Archaeological Report - Derrybane 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)

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Three separate cuttings were excavated at Derrybane 1. Area 1 measured 20 m by 20 m, Area 2 measured 92 m by 30 m and Area 3 measured 13 m by 15 m. Three large pits were excavated in Area 1. Area 2 …

Three separate cuttings were excavated at Derrybane 1. Area 1 measured 20 m by 20 m, Area 2 measured 92 m by 30 m and Area 3 measured 13 m by 15 m. Three large pits were excavated in Area 1. Area 2 was characterised by 22 small and shallow pits, located for the most part in the centre of the site, 12 postholes and three hearths. The entire area was truncated by modern drains and furrows. An Early Bronze Age date, an early medieval and a medieval date were returned from pits and a hearth in Area 2. A corn-drying kiln and associated pit were recorded in Area 3. The figure-of-eight type kiln comprised two oval chambers separated by a flue. There was evidence for three or four phases of use in the kiln. A large oval pit was located adjacent to the kiln. The pit contained large amounts of burnt material, possibly waste from the kiln. The kiln was dated to the medieval period.

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  • 1. Eachtra JournalIssue 11 [ISSN 2009-2237] Archaeological Excavation Report E3585 - Derrybane 1, Co. Tipperary Multi peroid site with a Later Medieval kiln
  • 2. EACHTRAArchaeological Projects Archaeological Excavation Report Derrybane 1 Co. Tipperary Multi peroid site with a Later Medieval kiln Date: July 2011 Client: Laois County Council and National Roads Authority Project: N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Contract 1) E No.: E3585Excavation Director: Laurence McGowan Written by: Ewelina Chrobak and Enda OMahony
  • 3. Archaeological Excavation Report Derrybane 1 Co. Tipperary Excavation Director Laurence McGowan Written By Ewelina Chrobak and Enda OMahony EACHTRA Archaeological Projects CORK GALWAY The Forge, Innishannon, Co. Cork Unit 10, Kilkerrin Park, Liosbain Industrial Estate, Galwaytel: 021 4701616 | web: www.eachtra.ie | email: info@eachtra.ie tel: 091 763673 | web: www.eachtra.ie | email: galway@eachtra.ie
  • 4. © Eachtra Archaeological Projects 2011 The Forge, Innishannon, Co Cork Set in 12pt Garamond Printed in Ireland
  • 5. Table of Contents Summary���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������iii Acknowledgements�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� iv1 Scope of the project �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Route location��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 13 Receiving environment ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 34 Archaeological and historical background ��������������������������������������������������������������������� 4 Mesolithic(c�8000to4000BC)���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4 Neolithic(c�4000to2000BC)������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 4 � BronzeAge(c�2000to600BC)����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4 IronAge(c�500BCtoAD500)����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 6 Earlymedievalperiod(c�AD400to1100)����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 6 Highandlatermedievalperiods(c�AD1100to1650)���������������������������������������������������������������� 7 Post-medievalperiod(c�1650tothepresent)��������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 75 Site location and Topography ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 96 Excavation methodology ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 117 Excavation results ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 128 Discussion ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������239 References �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 26Appendix 1 Stratigraphic Index ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������28Appendix 2 Site Matrix �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������29Appendix 3 Groups and Subgroups ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 32Appendix 4 Lithic artefacts report ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������44Appendix 5 Plant remains report������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 47Appendix 6 Animal bone report �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������56 i
  • 6. List of Figures Figure 1: The route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh overlain on the Ordnance Survey Discovery Series map� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 � Figure 2: The route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh overlain on the Ordnance Survey Discovery Series map with all the excavation sites marked� ����������������������������������������������������� 5 Figure 3: Portion of the Ist edition Ordnance Survey Map TN21 showing the location of Derrybane 1� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 8 Figure 4: Location and extent of Derrybane 1 E3585 on the N7 Castletown to Nenagh� ����������������10 Figure 5: Post excavation plan of Area 1 ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Figure 6: Post excavation plan of Area 2 ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 14 Figure 7: Post excavation plan of Area 3 ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 18 Figure 8: Section of pits C�142 and C�153 and kiln C�145 �������������������������������������������������������������������������������20 List of Plates Plate 1: Aerial photograph montage of Derrybane 1� ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 9 Plate 2: Mid-excavation of pit C�153 ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 13 Plate 3: Post-excavation photograph of C�14, C�26 and C�50 looking southeast� ����������������������������� 15 Plate 4: Post excavation of pit C�12 looking south� �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 15 Plate 5: Mid-excavation of hearth C�105� ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 16 Plate 6: Mid excavation of pit C�142 looking east� ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 17 Plate 7: Mid excavation of kiln C�145 looking south� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 18 Plate 8: Post excavation of kiln C�145 looking north� ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 19 Plate 9: Convex end scraper E3585:1:1 �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������21 List of Tables Table 1 Dimensions of pits in Area 1 ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Table 2 Dimensions of hearths in Area 2 �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 16 � Table 3 Dimensions of pits in Area 3 ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 17 Table 4 Radiocarbon dates �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������22 Table 5 Radiocarbon dates from other medieval sites with kilns on the N7 (Contract 1)� ������������25ii
  • 7. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/SummaryThree separate cuttings were excavated at Derrybane 1. Area 1 measured 20 m by 20 m,Area 2 measured 92 m by 30 m and Area 3 measured 13 m by 15 m. Three large pits wereexcavated in Area 1. Area 2 was characterised by 22 small and shallow pits, located forthe most part in the centre of the site, 12 postholes and three hearths. The entire area wastruncated by modern drains and furrows. An Early Bronze Age date, an early medievaland a medieval date were returned from pits and a hearth in Area 2. A corn-drying kilnand associated pit were recorded in Area 3. The figure-of-eight type kiln comprised twooval chambers separated by a flue. There was evidence for three or four phases of use inthe kiln. A large oval pit was located adjacent to the kiln. The pit contained large amountsof burnt material, possibly waste from the kiln. The kiln was dated to the medieval period.Road project name N7 Castletown to NenaghSite name Derrybane 1E no. E3585Site director Laurence McGowanTownland DerrybaneParish BallymackeyCounty TipperaryBarony Upper OrmondOS Map Sheet No. TN21National Grid Reference 192428, 192514Elevation 85m O.D. iii
  • 8. iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report Acknowledgements The project was commissioned by Laois County Council and was funded by the Na- tional Roads Authority under the National Development Plan (2000-2006). The project archaeologist was Niall Roycroft. Kildare County Council supervised the archaeological contract with RE staff of Pat Dowling and Colum Fagan. Kildare County Council Sen- ior Executive Engineer was Joseph Kelly and Kildare County Council Senior Engineer was John Coppinger. The senior archaeologist was John Tierney and the post-excavation manager was Jacinta Kiely. Illustrations are by Maurizio Toscano, photographs by John Sunderland and Eagle Photography and aerial photography by StudioLab. Specialist anal- ysis was carried out by Mary Dillon, Penny Johnston, Farina Sternke and the 14 Chrono Centre at Queen’s University Belfast.iv
  • 9. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/1 Scope of the projectEachtra Archaeological Projects were commissioned by Laois County Council and theNational Roads Authority to undertake archaeological works along 17.1 km (Contact1) of the 35km N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) national roadscheme (EIS approved in November 2005). The scheme runs from the eastern junctionof the present N7 Nenagh Bypass, North Tipperary a tie in to the M7/M8 Portlaoise-Castletown scheme to the south of Borris-in-Ossory in County Laois. The scheme is ap-proximately 191 hectares. Contract 1 comprises the western half of the scheme and runsfrom Clashnevin to Castleroan passing along the Tipperary North and Offaly countyborder regions. The Ministers Direction Number is A38. It was funded by the Irish Government under the National Development Plan 2000-2006. The total archaeological cost was administered by the National Roads Authoritythrough Laois County Council as part of the Authority’s commitment to protectingour cultural heritage. The purpose of the archaeological services project was to conductarchaeological site investigations within the lands made available for the scheme and toassess the nature and extent of any new potential archaeological sites uncovered. Phase 1 of the project (archaeological testing of the route) was carried out in 2007under licence E3371, E3372 and E3375-8 issued by Department of the EnvironmentHeritage and Local Government (DoEHLG) in consultation with the National Muse-um of Ireland. The principal aim of this phase of the project was to test for any previ-ously unknown sites by a programme of centreline and offset testing and to test sites ofarchaeological potential identified in the EIS. Phase 2 of the project (resolution) involved the resolution of all archaeological sitesidentified within the proposed road corridor prior to commencement of the construc-tion of the road. This phase of the project was carried out from June 2007 to February2008 and excavations were conducted under the management of a Senior Archaeologist.A total of 27 sites were excavated during this phase of works under separate licences is-sued by DoEHLG. A post-excavation assessment and strategy document was prepared in Phase 3 of theproject to present a management strategy for dealing with post-excavation work aris-ing from archaeological works along the route of the new N7 Castletown to Nenagh. Itincluded a proposal for post-excavation and archiving work and a budget for the works.2 Route locationThe route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh road is located in Counties North Tipperaryand Offaly (OF) (Figure 1). The project (Contract 1) involves the construction of c. 17.5km of the N7 from Clashnevin east of Nenagh to Castleroan south-east of Dunkerrin. Itpasses through the townlands of Clashnevin, Derrybane, Newtown, Lissanisky, Killeisk,Garavally, Derrycarney, Garrynafanna, Gortnadrumman, Kilgorteen, Falleen, Knock-ane, Clash, Park, Rosdremid (OF), Clynoe (OF), Cullenwaine, Moneygall, Greenhills, 1
  • 10. 182550 198900 2152502 193300 193300 ! ( Nenagh iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 Derg (Lough) 182950 182950 172600 172600 0 5 10 182550 198900 Kilometres 215250 ± Figure 1: The route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh overlain on the Ordnance Survey Discovery Series map� archaeological excavation report
  • 11. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/Drumbaun, Busherstown (OF), Drumroe (OF), Moatquarter, Loughan (OF) and Cas-tleroan (OF). The townlands are located in the parishes of Ballymackey, Cullenwaine,Castletownely, Rathnaveoge, Finglas and Dunkerrin and the baronies of Upper Ormond,Ikerrin and Clonisk, The route begins at the eastern end of the Nenagh bypass at Clashnevin c. 5 kmeast of Nenagh and continues eastward on the northern side of the existing N7 in Co.Tipperary. It crosses a number of third class roads to the north of Toomyvara and 0.7km east of Clash crossroads crosses the Ollatrim River. It extends into County Offalydirectly east of Park. From here it crosses the R490 0.6 km north of Moneygall. It ex-tends back in County Tipperary and through the demesne of Greenhills before cross-ing the existing N7 at the junction of Greenhills and Drumbaun townlands. It crossesback into County Offaly and climbs east into Busherstown and Drumroe. It crosses theKeeloge Stream into Moatquarter in County Tipperary and extends northeast back intoCounty Offaly through the townlands of Loughan and Castleroan 1.4 km southwest ofDunkerrin.3 Receiving environmentNorth Tipperary is bounded on the west by the River Shannon and Lough Derg withthe Silvermines, to the south, and small hills extending towards Devilsbit and BorrisnoeMountains to the east. The mountains are composed largely of Silurian strata and OldRed Sandstone. Copper, silver and lead deposits have been mined in the Silvermines. Thegeology of the lowlands consists of Carboniferous limestone covered by glacial drift inaddition to tracts of raised bog. The western portion of the study area is drained by the Ollatrim River which flowswestwards into the River Ballintotty which in turns drains into the River Nenagh. Theeastern portion is drained by the Keeloge Stream and other small water sources. Theserise in the foothills of the Silvermine Mountains and flow north. The Keeloge drainsinto the Little Brosna River c. 1 km south of Shinrone, Co Offaly. The Brosna turnsnorth and drains into the Shannon south of Banagher. The largest population centre in the area is Nenagh. The smaller population centres,are Toomyvara, Moneygall and Dunkerrin. The soils on the route are characterised by 80% grey brown podzolics, 10% gleys,5% brown earths and 5% basis peat. They are derived from glacial till of predominantlyCarboniferous limestone composition. These soils occur in Tipperary and Offaly andhave a wide use range being suitable for both tillage and pasture (Gardiner and Rad-ford 1980, 97-99). Land use along the route was a mix of grassland devoted to intensivedairying and cattle-rearing and tillage. 3
  • 12. iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report 4 Archaeological and historical background Archaeological sites of numerous periods were discovered along the route of the new road (Figure 2). The periods are referred to as follows: Mesolithic (c. 8000 to 4000 BC), Neo- lithic (c. 4000 to 2000 BC), Bronze Age (c. 2000 to 600 BC), and Iron Age (c. 500 BC to AD 500), early medieval period (c. AD 500 to 1100), medieval period (c. AD 1100 to 1650), post-medieval period (c. AD 1650 to the present). Mesolithic (c. 8000 to 4000 BC) The earliest known human settlement in Ireland dates from the Mesolithic period (c. 8000 BC - 4000 BC). The majority of the evidence (flint scatters) for Mesolithic occupa- tion has come from the river valleys. No evidence for the Mesolithic was recorded on the route. Neolithic (c. 4000 to 2000 BC) The Neolithic Period is characterised by the introduction of agriculture and the begin- nings of the clearance of the woodlands. The population increased and became more sedentary in nature. The most important Neolithic site in the vicinity was at Tullahedy recorded on the route of the Nenagh by-pass. It was a specialist chert arrow manufactur- ing site. No evidence for a Neolithic site was recorded on the route but stone tools dating to the Neolithic were recorded at Busherstown E3661, Clash E3660, Culleenwaine E3741 and Greenhills 2 and 3 E3637 and E3658. Stone tools dating to the late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age were recorded at Busherstown E3661, Castleroan E3909, Culleenwaine E3741, Derrybane 1 E3585, Drumroe E3773, Greenhills 1 E3638 and Moatquarter E3910. Neolithic pottery was recorded at Culleenwaine E3741 and Drumbaun E3912. Bronze Age (c. 2000 to 600BC) The Bronze Age is characterised by the introduction of metallurgy and an increase in settlement and burial sites. Copper ores were mined and copper, bronze and gold items manufactured. The range of burial site types includes cist graves, pit and urn burials, cremation cemeteries, barrows, ring-ditches and wedge tombs. Stone circles and stand- ing stones also date to the Bronze Age. Both enclosed and unenclosed settlement sites are known. The most prolific Bronze Age site type is the fulacht fiadh. These monuments survive as low mounds of charcoal rich black silt, packed with heat-shattered stones, and generally situated close to a water source. Fulachta fiadh are generally classified as ‘cook- ing places’, whereby stones were heated in a hearth and subsequently placed in a trough of water, the water continued to boil with the addition of hot stones and wrapped food was cooked within the hot water. The trough eventually filled with small stones, ash and charcoal that were removed, forming the basis of the familiar mound.4
  • 13. 190400 196200 202000 207800 Derrybane 1 186400 186400 Derrybane 1-e3585 Castleroan 1 E 3909 Busherstown 1 E 3661 Loughan 1 E 4000 Greenhills 3 E 3658 Moneygall 2 Culleenwaine 1 E 3635 E 3741 Moatquarter 1 Clynoe 2 E 3910 E 3774 181800 181800 Park 1 Drumroe 1 Garravally Kilgorteen 1 E 3659 E 3773 E 3589 E 3739 Drumbaun 2 Derrybane 2 E 3912 E 3591 Greenhills 1 Greenhills 2 E 3638 E 3637 Clashnevin 2 E 3590 Clash 1 Park 2 E 3660 E 3772 Derrycarney 1 E 3740 Clashnevin 1 Derrybane 1 Killeisk 1 E 3586 E 3585 E 3587 177200 177200 0 3 6 Kilometres ± 190400 196200 202000 207800 Figure 2: The route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh overlain on the Ordnance Survey Discovery Series map with all the excavation sites marked� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/5
  • 14. iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report Two new fulachta fiadh or burnt mounds were recorded at Clashnevin 1 E3586, Culleenwaine E3741 and six at three separate locations in Greenhills, E3638, E3637 and E3658. Evidence of nine roundhouses or partial round structures were recorded; two at Castleroan E3909, Derrybane 2 E3591 and Drumbaun 2 E3912 and one at Clash E3660, Drumroe E3773 and Moatquarter E3910. Iron Age (c. 500 BC to AD 500) Up to recently there was little evidence of a significant Iron Age presence in Munster. Settlement sites are few and far between as well as being difficult to identify (Woodman, 2000) while the material culture of this period is limited. Linear earthworks, believed to have marked tribal boundaries, and hillforts are two of the most visible monuments of the period. Ten percent of sites excavated on NRA road schemes in recent years have produced Iron Age dates. The dates have led to the identification of 30 new Iron Age sites in Munster from road schemes in counties Cork, Limerick and Tipperary (McLaughlin 2008, 51). These include a ditched enclosure in Ballywilliam and a wooden trackway in Annaholty Bog excavated on the route of the N7 Nenagh-Limerick (Taylor 2008, 54). Three Iron Age dates were returned from pits in Castleroan E3909 and Drumroe E3773 on the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Contract 1). Early medieval period (c. AD 400 to 1100) The early medieval period is characterised by the arrival of Christianity to Ireland. The characteristic monument type of the period is the ringfort. Ringforts are the most nu- merous archaeological monument found in Ireland, with estimates of between 30,000 and 50,000 illustrated on the first edition of the Ordnance Survey 6” maps of the 1840’s (Barry 1987). As a result of continued research, the construction of these monuments has a narrow date range during the early medieval period between the 7th and 9th centuries AD. Although there are some very elaborate examples of ringforts, they often take the form of a simple earth or stone enclosure functioning as settlements for all classes of secu- lar society (Stout 1997). North Tipperary is rich in early ecclesiastical sites and the remains of these religious centres are at the core of some of the towns and villages. Roscrea, for example, was cho- sen by St Cronan as a location for his monastery in the seventh century as it was located at the crossroads on the Slighe Dála, an important roadway in early medieval times (NIAH 2006, 4-8). Early medieval activity was recorded at five sites on the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Contract 1). A series of corn-drying kilns were recorded at Busherstown E3661. A denuded ringfort (OF046-013) was excavated at Clynoe 2 E3774. An area of iron-working and associated pits was recorded at Drumbaun E3912. Iron working activ- ity, corn-drying kilns and settlement activity was recorded at Park 1 E3659. A group of pits and associated ditch were recorded at Drumroe E3773.6
  • 15. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/High and later medieval periods (c. AD 1100 to 1650)This period is characterized by the arrival of the Anglo-Normans and the building of tow-er houses. The Anglo-Normans obtained charters in the thirteenth century for the townsof Nenagh, Roscrea, Thurles and Templemore and established markets. Nenagh grewrapidly in the aftermath of the granting of the lands of Munster to Theobald fitzWalter in1185 (ibid. 8). Moated sites represent the remains of isolated, semi-defended homesteadsin rural areas. They were build mainly in the late thirteenth and early fourteenth cen-turies in counties, such as Wexford, Kilkenny, Tipperary, mid-Cork and Limerick, thatwere colonised by English settlers (O’Conor 1998, 58). The Archaeological Inventory forNorth Tipperary lists 39 moated sites (2002, 298). A medieval enclosure and associated field systems were recorded at Killeisk E3587. Anewly recorded moated site was excavated at Busherstown E3661. A series of ditches andsettlement activity was recorded at Park 1 E3659.Post-medieval period (c. 1650 to the present).The post-medieval period is characterised by mills, limekilns, workhouses, country hous-es and associated demesnes, vernacular buildings and field systems (Figure 3). A smallDemesne associated with a county house was recorded at Greenhills. 7
  • 16. 192402 1934028 BALLINREE NEWTOWN 179468 179468 LISSANISKY iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 CLASHNEVIN Derrybane 2 Clashnevin 2 Clashnevin 1 RATHFALLA Derrybane 1 DERRYBANE 178818 178818 BALLINTOTTY KNOCKAHUNNA SHANBALLY BALLYNALICK 0 300 600 ¥ Meters 192402 193402 Figure 3: Portion of the Ist edition Ordnance Survey Map TN21 showing the location of Derrybane 1� archaeological excavation report
  • 17. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/ Derrybane 1 (E3585) 0 30 60 Meters ±Plate 1: Aerial photograph montage of Derrybane 1�5 Site location and TopographyThe site at Derrybane 1 was located in the western portion of the townland (Figure 4,Plate 1). Derrybane townland ranges in height from 85m O.D. to 94m O.D. and contains113 acres of land. The townland name most likely refers to the whitish oak wood derivedfrom Doire meaning “oak wood” and Bane (Ban) meaning “whitish”. The townland isenclosed by a national primary route (N7) to the south and by local tertiary roads tothe north and east. The townland boundary to the west comprises of a field boundaryand a disused pathway. In the south western corner of the townland there is no visibletownland boundary as it has been removed for 200 metres due to current agriculturalpractices. The townland and the surrounding landscape is an undulating landscape withboth tillage and pastoral agricultural being the predominant land use. Due to currentagricultural practices there are no internal field boundaries within Derrybane townlandin comparison to the First Edition OS map sheet TN21 which shows fourteen fields (seeFigure 3). There is a very gentle gradient in the area of the excavation which sloped fromeast to west. The underlying geology is Dinantian Lower Impure Limestone while the subsoilis BminDW which is a limestone derived till. These grey brown podzolics and brownearths are derived mainly from basis parent materials. 9
  • 18. 192400 192770 19314010 NEWTOWN 179200 179200 DERRYBANE 1600 1500 iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 1400 1300 Area 2 120 0 Area 3 179000 179000 CLASHNEVIN 110 0 100 0 Area 1 900 800 700 600 178800 178800 500 KNOCKAHUNNA 400 Derrybane 1 (E3585) 0 100 200 192400 192770 193140 Metres ± Figure 4: Location and extent of Derrybane 1 E3585 on the N7 Castletown to Nenagh� archaeological excavation report
  • 19. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/6 Excavation methodologyThe site was mechanically stripped of topsoil under strict archaeological supervision.Stripping was done with a tracked machine with a flat toothless bucket. Topsoil strippingcommenced in the areas of identified archaeology and continued radially outward untilthe limit of the road take was reached or until the limit of the archaeological remains wasfully defined. The three areas were stripped systemically. Area 1 measured approximately400sq m. Area 2 was located 50 m east of Area 1. It encompassed an area of c. 2700sq m.Area 3 was located 40 m east of Area 2 and it enclosed an area of c.185sq m. A grid wasset up in the excavation areas and all archaeological features were sufficiently cleaned,recorded and excavated so as to enable an accurate and meaningful record of the site tobe preserved. The excavation, environmental sampling, site photographs, site drawings,find care and retrieval, on-site recording and site archive was as per the Procedures for Ar-chaeological works as attached to the licence method statements for excavation licences. The full record of excavated contexts is recorded in the context register and thestratigraphic matrix (Appendix 1 and 2). Detailed stratigraphic descriptions are found inthe groups and sub-groups text (Appendix 3). The context register maybe viewed in theEAPOD (Eachtra Archaeological Projects office database) in the accompanying CD. 11
  • 20. iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report 192660 192680 178968 ± 178968 153 Area 1 161 159 178956 178956 0 10 m 192660 192680 Figure 5: Post excavation plan of Area 1 7 Excavation results Three areas of excavation were excavated at Derrybane 1. Area 1 Area 1 was the most westerly of the three areas. It measured c. 20 m by 20 m. Excavation of Area 1 (Figure 5) revealed three large pits (C.153, C.159 and C.161). Pit C.153 was lo- cated 9 m north of the other two pits which were adjacent to one another. Context Dimensions C.153 1.83 x 1.04 x 0.65 C.159 3.4 x 2.4 x 0.3 C.161 3.4 x 1.6 x 0.4 Table 1 Dimensions of pits in Area 1 The pit C.153 was smaller in size than the other two (see Figure 8). It was oval in plan and showed signs of insitu burning along the base however the charcoal residue was minimal (Plate 2). With the exception of a weed seed and some hazelnut shells no charred cereals or metallurgical residues were recovered from the fills of the pit C.153. The pit may have functioned as a hearth.12
  • 21. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/Plate 2: Mid-excavation of pit C�153 The other two pits were adjacent to each other and may have served as refuse pits.Small fragments of possible animal bone were recorded in the pits.Area 2The excavations in Area 2 (Figure 6) revealed a total of 22 pits, three hearths and 12postholes. The area of excavation measured c. 30 m by 90 m. The area was truncated by anumber of furrow which were aligned NW–SE and by a drainage ditch which cut east–west across the site. Five of the pits (C.20, C.29, C.35, C.42, C.43 and C.46) were located in a cluster atthe western end of Area 2. Pit C.35 cut pit C.46. The majority of the pits (C.12, C.13,C.14, C.26, C.49, C.50, C.51, C.52, C.62, C.64, C.71, C.85, C.101 and C.137) were lo-cated in the centre of Area 2 in a broad band in an area that measured c. 18 m wide by 38m long and was aligned SW–NE (Plates 3 and 4). A medieval date of cal AD 1035–1162(UB–15076) was returned from the pit C.62. Three hearths were recorded in Area 3. Two (C.16 and C.87) were located on thesouthern edge of Area 3. Hearth 87 was truncated by one of the furrows. Ten fills wererecorded within the hearth C.87, including basal layers of charcoal and burnt clay, indi-cating several periods of burning. The third hearth C.105 was located at the eastern endof Area 2 c. 32 m east of the main concentration of pits and within 50 m of the kiln inArea 3. The base of the hearth was heat-scorched and was overlain by layers of charcoal(Plate 5). Charcoal from the fill was dated to the early medieval period cal AD 778–885 13
  • 22. 192750 19280014 33 ± 111 99 Area 2 73 105 179017 179017 97 75 77 135 81 49 79 83 137 127 iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 71 58 42 52 115 85 51 43 O 46 36 ) 32 92 m O.D. 37 101 103 20 50 62 14 29 Drainage ditch 22 26 27 64 87 12 13 16 178988 178988 0 25 m 192750 192800 Figure 6: Post excavation plan of Area 2 archaeological excavation report
  • 23. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/Plate 3: Post-excavation photograph of C�14, C�26 and C�50 looking southeast�Plate 4: Post excavation of pit C�12 looking south� 15
  • 24. iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report Plate 5: Mid-excavation of hearth C�105� (UB–15075). No charred cereals or metallurgical residues were recovered from any of the hearths. Context Dimensions C.16 1.83 x 1.04 x 0.65 C.87 3.4 x 2.4 x 0.3 C.105 3.4 x 1.6 x 0.4 Table 2 Dimensions of hearths in Area 2 The postholes were located in association with the pits but did not form any apparent structure. Two of the posts (C.36 and C.37) were located adjacent to one another, 4 m to the south-east of the small cluster of pits, at the western end of Area 2. Three of postholes ((C.22, C.27 and C.28) were located in close proximity to one another in the central band of pits. An Early Bronze Age date of cal BC 1622–1512 (UB–15077) was returned from the posthole C.22. A small quantity of indeterminate animal bone was recovered from the posthole C.27. The remaining five posts (C.58, C.75, C.77, C.79, C.81 and C.83) were located close to one another to the east of pit C.49 at the northern end of the central band of pits. Posthole C.71 was located 4.5 m SE and posthole C.51 was located 2.5 m SW of the other five. A flint scaper and a hammerstone were recovered from the topsoil in Area 2. They were dated to the Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age period.16
  • 25. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/Plate 6: Mid excavation of pit C�142 looking east�Area 3Area 3 was located 40 m east of Area 2. The area of excavation measured c. 15 m by 12m. Two pits (C.142 and C.149) and a corn drying kiln (C.145) were recorded in Area 3(Figure 7). The pits were located on the eastern side of the kiln. The pit C.142 was located 1.5 m to the east of the kiln. It contained ten fills whichlikely to have been derived from rake-out from the kiln (Plate 6). The pit was re-cut bypit C.143. Four fills were recorded in the re-cut pit C.143. They were similar to thoserecorded in pit C.142. Context Dimensions C.142 2.25 x 1.46 x 0.62 C.143 0.78 x 0.76 x 0.26 C.149 0.42 x 0.25 x 0.26Table 3 Dimensions of pits in Area 3 The kiln was a figure-of-eight type kiln it comprised two oval chambers separated byan elongated flue. The kiln measured a maximum of 6.2m by 2.2m and was orientatednorth–south with the opening to the north. The sides of the kiln were stone lined whilethe interior showed signs of collapse and deliberate backfilling (Plate 7). The stone lin-ing was best preserved within the area of the drying chamber. The revetment stones werelarge rounded limestone and sandstone field stones set three courses high by two stones indepth. The stone revetment in the area of the entrance was the least well preserved. Evi- 17
  • 26. iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report 192855 192863 ± Area 3 200 212 213 214 215 143 216 217 142 179023 179023 Kiln 149 145 0 5m 192855 192863 Figure 7: Post excavation plan of Area 3 Plate 7: Mid excavation of kiln C�145 looking south�18
  • 27. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/Plate 8: Post excavation of kiln C�145 looking north�dence of a hearth was recorded towards the northern end of the flue. The flue measured c.2.5 m in length (Plate 8). The drying chamber measured c. 0.8 m wide internally. In total 31 fills were recorded within the kiln (C.168, C.169, C.170, C.171, C.172,C.184, C.189, C.190, C.191, C.192, C.193, C.194, C.195, C.196, C.197, C.198, C.199,C.201 C.,202, C.203, C.204, C.205, C.206, C.207, C.208, C.209, C.210, C.211, C.218)(Figure 8). The stratagraphic evidence suggested three or four phases of use for the kiln.The upper fills in the kiln were brown sandy silts and clays and were derived from thebackfill of the kiln. Some of the basal layers included burnt clay, charcoal and charredplant remains and were derived from rake-out of the kiln. The western edge of the northern bowl was lined with six stakeholes (C.212, C.213,C.214, C.215, C.216 and C.217) and a centrally placed posthole (C.200). They may haveformed part of a shelter or roof associated with the entrance. No stakeholes were record-ed on the eastern side of the kiln. Plant remains were recovered in large amounts from the kiln and the pit at Area3 (see Appendix 5). Some of the layers that overlay the area of the hearth were rich inplant remains and probably represent rake-out from the drying chamber. The cerealswere primarily oats followed by a smaller quantity of wheat, mostly identified as breadwheat. Much smaller quantities of barley and rye were also found. The proportionsfrom the pit C.142 were the same as those from the kiln. A medieval date of cal AD1181–1269 (UB–15040) was returned from oat grains from one of the fills that overlaythe hearth in the kiln. 19
  • 28. 20 Derrybane 1 Area 3 West facing section of kiln C.145 C.201 C.199 C.193 C.205 C.168 C.202 C.204 C.191 C.170 C.203 C.184 C.171 C.172 C.195 C.189 C.145 C.192 Derrybane 1 Area 3 West facing section of Pit C.142 iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 C.183 C.167 C.180 C.166 C.182 C.165 C.164 C.180 C.181 C.143 C.181 C.180 C.179 C.177 C.177 C.175 C.178 C.176 C.174 C.175 C.174 C.142 C.142 Derrybane 1 Area 1 West facing section of pit C.153 C.154 C.188 C.187 # # # C.185 # # # # # # # # # # # # ## # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # C.155 # # # # # C.173 C.156 C.186 10 cm 0 50 cm C.153 Figure 8: Section of pits C�142 and C�153 and kiln C�145 archaeological excavation report
  • 29. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/ Plate 9: Convex end scraper E3585:1:1 Lithic artefactsThe lithics, a retouched artefact (Plate 9) and a possible macro tool, were examined by Fa-rina Sternke (Appendix 4). The retouched artefact was a small convex end scraper whichwas produced on a bipolar split pebble flake. The scraper dates to the Late Neolithic/EarlyBronze Age (Beaker period). The macro tool is a possible quartz hammer stone. It bears possible traces of wear ontwo opposed slightly flattened ends. It may also date to the Late Neolithic/Early BronzeAge.Plant remainsThe plant remains were examined by Penny Johnston (Appendix 5). A total of 36 sampleswere scanned and plant remains were present in 25 samples. The plant remains from bothArea 1 and Area 2 are so scattered that it is likely that they are incidental finds. On theother hand, plant remains were recovered in large amounts from the kiln and the pit atArea 3. The cereals were primarily oats followed by a smaller quantity of wheat, mostlyidentified as bread wheat. Much smaller quantities of barley and rye were also found. Thisassemblage of cereal remains is typical of medieval deposits, possibly even dating to thelater medieval period. 21
  • 30. iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report Animal bone The animal bone was examined by Margaret McCarthy (Appendix 6). Small quantities were recovered from two features, from a post-hole C.27 in Area 2 and the backfill of the kiln in Area 3. Charcoal The charcoal was examined by Mary Dillon in advance of radiocarbon dating. Radiocarbon dates Radiocarbon analysis was carried out by the 14 Chrono Centre in Queen’s University Belfast (Appendix 6). Dates were calibrated using Calib Rev5.0.2 (©1986-2005 M.Stuiver & P.J. Reimer) and in conjunction with Stuiver & Reimer 1993 and Reimer et al. 2004. Lab no. Con- Material Un-calibrated δ 13 C Calibrated BC 2– Period text date sigma dates 15040 171 Oat from kiln C145 810+/-26 -30.0 medieval in Area 3 cal AD 1181-1269 15075 140 Oak charcoal from 1192 +/- 16 -28.0 cal AD 778-885 early medieval hearth C105 in Area 2 15076 63 Pomoideae charcoal 922+/-21 -29.8 cal AD 1035-1162 medieval from pit C62 in Area 2 15077 5 Oak charcoal from 3292 +/- 21 -28.3 cal BC 1622-1512 Early Bronze stakehole C22 in Age Area 2 Table 4 Radiocarbon dates22
  • 31. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/8 DiscussionA group of pits, postholes, hearths and a corn-drying kiln were recorded in three separatecuttings at Derrybane 1. The evidence from two stone artefacts, radiocarbon dates andthe plant remains assemblage suggested that at least three different phases of activity wererecorded at Derrybane. Radiocarbon dates were returned from the Bronze Age and earlyand later medieval periods.Prehistoric periodAn Early Bronze Age radiocarbon date was returned from one of the pits in Area 2. Aflint scraper and a hammerstone, dated to the Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age Periodwere recovered from the topsoil. It is difficult to know how many of the pits or postholesin Area 1 and 2 belong to the Early Bronze Age phase of activity. Bronze Age domestic and funerary activity in the form of a series of cremation pits,three structures and associated post-holes, hearths, pits and stake-holes, dated to theEarly and Middle Bronze Age were recorded in two cuttings at Derrybane 2 E3591located c. 350 m east of Derrybane 1. Prehistoric activity, dated to the Middle and LateBronze Age, was recorded at Clashnevin 1 E3586 and Clashnevin 2 E3590 located c.100 m to the west of Derrybane 1. The lowlying land stretching from Clashnevin toDerrybane was settled in the Bronze Age and it is likely that many of the small pits andpostholes recorded at Derrybane are contemporary with this phase of activity.Medieval periodA hearth at the eastern end of Area 2 was dated to the early medieval period. Two otherhearths were recorded in Area 2 and one in Area 1. The hearths maybe contemporarywith one another and with some of the pits recorded in Area 2. No charred plant remainsor archaeometallurgical residues were recorded in association with the hearths. A pit in Area 2 was dated to the medieval period. A corn-drying kiln and associatedpit were recorded in Area 3. The kiln was dated to the medieval period, slightly laterthan the pit in Area 2. The kiln was a figure-of-eight type with an elongated flue. It wasstone lined and orientated north-south with the entrance to the north. Monk and Kel-liher (2005, 79) have noted that some kilns display features which would have enhancedtheir use, for example kilns built into banks, narrowing flues where the floor rises tomeet the drying chamber and fire pits in front of flues. There was no evidence that the kiln at Derrybane was associated with a field bound-ary or that there was a change in the level of the floor of the flue. The base of a hearthwas recorded at the northern edge of the flue. Some of the layers associated with the areaof the hearth, C.191 and C.171 in particular, were very rich in charred plant remainswhile charred plant remains were scarce or absent in many of the layers of backfill in theflue. Corn-drying kilns were used to dry cereal grains and other crops in order to facili-tate crop processing, to harden grains prior to grinding and to convert the grain into 23
  • 32. iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report malt; the process of making malt is described in some early texts, and differs only mini- mally from the manner of malt preparation today (Binchy 1980). Lowering the moisture content of the grains also made them less susceptible to mould, fungal and insect attack and therefore increased the likelihood that they would come through storage intact. Drying kilns first appear in Britain during the Roman period, and it is possible that their use may have been due to necessity; to fumigate the grain crops in order to stop the spread of the stored product pest, the grain weevil (Sitophilus granarius): the earliest findings of these beetles from archaeological contexts in Northwestern Europe are all from within the Roman Empire (Reilly 2003). It is not known when the grain weevil was introduced into Ireland, the earliest example found to date is from late Viking/early Anglo-Norman levels at Waterford (Reilly 2003) and the use of kilns in this country predates this (e.g. a radiocarbon date of Cal AD 410-485 was obtained from Kiltenan North, Co. Limerick: 02E0666). Their use continued in some parts of Ireland into the relatively recent past, Scott (1951) described several kilns that were still in use up to the beginning of the twentieth century. These examples demonstrate that the timeframe during which these monuments were in use was vast, spanning revolutionary changes in the approach to and organisation of agriculture in Ireland. O’Sullivan and Downey (2005) suggest that the geographical distribution of kilns is predominantly northern and western based on patterns in early nineteenth century Ordnance Survey maps. However, this pattern may have occurred due to the usage of the kilns in these areas in the more recent past; many archaeological examples of corn drying kilns have been found in Leinster and Munster during the course of recent infra- structural development. This suggests that they are a common archaeological site type and medieval texts suggest that there may even have been one kiln for communal use in every rural neighbourhood (Kelly, 1998). A series of early medieval and medieval dates were returned from features at Park 1 E3659, Busherstown E3661 and Killeisk E3587, sites located on the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Contract 1). More than 15 corn-drying kilns, dated to the early medieval period, were recorded at Busherstown in an annex associated with a moated site. The moated site and ditched annex at Busherstown were dated to the later medieval period. No definite settlement site, contemporary with the kilns was recorded at Bush- erstown. At least one corn-drying kiln, dated to the early medieval period was recorded at Park. The archaeological activity at Park was recorded over a distance of c. 400 m and while no definite domestic structure was associated with the kiln it is likely that at least one was located in the vicinity. A kiln and associated pit, located 1.5 m to the west of the kiln, were excavated at Killeisk. The kiln was located to the west of an enclosure and may have been used by the occupiers of the enclosure. The radiocarbon date returned from the pit was contemporary with date from the kiln at Derrybane but the date from the kiln itself was later.24
  • 33. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/Site Name Features Lab. No. 2-sigma cal AD radiocarbon dateKilleisk E3587 Pit C.364 UB––15089 1167–1262Killeisk E3587 Kiln C.358 UB––15090 1420–1617Busherstown E3661 Kiln C.74 UB––15050 658–766Busherstown E3661 Kiln C.490 UB––15051 657–769Busherstown E3661 Kiln C.355 UB––15053 713–888Park E3659 Kiln C.291 UB––15045 685–862Table 5 Radiocarbon dates from other medieval sites with kilns on the N7 (Contract 1)� The frequency of the plant remains and the dominance of the different species re-covered from the kilns on the N7 (Contract 1) were varied. Monk and Kelleher (2005,85) commented on this pattern which was apparent in the eight detailed plant remainsstudies they examined from kilns excavated on sites in Counties Kilkenny, Westmeath,Louth, Dublin, Tipperary, Limerick and Cork. The cereals recorded in the kiln at Der-rybane were primarily oats followed by a smaller quantity of wheat, mostly identified asbread wheat. Much smaller quantities of barley and rye were also found. By contrast theplant remains from the kiln at Killeisk were almost exclusively wheat, however a largeportion of grain was not identifiable to type at Killeisk (Johnston 2010). The general re-sults from the kilns at Busherstown indicate that barley was the most common cereal typefound, representing 59% of the identifiable cereal assemblage (Johnston 2010), followedby oats. The general pattern of barley being dominant over oats (and all other cereal types)holds for samples from most of the individual kilns, but there were a few exceptions. Theremaining cereals from these samples included both wheat and rye, although these wereonly recovered in small portions. 25
  • 34. iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report 9 References Binchy, D.A. 1980 ‘Brewing in eighth-century Ireland’ in B.G. Scott (ed.) Studies in Early Ireland: Essays in honour of M.V. Duignan. Farrelly, J., and O’Brien, C. (2002) Archaeological Inventory of County Tipperary Vol. 1 - North Tipperary, The Stationery Office Dublin. Gardiner, M.J. and Radford,T. (1980) Soil Assocaitions of Ireland and Their Land Use Potential. Dublin, An Foras Talúntais. Johnston, P. (2010) Plant remains report in Final Excavation report Busherstown E3661 Co. Offaly. Eachtra Archaeological Projects Unpublished report. Johnston, P. (2010) Plant remains report in Final Excavation report Killeisk E3587 Co. Tipperary. Eachtra Archaeological Projects Unpublished report. Kelly, F. 1998 Early Irish Farming Dublin: Institute for Advanced Studies. McLaughlin, M. and Conran, S. (2008) ‘The emerging Iron Age of South Munster’ in Seanda, Issue 3, 51-53. Dublin. Monk, M. and Kelleher, E. (2005) An assessment of the archaeological evidence for Irish corn-drying kilns in the light of the results of archaeological experiments and archaeobotanical studies in JIA, Volume XIV 2005, 79-113. National Inventory of Architectural Heritage (2006) An Introduction to the Architectural Heritage of North Tipperary. Government of Ireland. O’Conor, K.D. (1998) The Archaeology of Medieval Rural Settlement in Ireland, Discovery Programme Monographs No 3, Discovery Programme/Royal Irish Academy Dublin. O’Sullivan, M. and Downey, L. 2005 ‘Corn-Drying Kilns’ Archaeology Ireland, Vol. 19, No.3, 32-35. Reilly, E. 2003 The contribution of insect remains to an understanding of the environment of Viking-age and medieval Dublin in Duffy, S. (ed.) Medieval Dublin IV Dublin Four Courts Press. Reimer, P.J., Baillie, M.G.L., Bard, E., Bayliss, A., Beck, J.W., Bertrand, C., Blackwell, P.G., Buck, C.E., Burr, G., Cutler, K.B., Damon, P.E., Edwards, R.L., Fairbanks, R.G., Friedrich, M., Guilderson, T.P., Hughen, K.A., Kromer, B., McCormac,26
  • 35. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/ F.G., Manning, S., Bronk Ramsey, C., Reimer, R.W., Remmele, S., Southon, J.R., Stuiver, M., Talamo, S., Taylor, F.W., van der Plicht, J. and Weyhenmeyer, C.E. (2004) ‘IntCal04 Terrestrial Radiocarbon Age Calibration, 0–26 Cal Kyr BP’, Radiocarbon 46, 1029-1058.Scott, L. 1951 ‘Corn Drying Kilns’ Antiquity 25, 196-208.Stuiver, M., and Reimer, P.J. (1993) ‘Extended (super 14) C data base and revised CALIB 3.0 (super 14) C age calibration program’, Radiocarbon 35, 215-230.Stout, M. (1997) The Irish Ringfort. Dublin, Four Courts Press.Taylor, K. (2008) ‘At home and on the road: two Iron Age sites in County Tipperary’ in Seanda, Issue 3, 54-55. Dublin.Woodman, P.C. (2000) ‘Hammers and Shoeboxes: New Agendas for Prehistory’., pp. 1 -10 in Desmond, A., Johnson, G., McCarthy, M., Sheehan, J. and Shee Twohig, E. New Agendas in Irish Prehistory. Papers in commemoration of Liz Anderson. Bray, Wordwell. 27
  • 36. iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report Appendix 1 Stratigraphic Index Please see attached CD.28
  • 37. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/Appendix 2 Site Matrix 29
  • 38. iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report30
  • 39. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/ 31
  • 40. iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report Appendix 3 Groups and Subgroups Group Description Subgroup No. Description Context No. No. 1 Natural Deposits Topsoil C.1 Subsoil C.2 2 Modern features 6 field drains, agri- C.32, C.73, C.97, C.99, C.103 cultural furrows and C.127 3 Area 2 3a Pits 25 pits C.12, C.13, C.14, C.16, C.20, C.23, C.26, C.29, C.35, C.42, C.43, C.49, C.50, C.51 , C.52, C.60, C.62, C.64, C.71, C.85, C.87, C.101 and C.137 3b Postholes 12 postholes, 1 C.22, C.27, C.28, C.36, C.58, and stakehole stakehole C.67, C.75, C.77, C.79, C.81, C.83, C.122 and C.37 3b Hearth 1 hearth C.105 4 Kiln and associ- 1 kiln, 2 pits, 2 post- C.145, C.142, C.149, C.200, ated features holes, 5 stakeholes, C.212, C.213, C.214, C.215, 1poss. post-pad C.216, C.217 and C.148 5 Area 1 3 pits C.153, C.159 and C.161 Twenty one contexts (C.69, C.109,C.110, C.111, C.112, C.113, C.114, C.115, C.116, C.117, C.118, C.119, C.124, C.125, C.126, C.133, C.134, C.136, C.135, C.146 and C.157) were non archaeological. Group 1 Natural Deposits This group describes the natural geological deposits identified across the area of excavation. Topsoil C.1 The topsoil was covering the archaeological features on the site. It was mid dark brown loose clayey sandy silt. Subsoil C.2 The subsoil changes throughout the full range of the site. It was relatively loose gravel with some patches of silty sand at the eastern end of the site. The central area of the site was much sandier-almost 100% sand in the northern part. At the western extend the sub- soil was more gravelly with several bands of pure gravel running down the slope. This is the natural subsoil which occurs under the features and was found across the site. Group 2 Modern features Six modern drains (C.32, C.73, C.97, C.99, C.103 and C.127) and agricultural furrows run across Area 2. The drains cut three pits. The agricultural furrows truncated four pits and six postholes.32
  • 41. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/Con- Dimen- Depth Shape Orientation Sides Base Filled Fill descriptiontext sions (m) (m) in plan with within area of excavation32 11x0.33 0.1 Linear NNW-SSE Steep & Flat 31 Loose mid to dark smooth orange brown silty sand with oc- casional pebbles, small stones and charcoal flecks73 30x0.68 0.15 Linear NNW-SSE Gentle & Con- 74 Loose mid brown smooth cave silty sand with frequent pebbles97 30x0.84 0.1 Linear NNW-SSE Gentle & Flat 98 Very soft mid smooth greyish brown sandy silt with occasional pebbles and small stones99 30x0.98 0.2 Linear NNW-SSE Moder- Con- 100 Mid brown topsoil- ate & cave like clayey silt concave 96 Compact dark greyish brown clayey sand with occasional small charcoal pieces103 90x1.02 0.5 Linear E-W Verti- Flat 104 Loose mid grey cal & brown clay sand smooth127 28x0.69 0.15 Linear N-S Steep & Flat 128 Machine cut modern smooth drainTable of modern drain in Area 2Group 3 Area 2Twenty three pits (C.12, C.13, C.14, C.16, C.20, C.23, C.26, C.29, C.35, C.42, C.43,C.49, C.50, C.51 , C.52, C.60, C.62, C.64, C.71, C.85, C.87, C.101 and C.137), twelvepostholes (C.22, C.27, C.28, C.36, C.58, C.67, C.75, C.77, C.79, C.81, C.83, C.122), onestakehole (C.37) and one hearth (C.105) were discovered in Area 2.Subgroup 3a PitsTwenty three pits (C.12, C.13, C.14, C.16, C.20, C.23, C.26, C.29, C.35, C.42, C.43,C.49, C.50, C.51, C.52, C.60, C.62, C.64, C.71, C.85, C.87, C.101 and C.137) were exca-vated in Area 2. 33
  • 42. iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report Con- Dimension/ Depth Shape in Sides Base Filled Fill description text length x (m) plan with width (m) 12 1.4x0.7 0.25 Oval Gentle & Flat 11 Firm mid greyish brown smooth at silty clay and sand with NW, moderate occasional pebbles and & stepped at small charcoal pieces SE, moderate & concave at NE and SW 13 1.05x0.6 0.25 Irregular Steep & convex Flat 8 Loose mid yellowish brown at W, gentle clayey sandy silt with moderate & concave at pebbles and occasional small S, gentle & stones and charcoal. smooth at N 15 Loosely compacted dark and E greyish brown sandy silt with occasional pebbles, small stones and charcoal pieces and frequent inclu- sions of charcoal flecks 14 0.64x0.42 0.1 Irregular Gentle & Con- 4 Firm light greyish white concave cave silty clay 20 1.86x1.2 0.12 Oval N varied Flat 18 Compact mid brown sand with from gentle occasional fine stones and small & smooth charcoal pieces to steep & stepped, S varied from 19 Compact dark black sand moderate with frequent charcoal & concave flecks to steep & stepped, gentle & smooth at E, steep & stepped at W 23 0.57x0.28 0.11 Irregular Gentle & Flat 9 Loose mid yellowish smooth at brown silty sand with N, moderate occasional pebbles and & smooth at charcoal flecks S, steep & concave at E, gentle & smooth at W 26 0.18x0.56 0.28 Sub-rec- Steep & Flat 10 Soft mid yellowish brown sandy tangular concave at W, silt with occasional pebbles, steep & sooth small stones and charcoal flecks elsewhere 25 Loose mid brown silty sand with occasional peb- bles and very occasional charcoal flecks 29 0.66x0.42 0.16 Oval Moderate & Con- 24 Loose mid to dark brown concave cave silty sand with moderate pebbles and occasional small stones and charcoal flecks34
  • 43. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/Con- Dimension/ Depth Shape in Sides Base Filled Fill descriptiontext length x (m) plan with width (m)35 0.4x0.3 0.1 Oval Gentle & Flat 33 Loose mid greyish brown silty concave at S, sand with occasional pebbles, stepped at E small sub-angular stones and and smooth charcoal flecks. elsewhere 39 Loose mid brownish silty sand with occasional peb- bles and small stones and moderate charcoal flecks42 1.87x0.05 0.32 Oval Gentle & con- Con- 34 Loose dark greyish brown silty vex at W, steep cave sand with occasional pebbles & concave at and moderate charcoal flecks E, moderate 40 Loose mid brownish yellow & concave silty sand with occasional elsewhere medium stones 41 Loose mid yellowish, greyish brown silty sand with moderate small stones43 1.11x0.8 0.1 Sub- Steep & Flat 30 Compact mid brown circular stepped at silty sand with frequent E, gentle pebbles &smooth elsewhere49 2.2x1.98 0.15 Irregular Steep & Con- 56 Weakly cemented mid yellow- smooth at cave ish brown silty sand with mod- N, gentle erate pebbles and occasional &concave at charcoal flecks S, moderate 57 Loose dark greyish black silty & concave sand with occasional pebbles at E, gentle and moderate charcoal flecks &smooth at W 66 Soft dark greyish black silty sand with frequent pebbles and occasional ash flecks50 0.56x0.52 0.15 Irregular Gentle & Flat 54 Very soft dark brownish smooth at N black sandy silt with oc- and S, gentle casional pebbles and me- & convex at dium stones and frequent E, gentle & small charcoal pieces stepped at W51 0.3x0.3 1.6 Circular Gentle & Con- 53 Mid greyish brown sand concave cave52 1.12x0.8 0.1 Oval Gentle & Flat 55 Compact mid greyish concave brown sand with moder- ate pebbles60 0.69x0.5 0.17 Irregular Steep & Con- 61 Very soft mid to dark smooth at cave greyish brown sandy silt N, gentle with occasional pebbles, &smooth at small stones and charcoal S, moderate flecks & smooth at S and W62 0.68x0.42 0.52 Oval Steep & irregu- Con- 63 Loose mid brownish grey lar at W, verti- cave silty sand with moderate cal & irregular small stones and occa- at E, gentle & sional flecks and small irregular at N pieces of charcoal and S 35
  • 44. iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report Con- Dimension/ Depth Shape in Sides Base Filled Fill description text length x (m) plan with width (m) 64 0.7x0.29 0.17 Irregular Steep & ir- Con- 65 Soft mid greyish brown regular at SW cave sandy silt with occasional and SE, steep pebbles and concave at NW, vertical at NE 71 0.63x0.45 0.08 Irregular Gentle & Con- 72 Loose mid greyish brown smooth at N cave silty sand with occasional and E, gentle pebbles and small stones & concave at W, moderate and concave at S 85 0.27x0.23 0.16 Circular Steep & Con- 86 Compact mid yellowish concave at cave brown clayey sand with W, moderate moderate small stones & concave at and occasional charcoal N, steep and flecks stepped at E and S 101 3.0x1.5 0.25 Oval Gentle & Flat 102 Light grey brown clayey silt convex with occasional pebbles 120 Loose dark black silty sand with frequent flecks and moderate small pieces of charcoal 137 0.32x0.28 0.37 Oval Steep & Con- 138 Loose dark red brown sand smooth cave Table of pits in Area 2 Pit C.87 filled with C.38, C.88, C.89, C.90, C.91, C.92, C.93, C.94, C.95 and C.132 The pit was circular in plan. It measured 0.6m in length by 0.55m in width and 0.28m in depth. The sides were steep and smooth. The base was circular in plan and concave in profile. The pit was truncated by drain C.99. Con- Length in Depth Fill description Fill interpretation text section (m) (m) 38 1.17 0.13 Firm mid yellowish brown clayey sand Upper layer over pit C.87 with frequent pebbles and occasional small charcoal pieces 88 0.05 0.07 Firm mid brownish, greyish red silty clay Deposit of oxidized clay with occasional pebbles and moderate around edge of pit C.87 charcoal flecks 89 0.25 0.02 Soft mid brownish, orange yellow clay with Fill of pit C.87- possibly occasional pebbles and frequent charcoal deposited to quench a fire flecks 90 0.38 0.03 Soft dark black silty clay with frequent Almost pure charcoal fill/ charcoal flecks and moderate small char- layer within pit C.87 coal pieces 91 0.45 0.03 Compact mid greyish brown sand with oc- Probably quench layer casional pebbles between burning episodes inside pit C.87 92 0.24 0.02 Soft mid brownish black silty clay with Charcoal rich layer within frequent flecks and small pieces of charcoal pit C.87 indicative of a burning event36
  • 45. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/Con- Length in Depth Fill description Fill interpretationtext section (m) (m)93 0.37 0.04 Firm mid yellowish, orange brown sandy Slightly scorched layer clay with moderate flecks and small pieces within pit C.87- probably of charcoal deposited between burning episodes as a quench layer94 0.22 0.02 Soft black silty clay with frequent flecks Layer of almost pure and small pieces of charcoal charcoal within pit C.87 indicating a burning event95 0.37 0.04 Firm mid greyish red sandy clay with mod- Layer of burnt clay at base erate pebbles and charcoal flecks of pit C.87132 0.05 0.02 Mid pink grey firm silt clay with moderate Clay layer in pit C.87 flecks and small pieces of charcoalTable of fills within pit C�87 The pit C.87 was showing evidence of several phases of burning activity and might beconsidered as small kiln? Pit C.16 filled with C.3 and C.17Con- Dimension/ Depth Shape Sides Base Filled Fill descriptiontext length x (m) in plan with width (m)16 0.9x0.7 0.17 Oval Moder- Concave 3 Compact black clayey sand with ate & frequent charcoal flecks smooth 17 Firm to stiff dark red clayPit C�16 The feature was interpreted as fire related pit heavily truncated by modern agriculturalactivity. Eight pits in Area 2 were truncated by modern drains or agricultural furrows. The pitC.35 and pit C.42 by drain C.32 and pit C.87 by drain C.99. The pits C.16, C.60, C.64and C.71 were truncated by agricultural furrows. The pits don’t form any obvious pattern. The fill of pit C.62 was radiocarbon dated to cal AD 1035-1162.Subgroup 3b Postholes and stakeholeTwelve postholes (C.22, C.27, C.28, C.36, C.58, C.67, C.75, C.77, C.79, C.81, C.83 andC.122) and one stakehole (C.37) were identified in Area 2. 37
  • 46. iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report Con- Dimension/ Depth Shape in Sides Base Filled Fill description text length x (m) plan with width (m) 22 0.38x0.3 0.22 Circular Steep & Pointed 5 Firm dark black clayey sand with concave frequent small charcoal pieces and moderate flecks and medium pieces of charcoal 21 Weakly cemented mid greyish brown sand with oc- casional pebbles 27 0.42x0.23 0.07 Circular Steep & Tapered 6 Compact dark greyish black stepped pointed sand with frequent charcoal flecks 28 0.2x0.18 0.08 Sub- Moderate Concave 7 Compact mid greyish black circular & convex sand 36 0.28x0.17 0.18 Irregular Steep & Flat 44 Compact mid brown clayey stepped sand with occasional pebbles and charcoal flecks 58 0.26x0.20 0.2 Circular Steep & Tapered 59 Mid brown sandy silt with smooth round occasional pebbles and small pointed stones 67 0.3x0.3 0.19 Oval Steep & Concave 68 Soft mid brownish silty sand stepped with occasional pebbles and small stones 75 0.26x0.16 0.2 Circular Steep & Tapered 76 Loose mid greyish brown smooth pointed silty sand with moderate small charcoal pieces 77 0.24x0.17 0.16 Oval Steep & Tapered 78 Loose light greyish brown smooth round silty sand with moderate pointed small charcoal pieces 79 0.3x0.12 0.08 Oval Moderate Concave 80 Loose mid greyish brown & smooth silty sand with occasional at NE, small stones and moderate gentle & small charcoal pieces smooth elsewhere 81 0.4x0.2 0.1 Oval Gentle & Tapered 82 Loose mid greyish brown smooth round silty sand with occasional at SW pointed small stones and moderate and NE, small charcoal pieces moderate & smooth at NW and SE 83 0.46x0.36 0.3 Irregular Gentle & Tapered 84 Loose mid greyish brown irregular round silty sand with occasional at SW pointed small stones and moderate and NW, small charcoal pieces moderate at NE 122 0.35x0.21 0.16 Oval Gentle & Concave 123 Mid grey brown soft sandy smooth at silt with occasional pebbles N and W, and small stones Gentle & stepped at S, moderate & smooth at E 37 0.16x0.16 0.25 Circular Steep & Pointed 45 Compact brownish black clayey smooth sand Table of postholes and stakehole C�37 in Area 238
  • 47. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/ Six of the postholes (C.22, C.27, C.28, C.58, C.67 and C.75) were cut by agriculturalfurrows. The postholes don’t make any obvious pattern. The fill of posthole C.22 was radiocarbon dated to 1622-1512BC which indicateBronze Age provenience of this feature.Subgroup 3c HearthHearth C.105 filled with C.106, C.139, C.141 and C.140 The hearth was oval in plan. It measured 1.8m in length by 1m in width and 0.24min depth. The break of slope at the top was sharp at south west and gradual elsewhere.The sides were steep and smooth at SW, gentle and smooth elsewhere. The break of slopeat the base was gradual. The base was oval in plan and concave in profile. The hearth wasfilled with four fills described in the table. The radiocarbon date from the fill of the hearth(778-885AD) signifies Early Medieval nature of this feature.Con- Dimension/ Depth Fill description Fill interpretationtext length x (m) width (m)106 0.97x0.84 0.02 Mid grey brown soft sandy clay with occasional Deposit of almost small stones and frequent flecks, small and me- pure charcoal dium pieces of charcoal139 0.87x0.76 0.04 Dark brown black soft sandy clay with frequent Layer of sand to flecks and small pieces of charcoal seal the141 0.9x0.7 0.06 Mid yellow brown loose silty sand with occasional Possible attempt to flecks and small pieces of charcoal reduce the extend of hearth140 0.9x0.66 0.03 Mid grey black soft sand clay with frequent Deposit of almost pure charcoal charcoalTable of fills of hearth C�105 in stratigraphical orderGroup 4 Kiln and associated featuresArea 3 contained one kiln (C.145) cut by five stakeholes (C.212, C.213, C.214, C.215 andC.216) and two postholes (C.200 and C.217) and two connected with it pits (C.142 andC.149). Next to the pit C.149 was possible post-pad C.148. Kiln C.145 filled with C.193, C.196, C.205, C.168, C.170, C.171, C.191, C.172,C.190, C.204, C.184, C.194, C.198, C.200, C.195, C.192, C.189, C.218, C.197, C.145,C.201, C.202, C.169, C.203 and C.199. This 6m long kiln was cut into the natural subsoil and bedrock. It consisted of a cir-cular drying pit at south 2m in width, which was joined to the mouth of the kiln to thenorth by a 2.5m long flue. The mouth included a fire pit and was 1.7m wide. The kiln itselfwas stone-lined. 39
  • 48. iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report Con- Dimension/ Depth Shape in Sides Base Filled Fill description Type text length x width (m) plan with (m) 212 0.14x0.11 0.05 Circular Vertical & Con- 206 Firm mid brown- Stake- smooth cave ish grey sandy hole clay with occa- sional pebbles 213 0.12x0.12 0.1 Circular Vertical & Con- 207 Firm mid brown- Stake- smooth cave ish grey sandy hole clay with occa- sional pebbles 214 0.1x0.1 0.05 Circular Vertical & Con- 208 Firm mid brown- Stake- smooth cave ish grey sandy hole clay with occa- sional pebbles 215 0.1x0.1 0.12 Circular Vertical & Con- 209 Firm mid brown- Stake- smooth cave ish grey sandy hole clay with occa- sional pebbles 216 0.1x0.1 0.04 Circular Vertical & Con- 210 Firm mid brown- Stake- smooth cave ish grey sandy hole clay with occa- sional pebbles 200 0.2x0.2 0.4 Circular Vertical & Con- 198 Firm light Post- smooth cave brownish grey hole clay with occa- sional pebbles 217 0.24x0.24 0.2 Circular Vertical & Con- 211 Firm mid brown- Post- smooth cave ish grey sandy hole clay with occa- sional pebbles Table of postholes and stakeholes cut into kiln C�145 Pit C.142 filled with C.174, C.175, C.176, C.177, C.178, C.179, C.180, C.181, C.182 and C.183 The pit was oval plan. It measured 2.25m in length by 1.46m in width and 0.62m in depth. The break of slope at the top and base was gradual at southeast and sharp else- where. The sides were steep and irregular at southeast and steep and concave elsewhere. Base was oval in plan and flat in profile. The pit contained ten fill and was re-cut by pit C.143 which was filled with four deposits. The fills of pit C.142 are described in the table in stratigraphical order. Con- Dimensions Depth Fill description Interpretation text (m) (m) 183 1.6x1.39 0.11 Firm dark grey brown silty clay with moderate pebbles, Fill charcoal flecks and occasional small stones 182 1.05x0.81 0.1 Firm mid brown sandy clay with moderate pebbles, large Backfill of stones, flecks and small pieces of charcoal, small pieces waste mate- and burnt clay flecks rial from kiln C.145 181 1.5x0.8 0.17 Firm light brownish grey silty clay with pebbles, small, Fill medium and large stones, moderate flecks and small pieces of charcoal and occasional inclusions of bone 180 1.9x0.75 0.12 Soft mid yellowish brown sandy clay with moderate peb- Backfill of bles, small stones, small charcoal pieces, charcoal flecks waste mate- and burnt clay flecks rial from kiln C.14540
  • 49. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/179 1.08x0.66 0.16 Firm mid brownish grey silty clay with moderate pebbles Backfill of and occasional stones, flakes and small pieces of charcoal waste mate- rial from kiln C.145 178 0.68x0.62 0.12 Soft mid yellowish brown sandy clay with moderate peb- Backfill of bles, small and medium stones and charcoal flecks waste mate- rial from kiln C.145 177 1.95x0.84 0.14 Firm light brownish grey silty clay with moderate peb- Backfill of bles, and small stones, occasional flakes of charcoal and waste mate- small pieces and flakes of burnt bone rial from kiln C.145 176 0.67x0.4 0.07 Very soft light brownish clayey silt with moderate Backfill of pebbles, medium charcoal pieces and white ash flecks, waste mate- occasional inclusions of medium stones and frequent rial from kiln inclusions of flecks and small pieces of charcoal C.145 175 1.4x0.59 0.08 Firm mid brownish grey silty clay with moderate pebbles Backfill of and charcoal flecks and occasional inclusions of small waste mate- stones and small charcoal pieces rial from kiln C.145 174 1.6x0.55 0.12 Firm light orange brown silty clay with moderate peb- Fill bles, small and medium stones and occasional inclusions of flecks and small pieces of charcoalTable of fills of pit C�142 in stratigraphical order Pit C.143 filled with C.164, C.165, C.166 and C.167 The pit was oval in plan and measured 0.78m in length by 0.76m in width and 0.26min depth. The break of slope at the top and at the base was sharp at north and gradualelsewhere. The sides were vertical and undercut at north, steep and irregular at south,moderate and concave at east and west. The base was oval in plan and flat in profile.Context Dimensions Depth Fill description (m) (m)167 0.78x0.76 0.05 Mid grey brown firm silty clay with moderate pebbles and occasional small stones166 0.75x0.7 0.1 Mid grey brown firm silty clay with moderate pebbles and small stones165 0.67x0.6 0.08 Mid orange brown soft silty clay with occasional pebbles, small stones, flecks and small pieces of charcoal and small pieces of burnt stone164 0.59x0.55 0.05 Mid orange brown firm silty clay with moderate pebbles, occasional small, medium and large stones, moderate flecks and small pieces of charcoal and occasional flecks of boneTable of fills of pit C�143 in stratigraphical order The pit C.143 was re-cut into the northern extent of pit C.142. Presents exactlywithin footprint of pit C.142 suggests knowledge and access to the earlier pit. Fills do notcontain so much charcoal/organic material as the fills in the earlier pit. However the fillscontain a small amount of burnt clay suggesting scrape out form some hearth/kiln nearby(not the same as earlier cleanouts from kiln C.145).Pit C.149 filled with C.152 The pit was oval in plan. It measured 0.42m in length by 0.25m in width and 0.26min depth. The break of slope at the top was sharp at north and west, gradual at south andeast. The sides were vertical and undercut at north, steep and irregular at south, moderate 41
  • 50. iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report and concave at east, steep and smooth at west. The fill was mid grey brown soft silty clay with moderate pebbles and occasional small stones. Interpretation: The small possible pit in close vicinity of kiln C.145 and pit C.142. The pit was truncated by modern ploughing. Post pad C.148 filled with C.150 and C.151 The post-pad was oval in plan. It measured 0.38m in length by 0.15m in width and 0.05m in depth. The break of slope at the top was imperceptible at south and gradual else- where. The sides were gentle and concave. The break of slope at the base was imperceptible at north and gradual elsewhere. Base was oval in plan and concave in profile. The upper fill C.150 was mid grey brown firm silty clay with occasional pebbles. The basal fill C.151 was mid brown grey firm silty clay with occasional pebbles. Interpretation: Possible cut of a truncated post-pad. Group 5 Area 1 Three pits C.153, C.159 and C.161. Pit C.153 filled with C.154, C.155, C.156, C.173, C.185, C.186, C.187 and C.188 The feature was irregular in plan. It measured 1.83m in length by 1.04m in width and 0.65m in depth. The break of slope at the top and at the base was sharp at east and gradual elsewhere. The sides were moderate and irregular at north, south and west, steep and concave at east. The base was irregular in plan and a tapered blunt point in profile. The feature was filled with eight deposits described in the table. Con- Length in Depth Fill description Interpretation text section (m) (m) 187 0.1 0.06 Firm mid yellowish brown sandy silt with Re-deposited natural subsoil occasional stones 188 0.14 0.1 Soft light to mid reddish yellowish brown Disturbed by root activity silty, sandy clay with occasional small mix of fill C.155, C.156 and stones and charcoal flecks C.173 154 1.1 0.02 Mid grey brown loose sand silt with Result of siltation moderate pebbles 185 1.06 0.2 Stiff mid yellowish brown silty clay Fill deliberately put into kiln/ pit 155 0.7 0.21 Dark blue black very soft clay silt with Pit deposit or part of wooden occasional pebbles, frequent flecks, small structure collapsed into kiln/ pieces and moderate medium pieces of pit charcoal 173 1.2 0.09 Indurate mid brownish grey sandy silt Formed as a reaction from with frequent pebbles and occasional in situ burning rather then pieces of small burnt clay actively deposited up material 156 0.8 0.1 Mid red brown hard sand clay with A layer of burnt clay frequent pebbles 186 0.4 0.08 Soft mid to dark reddish brown silty, Small deposit of mixed mate- sandy clay with moderate pebbles and rial at the base of the pit occasional small stones Table of fills of poss� kiln/pit C�153 The pit was interpreted on the site as possible kiln.42
  • 51. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/ Pit C.159 filled with C.160 and C.163 The pit was oval in plan. It measured 3.4m in length by 2.4m in width and 0.3m indepth. The break of slope at the top was gradual at south west and northwest, sharp atnortheast and southeast. The sides were moderate and smooth at north, west and east,gentle and smooth at south. The fill C.160 was dark brown grey soft silty sand with oc-casional pebbles, small stones and flecks and small pieces of charcoal. The fill containedmoderate small pieces of animal bone. The fill C.163 was located on the eastern end ofthe pit. It was mid orange brown compact silt with pebbles, small and large stones. Thepit truncated pit C.161. On site interpretation: Refuse pit.Pit C.161 filled with C.162 The pit was oval in plan. It measured 3.4m in length by 1.6m in width and 0.4m indepth. The break of slope at the top was sharp at N and W, gradual at S and E. The sideswere steep and irregular at north, gentle and irregular at south, gentle and smooth at east,steep and smooth at west. The break of slope at the base was gradual at south and east,imperceptible at north and sharp at south. Base was oval in plan and flat in profile. Thefill was mid grey brown loose silty sand with moderate pebbles and large stones. The fillcontained occasional flecks of charcoal and pieces of burnt bones. On site interpretation: Refuse pit. 43
  • 52. iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report Appendix 4 Lithic artefacts report by Farina Sternke Introduction Three lithic finds from the archaeological investigations of a multi-period site at Derry- bane 1, Co. Tipperary were presented for analysis (Table 1). The finds are associated with a series of pits, post holes, hearths and a kiln. Thickn. (mm) Find Number Length (mm) Width (mm) Condition Complete Material Retouch Context Cortex Type E3585:1:1 1 Flint Retouched Yes Patinated 16 20 7 Yes distal, left and Artefact right edge direct semiabrupt E3585:1:2 1Quartz Hammer Burnt 59 58 33 Yes No Stone? E3585:145:1 145 Chert Natural Chunk Table 1: Composition of the Lithic Assemblage from Derrybane 1 (E3585) Methodology All lithic artefacts are examined visually and catalogued using Microsoft Excel. The fol- lowing details are recorded for each artefact which measures at least 2 cm in length or width: context information, raw material type, artefact type, the presence of cortex, arte- fact condition, length, with and thickness measurements, fragmentation and the type of retouch (where applicable). The technological criteria recorded are based on the terminol- ogy and technology presented in Inizan et al. 1999. The general typological and morpho- logical classifications are based on Woodman et al. 2006. Struck lithics smaller than 2 cm are classed as debitage and not analysed further, unless they are retouched or of specific significance, e.g. cores etc. The same is done with natural chunks. Quantification The artefacts are a flaked piece of flint (E3585:1:1), a possible utilised piece of quartz (E3585:1:1) and a natural chunk of chert (E3585:145:1). The two artefacts are larger than 2 cm in length and width and were therefore recorded in detail. Provenance The finds were recovered from the topsoil.44
  • 53. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/Condition:The recorded lithics survive in patinated (E3585:1:1) and burnt (E3585:1:2) condition.Both artefacts are complete and artefact E3585:1:1 bears the remnants of cortex.Technology/Morphology:The lithics are a retouched artefact (E3585:1:1) and a possible macro tool (E3585:1:1).Retouched Artefacts:The retouched artefact is a small convex end scraper which was produced on a bipolar splitpebble flake. It measures 16 mm in length, 20 mm in width and 7 mm in thickness. Thescraper dates to the Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age (Beaker period).Macro Tools:The macro tool is a possible quartz hammer stone. It bears possible traces of wear on twoopposed slightly flattened ends. The stone measures 59 mm long, 59 mm wide and 33 mmthick. It may also date to the Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age.Dating:The assemblage has to be regarded as technologically and typologically diagnostic anddates to the Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age (Beaker period).ConservationLithics do not require specific conservation, but should be stored in a dry, stable environ-ment. Preferably, each lithic should be bagged separately and contact with other lithicsshould be avoided, so as to prevent damage and breakage, in particular edge damagewhich could later be misinterpreted as retouch. Larger and heavier items are best kept inindividual boxes to avoid crushing of smaller assemblage pieces.ConclusionThe lithic finds from the archaeological excavation at Derrybane 1, Co. Tipperary are aflint convex end scraper, a possible hammer stone and a natural piece of chert. The assemblage is technologically diagnostic and dates to the Late Neolithic/EarlyBronze Age (Beaker period). This site makes a minor contribution to the evidence for prehistoric settlement in Co.Tipperary.Recommendations for Illustration • Convex End Scraper (E3585:1:1) 45
  • 54. iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report Bibliography Inizan, M.-L., M. Reduron-Ballinger, H. Roche and J. Tixier, 1999. Technology and Terminology of Knapped Stone 5. CREP, Nanterre. Woodman, P. C., Finlay, N. and E. Anderson, 2006. The Archaeology of a Collection: The Keiller-Knowles Collection of the National Museum of Ireland. National Museum of Ireland Monograph Series 2. Wordwell, Bray.46
  • 55. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/Appendix 5 Plant remains reportBy Penny JohnstonIntroductionThis short report details the results of plant remains analysis from Derrybane 1, Co. Tip-perary (E3585). The site was split into three main areas of excavation, Areas 1, 2 and 3.The archaeological features excavated included a range of pits, corn drying kilns and somestructural features such as stake-holes and post-holes. The plant remains were recoveredfrom all areas of the site, but were only found in abundance in Area 3.MethodologyThe samples were collected on site as bulk soil and were processed using machine-assistedfloatation (following guidelines in Pearsall 2000). The floating material (or ‘flot’) fromeach sample was collected in a stack of geological sieves (the smallest mesh size was 250mm). When all the carbonised material was collected the flot was then air-dried in paper-lined drying trays prior to storage in airtight plastic bags. The samples were scannedunder low-powered magnification (x 10 to x 40) using a binocular microscope. Nomen-clature and taxonomic order follows Stace (1997).ResultsThe results of preliminary scanning are presented in Table 1 at the end of this report. Atotal of 36 samples were scanned and plant remains were present in 25 samples. The iden-tifications of retrieved plant remains are presented in Table 2.Area 1A single sample from Area 1 contained plant remains, including a weed seed and somefragments of hazelnut shell. These were from a deposit within the kiln C.153, but unlikethe remains from the kiln in Area 3, there were no cereal grains from Area 1.Area 2The plant remains from Area 2 were recovered from pits (C.62 and C.87), stake-hole(C.75) and the post-hole (C.83). The plant remains included a fruit stone (from sloe), asingle weed seed identified as a cleaver (a very common weed of arable weeds) and a smallquantity of cereal grains, almost all identified as barley. Hulled barley was the only typeof barley grain found at this part of the site. 47
  • 56. iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report Area 3 The plant remains from Area 3 were extremely rich, and were recovered from two features in particular; the pit (C.142) and the corn drying kiln (C.145). The percentage distribu- tion of plant remains in both of these features is very similar (see Figure 1 and Figure 2). These percentage graphs indicate that both the pit and the kiln at Area 3 contain crop elements in similar proportions and it is likely that these features represent the remains of the same activity. Oat was the predominant cereal type found in Area 3 comprising 70% of the entire identifiable cereal assemblage (Figure 3). Wheat was found in small quantities, representing less than one quarter of the identifiable cereal assemblage. Barley and rye were found in much smaller proportions and represented less than 10% of the identifiable cereal assemblage. Oat thrives in temperate regions because of its suitability to damp and cool climates. Wild oat may also have been important in prehistory (McClatchie 2007, 65) but these were wild oats. The introduction of cultivated oats and the role wild oats have played in diet and economy are two issues for future archaeobotanical research in Ireland (M. Monk pers. comm.). In general it is accepted that cultivated oats were introduced in Ireland in the early medieval period (Kelly 1998). Unfortunately, it is impossible to dis- tinguish between wild and cultivated varieties of oat in samples where floret bases are not present (these were not found at Derrybane 1). However, the large quantity of oat grains from Derrybane 1 suggests that the grains were largely from cultivated crops. Wheat from this area of the site, accounting for almost one quarter of the identifiable cereal grains, were primarily identified as free-threshing wheat. Wheat has been a staple crop in much of Eurasia since the beginnings of cultivation and in early historic Ireland it had a high value; several early Irish texts attach a higher value to bread wheat than any other cereal (Kelly, 1998; 219-220). This is common across Europe in the historic period and reflects the prized whiteness of wheat flour, a colour not obtained using other grain types (Davidson, 1999; 844). While oats and barley are reasonably common crops in the early historic period, the arrival of the Anglo-Normans changed the emphasis of Irish agriculture to an intensive cereal production regime, with wheat being the staple crop in most areas of Anglo-Norman control. It was the standard food crop of the Pale and was grown elsewhere as render to the lords (Nicholls, 2003; 133). Summary The plant remains from Derrybane 1 were primarily recovered from Area 3, as shown in the graph of comparative retrieval rates from each area (Figure 4). The plant remains from both Area 1 and Area 2 are so scattered that it is likely that they are incidental finds. The number of seeds recovered is so small that they are not considered significant. On the other hand, plant remains were recovered in large amounts from the kiln and the pit at Area 3. The cereals were primarily oats followed by a smaller quantity of wheat, mostly identified as bread wheat. Much smaller quantities of barley and rye were also found. This48
  • 57. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/assemblage of cereal remains is typical of medieval deposits, possibly even dating to thelater medieval period.Figure 1Figure 2 49
  • 58. iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report Figure 3 Figure 450
  • 59. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/ReferencesDavidson, A. 1999 The Oxford Companion to Food Oxford: Oxford University Press.Kelly, F. 1998 Early Irish Farming. Dublin, Institute for Advanced Studies.McClatchie, M. 2007 ‘The plant remains’, in Doody, M. Excavations at Curracghatoor, Co. Tipperary. Cork, UCC Department of Archaeology Archaeological Monograph.Nicholls, K. 2003 Gaelic and Gaelicized Ireland in the Middle Ages (2nd edition) Dublin: Lilliput Press.Stace, C. 1997 New Flora of the British Isles (2nd edition) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 51
  • 60. iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report Table 1: Results of scanning of samples from Derrybane 1, Co� Tipperary (E3585) Sample Context Charcoal Seeds % Scanned Context 3 15 H Absent 100 Pit fill 7 5 H Absent 100 Post-hole fill 15 45 H Absent 100 Stake-hole fill 18 34 H Absent 100 Pit fill 22 54 H Absent 100 Pit fill 28 63 H L 100 Pit fill 30 61 H Absent 100 Pit fill 36 76 H L 100 Stake-hole fill 40 84 H L 75 Post-hole fill 55 90 H L 75 Layer 58 94 H Absent 75 Pit fill 67 140 H Absent 100 Hearth deposit 79 201 H H 100 Kiln fill 82 204 H M 40 Kiln fill 84 205 L L 100 Kiln fill 86 170 H M 100 Kiln fill 87 171 H H 75 Kiln fill 89 174 H L 100 Pit fill 90 175 H L 100 Pit fill 91 176 H L 100 Pit fill 92 177 H L 100 Pit fill 93 178 H Absent 100 Pit fill 94 179 H L 100 Pit fill 95 180 H L 100 Pit fill 96 181 H L 100 Pit fill 97 182 H L 100 Pit fill 98 183 H L 100 Pit fill 103 155 H L 50 Kiln fill 106 186 H Absent 100 Kiln fill 107 189 L Absent 100 Kiln fill 109 191 H H 100 Kiln fill 110 192 M L 100 Kiln fill 111 193 H L 100 Kiln fill 114 195 H L 100 Kiln fill 116 172 H M 100 Kiln fill 117 199 L L 100 Kiln fill Key: H = High frequency, M = Medium frequency, L = Low frequency52
  • 61. Table 2: Identified plant remains from Derrybane 1, Co� Tipperary (E3585) Cut number 62 75 83 87 145 145 145 145 145 142 Context 63 76 84 90 201 204 205 170 171 174 Sample 28 36 40 55 79 82 84 86 87 89 Hazelnut shell fragments (Corylus avellana L.) 9 Derrybane 1-e3585 Indeterminate seeds from the goosefoot family (Chenopodiaceae) 1 1 5 1 Balck bindweed (Fallopia convolvulus (L.) Á Löve) 1 1 1 4 Probable Sheep’s sorrel (Rumex cf acetosella L.) 3 Indeterminate seeds from the Knotgrass family (Polygonaceae) 2 8 3 1 Wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) capsule 1 1 Blackthorn: sloe stones (Prunus spinosa L.) 1 Indeterminate seeds from the Legume family (Fabaceae) 1 3 7 Indeterminate seeds from the mint family (Lamiaceae) 1 Cleavers (Galium aparine L.) 1 2 Nipplewort (Lapsana communis L.) 2 1 10 1 Probable Corn Marigold (Chrysanthemum cf segetum L.) 2 3 36 1 Indeterminate seeds from the daisy family (Asteraceae) 3 3 Oat grains (Avena L. species) 103 32 1 3 158 Possible oat grains (cf Avena species) 4 19 Hulled barley grains (Hordeum vulgare L.) 2 2 3 2 Barley grains of indeterminate species (Hordeum species) 3 5 1 2 6 Rye grains (Secale cereale) 2 Free threshing wheat (Triticum aestivum L./turgidum Desf./durum L.) 11 4 9 Probable free threshing wheat (Triticum cf aestivum L./turgidum Desf./durum 15 9 11 L.) Emmer/Bread wheat (Triticum dicoccum L./aestivum L./turgidum Desf./du- 2 rum L.) Wheat grains (Triticum L. species) 2 7 2 7 Barley/Wheat (Hordeum/Triticum) 2 1 Indeterminate cereal grains 44 27 1 21 21 Indeterminate grass seeds (Poaceae) 8 4 16 Indeterminate weed seeds 2 3 2 4 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/53
  • 62. 54 Table 2: Identified plant remains from Derrybane 1, Co� Tipperary (E3585) continued Cut number 142 142 142 142 142 142 142 142 153 145 Context 180 175 176 177 179 181 182 183 155 191 Sample 95 90 91 92 94 96 97 98 103 109 Hazelnut shell fragments (Corylus avellana L.) 1 3 1 2 2 Indeterminate seeds from the goosefoot family (Chenopodiaceae) 1 12 Corn spurrey (Spergula arvensis L.) 3 Indeterminate seeds from the pink family (Caryophyllaceae) 1 iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 Pale persicaria (Persicaria lapathifolia (L.) Gray) 5 Black bindweed (Fallopia convolvulus (L.) Á Löve) 1 4 Probable Sheep’s sorrel (Rumex cf acetosella L.) 1 2 1 1 7 Indeterminate seeds from the Knotgrass family (Polygonaceae) 17 Wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) capsule 1 1 Indeterminate seeds from the Legume family (Fabaceae) 4 1 1 31 Plantain (Plantago L. species) 2 Cleavers (Galium aparine L.) 1 4 Nipplewort (Lapsana communis L.) 1 2 Probable Corn Marigold (Chrysanthemum cf segetum L.) 2 1 29 Indeterminate seeds from the daisy family (Asteraceae) 16 Oat grains (Avena L. species) 13 3 3 7 10 7 3 92 Hulled barley grains (Hordeum vulgare L.) 1 1 9 Barley grains of indeterminate species (Hordeum species) 3 2 4 Possible naked barley grains (cf Hordeum vulgare var. nudum) 1 Rye grains (Secale cereale) 2 1 9 Free threshing wheat (Triticum aestivum L./turgidum Desf./durum L.) 2 3 4 3 12 Wheat grains (Triticum L. species) 8 4 7 3 2 31 Indeterminate cereal grains 16 5 13 10 15 12 1 112 Rachis internodes from indeterminate cereals 2 Indeterminate grass seeds (Poaceae) 1 2 3 1 5 Indeterminate weed seeds 3 1 2 1 1 15 archaeological excavation report
  • 63. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/Table 2: Identified plant remains from Derrybane 1, Co� Tipperary (E3585) continuedCut number 145 145 145 145 145Context 192 193 195 172 199Sample 110 111 114 116 117Indeterminate seeds from the goosefoot family (Chenopodiaceae) 1 1Pale persicaria (Persicaria lapathifolia (L.) Gray) 1Balck bindweed (Fallopia convolvulus (L.) Á Löve) 2Probable Sheep’s sorrel (Rumex cf acetosella L.) 1Indeterminate seeds from the Knotgrass family (Polygonaceae) 1 5Wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) capsule 1 1Indeterminate seeds from the Legume family (Fabaceae) 2 5 1Nipplewort (Lapsana communis L.) 1 4Probable Corn Marigold (Chrysanthemum cf segetum L.) 3 2 1Indeterminate daisy family seeds: marigold type (Asteraceae) 2Oat grains (Avena L. species) 2 2 37 9Barley grains of indeterminate species (Hordeum species) 1 1Rye grains (Secale cereale) 1 1Free threshing wheat (Triticum aestivum L./turgidum Desf./durum L.) 1Wheat grains (Triticum L. species) 1 2Barley/Wheat (Hordeum/Triticum) 1Indeterminate cereal grains 2 4 9 1Indeterminate grass seeds (Poaceae) 2 55
  • 64. iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report Appendix 6 Animal bone report Excavations here revealed a medieval corn-drying kiln and a number of undated features. Animal bones were found in very small quantities in just two of the excavated features. Ten indeterminate long bone fragments were found in the fill (C6) of a posthole (C27) of unknown date. The very fragmented remains of a cow skull were recovered from the fill (C204) of the corn-drying kiln. Identified elements include two mandible fragments, twelve loose teeth and 35 small pieces of skull. It is presumed that the cow skull was dis- carded into the kiln as part of a backfill deposit once cereal processing activities ceased at the site.56