 x 0.27 later animal sharp on S and gradual on E and W. N side slopes gently activity) and is smooth, S side slopes steeply and is smooth and E and W sides slope moderately and are smooth. Break of slope at base is imperceptible on S, and gradual elsewhere. Base is circular in plan and concave in profile. 616 2 Fill Deposit Fur- 1 2 Firmly compacted burnt bone and dark brown silty clay, 0.20 x 0.20 x 0.03 row occasional inclusions of small sub-angular stones, and charcoal flecks. 617 3 Cut Cut of possible 578 578 2 Circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. Sides are 0.12 x 0.10 x 0.20 posthole vertical and smooth. Base was originally circular in plan, but truncated by later animal activity. 618 2 Fill Fill of possible 1 658 Softly compacted dark greyish black silty clay, occasional 0.33 x 0.32 x 0.05 posthole within inclusions of sub-rounded pebbles and charcoal flecks. 548 619 Cancelled 620 2 Fill Fill of double 607 542 607 Strongly cemented mid orangish brown clayey sand, 1.7 x 1.05 x 0.52 posthole 607 frequent inclusions of fine and medium sub-angular peb- bles, occasional inclusions of coarse sub-angular pebbles, medium sub-rounded stones, large sub-angular (0.26m x 0.2m) stones and charcoal flecks. 621 2 Fill Fill of pit 624 624 531 624 Softly compacted mid-dark brown clayey silt, moderate 0.35 x 0.25 x 0.27 inclusions of small sub-angular stones. http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/117
  • 118 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 622 2 Cut Cut of pit 539, 125 539 2 Oval in plan, square corners on N, S and SE; rounded 2.2 x 1.2 x 1.3 corners on E, W, NE and SW. Sharp break of slope at top. N, E and W sides slope steeply and are concave, S side slopes moderately and is concave. Sharp break of slope at base. Base is oval in plan and concave in profile. 623 2 Fill Fill of possible 607 542 607 Compact mid greyish brown clayey sand, occasional double posthole inclusions of fine and medium sub-angular pebbles, 607 moderate inclusions of charcoal flecks and small pieces. Boundary to next horizon very unclear . iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 624 2 Cut Possible recut pit 621, 531 621 125 Oval in plan. Gradual break of slope at top. Sides slope 0.35 x 0.25 x 0.25 (within pit 622) steeply and are concave. Gradual break of slope at base. Base is oval in plan and concave in profile. 625 3 Cut Cut of pit 506 506 2 Oval in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. Sides slope 0.56 x 0.36 steeply and are concave. Gradual break of slope at base. Base is oval in plan and concave/pointed in profile. Trun- cated by modern plough furrow on E side. Width cannot be determined. 626 3 Furrow Cut Furrow 627 3 Furrow Cut Furrow 628 3 Fill Fill of pit 786 786 1 786 Softly compacted mid brown clayey silt, occasional inclu- 0.74 x 0.61 x 0.22 sions of fine angular and sub-angular pebbles, medium sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles, coarse angular, sub-angular and sub-rounded coarse pebbles. occasional and charcoal flecks. 629 3 Fill Fill of possible 823 1 823 Softly compacted mid brown clayey silt with occasional 0.62 x 0.51 x 0.16 posthole 823 inclusions of fine and medium angular and rounded peb- bles, moderate inclusions of coarse angular and rounded pebbles and occasional inclusions of small angular stones and charcoal flecks. 630 3 Fill Fill of shallow 826 1 826 Very softly compacted light brownish yellow sandy silt, 0.28 x 0.17 x 0.13 pit 826 moderate inclusions of fine sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles and occasional inclusions of coarse sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles. 631 3 Fill Fill of possible 803 1 803 Softly compacted mid brown clayey silt, occasional inclu- 0.54 x 0.52 x 0.16 posthole 803 sions of fine, medium and coarse angular, sub-angular, sub-rounded and rounded pebbles, occasional inclusions of small angular stones and charcoal flecks. archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 632 3 Fill Fill of hearth 662 662 1 Stiffly compacted dark black silty clay, frequent inclusions 1.3 x 0.7 x 0.1 of charcoal flecks, moderate inclusions of small, medium and occasional inclusions of large charcoal pieces. 634 3 Fill Fill of hearth cut 669 1 669 Softly compacted dark brownish black sandy silt and 0.52 x 0.49 x 0.07 669 charcoal (50%), occasional inclusions of coarse angular Gortore 1b-e2410 and sub-angular pebbles, frequent inclusions of charcoal flecks, moderate inclusions of small and frequent inclu- sions of medium and large charcoal inclusions. 635 3 Fill Fill of posthole 797 1 797 Firmly compacted mid greyish brown silty clay. No 0.48 x 0.271 x 797 inclusions. 0.19 637 3 Fill Fill of possible 811 1 811 Firmly compacted mid reddish yellow sandy clay, moder- 1.02 x 0.77 x 0.23 posthole/animal ate inclusions of sub-angular medium stones, occasional activity 811 inclusions of charcoal flecks and small charcoal pieces. 642 3 Fill Fill of possible 670 1 670 Very softly light bluish grey compacted sandy clay with 0.66 x 0.32 x 0.14 posthole/animal frequent inclusions of fine and medium sub-angular and activity 670 sub-rounded pebbles, moderate inclusions of coarse sub- angular and sub-rounded pebbles. 645 3 Fill Fill of slot 677 1 677 Softly compacted mid greyish brown sandy silt, moderate 0.80 x 0.24 x 0.31 trench/pit 677 inclusions of medium and coarse sub-angular, sub-round- ed and rounded pebbles. 649 3 Fill Fill of slot trench 771 1 776 Softly compacted dark greyish brown sandy silt, occa- 0.58 x 0.39 x 0.09 771 sional inclusions of fine, medium and coarse sub-angular, sub-rounded and rounded pebbles. occasional inclusions of charcoal flecks. 653 3 Fill Burnt roots/natu- Natu- 1 2 Hard, light brownish white sandy silt. moderate inclu- 0.68 x 0.46 x 0.17 ral depression ral sions of charcoal flecks, occasional inclusions of small de- charcoal inclusions. pres- sion 654 3 Fill Fill of posthole 681 1 681 Loosely compacted mid brown silty sand, occasional 0.21 x 0.20 x 0.14 681 inclusions of fine and medium angular and sub-angular pebbles, and charcoal flecks. 655 3 Cut Cut of posthole 580 580 2 Oval in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. N and W 0.26 x 0.17 x 0.3 sides are vertical and smooth, S side slopes steeply and is irregular, and E side slopes steeply and is smooth. Bottom of feature not reached. http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/119
  • 120 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 656 3 Fill Fill of posthole 657 1 657 Softly compacted mid yellowish/greyish brown sandy silt, 0.38 x 0.34 x 0.20 657 occasional inclusions of medium and coarse sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles and small stones, and charcoal flecks. 657 3 Cut Cut of posthole 656 656 2 Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners. Sharp break of 0.38 x 0.34 x 0.20 slope at top. N, S and W sides are vertical and smooth, and E side is vertical and irregular. Gradual break of slope at base. Base is sub-circular in plan and irregular in profile. iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 658 2 Fill Fill of pit 548 548 618 594 Stiffly compacted mid reddish brown silty clay, frequent 2.9 x 0.7 x 0.65 inclusions of coarse angular pebbles, large angular and sub-rounded stones (0.25-0.3m). 659 2 Fill Fill of pit 591 591 660 661 moderate inclusions of angular, sub-angular and sub- 0.6 x 0.55 x 0.28 rounded small and medium stones. 660 2 Fill Fill of pit 591 591 495 659 Loosely compacted mid brown silty sand, occasional 0.83 x 0.69 x 0.26 inclusions of fine and medium sub-angular and sub- rounded pebbles. 661 2 Fill Fill of pit 591 591 659 614 Compact light brown silty sand, occasional inclusions of 0.8 x 0.66 x 0.22 fine sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles. 662 3 Cut Cut of hearth 632 632 2 Oval in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. Sides slope 1.30 x 0.7 x 0.1 moderately and are concave. Break of slope at base is gradual. Base is oval in plan, and concave in profile. 663 3 Stakehole Stakehole 1 2 Fill: mid brown silty clay, occasional inclusions of me- 0.1 x 0.1 x 0.2 dium sub-angular pebbles. Cut: circular in plan, sharp break of slope top. Sides are vertical and smooth. Sharp break of slope at base. Base is circular in plan and concave in profile. 666 3 Stakehole Stakehole 1 2 Fill: Softly compacted mid brown sandy silt, occasional 0.10 x 0.09 x 0.15 inclusions of fine pebbles. Cut: Circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. Sides are vertical and smooth. Base is circular in plan, and concave in profile. 667 2 Fill Fill of pit 662 622 1 668 Softly compacted mid brown silt, moderate inclusions of 1.05 x 0.65 x 0.2 medium sub-angular stones. 668 2 Fill Fill of pit 662 622 667 622 Softly compacted mid orangish brown silt, occasional 1.05 x 0.65 x 0.3 inclusions of small sub-angular stones. archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 669 3 Cut Cut of hearth 634 634 2 Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners. Sharp break of 0.52 x 0.49 x 0.07 slope at top. N side slopes gently and is concave, S and E sides slope steeply and are concave, W side slopes moder- ately and is concave. Break of slope at base is sharp on S and imperceptible elsewhere. Base sub-circular in plan, Gortore 1b-e2410 flat in profile. 670 3 Cut Possible posthole/ 642 642 1 Oval in plan with rounded corners. Sharp break of slope 1.32 x 0.71 x 0.09 animal activity at top. Sides slope steeply and are concave. Gradual break of slope at base. Base is oval in plan, and concave in profile. 672 2 Fill Fill of pit 591 591 614 591 Firmly compacted light brown clayey silt, moderate inclu- 0.83 x 0.69 sions of angular, sub-angular, sub-rounded and rounded pebbles. occasional inclusions of medium angular, sub- angular and sub-rounded pebbles, occasional inclusions of coarse angular and sub-angular pebbles and occasional inclusions of small sub-angular and sub-rounded stones, and charcoal flecks. Depth unknown. 673 3 Stakehole Stakehole 1 2 Fill: Firmly compacted dark brown silty clay. Cut: sub- 0.16 x 0.11 x 0.13 circular in plan, corners rounded. Sharp break of slope at top. Vertical sides. Sharp break of slope. Base circular in plan, pointed in profile. 675 3 Stakehole Stakehole 615 2 Fill: mid brown softly compacted silt. No inclusions. Cut: 0.075 x 0.078 x circular in plan with sharp top break of slope. Vertical and 0.08 smooth sides. Sharp bottom break of slope at base. Base flat in plan. 676 2 Fill Fill of possible 767 1 767 Loosely compacted, mid greyish brown clayey sand, 0.67 x 0.53 x 0.2 pit 767 occasional inclusions of medium and coarse sub-angular pebbles and small stones. moderate inclusions of charcoal flecks. 677 3 Cut Cut of slot 645 645 678 Linear in plan rounded corners. Gradual break of slope 0.8 x 0.24 x 0.31 trench/pit at top on W, sharp elsewhere. N side slopes steeply and is smooth, SW side is vertical and smooth, W side slopes moderately and is smooth, E side slopes steeply and undercut. Break of slope at base is sharp on N and E, and gradual on S and W. Base is sub-rectangular in plan, and concave in profile. http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/121
  • 122 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 678 3 Fill Fill of slot 680 677 679 Mid greyish/yellowish brown sandy silt., moderate inclu- 0.8 x 0.3 x 0.2 trench/pit 680 sions of medium and coarse sub-angular, sub-rounded and rounded pebbles, occasional inclusions of medium sub-angular stones. 679 3 Fill Fill of slot 680 678 769 Very softly compacted dark brownish grey sandy silt, 0.90 x 0.32 x 0.24 trench/pit 680 moderate inclusions of coarse sub-angular and sub-round- ed pebbles, occasional inclusions of medium sub-angular stones. iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 680 3 Cut Cut of slot 678, 679, 769 2 Sub-rectangular in plan rounded corners. Sharp break of 0.90 x 0.32 x 0.24 trench/pit 769 slope at top and base. Sides are vertical and smooth. Base is sub-rectangular in plan, and flat in profile. 681 3 Cut Cut of posthole 654 654 2 Circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top and base. 0.21 x 0.2 x 0.14 N, S and E sides are vertical and smooth, W side slopes steeply and is stepped. Break of slope at base is gradual on N, W, SW and NW and sharp on S, E, NE and SE. Base is circular in plan and has a tapered blunt point in profile. 682 3 Pit Fill Fill of pit 1369 1369 1 1369 Softly compacted light brown clayey silt, occasional inclu- 0.54 x 0.52 x 0.23 sions of fine, medium and coarse angular, sub-angular, sub-rounded and rounded pebbles and small charcoal pieces. 683 3 Pit Fill Fill of pit 1363 1 1363 Softly compacted light brown clayey silt, occasional inclu- 0.65 x 0.41 x 0.37 sions of fine, medium and coarse angular, sub-angular, sub-rounded and rounded pebbles and small charcoal pieces. 684 3 Fill Fill of possible 802 1 802 Softly compacted greyish brown sandy silt, moderate in- 0.32 x 0.25 x 0.10 small pit 802 clusions of fine, medium and coarse angular, sub-angular, rounded and sub-rounded pebbles. 687 3 Fill Fill of animal Ani- 1 2 softly compacted dark brown sandy silt with moderate 0.64 x 0.35 x 0.13 burrow mal inclusions of sub-angular to rounded medium pebbles. bur- occasional inclusions of sub-angular and sub-rounded row pebbles and flecks of charcoal. 688 3 Fill Fill of posthole 816 1 818 Softly compacted dark brown sandy silt, occasional inclu- 0.4 x 0.4 x 0.18 816 sions of coarse sub-angular pebbles, moderate inclusions of charcoal flecks and small pieces. archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 689 3 Fill Fill of clearance Clear- 1 2 Softly compacted mid greyish/yellowish brown sandy 3.66 x 1.6 x 0.6 feature ance silt, frequent inclusions of medium and coarse angular, feature sub-angular, sub-rounded and rounded pebbles, moderate inclusions of small angular, sub-angular and sub-rounded stones and occasional inclusions of medium sub-angular Gortore 1b-e2410 stones and charcoal flecks. 690 3 Fill Fill of pit 895 895 1 895 Friable dark yellowish/brownish black sandy silt, occa- 0.88 x 0.44 x 0.15 sional inclusions of medium sub-angular to sub-rounded pebbles. frequent inclusions of coarse angular to sub-an- gular pebbles, occasional inclusions of small sub-angular stones, small and medium charcoal pieces and frequent inclusions of flecks. 695 3 Posthole Fill Fill of posthole 1335 1 1335 Softly compacted light brown silty clay, occasional 0.21 x 0.21 x 0.15 1335 inclusions of fine and medium angular and sub-angular pebbles and charcoal flecks. 696 3 Fill Fill of possible 958 1 958 Softly compacted mid brown clayey silt, moderate inclu- 2.26 x 0.68 x 0.78 pit 958 sions of fine and occasional inclusions of medium and coarse angular, sub-angular, sub-rounded and rounded pebbles, occasional inclusions of small and medium angular and sub-rounded stones and charcoal flecks. Fill same as 945. 701 3 Stakehole Stakehole 1 2 Fill: Loosely compacted greyish brown silty clay, moderate 0.13 x 0.12 x 0.08 inclusions of small stones and charcoal pieces. Cut: Sub- circular in plan, rounded corners. Sharp break of slope at top. Sides slope steeply and are smooth. Base is sub-circu- lar in plan and has a V-shaped tapered point in profile. 704 3 Fill Fill of small 850 1 850 Softly compacted mid greyish brown sandy silt, oc- 0.36 x 0.33 x 0.09 pit or shallow casional medium sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles, posthole 850 and charcoal pieces. 705 3 Fill Fill of pit 843 843 1 842 Stone deposit composed of moderate medium and 0.30 x 0.26 x 0.17 frequent coarse sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles and moderate small sub-angular and sub-rounded stones. 708 3 Fill Fill of possible 866 1 866 Softly compacted dark brown sandy silt, occasional coarse 0.34 x 0.32 x 0.16 posthole 866 sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles, small sub-rounded stones, and moderate inclusions of charcoal flecks. http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/123
  • 124 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 709 3 Fill Root activity Root 1 2 Softly compacted mid brown sandy silt, moderate inclu- 1.00 x 0.42 x 0.15 activ- sions of medium and coarse angular and sub-rounded ity pebbles, occasional inclusions of small sub-rounded stones charcoal flecks. 710 3 Fill Fill of pit/ post- 869 1 869 Softly compacted dark greyish brown sandy silt. oc- 0.34 x 0.30 x 0.08 hole 869 casional inclusions of sub-rounded small stones. moderate inclusions of flecks and occasional inclusions of small pieces of charcoal. iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 713 3 Fill Fill of possible 848 1 848 Firmly compacted mid brown silty clay without 0.31 x 0.28 x 0.15 posthole 848 inclusions. 723 3 Fill Fill of posthole 841 1 841 Softly compacted dark brownish black sandy silt and 0.34 x 0.19 x 0.41 841 angular and sub-rounded medium stones, frequent inclu- sions of flecks and moderate inclusions of small pieces of charcoal. 724 3 Fill Fill of possible 849 1 849 Firmly compacted mid greyish brown silty clay without 0.49 x 0.24 x 0.24 posthole 849 inclusions. 725 3 Fill Fill of possible 1057 1 1057 Firmly compacted dark brownish black sandy silt, oc- 0.43 x 0.34 x 0.12 hearth 1057 casional inclusions of small sub-angular stones, frequent inclusions of charcoal flecks, and moderate inclusions of small charcoal pieces. 732 3 Fill Fill of posthole 867 1 868 Firmly compacted mid brownish black silty clay, oc- 0.47 x 0.43 x 0.20 867 casional inclusions of small sub-rounded stones and medium sub-angular stones. 733 3 Fill Fill of hearth 865 865 1 872 Friable mid bluish grey silty clay, frequent inclusions of 0.69 x 0.47 x 0.35 charcoal flecks and small pieces. 737 3 Pit Fill Fill of pit 1349 1349 1 1349 Firmly compacted mid greyish brown sandy silt, oc- 0.58 x 0.42 x 0.25 casional inclusions of fine sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles, moderate inclusions of small angular and sub-angular stones and charcoal flecks and occasional inclusions of small and medium charcoal pieces. 749 3 Fill Fill of pit 789 789 1 789 Softly compacted dark blackish brown sandy silt, occa- 0.4 x 0.33 x 0.19 sional inclusions of fine sub-angular and rounded pebbles, medium and coarse sub-angular to sub-rounded pebbles. frequent inclusions of flecks, moderate inclusions of small and occasional inclusions of medium fragments of charcoal. archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 753 3 Fill Fill of possible 773 1 773 Softly compacted dark greyish brown silty sand, occa- 0.09 x 0.09 x 0.09 stakehole 773 sional inclusions of fine sub-angular and rounded pebbles. 754 3 Fill Fill of possible 770 1 770 Softly compacted mid greyish brown sandy silt, moderate 1.20 x 0.26 x 0.19 slot 770 inclusions of fine sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles. occasional inclusions of medium to coarse sub-angular Gortore 1b-e2410 rounded pebbles, and small sub-rounded stones. 755 3 Fill Fill of possible 774 1 774 Softly compacted mid brown sandy silt, moderate inclu- 0.67 x 0.41 x 0.20 pit 774 sions of fine and medium sub-angular and rounded pebbles, occasional inclusions of sub-rounded to rounded pebbles and small stones. 758 3 Fill Fill of natural Natu- 1 2 Softly compacted mid brown silt. No inclusions. 0.4 x 0.3 x 0.1 depression ral de- pres- sion 759 3 Cut Cut of pit 174 174 2 Oval in plan, rounded corners. Break of slope at top is 0.67 x 0.42 x 0.19 sharp on N, S, NE and SE, gradual on E, W, SW and NW. N side is vertical and concave, S side slopes steeply and is irregular, E and W sides slope steeply and are concave. Break of slope at base is gradual on N, E, W, NE and NW and sharp on S, SE and SW. Base is oval in plan and concave in profile. 760 3 Fill Fill of pit 761 761 1 761 Mid brown softly compacted silty sand, occasional inclu- 0.48 x 0.46 sions of medium and coarse angular and sub-angular pebbles, and charcoal flecks. 761 3 Cut Cut of pit 760 760 2 Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners. Break of slope at 0.48 x 0.46 x 0.10 top is gradual on N, E, NE and NW and sharp on S, SE and SW. W side is truncated, N side slopes moderately and is concave, S side slopes steeply and is concave, and E side slopes moderately and is stepped. Break of slope at base is gradual. Base is sub-circular in plan, and concave in profile. Pit 761 is truncated or truncates pit 759 on W side of feature. http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/125
  • 126 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 762 3 Fill Fill of natural Natu- 1 2 softly compacted mid brown sandy silt without inclusions. 0.10 x 0.10 x 0.03 depression ral de- pres- sion 763 3 Fill Fill of pit 806 806 1 806 Weakly cemented mid reddish brown silty sand, moderate 1.32 x 1.25 x 0.22 inclusions of medium angular to sub-angular pebbles, occasional inclusions of small and medium angular stones and occasional inclusions of charcoal flecks and small iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 pieces. 764 Furrow Fill Fill of furrow 1012 1 1012 Furrow 1012 765 Furrow Fill Fill of furrow 1011 1389, 1390 1011 Furrow 1011 766 Furrow Fill Furrow 767 2 Cut Cut of possible 676 676 2 Oval in plan. Break of slope at top is sharp. N, E and W 0.67 x 0.53 x 0.2 pit sides slope steeply and are smooth; S side is vertical and smooth. Break of slope at base is gradual on E, and sharp elsewhere. Base is oval in plan, and concave in profile. 768 2 Fill Natural depres- Natu- 1 2 Firmly compacted mid reddish brown silt. occasional 0.56 x 0.47 x 0.22 sion (from tree ral inclusions of charcoal flecks. roots) de- pres- sion 769 3 Fill Fill of slot 680 679 680 Softly compacted dark brown sandy silt, occasional inclu- 0.18 x 0.17 x 0.28 trench/pit 680 sions of medium sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles, moderate inclusions of charcoal flecks and small pieces. 770 3 Cut Cut of possible 754 754 2 Sub-linear in plan, square corners on N, W and SE and 1.07 x 0.25 x 0.19 slot trench rounded corners on S, E and NE. Sharp break of slope at top. NW side slopes gently and is stepped, SE side slopes steeply and is undercut, NE and SW sides are vertical and smooth. Gradual break of slope at base. Base is irregular and concave. 771 3 Cut Cut of slot trench 649, 776 776 2 Sub-rectangular with rounded corners. Break of slope at 0.73 x 0.42 x 0.26 top is sharp. N, E and W sides are vertical and smooth. S side slopes moderately and is stepped. Base is circular/sub- oval in plan and concave in profile. archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 772 3 Cut Cut of possible 775 775 2 Linear in plan, rounded corners. Break of slope at top is 1.00 x 0.31 x 0.18 slot trench gradual on W and sharp elsewhere. NW and SE slope moderately and are concave, NE side is vertical and smooth, and SW side slopes steeply and is concave. Break of slope at base is imperceptible on N and S, sharp on E Gortore 1b-e2410 and gradual on W. Base is sub-rectangular in plan and concave in profile. 773 3 Cut Cut of possible 753 753 2 Circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. N side is 0.09 x 0.09 x 0.09 stakehole vertical and smooth, E side slopes steeply and is smooth, S side slopes moderately and is smooth, and W side slopes steeply and is undercut. Gradual break of slope at base on N and S, imperceptible on E and sharp on W. Base is oval in plan and pointed in profile. 774 3 Cut Cut of possible 755 755 2 Sub-rectangular in plan, square corners on NE, SE and 0.67 x 0.41 x 0.20 pit SW, rounded on NW. Sharp break of slope at top. Sides are vertical and smooth. Sub-rectangular base, flat in profile. 775 3 Fill Fill of slot trench 772 1 772 Light brownish grey softly compacted sandy silt. oc- 1.00 x 0.31 x 0.18 772 casional inclusions of fine and medium sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles. occasional inclusions of medium rounded pebbles. occasional inclusions of charcoal flecks. 776 3 Fill Fill of slot trench 771 649 771 Dark yellowish greyish brown Firmly compacted sandy 0.98 x 0.41 x 0.26 771 silt. moderate inclusions of coarse sub-angular, sub- rounded and rounded pebbles. occasional inclusions of small sub-angular and sub-rounded stones. occasional inclusions of charcoal flecks. 779 Furrow Fill Fill of furrow 1389 1 1389 Furrow 1389 780 Furrow Fill Fill of furrow 1390 1 1390 Furrow 1390 781 Furrow Fill Furrow 782 3 Pit Fill Fill of pit 930 930 1076 922 Loosely compacted light reddish brown silty sand, oc- 0.98 x 0.62 x 0.24 casional inclusions of fine, medium and coarse angular pebbles and small stones, occasional inclusions of charcoal flecks and small pieces. http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/127
  • 128 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 786 3 Cut Cut of pit 628 628 2 Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners. Break of slope at 0.74 x 0.61 x 0.19 top is gradual on N, and sharp elsewhere. N side slopes moderately and is concave, S, E and W sides slope steeply and are concave. Break of slope at base is gradual. Base is sub-circular in plan, and concave in profile. 787 3 Cut Irregular 788 788 2 Irregular in plan, rounded corners on S, W, NE, SE, NW 0.62 x 0.36 x 0.31 posthole and SW, square corner on N. Break of slope at top is sharp on N, S, E, NE and SE and gradual on W, SW and NW. N side is vertical and irregular, S side slopes steeply iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 and is irregular, E side slopes steeply and is irregular. W side slopes moderately and is smooth. Break of slope at base is gradual on N, W, NE, SW and NW and sharp on S, E and SE. Base is irregular in plan and pointed in profile. 788 3 Fill Fill of possible 787 1 787 Mid brown softly compacted silty sand. occasional inclu- 0.62 x 0.36 x 0.31 posthole 787 sions of fine angular and sub-angular pebbles. occasional inclusions of medium sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles. occasional inclusions of coarse angular and sub- angular and sub-rounded pebbles. occasional inclusions of charcoal flecks. 789 3 Cut Cut of pit 749 749 2 Circular in plan. Break of slope at top sharp on N and W, 0.40 x 0.33 x 0.19 and gradual on S and E. Sides slope moderately and are smooth. Break of slope at base is imperceptible. Base is circular in plan and concave in profile. 790 3 Fill Fill of pit 791 791 1 791 Softly compacted dark blackish brown sandy silt, occa- 0.4 x 0.32 x 0.10 sional inclusions of fine sub-angular and rounded pebbles, occasional inclusions of medium and coarse sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles, small rounded stones, frequent inclusions of flecks, moderate inclusions of small and oc- casional inclusions of medium fragments of charcoal. 791 3 Cut Cut of pit 790 790 798 Oval in plan. Sharp break of slope at top on S, gradual 0.40 x 0.32 x 0.10 elsewhere. N and E sides slope gently and are smooth, S and W sides slope moderately and are smooth. Imper- ceptible break of slope at base. Base is oval in plan and concave in profile. archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 792 2 Fill Fill of hollow 1 2 Located near pit C.767. softly compacted mid reddish 1.23 x 0.8 x 0.06 brown silt. occasional inclusions of angular small stones. occasional inclusions of charcoal flecks. 795 3 Fill Fill of posthole 796 1 796 Softly compacted mid brown silty sand, occasional inclu- 0.13 x 0.12 x 0.2 796 sions of medium angular pebbles. Gortore 1b-e2410 796 3 Cut Cut of posthole 795 795 2 Circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. N, E and 0.13 x 0.12 x 0.2 W sides are vertical and smooth, S side slopes steeply and is stepped. Break of slope at base is gradual. Base is sub- circular in plan and concave in profile. 797 3 Cut Cut of possible 635 635 2 Oval in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. Sides are vertical 0.48 x 0.27 x 0.19 posthole and smooth. Sharp break of slope at base. Base is circular in plan and flat in profile. 798 3 Stakehole Stakehole 791 2 Fill: Very softly compacted mid brown sandy silt, inclu- 0.09 x 0.09 x sions of fine pebbles. Cut: circular in plan. Sharp break of >0.39 slope at top. Sides are vertical and smooth. Base unknown . 799 Cancelled 800 3 Cut Cut of pit 573 573 2 Circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. N side is 0.57 x 0.52 x 0.48 vertical and concave, S, E and W sides are vertical and stepped. Break of slope at base is gradual on N and sharp elsewhere. Base is sub-circular in plan and flat in profile. 802 3 Cut Cut of possible 684 684 2 Sub-circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. S side is 0.32 x 0.25 x 0.10 pit 802 vertical and smooth, W side slopes steeply and is smooth, E side slopes steeply and is concave. N side is truncated by animal activity. Sharp break of slope at base. Base is sub- circular in plan and flat in profile. 803 3 Cut Cut of possible 631 631 2 Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners. Sharp break of 0.54 x 0.52 x 0.16 posthole/pit slope at top. N, S and E sides slope steeply and are stepped and W side slopes moderately and is smooth. Break of slope at base is gradual on S, E, W, SW and NW and sharp on N, NE and SE. Base is irregular in plan. 804 3 Cut Cut of small pit 805 805 2 Circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. Sides are 0.18 x 0.13 x 0.09 vertical and smooth. Sharp break of slope base. Base is circular in plan and flat in profile. 805 3 Fill Fill of pit 804 804 1 804 Firmly compacted mid reddish yellow sandy clay. No 0.18 x 0.13 x 0.09 inclusions. http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/129
  • 130 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 806 3 Cut Cut of pit 763 763 2 Oval cut in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. Sides slope 1.45 x 1.25 x 0.22 moderately and concave. Break of slope at base is imper- ceptible on N and S, and gradual on E and W. Base is sub-circular in plan and flat in profile. 807 3 Fill Natural Natu- 1 2 softly compacted mid brown silt. No inclusions. 0.09 x 0.07 x 0.03 depression ral de- pres- sion iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 808 3 Fill Natural Natu- 1 2 softly compacted mid brown silt. No inclusions. 0.14 x 0.1 x 0.03 depression ral de- pres- sion 809 3 Fill Fill of posthole 810 803 810 Softly compacted mid grey silty sand, occasional 0.15 x 0.145 x 810 inclusions of fine angular and sub-angular pebbles and 0.11 charcoal flecks. 810 3 Cut Cut of posthole 809 809 2 Circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. Sides slope 0.15 x 0.145 x steeply and are smooth. Gradual break of slope at base. 0.11 Base is circular in plan and flat in profile. 811 3 Cut Cut of pos- 637 637 813, 812 Sub-oval in plan, rounded corners. Break of slope at top 1.02 x 0.77 x 0.28 sible pit/animal is imperceptible on N, gradual on S and E , and sharp on activity W. N side slopes gently and is smooth. S and E sides slope moderately and are convex. W side is vertical and smooth. Break of slope base is imperceptible on N, gradual on S and E, and sharp on W. Base is sub-circular in plan and concave in profile. 812 3 Stakehole Stakehole 811 2 Fill: Firmly compacted bluish grey silty clay. No inclu- 0.08 x 0.09 x 0.09 sions. Cut: Oval in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. N and S sides slope steeply and are smooth. E and W sides are vertical and smooth. Sharp break of slope at base. Base is rectangular in plan and flat in profile. Truncated by 811. archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 813 3 Stakehole Stakehole 811 2 Fill: Firmly compacted bluish grey silty clay. No inclu- 0.10 x 0.11 x 0.10 sions. Cut: Sub-circular in plan with rounded corners. Sharp break of slope at top. Sides vertical and slightly concave. Gradual break of slope at base . Base sub-circular in plan and flat in profile. Truncated by 811. Gortore 1b-e2410 816 3 Cut Cut of posthole 818 818 2 Circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. Sides are 0.40 x 0.40 x 0.19 vertical and smooth. Gradual break of slope at base. Base is circular in plan and concave in profile. 817 3 Layer 1 2 Firmly compacted mid brown sandy silt, occasional mod- 6.0 x 4.5 x 0.07 erate inclusions of fine, medium and coarse sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles and small stones, and charcoal flecks. 818 3 Fill Fill of posthole 816 688 816 Softly compacted mid yellowish brown sandy silt, moder- 0.40 x 0.40 x 0.19 816 ate inclusions of sub-angular and sub-rounded medium pebbles. Occasional angular to sub-angular coarse pebbles and flecks of charcoal. 819 3 Fill Fill of possible 820 1 820 softly compacted mid brown clayey silt. Occasional mod- 0.19 x 0.15 x 0.10 posthole 820 erate inclusions of angular to sub-angular fine pebbles and flecks of charcoal. 820 3 Cut Cut of possible 819 819 2 Sub-Circular in plan with square corners in W and SW, 0.19 x 0.15 x 0.10 posthole rounded elsewhere. Gradual break of slope at top in S and SE, sharp elsewhere. Sharp break of slope at base in N, NW, W and SW, gradual elsewhere. N and W sides vertical and smooth. S side moderate inclusions of and smooth. E side steep and smooth. Base sub-circular in plan, pointed in profile. S orientation of top from base. 821 3 Fill Fill of possible 822 1 822 Softly compacted mid brown clayey silt. occasional inclu- 0.22 x 0.18 x 0.12 posthole 822 sions of angular to sub-angular fine and coarse pebbles. occasional inclusions of flecks of charcoal. 822 3 Cut Cut of possible 821 821 2 Oval cut with rounded corners. Sharp break of slope at 0.22 x 0.18 x 0.12 posthole top and gradual at base. N side smooth and vertical. S side steep and stepped. E side steep to vertical smooth. W side steep stepped. Base oval in plan, concave in profile. http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/131
  • 132 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 823 3 Cut Animal activity/ 629 629 2 Irregular hollow with sharp break of slope at top on E, W 0.62 x 0.50 x 0.16 possibly from and NE; gradual elsewhere. Square corners at N, W, NW posthole and SW; rounded elsewhere. Sides: moderate inclusions of irregular N; moderate inclusions of stepped S and W; steep and irregular E. Gradual break of slope at base. Base irregular and pointed. 824 Cancelled 825 3 Stakehole Stakehole 1 2 Fill: Softly compacted mid reddish greyish brown clayey 0.14 x 0.14 x 0.32 iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 silt, moderate inclusions of coarse sub-angular pebbles. Cut: circular in plan. Break of slope at top is sharp. Sides are vertical and smooth. Break of slope at base is gradual. Base is circular in plan, tapered rounded point in profile. 826 3 Cut Cut of posthole 630 630 2 Circular in plan. Sharp top break of slope. Sides vertical 0.28 x 0.17 x 0.13 and smooth. Sharp base break of slope. Base circular in plan, concave in profile. 827 3 Stakehole Stakehole 1 2 Fill: Mid reddish greyish brown softly compacted sandy 0.14 x 0.11 x 0.4 silt, occasional inclusions of medium sub-angular pebbles. Cut: circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. Sides are vertical and smooth. Sharp break of slope at base. Base is circular in plan and concave in profile. 830 3 Fill Fill of pit 1056 1056 1 1056 Softly compacted dark orangish brown clayey silt, oc- 0.22 x 0.22 x 0.14 casional inclusions of charcoal flecks. 831 3 Fill Fill of pit 946 946 1 946 Softly compacted light brownish yellow sandy clay, oc- 0.75 x 0.44 x 0.18 casional inclusions of charcoal flecks. 832 3 Fill Fill of pit 878 878 1 879 Firmly compacted dark brownish black sandy silt, 0.66 x 0.62 x 0.07 occasional inclusions of small and medium angular, sub-angular and sub-rounded stones, charcoal flecks and small pieces. 833 3 Posthole Cut Cut of posthole 834 834 2 Circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. N, S, and E 0.24 x 0.17 x 0.16 sides are vertical and concave, W side slopes gently and is concave. Sharp break of slope at base. Base is sub-circular in plan and flat in profile. 834 3 Posthole Fill Fill of posthole 833 1 833 Softly compacted light yellowish grey silty sand. No 0.24 x 0.17 x 0.16 833 inclusions. archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 835 3 Fill Fill of natural Natu- 836 2 Weakly cemented mid brown silty sand, occasional inclu- 0.27 x 0.2 x 0.18 hollow ral sions of small angular stones. hollow 836 Furrow Fill Furrow Gortore 1b-e2410 837 3 Fill Fill of natural Natu- 1 2 Weakly cemented mid brown silty sand. No inclusions. 0.1 x 0.1 x 0.03 depression ral de- pres- sion 838 3 Fill Fill of natural Natu- 1 2 Weakly cemented mid brown silty sand. No inclusions. 0.03 x 0.05 x 0.03 depression ral de- pres- sion 839 3 Fill Fill of natural Natu- 1 2 Weakly cemented mid brown silty sand. No inclusions. 0.05 x 0.03 x 0.03 hollow ral hollow 841 3 Cut Cut of posthole 723 723 2 Sub-Circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top and 0.34 x 0.19 x 0.41 base. Sides are vertical and smooth. Base is circular in plan and concave in profile. 842 3 Fill Fill of pit 843 843 705 843 Softly compacted dark yellowish brownish black clayey 0.57 x 0.47 x 0.18 silt, occasional inclusions of medium sub-rounded and sub-angular pebbles, frequent inclusions of charcoal flecks and moderate inclusions of small charcoal pieces. 843 3 Cut Cut of pit / 842 842 2 Sub-Circular in plan with rounded corners. Break of 0.57 x 0.47 x 0.18 posthole slope is sharp on SW and NW, and gradual on NE and SE. NE side slope steeply and is concave. SE side slopes steeply and is smooth. NW and SW sides are vertical and smooth. Sharp break of slope base on SW and NW, gradual on NE and imperceptible on SE. Base is sub- circular in plan and concave in profile. 845 3 Fill Fill of pit 947 947 1 947 Firmly compacted mid yellowish brown silty clay. No 1.1 x 0.7 x 0.16 inclusions. 848 3 Cut Cut of posthole 713 713 2 Circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. Sides slope 0.34 x 0.28 x 0.22 steeply and are concave. Gradual break of slope at base. Base is circular in plan and concave in profile. http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/133
  • 134 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 849 3 Cut Cut of possible 724 724 2 Oval in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. Sides are vertical 0.51 x 0.19 x 0.33 pit and smooth. Sharp break of slope at base. Base is circular in plan and flat in profile. 850 3 Cut Cut of small pit/ 704 704 2 Circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. Sides slope 0.36 x 0.33 x 0.09 posthole steeply and are concave. Gradual break of slope at base. Base is circular in plan and concave in profile. 855 3 Fill Fill of pit 1173 1173 1 1173 Softly compacted mid reddish brown sandy silt, oc- casional inclusions of fine angular pebbles and charcoal iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 flecks. Truncated by furrow 764. 857 3 Fill Fill of pit 930 930 922 929 Loosely compacted dark brown silty sand, occasional 1.6 x 1.1 x 0.1 inclusions of charcoal flecks. 858 3 Pit Fill Fill of pit 930 930 922 929 Softly compacted black clayey silt, occasional inclusions of 0.52 x 0.4 x 0.45 charcoal flecks and small pieces. 859 3 Hearth Fill Fill of hearth 931 1 931 Softly compacted brownish black silt, without inclusions. 0.29 x 0.2 x 0.08 860 Furrow 861 3 Pit Fill Fill of small pit 1225 1 1225 Loosely compacted dark greyish brown clayey sand, 0.4 x 0.4 x 0.14 1225 moderate inclusions of small charcoal pieces. 862 3 Pit Fill Fill of pit 1254 1254 1 1197 Softly compacted dark brown clayey silt, occasional 2.3 x 0.4 x 0.93 inclusions of angular medium pebbles and small stones, moderate inclusions of charcoal flecks and small pieces. 865 3 Cut Cut of hearth 872, 733 872 887 Oval in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. NE and SE 0.7 x 0.48 sides slope steeply and are concave, NW side is vertical and concave and SW side is vertical and smooth. Sharp break of slope at base. Base is oval in plan and flat in profile. Depth not recorded - feature backfilled. 866 3 Cut Cut of posthole 708 708 2 Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners. Sharp break of 0.34 x 0.32 x 0.16 (poss.) (with ani- slope at top on S and SW (elsewhere disturbed by animal mal disturbance) activity). Sides are vertical and smooth on S and SW (elsewhere disturbed by animal activity). Gradual break of slope at base. Base is circular in plan and concave in profile. 867 3 Cut Cut of posthole 868, 732 868 2 Circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. Sides slope 0.51 x 0.48 x 0.44 steeply and are concave. Sharp break of slope at base. Base is circular in plan and concave in profile. 868 3 Fill Fill of posthole 867 732 867 Firmly compacted mid yellowish brown silty clay. No 0.51 x 0.48 x 0.24 867 inclusions. archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 869 3 Cut Cut of pit / 710 710 2 Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners. Sharp break of 0.34 x 0.30 x 0.08 posthole slope at top and base on N, S and E; imperceptible on SW. N side slopes steeply and is smooth, S side is vertical and smooth, E side is vertical and concave and SW side slopes gently and is smooth. Base is sub-rectangular in Gortore 1b-e2410 plan and flat in profile. 870 3 Fill Fill of possible 877 1 877 Friable mid yellowish brown sandy silt. moderate inclu- 0.61 x 0.53 x 0.40 posthole 877 sions of sub-angular to rounded medium pebbles. moder- ate inclusions of sub-angular and sub-rounded coarse peb- bles. moderate inclusions of angular to sub-rounded small stones. occasional inclusions of sub-angular medium stones. occasional inclusions of flecks and small fragments of charcoal. 872 3 Fill Deposit - inter- 865 733 865 Hard light reddish white silty clay. No inclusions. Depth 0.7 x 0.48 face between 733 not recorded - feature backfilled. and 865 within hearth 873 3 Stakehole Stakehole 1 2 Fill: softly compacted, light greyish brown sandy silt. Cut: 0.1 x 0.1 x 0.16 Circular in plan. Sharp break of slope sharp at top. N and S sides are vertical and smooth. E side is vertical and undercut and W side slopes steeply and is and smooth. Gradual break of slope at base. Base is circular in plan and concave in profile. Inclined towards W. 875 3 Cut Animal activity 176 176 2 Irregular hollow, rounded corners. Gradual top break of 1.12 x 0.83 x 0.31 - possibly trun- slope on E and W; sharp elsewhere. Gradual base break of cating previous slope. N side smooth vertical. S side steep concave. E side posthole moderate inclusions of stepped to irregular. W side steep irregular. Base irregular and undulating. 876 Cancelled 877 3 Cut Cut of possible 870 870 2 Sub-circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top on N 0.63 x 0.61 x 0.4 posthole and W and gradual on S and E. N side slopes steeply and is undercut, S side is vertical and concave, E side slopes steeply and is undercut and W side is vertical and irregular. Break of slope at base is gradual on W and sharp elsewhere. Base is sub-circular in plan and concave in profile. http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/135
  • 136 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 878 3 Cut Cut of pit 879, 832 879 2 Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners. Break of slope at 1.16 x 0.72 x 0.17 top and base is sharp on N and gradual elsewhere. N and W sides slope steeply and are concave on the N and W and S and E sides slope gently and are irregular. Base is sub-circular in plan and concave in profile. 879 3 Fill Fill of pit 878 878 832 878 Hard light greyish white silty clay. No inclusions. 1.16 x 0.72 x 0.17 881 3 Stakehole Stakehole 1 2 Fill: softly compacted dark greyish brown silty clay. No 0.09 x 0.06 inclusions. Cut: circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 top. Sides are vertical and smooth. Excavated to depth of 0.15m - base not reached. 884 3 Stakehole Stakehole 1 887 Fill: softly compacted, mid yellowish grey silty clay Cut: 0.09 x 0.07 x 0.12 circular in pan. E side slopes moderate and is smooth; elsewhere vertical and smooth. Imperceptible top break of slope at E, sharp elsewhere. Sharp break of slope at base. Base is oval in plan and flat in profile. 886 3 Stakehole Stakehole 1 887 Fill: softly compacted mid yellowish grey silty clay. No in- 0.16 x 0.15 x 0.06 clusions. Cut: circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. Sides slope steeply and are concave. Sharp break of slope at base. Base is circular in plan and concave in profile. 887 3 Fill Fill of pit 899 899, 1 899 Softly compacted mid orangish brown silty clay. No 1.99 x 1.85 x 0.1 cut by inclusions. 881, 884, 886, 890, 865, 867 889 2 Cut Cut of pit 892, 893, 906 2 Sub-rectangular in plan, rounded corners. Break of slope 1.52 x 0.72 x 0.20 894, 906 at top is gradual on N, sharp elsewhere. N side slopes moderately and is irregular, S, E and W sides slope steeply and are smooth. Break of slope at base sharp on W and gradual elsewhere. Base is sub-rectangular in plan and irregular in profile. 890 3 Stakehole Stakehole 1 887 Fill: softly compacted dark brown silty clay. No inclu- 0.12 x 0.08 x 0.09 sions. Cut: circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top and base. Sides are vertical and smooth. Base circular in plan and flat in profile. archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 891 3 Stakehole Stakehole 1 2 Fill: softly compacted mid greyish brown silty clay. No 0.20 x 0.16 x 0.06 inclusions. Cut: circular. Sharp break of slope at top. Sides slope steeply and are concave. Gradual break of slope at base. Base is circular in plan and pointed in profile. 892 2 Fill Fill of pit 889 889 1 894 Loosely compacted black silty sand, occasional inclusions 0.44 x 0.78 x 0.16 Gortore 1b-e2410 of sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles and small stones, frequent inclusions of charcoal flecks and moderate inclu- sions of small charcoal pieces. 893 2 Fill Fill of pit 889 889 1 894 Loosely compacted light greyish brown silty sand, oc- 1.04 x 0.72 x 0.22 casional inclusions of sub-angular and sub-rounded fine pebbles, small and medium stones, and charcoal flecks. 894 2 Fill Fill of pit 889 889 893 906 Loosely compacted mid greyish brown silty sand, occa- 1.24 x 0.58 x 0.38 sional inclusions of sub-angular and sub-rounded fine and medium pebbles, small stones and charcoal flecks. 895 3 Cut Cut of pit/clear- 690 690 2 Sub-oval in plan, rounded corners. Sharp break of slope 0.88 x 0.44 x 0.15 ance feature at top and base. E and SE sides are vertical and smooth, W side is vertical and concave, and NW side slopes steeply and is concave. Base is sub-oval in plan and flat in profile. 896 2 Fill Fill of pit 897 897 1 897 Softly compacted dark brown silt. occasional inclusions of 0.47 x 0.32 x 0.14 charcoal flecks. 897 2 Cut Cut of pit 896 896 2 Oval in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. Sides slope 0.47 x 0.32 x 0.14 steeply and are concave. Gradual break of slope at base. Base is oval in plan, and concave in profile. 898 3 Fill Fill of hearth 913 913 1 913 Softly compacted brownish black clayey silt, occasional 0.40 x 0.36 x 0.18 inclusions of sub-angular pebbles, moderate inclusions of charcoal flecks and occasional inclusions of small charcoal pieces. 899 3 Cut Cut of pit 887 887 2 Circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. Sides slope 1.99 x 1.85 x 0.1 moderately and are concave. Gradual break of slope gradual at base. Base is sub-circular in plan and concave in profile. 900 3 Fill Fill of possible 901 1 901 Softly compacted mid brown clayey silt, moderate inclu- 0.72 x 0.3 x 0.17 pit 901 sions of fine, medium and coarse angular, sub-angular, sub-rounded and rounded pebbles. occasional inclusions of small and medium angular and sub-rounded stones and charcoal flecks. http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/137
  • 138 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 901 3 Cut Cut of possible 900 900 2 Linear in plan, square corners at NE, SE, NW and SW. 0.72 x 0.3 x 0.17 pit Sharp break of slope at top and base. N and S sides slope steeply and are smooth, E and W sides slope steeply and are concave. Sharp break of slope at base. Base is sub- rectangular in plan and concave in profile. 902 3 Fill Fill of pit 903 903 1 903 Softly compacted mid brown clayey silt, occasional inclu- 0.72 x 0.63 x 0.2 sions of fine and moderate inclusions of medium and coarse angular, sub-angular, sub-rounded and rounded pebbles, occasional inclusions of small and medium angu- iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 lar and sub-rounded stones and charcoal flecks. 903 3 Cut Cut of pit 902 902 2 Irregular in plan, rounded corners. Sharp break of slope at 0.73 x 0.63 x 0.2 top and base. N and S sides slope steeply and are concave. E side is vertical and irregular. W side slopes moderately and is concave. Sharp break of slope at base. Base is ir- regular in plan and undulating in profile. 904 Cancelled 905 2 Stakehole Possible stakehole 1 2 Fill: Softly compacted dark brown silt, occasional inclu- 0.13 x 0.09 x 0.09 sions of small angular stones and charcoal flecks. Cut: sub-oval in plan, rounded corners. Sharp break of slope at top and base. Sides slope steeply and are concave. Gradual break of slope at base. Base is square in plan and concave in profile. 906 2 Fill Fill of pit 889 889 894 889 Compact mid reddish brown silty sand. occasional inclu- 0.14 x 0.11 x 0.01 sions of inclusions of fine sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles. 907 3 Fill Fill of possible 908 1 908 Firmly compacted mid brown clayey silt, occasional 0.2 x 0.2 x 0.28 posthole 908 inclusions of small angular and sub-angular stones and charcoal flecks. 908 3 Cut Cut of possible 907 907 2 Circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. Sides are 0.2 x 0.2 x 0.28 posthole vertical and concave. Sharp break of slope at base. Base is sub-circular in plan and flat in profile. 909 3 Furrow Cut Furrow 910 3 Furrow Cut Furrow 911 2 Fill Fill of pit 914 914 1 914 Softly compacted light greenish white silt, occasional 0.99 x 0.7 x 0.13 inclusions of small sub-angular stones and charcoal flecks. archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 913 3 Cut Cut of hearth 898 898 2 Sub-rectangular in plan, rounded corners. Break of slope 0.47 x 0.3 x 0.22 at top is sharp on N and gradual elsewhere. N and W sides slope moderately and are smooth and S and E sides are vertical and smooth. Base is irregular and concave. Disturbed by animal activity. Gortore 1b-e2410 914 2 Cut Cut of pit 911 911 2 Sub-oval in plan, rounded corners. Sharp break of slope at 0.99 x 0.7 x 0.13 top and base. Sides are vertical and concave. Base is oval in plan and concave in profile. 915 3 Stakehole Stakehole 1011, 1012 782 Fill: softly compacted mid reddish brown silty clay. 0.09 x 0.08 x 0.17 occasional inclusions of charcoal flecks. Cut: circular in plan. Top break of slope sharp all around. Sides all vertical and smooth. Base break of slope imperceptible all around. Base circular in plan, tapered point in profile. 916 Cancelled 917 3 Fill Fill of possible 918 1 918 Friable mid yellowish brown sandy silt, moderate inclu- 0.92 x 0.45 x 0.14 pit 918 sions of medium angular and sub-angular pebbles, coarse angular, sub-angular, sub-rounded and rounded pebbles and occasional inclusions of small sub-angular and sub- rounded stones and charcoal flecks. 918 3 Cut Cut of possible 917 917 2 Sub-oval shaped in plan, rounded corners. Break of slope 0.92 x 0.45 x 0.14 pit at top is sharp on N and W, and gradual on S and E. N side slopes steeply and is smooth, S side slopes moderately and is concave, E side slopes gently and is smooth, W side slope slopes steeply and is convex. Break of slope at base is sharp on N and W, gradual on S and imperceptible on E. Base is sub-oval in plan and flat in profile. 922 3 Pit Fill Fill of pit 930 930 782 857, 858 Loosely compacted mid reddish brown silty sand, oc- 0.5 x 0.4 x 0.45 casional inclusions of charcoal flecks. 927 3 Fill of pit 930 Fill of pit 930 930 1011, 1012 782 Softly compacted mid brown silt, occasional inclusions of 0.3 x 0.3 x 0.05 small angular stones and moderate inclusions of charcoal flecks. 929 3 Fill of pit 930 Natural 930 857, 858 930 Strongly cemented light brown sand, moderate inclusions 1.5 x 1.5 x 0.45 of fine angular and sub-angular pebbles, occasional inclu- sions of coarse angular and sub-angular pebbles and small angular stones. http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/139
  • 140 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 930 3 Pit Cut Cut of pit 929, 857, 929 2 Irregular in plan. Break of slope at top imperceptible on 4 x 2.50 x 4.50 858, 922, N, S and W. Sides are irregular. Break of slope at base is 782, 927. sharp on N, S and W. Base is irregular in plan and flat in profile. 931 3 Hearth Cut Cut of hearth 859 859 2 Sub-Circular in plan, rounded corners. Gradual break of 0.29 x 0.2 x 0.08 slope at base. N and E sides slope gently and are smooth, S side slopes steeply and is smooth, and W side slopes gently and is convex. Imperceptible break of slope at base. Base is sub-circular in plan and concave in profile. iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 939 3 Pit Fill Fill of pit 1234 1234 1 1234 Compact light greyish black sandy clay, occasional inclu- 0.54 x 0.38 x 0.21 sions of medium angular stones and frequent inclusions of large charcoal pieces. 940 3 Fill Fill of pit 1072 1072 1 1072 Softly compacted mid orangish brown sandy silt, occa- 0.61 x 0.52 x 0.13 sional inclusions of small sub-angular stones and charcoal flecks. 941 Furrow 942 Furrow 945 3 Fill Fill of possible 958 1 958 Softly compacted mid brown clayey silt, moderate inclu- 2.26 x 0.52 x 0.78 pit 958 sions of fine and medium and occasional inclusions of coarse angular, sub-angular, sub-rounded and rounded pebbles, small and medium angular and sub-rounded stones, and charcoal flecks. Fill same as 696. 946 3 Pit Cut Cut of pit 831 831 2 Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners. Sharp break of 0.75 x 0.44 x 0.18 slope at top. Sides slope steeply and are concave. Gradual break of slope at base. Base is circular in plan and concave in profile. 947 3 Cut Cut of pit 845 845 2 Sub-Circular in plan, rounded corners. Gradual break of 1.1 x 0.7 x 0.16 slope at top and base. Sides slope gently and are concave. Base is circular in plan and pointed in profile. 948 2 Pit Fill Fill of pit 1088 1088 1055 992 Friable dark orangish brown sandy clay, occasional inclu- 2.45 x 1.4 x 0.22 sions of fine and medium sub-angular pebbles, moderate inclusions of charcoal flecks and occasional inclusions of small charcoal pieces. 950 2 Ditch Fill Fill of ditch 1189 1189 1 954 Softly compacted light orangish brown clayey silt, oc- 1.3 x 0.6 casional inclusions of fine and medium sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles. Extends beyond limit of excavation. archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 951 3 Fill Fill of possible 959 1 959 Softly compacted mid brown clayey silt, moderate inclu- 1.28 x 0.85 x 0.63 pit/posthole 959 sions of fine and medium and occasional inclusions of coarse angular, sub-angular, sub-rounded and rounded pebbles, small angular and sub-rounded stones, medium angular and rounded stones and charcoal flecks. Gortore 1b-e2410 952 2 Posthole Fill Fill of posthole 953 1 953 Firmly compacted, mid-dark brown silt, occasional inclu- 0.31 x 0.24 x 0.24 953 (poss.) sions of medium sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles, and moderate inclusions of charcoal flecks. 953 2 Cut Cut of posthole 952 952 2 Sub-circular in plan, rounded corners. Break of slope at 0.31 x 0.24 x 0.24 (poss.) top is sharp on N, S, W, SW and NW and undercut on E, NE and SE. NW and SW sides slope moderately and are smooth, and SE and NE sides slope steeply and are under- cut. Gradual break of slope at base. Base is sub-circular in plan and has a tapered rounded point in profile. 954 2 Ditch Fill 1189 950 1189 Loosely compacted dark orangish brown clayey sand, 0.7 x 0.4 moderate inclusions of medium sub-angular and sub- rounded pebbles and occasional inclusions of medium sub-rounded stones and charcoal flecks and small pieces. Extends beyond limit of excavation. 955 3 Fill Fill of pit 967 967 1 966 Firmly compacted mid brown silty clay. No inclusions. 0.75 x 0.36 x 0.07 957 3 Fill Fill of pit 964 964 1 965 Stiff mid yellowish brown silty clay, frequent inclusions of 1.05 x 0.46 x 0.08 medium sub-angular and sub-rounded stones and moder- ate inclusions of large sub-angular and sub-rounded stones. 958 3 Cut Cut of possible 696, 945 696, 945 2 Irregular shaped cut with square corners N, E, W and 2.26 x 1.2 x 0.78 pit NW; rounded corners S, NE, SE and SW. Top break of slope sharp all around. Sides: vertical and irregular E and W; vertical and stepped N; vertical and concave S. Base break of slope sharp all around. Base irregular in plan, flat in profile. Cut severely disrupted by animal activity. 959 3 Cut Cut of possible 951 951 2 Sub-circular in plan, square corners on E and W, rounded 1.28 x 0.85 x 0.63 posthole/pit corners on N and S. Sharp break of slope at top and base. E and W sides are vertical and irregular, N side is vertical and concave, and S side is vertical and stepped. Base is sub-circular in plan and flat in profile. 960 Furrow 961 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/141
  • 142 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 962 963 3 Fill Fill of pit 1082 1082 1 1082 Firmly compacted dark brownish black silty clay, moder- 0.97 x 0.76 x 0.27 ate inclusions of charcoal flecks and small pieces and occasional inclusions of medium charcoal pieces. 964 3 Cut Cut of pit 965, 957 965 966 Linear in plan, rounded corners on NE and SE. Break 1.05 x 0.46 x 0.15 of slope at top is gradual on NE and SE. N side slopes steeply and is concave, S side slopes moderately and is smooth, E side slopes moderately and is concave. Break of iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 slope at base is gradual on N, S and E. Base is irregular in plan and concave in profile. Truncated by furrow at NW and SW. 965 3 Fill Fill of pit 964 964 957 964 Firmly compacted dark brownish black silty clay. No 0.65 x 0.39 x 0.12 inclusions. 966 3 Fill Fill of pit 967 967 955, 964 967 Firmly compacted light yellowish brown silty clay. No 1.60 x 0.82 x 0.18 inclusions. 967 3 Cut Cut of pit 966, 955, 966 956 Linear in plan, rounded corners on NE and SE. Sharp 1.60 x 0.82 x 0.18 965, 957 break of slope at top. N side slopes steeply and is concave, S side slopes moderately and is convex, E side slopes gently and concave and W side is truncated. Gradual break of slope at top on N, S and E, truncated at W. Base is irregu- lar in plan and concave in profile. Truncated by furrow. 986 3 Fill Fill of posthole 994 1 993 Firmly compacted mid blackish brown silty clay. No 0.48 x 0.42 x 0.08 994 inclusions. 991 2 Fill Fill of possible 995 1 995 Compact mid orange sandy silt, occasional inclusions of 0.48 x 0.4 x 0.08 posthole 995 medium sub-rounded stones and small charcoal pieces. 992 2 Pit Fill Fill of pit 1088 1088 948 1088 Strongly cemented light greyish brown clayey sand, 1.67 x 0.8 x 0.4 occasional inclusions of fine and medium sub-angular pebbles, moderate inclusions of charcoal flecks and small charcoal pieces. 993 3 Fill Fill of posthole 994 986 994 Hard light brownish yellow clayey silt, occasional inclu- 0.67 x 0.65 x 0.12 994 sions of small sub-rounded stones, and moderate inclu- sions of medium sub-angular stones. 994 3 Posthole Cut Cut of posthole 993, 986 993 2 Circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top and base. 0.67 x 0.65 x 0.14 Sides slope steeply and are concave. Base is circular in plan and concave in profile. archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 995 2 Cut Cut of posthole 991 991 2 Circular in plan. Break of slope at top is sharp on N and E 0.48 x 0.4 x 0.08 (poss.) and gradual on S and W. N side is vertical and smooth, S side slopes gently and is smooth, E side slopes steeply and is smooth, and W side slopes moderately and is smooth. Break of slope at base is sharp on N and W, imperceptible Gortore 1b-e2410 on S and SE and gradual on E and NE. Base is circular in plan and flat in profile. 996 2 Fill Fill of posthole 997 1 997 Compact mid orangish brown sandy silt, occasional inclu- 0.4 x 0.3 x 0.12 997 sions of medium charcoal inclusions. 997 2 Cut Cut of posthole 996 996 2 Circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top and base. 0.4 x 0.3 x 0.12 Sides are vertical and smooth. Base is circular in plan and concave in profile. 998 3 Fill Fill of pit 999 999 1 999 Firmly compacted mid brown clayey silt, occasional 0.55 x 0.5 x 0.15 inclusions of fine and medium angular and sub-angular pebbles, large (0.9 x 0.5m) sub-angular stones and small charcoal pieces. 999 3 Cut Cut of pit 998 998 2 Sub-Circular in plan, rounded corners. Sharp break of 0.55 x 0.5 x 0.15 slope sharp at top. Sides slope steeply and are concave. Gradual break of slope at base. Base is circular in plan and concave in profile. 1000 2 Cut Cut of clearance 1040, 1128 2 Irregular cut, rounded corners at N, E, W, SE, NW and 4.52 x 2.48 x 0.48 feature/pit 1091, 1039, SW; square and truncated at NE. Gradual break of slope 1108, 1128 at top. Sides slopes moderately and are irregular. Break of slope at base is sharp at NE and gradual elsewhere. Base is irregular in plan and profile. Truncated by ditch 1189 at 93E, 140N 1001 2 Pit Fill Fill of pit 1122 1122 1 1111 Firmly compacted mid black clayey silt, frequent inclu- 1.5 x 0.65 x 0.11 (poss.) sions of medium angular and sub-angular stones, moder- ate inclusions of charcoal flecks and occasional inclusions of small charcoal pieces. 1003 Furrow Fill Fill of furrow Furrow 1004 Furrow Fill Fill of furrow Furrow 1005 3 Furrow Cut Cut of furrow Furrow 1006 3 Furrow Cut Cut of furrow Furrow 1007 3 Furrow Cut Cut of furrow Furrow 1008 Furrow Cut Cut of furrow Furrow http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/143
  • 144 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 1009 3 Furrow Cut Cut of furrow Furrow 1010 3 Furrow Cut Cut of furrow Furrow 1011 3 Furrow Cut Cut of furrow 765 927, 1076, Furrow 915 1012 3 Furrow Cut Cut of furrow 764 927, 1076, Furrow 915 1013 Furrow Cut Cut of furrow Furrow 1014 3 Furrow Cut Cut of furrow Furrow iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 1015 3 Furrow Cut Cut of furrow Furrow 1030 3 Deposit Deposit 1 2 Stiff mid yellowish grey sandy silt, moderate inclusions of 1.5 x 0.85 x 0.08 fine angular and sub-angular pebbles, occasional medium and coarse sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles. Moder- ate charcoal flecks and occasional small inclusions. 1031 3 Stakehole Stakehole 1 1041 Fill: Softly compacted mid greyish brown sandy silt, occa- 0.1 x 0.1 x 0.19 sional charcoal flecks. Cut: gradual in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. Sides are vertical and smooth. Gradual break of slope at base. Base is circular in plan and concave in profile. 1032 3 Pit Fill Fill of pit 1121 1121 1 1120 Firmly compacted light greyish brown sandy silt, oc- 0.6 x 0.54 x 0.28 casional inclusions of fine and medium angular and sub- angular pebbles, charcoal flecks and small and medium pieces. 1033 3 Stakehole Stakehole 1 1041 Fill: Firmly compacted mid greyish brown sandy silt, no 0.1 x 0.1 x 0.18 inclusions. Cut: circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. Sides are vertical and smooth. Break of slope at base is gradual. Base is circular in plan and has a rounded point in profile. 1034 3 Stakehole Stakehole 1 1041 Fill: Firmly compacted mid greyish brown sandy silt, no 0.09 x 0.09 x 0.12 inclusions. Cut: circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. Sides are vertical and smooth. Break of slope at base is gradual. Base is circular in plan and has a rounded point in profile. archaeoloGical excavation report
  • Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 1035 3 Stakehole Stakehole 1 1041 Fill: Firmly compacted mid greyish brown sandy silt, no 0.1 x 0.1 x 0.24 inclusions. Cut: circular in plan. Sharp break of slope at top. Sides are vertical and smooth. Break of slope at base is gradual. Base is circular in plan and has a rounded point in profile. Gortore 1b-e2410 1037 3 Pit Fill Fill of pit 1081 1081 1042 1065, 1067, Firmly compacted mid greyish black sandy silt, moderate 1.8 x 1.8 x 0.12 1068, 1136, inclusions of angular and sub-angular fine and medium 1066 pebbles. Occasional inclusions of angular and sub-angular coarse pebbles, and small and medium stones. 1039 2 Pit Fill Fill of pit/clear- 1000 1040 1108 loosely compacted dark brownish black silty sand. Oc- 1.44 x 0.96 x 0.34 ance feature casional inclusions of sub-angular and sub-rounded fine 1000 and medium pebbles. Frequent angular, sub-angular and sub-rounded coarse pebbles and small stones. Occasional angular and sub-angular medium stones. Occasional sub-angular large stones (0.25m). Moderate inclusions of charcoal flecks and small charcoal inclusions. Moderate small and medium fire-burned stones. 1040 2 Pit Fill Fill of pit/clear- 1000 1 1039 loosely compacted mid greyish brown silty sand. Oc- 2.58 x 1.6 x 0.12 ance feature casional inclusions of sub-angular and sub-rounded fine 1000 pebbles and occasional angular, sub-angular and sub- rounded small stones. 1041 3 Pit Fill Fill of pit 1063 1063 1144 1137 Weakly cemented light yellowish grey silty sand. Moder- 3.6 x 2.5 x 0.24 ate inclusions of sub-angular, sub-rounded and rounded fine and medium pebbles. Occasional inclusions of coarse pebbles. Occasional sub-angular and sub-rounded small and medium stones. Occasional charcoal flecks. 1042 3 Pit Fill Fill of pit 1063 1063 1 1077, 1071, Compact mid orangish brown silty sand. Moderate inclu- 1.6 x 1.5 x 0.15 1037 sions of angular, sub-angular and sub-rounded coarse pebbles. Occasional inclusions of angular and sub-angular small and medium stones. Occasional inclusions of charcoal flecks. http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2410-gortore1b-co-cork/145
  • 146 Context # Area Context Type Feature Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 1045 1 Pit Fill Fill of pit 1046 1046 80 1046 Light yellowish/orangish brown compact silty clay. 0.61 x 0.32 x 0.25 Moderate inclusions of fine sub-angular and rounded pebbles. Occasional inclusions of medium angular and sub-angular pebbles. Occasional inclusions of coarse angular and sub-rounded pebbles. Sub-angular medium stones. Very occasional angular large stones and moderate small charcoal. 1046 1 Pit Cut Cut of pit 1045 1045 2 Truncated by linear ditch [80]. Shape in plan is un- 0.61 x 0.32 x 0.25 known due to truncation. [1046] may be same as [1048]. iSSUe 10: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 [1046] has rounded corners. Base shape unknown due to truncation. 1047 1 Pit Fill Fill of pit 1048 1048 80 1048 Light yellowish/orangish brown compact silty sand. Mod- 0.6 x 0.35 x 0.14 erate fine sub-angular and rounded pebbles. Occasional medium angular and sub-rounded pebbles. Occasional coarse angular and sub-angular pebbles. Occasional small angular and sub-rounded stones and moderate small charcoal inclusions. 1048 1 Pit Cut Cut of pit 1047 1047 2 Truncated by linear ditch [80]. Shape in plan is unknown 0.6 x 0.35 x 0.14 due to truncation. [1048] may be same as [1046]. [1048] has rounded corners. Gradual top break of slope into gentle concave sides. Bottom break of slope and base are unknown due to truncation. 1049 1 Fill Fill of linear 80 1 1050 Mid greyish brown compact sandy clayey silt. Occasional 45.42 x 0.3-1.3 x ditch 80 inclusions of large angular stones and occasional small 0.1-0.2 charcoal inclusions. Dimensions vary over length of ditch. 1050 1 Fill Fill of linear 80 1049 1051 Mid reddish brown compact silty sand. Occasional inclu- 45.42 x 0.44-1.01 ditch 80 sions of charcoal flecks and large angular stones. Dimen- x 0.18-0.3 sions vary over length. 1051 1 Fill Fill of linear 80