Archaeological Report - Garavally, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
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Archaeological Report - Garavally, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)

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The excavation of the site at Garravally E3589 comprised two post-holes and a pit. No ecofacts or artefacts were recovered and no radiocarbon date was obtained.

The excavation of the site at Garravally E3589 comprised two post-holes and a pit. No ecofacts or artefacts were recovered and no radiocarbon date was obtained.

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Archaeological Report - Garavally, Co. Tipperary (Ireland) Archaeological Report - Garavally, Co. Tipperary (Ireland) Document Transcript

  • Eachtra JournalIssue 11 [ISSN 2009-2237] Archaeological Excavation Report E3589 - Garravally, Co. Tipperary Post hole and pit
  • EACHTRAArchaeological Projects Archaeological Excavation Report Garravally Co. Tipperary Post hole and pit July 2011 Client: Laois County Council and National Roads Authority Project: N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Contract 1) E No 3589Excavation Director Simon OFaolain Written by: Simon OFaolain : :
  • Archaeological Excavation Report Garravally Co. Tipperary Excavation Director Simon OFaolain Written By Simon OFaolain EACHTRA Archaeological Projects CORK GALWAY The Forge, Innishannon, Co. Cork Unit 10, Kilkerrin Park, Liosbain Industrial Estate, Galwaytel: 021 4701616 | web: www.eachtra.ie | email: info@eachtra.ie tel: 091 763673 | web: www.eachtra.ie | email: galway@eachtra.ie
  • © 2011The Forge, Innishannon, Co Cork Set in 12pt Garamond Printed in Ireland
  • Table of Contents Summary���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������iii Acknowledgements�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� iv1 Scope of the project �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Route location��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 13 Receiving environment ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 34 Archaeological and historical background ��������������������������������������������������������������������� 3 Mesolithic(c�8000to4000BC)���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4 Neolithic(c�4000to2000BC)������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 4 � BronzeAge(c�2000to600BC)����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4 IronAge(c�500BCtoAD500)����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 6 Earlymedievalperiod(c�AD400to1100)����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 6 Highandlatermedievalperiods(c�AD1100to1650)���������������������������������������������������������������� 6 Post-medievalperiod(c�1650tothepresent)��������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 75 Site Location and Topography �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 76 Excavation methodology ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 77 Excavation results �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 98 Summary ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 139 References �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 15Appendix 1 Site matrix ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 16Appendix 2 Groups and subgroups ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 17 � i
  • List of Figures Figure 1: The route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh overlain on the Ordnance Survey Discovery Series map� �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 Figure 2: The route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh overlain on the Ordnance Survey Discovery Series map with all the excavation sites marked� �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 5 Figure 3: Portion of the Ist edition Ordnance Survey Map OF46 showing the location of Garrav- ally� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 8 � Figure 4: Location and extent of Garravally E3589 on the N7 Castletown to Nenagh� ���������������������10 Figure 5: Post-excation plan of Garravally� �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 11 Figure 6: Sections of pit C�302 and postholes C�338 and C�319� ���������������������������������������������������������������� 14 List of Plates Plate 1: Mid-excavation of pit C�302 from west� ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 7 Plate 2: Post-excavation of pit C�302 from south� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 9 Plate 4: Mid-excavation of post-hole C�338� �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Plate 3: Post-excavation of post-hole C�319� �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12ii
  • Garravally-3589 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3589-garravally-co-tipperary/SummaryThe excavation of the site at Garravally E3589 comprised two post-holes and a pit. Noecofacts or artefacts were recovered and no radiocarbon date was obtained.Road project name N7 Castletown to NenaghSite name GarravallyE no. E3589Site director Simon O’FaolainTownland GarravallyParish BallymackeyCounty TipperaryBarony Upper OrmondOS Map Sheet No. TN21National Grid Reference 194718 179663 iii
  • iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEoloGical Excavation rEport Acknowledgements The project was commissioned by Laois County Council and was funded by the Na- tional Roads Authority under the National Development Plan (2000-2006). The project archaeologist was Niall Roycroft. Kildare County Council supervised the archaeological contract with RE staff of Pat Dowling and Colum Fagan. Kildare County Council Senior Executive Engineer was Joseph Kelly and Kildare County Council Senior Engineer was John Coppinger. The senior archaeologist was John Tierney and the post-excavation man- ager was Jacinta Kiely. Illustrations are by Maurizio Toscano, photographs by John Sun- derland and Eagle Photography and aerial photography by StudioLab. Specialist analysis was by Penny Johnston.iv
  • Garravally-3589 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3589-garravally-co-tipperary/1 Scope of the projectEachtra Archaeological Projects were commissioned by Laois County Council and theNational Roads Authority to undertake archaeological works along 17.1 km (Contact1) of the 35km N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) national roadscheme (EIS approved in November 2005). The scheme runs from the eastern junctionof the present N7 Nenagh Bypass, North Tipperary a tie in to the M7/M8 Portlaoise-Castletown scheme to the south of Borris-in-Ossory in County Laois. The scheme is ap-proximately 191 hectares. Contract 1 comprises the western half of the scheme and runsfrom Clashnevin to Castleroan passing along the Tipperary North and Offaly countyborder regions. The Ministers Direction Number is A38. It was funded by the Irish Government under the National Development Plan 2000-2006. The total archaeological cost was administered by the National Roads Authoritythrough Laois County Council as part of the Authority’s commitment to protecting ourcultural heritage. The purpose of the archaeological services project was to conduct ar-chaeological site investigations within the lands made available for the scheme and toassess the nature and extent of any new potential archaeological sites uncovered. Phase 1 of the project (archaeological testing of the route) was carried out in 2007under licence E3371, E3372 and E3375-8 issued by Department of the Environment Her-itage and Local Government (DoEHLG) in consultation with the National Museumof Ireland. The principal aim of this phase of the project was to test for any previouslyunknown sites by a programme of centreline and offset testing and to test sites of archaeo-logical potential identified in the EIS. Phase 2 of the project (resolution) involved the resolution of all archaeological sitesidentified within the proposed road corridor prior to commencement of the constructionof the road. This phase of the project was carried out from June 2007 to February 2008and excavations were conducted under the management of a Senior Archaeologist. A totalof 27 sites were excavated during this phase of works under separate licences issued byDoEHLG. A post-excavation assessment and strategy document was prepared in Phase 3 of theproject to present a management strategy for dealing with post-excavation work aris-ing from archaeological works along the route of the new N7 Castletown to Nenagh. Itincluded a proposal for post-excavation and archiving work and a budget for the works.2 Route locationThe route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh road is located in Counties North Tipperaryand Offaly (OF) (Figure 1). The project (Contract 1) involves the construction of c. 17.5km of the N7 from Clashnevin east of Nenagh to Castleroan south-east of Dunkerrin. Itpasses through the townlands of Clashnevin, Derrybane, Newtown, Lissanisky, Killeisk,Garavally, Derrycarney, Garrynafanna, Gortnadrumman, Kilgorteen, Falleen, Knock-ane, Clash, Park, Rosdremid (OF), Clynoe (OF), Cullenwaine, Moneygall, Greenhills, 1
  • 2 182550 198900 215250 193300 193300 ! ( Nenagh iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 Derg (Lough) 182950 182950 172600 172600 0 5 10 182550 198900 Kilometres 215250 ± Figure 1: The route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh overlain on the Ordnance Survey Discovery Series map� archaEoloGical Excavation rEport
  • Garravally-3589 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3589-garravally-co-tipperary/Drumbaun, Busherstown (OF), Drumroe (OF), Moatquarter, Loughan (OF) and Cas-tleroan (OF). The townlands are located in the parishes of Ballymackey, Cullenwaine,Castletownely, Rathnaveoge, Finglas and Dunkerrin and the baronies of Upper Ormond,Ikerrin and Clonisk, The route begins at the eastern end of the Nenagh bypass at Clashnevin c. 5 km eastof Nenagh and continues eastward on the northern side of the existing N7 in Co. Tip-perary. It crosses a number of third class roads to the north of Toomyvara and 0.7 kmeast of Clash crossroads crosses the Ollatrim River. It extends into County Offaly directlyeast of Park. From here it crosses the R490 0.6 km north of Moneygall. It extends backin County Tipperary and through the demesne of Greenhills before crossing the existingN7 at the junction of Greenhills and Drumbaun townlands. It crosses back into CountyOffaly and climbs east into Busherstown and Drumroe. It crosses the Keeloge Streaminto Moatquarter in County Tipperary and extends northeast back into County Offalythrough the townlands of Loughan and Castleroan 1.4 km southwest of Dunkerrin.3 Receiving environmentNorth Tipperary is bounded on the west by the River Shannon and Lough Derg withthe Silvermines, to the south, and small hills extending towards Devilsbit and BorrisnoeMountains to the east. The mountains are composed largely of Silurian strata and OldRed Sandstone. Copper, silver and lead deposits have been mined in the Silvermines. Thegeology of the lowlands consists of Carboniferous limestone covered by glacial drift inaddition to tracts of raised bog. The western portion of the study area is drained by the Ollatrim River which flowswestwards into the River Ballintotty which in turns drains into the River Nenagh. Theeastern portion is drained by the Keeloge Stream and other small water sources. These risein the foothills of the Silvermine Mountains and flow north. The Keeloge drains into theLittle Brosna River c. 1 km south of Shinrone, Co Offaly. The Brosna turns north anddrains into the Shannon south of Banagher. The largest population centre in the area is Nenagh. The smaller population centres,are Toomyvara, Moneygall and Dunkerrin. The soils on the route are characterised by 80% grey brown podzolics, 10% gleys, 5%brown earths and 5% basis peat. They are derived from glacial till of predominantly Car-boniferous limestone composition. These soils occur in Tipperary and Offaly and have awide use range being suitable for both tillage and pasture (Gardiner and Radford 1980,97-99). Land use along the route was a mix of grassland devoted to intensive dairying andcattle-rearing and tillage.4 Archaeological and historical background 3
  • iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEoloGical Excavation rEport Archaeological sites of numerous periods were discovered along the route of the new road (Figure 2). The periods are referred to as follows: Mesolithic (c. 8000 to 4000 BC), Neo- lithic (c. 4000 to 2000 BC), Bronze Age (c. 2000 to 600 BC), and Iron Age (c. 500 BC to AD 500), early medieval period (c. AD 500 to 1100), medieval period (c. AD 1100 to 1650), post-medieval period (c. AD 1650 to the present). Mesolithic (c. 8000 to 4000 BC) The earliest known human settlement in Ireland dates from the Mesolithic period (c. 8000 BC - 4000 BC). The majority of the evidence (flint scatters) for Mesolithic occupa- tion has come from the river valleys. No evidence for the Mesolithic was recorded on the route. Neolithic (c. 4000 to 2000 BC) The Neolithic Period is characterised by the introduction of agriculture and the begin- nings of the clearance of the woodlands. The population increased and became more sedentary in nature. The most important Neolithic site in the vicinity was at Tullahedy recorded on the route of the Nenagh by-pass. It was a specialist chert arrow manufactur- ing site. No evidence for a Neolithic site was recorded on the route but stone tools dating to the Neolithic were recorded at Busherstown E3661, Clash E3660, Cullenwaine E3741 and Greenhills 2 and 3 E3637 and E3658. Stone tools dating to the late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age were recorded at Busherstown E3661, Castleroan E3909, Cullenwaine E3741, Derrybane 1 E3585, Drumroe E3773, Greenhills 1 E3638 and Moatquarter E3910 Bronze Age (c. 2000 to 600BC) The Bronze Age is characterised by the introduction of metallurgy and an increase in settlement and burial sites. Copper ores were mined and copper, bronze and gold items manufactured. The range of burial site types includes cist graves, pit and urn burials, cremation cemeteries, barrows, ring-ditches and wedge tombs. Stone circles and stand- ing stones also date to the Bronze Age. Both enclosed and unenclosed settlement sites are known. The most prolific Bronze Age site type is the fulacht fiadh. These monuments survive as low mounds of charcoal rich black silt, packed with heat-shattered stones, and generally situated close to a water source. Fulachta fiadh are generally classified as ‘cook- ing places’, whereby stones were heated in a hearth and subsequently placed in a trough of water, the water continued to boil with the addition of hot stones and wrapped food was cooked within the hot water. The trough eventually filled with small stones, ash and charcoal that were removed, forming the basis of the familiar mound. Two new fulachta fiadh or burnt mounds were recorded at Clashnevin 1 E3586, Cullenwaine E3741 and six at three separate locations in Greenhills, E3638, E3637 and E3658. Evidence of nine roundhouses or partial round structures were recorded; two at4
  • 190400 196200 202000 207800 Garravally-3589 186400 186400 Garravally Castleroan 1 E 3909 Busherstown 1 E 3661 Loughan 1 E 4000 Greenhills 3 E 3658 Moneygall 2 Culleenwaine 1 E 3635 E 3741 Moatquarter 1 Clynoe 2 E 3910 E 3774 181800 181800 Park 1 Drumroe 1 Garravally Kilgorteen 1 E 3659 E 3773 E 3589 E 3739 Drumbaun 2 Derrybane 2 E 3912 E 3591 Greenhills 1 Greenhills 2 E 3638 E 3637 Clashnevin 2 E 3590 Clash 1 Park 2 E 3660 E 3772 Derrycarney 1 E 3740 Clashnevin 1 Derrybane 1 Killeisk 1 E 3586 E 3585 E 3587 177200 177200 0 3 6 Kilometres ± 190400 196200 202000 207800 Figure 2: The route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh overlain on the Ordnance Survey Discovery Series map with all the excavation sites marked� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3589-garravally-co-tipperary/5
  • iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEoloGical Excavation rEport Castleroan E3909, Derrybane 2 E3591 and Drumbaun 2 E3912 and one at Clash E3660, Drumroe E3773 and Moatquarter E3910. Iron Age (c. 500 BC to AD 500) Upto recently there was little evidence of a significant Iron Age presence in Munster. Settlement sites are few and far between as well as being difficult to identify (Woodman, 2000) while the material culture of this period is limited. Linear earthworks, believed to have marked tribal boundaries, and hillforts are two of the most visible monuments of the period. Ten percent of sites excavated on NRA road schemes in recent years have produced Iron Age dates. The dates have led to the identification of 30 new Iron Age sites in Munster from road schemes in counties Cork, Limerick and Tipperary (McLaughlin 2008, 51). These include a ditched enclosure in Ballywilliam and a wooden trackway in Annaholty Bog excavated on the route of the N7 Nenagh-Limerick (Taylor 2008, 54). Early medieval period (c. AD 400 to 1100) The early medieval period is characterised by the arrival of Christianity to Ireland. The characteristic monument type of the period is the ringfort. Ringforts are the most nu- merous archaeological monument found in Ireland, with estimates of between 30,000 and 50,000 illustrated on the first edition of the Ordnance Survey 6” maps of the 1840’s (Barry 1987). As a result of continued research, the construction of these monuments has a narrow date range during the early medieval period between the 7th and 9th centuries AD. Although there are some very elaborate examples of ringforts, they often take the form of a simple earth or stone enclosure functioning as settlements for all classes of secu- lar society (Stout 1997). North Tipperary is rich in early ecclesiastical sites and the remains of these religious centres are at the core of some of the towns and villages. Roscrea, for example, was chosen by St Cronan as a location for his monastery in the seventh century as it was located at the crossroads on the Slighe Dála, an important roadway in early medieval times (NIAH 2006, 4-8). A possible early medieval enclosure and associated road way was recorded at Killeisk E3587. A denuded ringfort (OF046-013) was excavated at Clynoe 2 E3774. High and later medieval periods (c. AD 1100 to 1650) This period is characterized by the arrival of the Anglo-Normans and the building of tow- er houses. The Anglo-Normans obtained charters in the thirteenth century for the towns of Nenagh, Roscrea, Thurles and Templemore and established markets. Nenagh grew rapidly in the aftermath of the granting of the lands of Munster to Theobald fitzWalter in 1185 (ibid. 8). Moated sites represent the remains of isolated, semi-defended homesteads in rural areas. They were build mainly in the late thirteenth and early fourteenth cen- turies in counties, such as Wexford, Kilkenny, Tipperary, mid-Cork and Limerick, that6
  • Garravally-3589 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3589-garravally-co-tipperary/Plate 1: Mid-excavation of pit C�302 from west�were colonised by English settlers (O’Conor 1998, 58). The Archaeological Inventory forNorth Tipperary lists 39 moated sites (2002, 298). A newly recorded moated site was excavated at Busherstown E3661.Post-medieval period (c. 1650 to the present).The post-medieval period is characterised by mills, limekilns, workhouses, country hous-es and associated demesnes, vernacular buildings and field systems (Figure 3). A smalldemesne associated with a county house was recorded at Greenhills.5 Site Location and TopographyThe site at Garravally was located in the adjoining field 150 m east of the enclosure at Kil-leisk E3587 (Plate 1). The ground was used for pasture.6 Excavation methodologyThe site was mechanically stripped of topsoil under strict archaeological supervision.Stripping was done with a tracked machine with a flat toothless bucket. Topsoil strippingcommenced in the areas of identified archaeology and continued radially outward untilthe limit of the road take was reached or until the limit of the archaeological remains wasfully defined. A grid was set up in the excavation area(s) and all archaeological featureswere sufficiently cleaned, recorded and excavated so as to enable an accurate and mean- 7
  • 8 194916 195916 UMMERA GORTNADRUMMAN BALLYMACKEY FALLEEN DERRYCARNEY KILGORTEEN 180065 180065 GARRAVALLY iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 Kilgorteen 1 ibutary Derrycarney 1 Garravally River Tr Ollatrim LISSANISKY KIlleisk 1 179415 179415 KILLEISK GARRYNAFANA 0 300 PALLAS WEST 600 CLONTEIGE Meters 194916 195916 ¥ Figure 3: Portion of the Ist edition Ordnance Survey Map OF46 showing the location of Garravally� archaEoloGical Excavation rEport
  • Garravally-3589 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3589-garravally-co-tipperary/ Plate 2: Post-excavation of pit C�302 from south�ingful record of the site to be preserved. The excavation, environmental sampling, sitephotographs, site drawings, find care and retrieval, on-site recording and site archive wasas per the Procedures for Archaeological works as attached to the licence method state-ments for excavation licences. The site was excavated on the week of 1 August 2007. Only areas within the LMAwere resolved. The full extent of the area of excavation measured 2215 m sq (Figure 4). The full record of excavated contexts is recorded in the context register and the strati-graphic matrix (Appendix 1). Detailed stratigraphic descriptions are found in the groupsand sub-groups text (Appendix 2). The context register maybe viewed in the EAPOD(Eachtra Archaeological Projects office database) in the accompanying CD.7 Excavation resultsTwo post-holes and a pit were excavated at Garravally (Figure 5). The pit C.302 measured1.85 m long, 1.1 m wide and 0.26 m deep. It was aligned north-west to south-east. It was ahearth that contained three fills (C.301, C.320 and C.321) all of which contained evidenceof residual burning (Figure 6, Plates 1 and 2). The central fill C.301 included charcoal,ash and burnt clay. A post-hole (C.319) was located 0.9 m to the west. It measured 0.6mlong, 0.5 m wide and 0.27 m deep (Plate 3). It contained a single, sterile fill (C.318). A 9
  • 194333 194703 19507310 DERRYCARNEY 179898 179898 iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 G A R R AVA L LY y ributar 340 0 350 0 330 0 3600 179668 179668 River T 320 0 31 00 Ollatrim 30 LISSANISKY 00 29 00 28 00 179438 179438 KILLEISK Garravally 1 (E3589) 27 00 0 100 200 Metres ± 260 0 194333 194703 195073 Figure 4: Location and extent of Garravally E3589 on the N7 Castletown to Nenagh� archaEoloGical Excavation rEport
  • 194716 194721 ± Garravally-3589 179662 179662 319 302 O ) 103 m O.D. 338 179659 179659 0 5 m 194716 194721 Figure 5: Post-excation plan of Garravally� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3589-garravally-co-tipperary/11
  • iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEoloGical Excavation rEport Plate 4: Mid-excavation of post-hole C�338� Plate 3: Post-excavation of post-hole C�319�12
  • Garravally-3589 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3589-garravally-co-tipperary/second post-hole (C.338) was located 1.5 m west of the pit (C.302) and 0.15 m south of thepost-hole (C.319). It measured 0.27 m long by 0.25 m wide and 0.26 m deep (Plate 4). Itcontained a single, sterile fill (C.337). No artefacts were recovered from the area of the excavation and no radiocarbon datewas obtained.8 SummaryThe single pit was used as a hearth but it could not be assigned to a particular period. Thetwo post-holes were located to the west of the pit and were associated with the hearth.The features may be contemporary with the medieval enclosure and associated features atKilleisk E3587 which was located in the adjoining field to the west. 13
  • 14 Garavally 1 E3589 South west facing section of C.302 # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # ## # # # # C.320 # # C.320 # # # C.321 C.302 iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 Garavally 1 E3589 Garavally 1 North facing section of C.319 E3589 Pro le of C.338 C.318 C.338 C.319 0 500 mm Figure 6: Sections of pit C�302 and postholes C�338 and C�319� archaEoloGical Excavation rEport
  • Garravally-3589 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3589-garravally-co-tipperary/9 References Farrelly, J., and O’Brien, C. (2002) Archaeological Inventory of County Tipperary Vol.1 - North Tipperary, The Stationery Office Dublin. Gardiner, M.J. and Radford,T. (1980) Soil Assocaitions of Ireland and Their Land UsePotential. Dublin, An Foras Talúntais. McLaughlin, M. and Conran, S. (2008) ‘The emerging Iron Age of South Munster’in Seanda, Issue 3, 51-53. Dublin. National Inventory of Architectural Heritage (2006) An Introduction to the Architec-tural Heritage of North Tipperary. Government of Ireland. O’Conor, K.D. (1998) The Archaeology of Medieval Rural Settlement in Ireland, Discov-ery Programme Monographs No 3, Discovery Programme/Royal Irish Academy Dublin. Reimer, P.J., Baillie, M.G.L., Bard, E., Bayliss, A., Beck, J.W., Bertrand, C., Blackwell,P.G., Buck, C.E., Burr, G., Cutler, K.B., Damon, P.E., Edwards, R.L., Fairbanks, R.G.,Friedrich, M., Guilderson, T.P., Hughen, K.A., Kromer, B., McCormac, F.G., Manning,S., Bronk Ramsey, C., Reimer, R.W., Remmele, S., Southon, J.R., Stuiver, M., Talamo,S., Taylor, F.W., van der Plicht, J. and Weyhenmeyer, C.E. (2004) ‘IntCal04 TerrestrialRadiocarbon Age Calibration, 0–26 Cal Kyr BP’, Radiocarbon 46, 1029-1058. Stuiver, M., and Reimer, P.J. (1993) ‘Extended (super 14) C data base and revisedCALIB 3.0 (super 14) C age calibration program’, Radiocarbon 35, 215-230. Stout, M. (1997) The Irish Ringfort. Dublin, Four Courts Press. Taylor, K. (2008) ‘At home and on the road: two Iron Age sites in County Tipperary’in Seanda, Issue 3, 54-55. Dublin. Woodman, P.C. (2000) ‘Hammers and Shoeboxes: New Agendas for Prehistory’., pp.1 -10 in Desmond, A., Johnson, G., McCarthy, M., Sheehan, J. and Shee Twohig, E. NewAgendas in Irish Prehistory. Papers in commemoration of Liz Anderson. Bray, Wordwell. 15
  • iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEoloGical Excavation rEport Appendix 1 Site matrix16
  • Garravally-3589 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3589-garravally-co-tipperary/Appendix 2 Groups and subgroups Group 1 natural deposits This group describes the natural geological deposits identified across the area ofexcavation. Subgroup 1 Topsoil List of Contexts; C.1 Description This subgroup describes the topsoil covering the archaeological features. It was a softmid greyish brown clayey silt. Subgroup 2 Subsoil List of Contexts; C.2 Description This subgroup describes the natural subsoil that formed across the areas of excavation.It was a stiff light yellowish orange clayey silt. GROUP 2 PIT Subgroup 2 Pit List of Contexts; C.302 filled with C.320, C.301, 321 Description The cut is oval in plan with rounded corners. Break of slope top was sharp. Sides aremoderate and irregular on W and S; gentle and smooth on N and E. Break of slope basewas gradual. Base was oval in plan and concave in profile. The cut measured 1.85m by1.1m and had a maximum depth of 0.26m. The pit was filled with three fills. The up-per fill was a firm, light to mid grey sandy clay. The middle fill was a dark black fill withvery occasional medium sub-angular stones. The basal fill was a firm, bright orangish redsandy clay. Interpretation Cut of large pit used to burn wood. A fire pit containing three fills, all of which areresidual from burning, and one at least representing in-situ burning. GROUP 3 Postholes Subgroup 1 Posthole List of Contexts; C.319 filled with C.318 Description 17
  • iSSUE 11: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEoloGical Excavation rEport The posthole was sub-rectangular in plan. Corners were rounded on S; square else- where. Break of slope top was sharp. Sides are moderate and irregular on SW; gentle and stepped on NW and NE; moderate and stepped on SE. Break of slope base was gradual. Base was sub-rectangular in plan; tapered blunt point in profile. The fill was a soft, mid orangish brown sandy clay. The cut measured 0.6m by 0.5m and had a maximum depth of 0.27m. Interpretation Irregular-shaped posthole, but containing a sterile fill. Subgroup 2 Posthole List of Contexts; C.338, filled with C.337 Description The cut was sub-circular in plan. Corners were square on S and SE; rounded else- where. Break of slope top was gradual on N and E; sharp elsewhere. Sides were steep and smooth on E; moderate and irregular elsewhere. Base was sub-circular in plan and concave in profile. The cut measured 0.27m north south by 0.25m and had a maximum depth of 0.26m. The fill was a soft, mid orangish brown sandy clay. Interpretation Cut of small discrete feature which has the appearance of a posthole. Fill was sterile but sampled in order to assess the archaeological potential of this feature.18