Eachtra JournalIssue 11                                                  [ISSN 2009-2237]             Archaeological Excav...
EACHTRAArchaeological Projects                          Archaeological Excavation Report                          Derryban...
Archaeological Excavation Report                                           Derrybane 1                                    ...
© Eachtra Archaeological Projects 2011  The Forge, Innishannon, Co Cork        Set in 12pt Garamond          Printed in Ir...
Table of Contents       Summary�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������...
List of Figures     Figure	1:	   The	 route	 of	 the	 N7	 Castletown	 to	 Nenagh	 overlain	 on	 the	 Ordnance	 Survey	    ...
Derrybane 1-e3585                                    http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/Sum...
iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237                          archaeological excavation report              Acknowle...
Derrybane 1-e3585                                   http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/1   ...
182550                                                 198900                       2152502    193300                     ...
Derrybane 1-e3585                                 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/Drumba...
iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237                               archaeological excavation report              4  ...
190400                                                               196200                                               ...
iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237                               archaeological excavation report                 ...
Derrybane 1-e3585                                  http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/High ...
192402                                                             1934028                                                ...
Derrybane 1-e3585                                     http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/  ...
192400                                               192770                                         19314010              ...
Derrybane 1-e3585                                    http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/6  ...
iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237                                       archaeological excavation report         ...
Derrybane 1-e3585                                  http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/Plate...
192750                                                                       19280014                                     ...
Derrybane 1-e3585                                          http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tippera...
iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237                               archaeological excavation report              Pla...
Derrybane 1-e3585                                     http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/Pl...
iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237                                        archaeological excavation report        ...
Derrybane 1-e3585                                        http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary...
20       Derrybane 1       Area 3       West facing section of kiln C.145                                                 ...
Derrybane 1-e3585                                   http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/    ...
iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237                                    archaeological excavation report            ...
Derrybane 1-e3585                                    http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/8	 ...
iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237                               archaeological excavation report              mal...
Derrybane 1-e3585                                        http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary...
iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237                             archaeological excavation report              9    ...
Derrybane 1-e3585                                 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/      ...
iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237     archaeological excavation report              Appendix 1 Stratigraphic Inde...
Derrybane 1-e3585      http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/Appendix 2 Site Matrix           ...
iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237   archaeological excavation report30
Derrybane 1-e3585   http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/                                    ...
Archaeological Report - Derrybane 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Derrybane 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Derrybane 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Derrybane 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Derrybane 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Derrybane 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Derrybane 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Derrybane 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Derrybane 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Derrybane 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Derrybane 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Derrybane 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Derrybane 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Derrybane 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Derrybane 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Derrybane 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Derrybane 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Derrybane 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Derrybane 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Derrybane 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Derrybane 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Derrybane 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Derrybane 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Derrybane 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Derrybane 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Derrybane 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Derrybane 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
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Archaeological Report - Derrybane 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)

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Three separate cuttings were excavated at Derrybane 1. Area 1 measured 20 m by 20 m, Area 2 measured 92 m by 30 m and Area 3 measured 13 m by 15 m. Three large pits were excavated in Area 1. Area 2 was characterised by 22 small and shallow pits, located for the most part in the centre of the site, 12 postholes and three hearths. The entire area was truncated by modern drains and furrows. An Early Bronze Age date, an early medieval and a medieval date were returned from pits and a hearth in Area 2. A corn-drying kiln and associated pit were recorded in Area 3. The figure-of-eight type kiln comprised two oval chambers separated by a flue. There was evidence for three or four phases of use in the kiln. A large oval pit was located adjacent to the kiln. The pit contained large amounts of burnt material, possibly waste from the kiln. The kiln was dated to the medieval period.

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Archaeological Report - Derrybane 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)

  1. 1. Eachtra JournalIssue 11 [ISSN 2009-2237] Archaeological Excavation Report E3585 - Derrybane 1, Co. Tipperary Multi peroid site with a Later Medieval kiln
  2. 2. EACHTRAArchaeological Projects Archaeological Excavation Report Derrybane 1 Co. Tipperary Multi peroid site with a Later Medieval kiln Date: July 2011 Client: Laois County Council and National Roads Authority Project: N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Contract 1) E No.: E3585Excavation Director: Laurence McGowan Written by: Ewelina Chrobak and Enda OMahony
  3. 3. Archaeological Excavation Report Derrybane 1 Co. Tipperary Excavation Director Laurence McGowan Written By Ewelina Chrobak and Enda OMahony EACHTRA Archaeological Projects CORK GALWAY The Forge, Innishannon, Co. Cork Unit 10, Kilkerrin Park, Liosbain Industrial Estate, Galwaytel: 021 4701616 | web: www.eachtra.ie | email: info@eachtra.ie tel: 091 763673 | web: www.eachtra.ie | email: galway@eachtra.ie
  4. 4. © Eachtra Archaeological Projects 2011 The Forge, Innishannon, Co Cork Set in 12pt Garamond Printed in Ireland
  5. 5. Table of Contents Summary���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������iii Acknowledgements�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� iv1 Scope of the project �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Route location��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 13 Receiving environment ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 34 Archaeological and historical background ��������������������������������������������������������������������� 4 Mesolithic(c�8000to4000BC)���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4 Neolithic(c�4000to2000BC)������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 4 � BronzeAge(c�2000to600BC)����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4 IronAge(c�500BCtoAD500)����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 6 Earlymedievalperiod(c�AD400to1100)����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 6 Highandlatermedievalperiods(c�AD1100to1650)���������������������������������������������������������������� 7 Post-medievalperiod(c�1650tothepresent)��������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 75 Site location and Topography ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 96 Excavation methodology ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 117 Excavation results ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 128 Discussion ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������239 References �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 26Appendix 1 Stratigraphic Index ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������28Appendix 2 Site Matrix �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������29Appendix 3 Groups and Subgroups ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 32Appendix 4 Lithic artefacts report ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������44Appendix 5 Plant remains report������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 47Appendix 6 Animal bone report �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������56 i
  6. 6. List of Figures Figure 1: The route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh overlain on the Ordnance Survey Discovery Series map� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 � Figure 2: The route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh overlain on the Ordnance Survey Discovery Series map with all the excavation sites marked� ����������������������������������������������������� 5 Figure 3: Portion of the Ist edition Ordnance Survey Map TN21 showing the location of Derrybane 1� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 8 Figure 4: Location and extent of Derrybane 1 E3585 on the N7 Castletown to Nenagh� ����������������10 Figure 5: Post excavation plan of Area 1 ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Figure 6: Post excavation plan of Area 2 ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 14 Figure 7: Post excavation plan of Area 3 ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 18 Figure 8: Section of pits C�142 and C�153 and kiln C�145 �������������������������������������������������������������������������������20 List of Plates Plate 1: Aerial photograph montage of Derrybane 1� ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 9 Plate 2: Mid-excavation of pit C�153 ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 13 Plate 3: Post-excavation photograph of C�14, C�26 and C�50 looking southeast� ����������������������������� 15 Plate 4: Post excavation of pit C�12 looking south� �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 15 Plate 5: Mid-excavation of hearth C�105� ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 16 Plate 6: Mid excavation of pit C�142 looking east� ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 17 Plate 7: Mid excavation of kiln C�145 looking south� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 18 Plate 8: Post excavation of kiln C�145 looking north� ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 19 Plate 9: Convex end scraper E3585:1:1 �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������21 List of Tables Table 1 Dimensions of pits in Area 1 ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Table 2 Dimensions of hearths in Area 2 �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 16 � Table 3 Dimensions of pits in Area 3 ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 17 Table 4 Radiocarbon dates �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������22 Table 5 Radiocarbon dates from other medieval sites with kilns on the N7 (Contract 1)� ������������25ii
  7. 7. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/SummaryThree separate cuttings were excavated at Derrybane 1. Area 1 measured 20 m by 20 m,Area 2 measured 92 m by 30 m and Area 3 measured 13 m by 15 m. Three large pits wereexcavated in Area 1. Area 2 was characterised by 22 small and shallow pits, located forthe most part in the centre of the site, 12 postholes and three hearths. The entire area wastruncated by modern drains and furrows. An Early Bronze Age date, an early medievaland a medieval date were returned from pits and a hearth in Area 2. A corn-drying kilnand associated pit were recorded in Area 3. The figure-of-eight type kiln comprised twooval chambers separated by a flue. There was evidence for three or four phases of use inthe kiln. A large oval pit was located adjacent to the kiln. The pit contained large amountsof burnt material, possibly waste from the kiln. The kiln was dated to the medieval period.Road project name N7 Castletown to NenaghSite name Derrybane 1E no. E3585Site director Laurence McGowanTownland DerrybaneParish BallymackeyCounty TipperaryBarony Upper OrmondOS Map Sheet No. TN21National Grid Reference 192428, 192514Elevation 85m O.D. iii
  8. 8. iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report Acknowledgements The project was commissioned by Laois County Council and was funded by the Na- tional Roads Authority under the National Development Plan (2000-2006). The project archaeologist was Niall Roycroft. Kildare County Council supervised the archaeological contract with RE staff of Pat Dowling and Colum Fagan. Kildare County Council Sen- ior Executive Engineer was Joseph Kelly and Kildare County Council Senior Engineer was John Coppinger. The senior archaeologist was John Tierney and the post-excavation manager was Jacinta Kiely. Illustrations are by Maurizio Toscano, photographs by John Sunderland and Eagle Photography and aerial photography by StudioLab. Specialist anal- ysis was carried out by Mary Dillon, Penny Johnston, Farina Sternke and the 14 Chrono Centre at Queen’s University Belfast.iv
  9. 9. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/1 Scope of the projectEachtra Archaeological Projects were commissioned by Laois County Council and theNational Roads Authority to undertake archaeological works along 17.1 km (Contact1) of the 35km N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) national roadscheme (EIS approved in November 2005). The scheme runs from the eastern junctionof the present N7 Nenagh Bypass, North Tipperary a tie in to the M7/M8 Portlaoise-Castletown scheme to the south of Borris-in-Ossory in County Laois. The scheme is ap-proximately 191 hectares. Contract 1 comprises the western half of the scheme and runsfrom Clashnevin to Castleroan passing along the Tipperary North and Offaly countyborder regions. The Ministers Direction Number is A38. It was funded by the Irish Government under the National Development Plan 2000-2006. The total archaeological cost was administered by the National Roads Authoritythrough Laois County Council as part of the Authority’s commitment to protectingour cultural heritage. The purpose of the archaeological services project was to conductarchaeological site investigations within the lands made available for the scheme and toassess the nature and extent of any new potential archaeological sites uncovered. Phase 1 of the project (archaeological testing of the route) was carried out in 2007under licence E3371, E3372 and E3375-8 issued by Department of the EnvironmentHeritage and Local Government (DoEHLG) in consultation with the National Muse-um of Ireland. The principal aim of this phase of the project was to test for any previ-ously unknown sites by a programme of centreline and offset testing and to test sites ofarchaeological potential identified in the EIS. Phase 2 of the project (resolution) involved the resolution of all archaeological sitesidentified within the proposed road corridor prior to commencement of the construc-tion of the road. This phase of the project was carried out from June 2007 to February2008 and excavations were conducted under the management of a Senior Archaeologist.A total of 27 sites were excavated during this phase of works under separate licences is-sued by DoEHLG. A post-excavation assessment and strategy document was prepared in Phase 3 of theproject to present a management strategy for dealing with post-excavation work aris-ing from archaeological works along the route of the new N7 Castletown to Nenagh. Itincluded a proposal for post-excavation and archiving work and a budget for the works.2 Route locationThe route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh road is located in Counties North Tipperaryand Offaly (OF) (Figure 1). The project (Contract 1) involves the construction of c. 17.5km of the N7 from Clashnevin east of Nenagh to Castleroan south-east of Dunkerrin. Itpasses through the townlands of Clashnevin, Derrybane, Newtown, Lissanisky, Killeisk,Garavally, Derrycarney, Garrynafanna, Gortnadrumman, Kilgorteen, Falleen, Knock-ane, Clash, Park, Rosdremid (OF), Clynoe (OF), Cullenwaine, Moneygall, Greenhills, 1
  10. 10. 182550 198900 2152502 193300 193300 ! ( Nenagh iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 Derg (Lough) 182950 182950 172600 172600 0 5 10 182550 198900 Kilometres 215250 ± Figure 1: The route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh overlain on the Ordnance Survey Discovery Series map� archaeological excavation report
  11. 11. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/Drumbaun, Busherstown (OF), Drumroe (OF), Moatquarter, Loughan (OF) and Cas-tleroan (OF). The townlands are located in the parishes of Ballymackey, Cullenwaine,Castletownely, Rathnaveoge, Finglas and Dunkerrin and the baronies of Upper Ormond,Ikerrin and Clonisk, The route begins at the eastern end of the Nenagh bypass at Clashnevin c. 5 kmeast of Nenagh and continues eastward on the northern side of the existing N7 in Co.Tipperary. It crosses a number of third class roads to the north of Toomyvara and 0.7km east of Clash crossroads crosses the Ollatrim River. It extends into County Offalydirectly east of Park. From here it crosses the R490 0.6 km north of Moneygall. It ex-tends back in County Tipperary and through the demesne of Greenhills before cross-ing the existing N7 at the junction of Greenhills and Drumbaun townlands. It crossesback into County Offaly and climbs east into Busherstown and Drumroe. It crosses theKeeloge Stream into Moatquarter in County Tipperary and extends northeast back intoCounty Offaly through the townlands of Loughan and Castleroan 1.4 km southwest ofDunkerrin.3 Receiving environmentNorth Tipperary is bounded on the west by the River Shannon and Lough Derg withthe Silvermines, to the south, and small hills extending towards Devilsbit and BorrisnoeMountains to the east. The mountains are composed largely of Silurian strata and OldRed Sandstone. Copper, silver and lead deposits have been mined in the Silvermines. Thegeology of the lowlands consists of Carboniferous limestone covered by glacial drift inaddition to tracts of raised bog. The western portion of the study area is drained by the Ollatrim River which flowswestwards into the River Ballintotty which in turns drains into the River Nenagh. Theeastern portion is drained by the Keeloge Stream and other small water sources. Theserise in the foothills of the Silvermine Mountains and flow north. The Keeloge drainsinto the Little Brosna River c. 1 km south of Shinrone, Co Offaly. The Brosna turnsnorth and drains into the Shannon south of Banagher. The largest population centre in the area is Nenagh. The smaller population centres,are Toomyvara, Moneygall and Dunkerrin. The soils on the route are characterised by 80% grey brown podzolics, 10% gleys,5% brown earths and 5% basis peat. They are derived from glacial till of predominantlyCarboniferous limestone composition. These soils occur in Tipperary and Offaly andhave a wide use range being suitable for both tillage and pasture (Gardiner and Rad-ford 1980, 97-99). Land use along the route was a mix of grassland devoted to intensivedairying and cattle-rearing and tillage. 3
  12. 12. iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report 4 Archaeological and historical background Archaeological sites of numerous periods were discovered along the route of the new road (Figure 2). The periods are referred to as follows: Mesolithic (c. 8000 to 4000 BC), Neo- lithic (c. 4000 to 2000 BC), Bronze Age (c. 2000 to 600 BC), and Iron Age (c. 500 BC to AD 500), early medieval period (c. AD 500 to 1100), medieval period (c. AD 1100 to 1650), post-medieval period (c. AD 1650 to the present). Mesolithic (c. 8000 to 4000 BC) The earliest known human settlement in Ireland dates from the Mesolithic period (c. 8000 BC - 4000 BC). The majority of the evidence (flint scatters) for Mesolithic occupa- tion has come from the river valleys. No evidence for the Mesolithic was recorded on the route. Neolithic (c. 4000 to 2000 BC) The Neolithic Period is characterised by the introduction of agriculture and the begin- nings of the clearance of the woodlands. The population increased and became more sedentary in nature. The most important Neolithic site in the vicinity was at Tullahedy recorded on the route of the Nenagh by-pass. It was a specialist chert arrow manufactur- ing site. No evidence for a Neolithic site was recorded on the route but stone tools dating to the Neolithic were recorded at Busherstown E3661, Clash E3660, Culleenwaine E3741 and Greenhills 2 and 3 E3637 and E3658. Stone tools dating to the late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age were recorded at Busherstown E3661, Castleroan E3909, Culleenwaine E3741, Derrybane 1 E3585, Drumroe E3773, Greenhills 1 E3638 and Moatquarter E3910. Neolithic pottery was recorded at Culleenwaine E3741 and Drumbaun E3912. Bronze Age (c. 2000 to 600BC) The Bronze Age is characterised by the introduction of metallurgy and an increase in settlement and burial sites. Copper ores were mined and copper, bronze and gold items manufactured. The range of burial site types includes cist graves, pit and urn burials, cremation cemeteries, barrows, ring-ditches and wedge tombs. Stone circles and stand- ing stones also date to the Bronze Age. Both enclosed and unenclosed settlement sites are known. The most prolific Bronze Age site type is the fulacht fiadh. These monuments survive as low mounds of charcoal rich black silt, packed with heat-shattered stones, and generally situated close to a water source. Fulachta fiadh are generally classified as ‘cook- ing places’, whereby stones were heated in a hearth and subsequently placed in a trough of water, the water continued to boil with the addition of hot stones and wrapped food was cooked within the hot water. The trough eventually filled with small stones, ash and charcoal that were removed, forming the basis of the familiar mound.4
  13. 13. 190400 196200 202000 207800 Derrybane 1 186400 186400 Derrybane 1-e3585 Castleroan 1 E 3909 Busherstown 1 E 3661 Loughan 1 E 4000 Greenhills 3 E 3658 Moneygall 2 Culleenwaine 1 E 3635 E 3741 Moatquarter 1 Clynoe 2 E 3910 E 3774 181800 181800 Park 1 Drumroe 1 Garravally Kilgorteen 1 E 3659 E 3773 E 3589 E 3739 Drumbaun 2 Derrybane 2 E 3912 E 3591 Greenhills 1 Greenhills 2 E 3638 E 3637 Clashnevin 2 E 3590 Clash 1 Park 2 E 3660 E 3772 Derrycarney 1 E 3740 Clashnevin 1 Derrybane 1 Killeisk 1 E 3586 E 3585 E 3587 177200 177200 0 3 6 Kilometres ± 190400 196200 202000 207800 Figure 2: The route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh overlain on the Ordnance Survey Discovery Series map with all the excavation sites marked� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/5
  14. 14. iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report Two new fulachta fiadh or burnt mounds were recorded at Clashnevin 1 E3586, Culleenwaine E3741 and six at three separate locations in Greenhills, E3638, E3637 and E3658. Evidence of nine roundhouses or partial round structures were recorded; two at Castleroan E3909, Derrybane 2 E3591 and Drumbaun 2 E3912 and one at Clash E3660, Drumroe E3773 and Moatquarter E3910. Iron Age (c. 500 BC to AD 500) Up to recently there was little evidence of a significant Iron Age presence in Munster. Settlement sites are few and far between as well as being difficult to identify (Woodman, 2000) while the material culture of this period is limited. Linear earthworks, believed to have marked tribal boundaries, and hillforts are two of the most visible monuments of the period. Ten percent of sites excavated on NRA road schemes in recent years have produced Iron Age dates. The dates have led to the identification of 30 new Iron Age sites in Munster from road schemes in counties Cork, Limerick and Tipperary (McLaughlin 2008, 51). These include a ditched enclosure in Ballywilliam and a wooden trackway in Annaholty Bog excavated on the route of the N7 Nenagh-Limerick (Taylor 2008, 54). Three Iron Age dates were returned from pits in Castleroan E3909 and Drumroe E3773 on the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Contract 1). Early medieval period (c. AD 400 to 1100) The early medieval period is characterised by the arrival of Christianity to Ireland. The characteristic monument type of the period is the ringfort. Ringforts are the most nu- merous archaeological monument found in Ireland, with estimates of between 30,000 and 50,000 illustrated on the first edition of the Ordnance Survey 6” maps of the 1840’s (Barry 1987). As a result of continued research, the construction of these monuments has a narrow date range during the early medieval period between the 7th and 9th centuries AD. Although there are some very elaborate examples of ringforts, they often take the form of a simple earth or stone enclosure functioning as settlements for all classes of secu- lar society (Stout 1997). North Tipperary is rich in early ecclesiastical sites and the remains of these religious centres are at the core of some of the towns and villages. Roscrea, for example, was cho- sen by St Cronan as a location for his monastery in the seventh century as it was located at the crossroads on the Slighe Dála, an important roadway in early medieval times (NIAH 2006, 4-8). Early medieval activity was recorded at five sites on the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Contract 1). A series of corn-drying kilns were recorded at Busherstown E3661. A denuded ringfort (OF046-013) was excavated at Clynoe 2 E3774. An area of iron-working and associated pits was recorded at Drumbaun E3912. Iron working activ- ity, corn-drying kilns and settlement activity was recorded at Park 1 E3659. A group of pits and associated ditch were recorded at Drumroe E3773.6
  15. 15. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/High and later medieval periods (c. AD 1100 to 1650)This period is characterized by the arrival of the Anglo-Normans and the building of tow-er houses. The Anglo-Normans obtained charters in the thirteenth century for the townsof Nenagh, Roscrea, Thurles and Templemore and established markets. Nenagh grewrapidly in the aftermath of the granting of the lands of Munster to Theobald fitzWalter in1185 (ibid. 8). Moated sites represent the remains of isolated, semi-defended homesteadsin rural areas. They were build mainly in the late thirteenth and early fourteenth cen-turies in counties, such as Wexford, Kilkenny, Tipperary, mid-Cork and Limerick, thatwere colonised by English settlers (O’Conor 1998, 58). The Archaeological Inventory forNorth Tipperary lists 39 moated sites (2002, 298). A medieval enclosure and associated field systems were recorded at Killeisk E3587. Anewly recorded moated site was excavated at Busherstown E3661. A series of ditches andsettlement activity was recorded at Park 1 E3659.Post-medieval period (c. 1650 to the present).The post-medieval period is characterised by mills, limekilns, workhouses, country hous-es and associated demesnes, vernacular buildings and field systems (Figure 3). A smallDemesne associated with a county house was recorded at Greenhills. 7
  16. 16. 192402 1934028 BALLINREE NEWTOWN 179468 179468 LISSANISKY iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 CLASHNEVIN Derrybane 2 Clashnevin 2 Clashnevin 1 RATHFALLA Derrybane 1 DERRYBANE 178818 178818 BALLINTOTTY KNOCKAHUNNA SHANBALLY BALLYNALICK 0 300 600 ¥ Meters 192402 193402 Figure 3: Portion of the Ist edition Ordnance Survey Map TN21 showing the location of Derrybane 1� archaeological excavation report
  17. 17. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/ Derrybane 1 (E3585) 0 30 60 Meters ±Plate 1: Aerial photograph montage of Derrybane 1�5 Site location and TopographyThe site at Derrybane 1 was located in the western portion of the townland (Figure 4,Plate 1). Derrybane townland ranges in height from 85m O.D. to 94m O.D. and contains113 acres of land. The townland name most likely refers to the whitish oak wood derivedfrom Doire meaning “oak wood” and Bane (Ban) meaning “whitish”. The townland isenclosed by a national primary route (N7) to the south and by local tertiary roads tothe north and east. The townland boundary to the west comprises of a field boundaryand a disused pathway. In the south western corner of the townland there is no visibletownland boundary as it has been removed for 200 metres due to current agriculturalpractices. The townland and the surrounding landscape is an undulating landscape withboth tillage and pastoral agricultural being the predominant land use. Due to currentagricultural practices there are no internal field boundaries within Derrybane townlandin comparison to the First Edition OS map sheet TN21 which shows fourteen fields (seeFigure 3). There is a very gentle gradient in the area of the excavation which sloped fromeast to west. The underlying geology is Dinantian Lower Impure Limestone while the subsoilis BminDW which is a limestone derived till. These grey brown podzolics and brownearths are derived mainly from basis parent materials. 9
  18. 18. 192400 192770 19314010 NEWTOWN 179200 179200 DERRYBANE 1600 1500 iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 1400 1300 Area 2 120 0 Area 3 179000 179000 CLASHNEVIN 110 0 100 0 Area 1 900 800 700 600 178800 178800 500 KNOCKAHUNNA 400 Derrybane 1 (E3585) 0 100 200 192400 192770 193140 Metres ± Figure 4: Location and extent of Derrybane 1 E3585 on the N7 Castletown to Nenagh� archaeological excavation report
  19. 19. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/6 Excavation methodologyThe site was mechanically stripped of topsoil under strict archaeological supervision.Stripping was done with a tracked machine with a flat toothless bucket. Topsoil strippingcommenced in the areas of identified archaeology and continued radially outward untilthe limit of the road take was reached or until the limit of the archaeological remains wasfully defined. The three areas were stripped systemically. Area 1 measured approximately400sq m. Area 2 was located 50 m east of Area 1. It encompassed an area of c. 2700sq m.Area 3 was located 40 m east of Area 2 and it enclosed an area of c.185sq m. A grid wasset up in the excavation areas and all archaeological features were sufficiently cleaned,recorded and excavated so as to enable an accurate and meaningful record of the site tobe preserved. The excavation, environmental sampling, site photographs, site drawings,find care and retrieval, on-site recording and site archive was as per the Procedures for Ar-chaeological works as attached to the licence method statements for excavation licences. The full record of excavated contexts is recorded in the context register and thestratigraphic matrix (Appendix 1 and 2). Detailed stratigraphic descriptions are found inthe groups and sub-groups text (Appendix 3). The context register maybe viewed in theEAPOD (Eachtra Archaeological Projects office database) in the accompanying CD. 11
  20. 20. iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report 192660 192680 178968 ± 178968 153 Area 1 161 159 178956 178956 0 10 m 192660 192680 Figure 5: Post excavation plan of Area 1 7 Excavation results Three areas of excavation were excavated at Derrybane 1. Area 1 Area 1 was the most westerly of the three areas. It measured c. 20 m by 20 m. Excavation of Area 1 (Figure 5) revealed three large pits (C.153, C.159 and C.161). Pit C.153 was lo- cated 9 m north of the other two pits which were adjacent to one another. Context Dimensions C.153 1.83 x 1.04 x 0.65 C.159 3.4 x 2.4 x 0.3 C.161 3.4 x 1.6 x 0.4 Table 1 Dimensions of pits in Area 1 The pit C.153 was smaller in size than the other two (see Figure 8). It was oval in plan and showed signs of insitu burning along the base however the charcoal residue was minimal (Plate 2). With the exception of a weed seed and some hazelnut shells no charred cereals or metallurgical residues were recovered from the fills of the pit C.153. The pit may have functioned as a hearth.12
  21. 21. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/Plate 2: Mid-excavation of pit C�153 The other two pits were adjacent to each other and may have served as refuse pits.Small fragments of possible animal bone were recorded in the pits.Area 2The excavations in Area 2 (Figure 6) revealed a total of 22 pits, three hearths and 12postholes. The area of excavation measured c. 30 m by 90 m. The area was truncated by anumber of furrow which were aligned NW–SE and by a drainage ditch which cut east–west across the site. Five of the pits (C.20, C.29, C.35, C.42, C.43 and C.46) were located in a cluster atthe western end of Area 2. Pit C.35 cut pit C.46. The majority of the pits (C.12, C.13,C.14, C.26, C.49, C.50, C.51, C.52, C.62, C.64, C.71, C.85, C.101 and C.137) were lo-cated in the centre of Area 2 in a broad band in an area that measured c. 18 m wide by 38m long and was aligned SW–NE (Plates 3 and 4). A medieval date of cal AD 1035–1162(UB–15076) was returned from the pit C.62. Three hearths were recorded in Area 3. Two (C.16 and C.87) were located on thesouthern edge of Area 3. Hearth 87 was truncated by one of the furrows. Ten fills wererecorded within the hearth C.87, including basal layers of charcoal and burnt clay, indi-cating several periods of burning. The third hearth C.105 was located at the eastern endof Area 2 c. 32 m east of the main concentration of pits and within 50 m of the kiln inArea 3. The base of the hearth was heat-scorched and was overlain by layers of charcoal(Plate 5). Charcoal from the fill was dated to the early medieval period cal AD 778–885 13
  22. 22. 192750 19280014 33 ± 111 99 Area 2 73 105 179017 179017 97 75 77 135 81 49 79 83 137 127 iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 71 58 42 52 115 85 51 43 O 46 36 ) 32 92 m O.D. 37 101 103 20 50 62 14 29 Drainage ditch 22 26 27 64 87 12 13 16 178988 178988 0 25 m 192750 192800 Figure 6: Post excavation plan of Area 2 archaeological excavation report
  23. 23. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/Plate 3: Post-excavation photograph of C�14, C�26 and C�50 looking southeast�Plate 4: Post excavation of pit C�12 looking south� 15
  24. 24. iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report Plate 5: Mid-excavation of hearth C�105� (UB–15075). No charred cereals or metallurgical residues were recovered from any of the hearths. Context Dimensions C.16 1.83 x 1.04 x 0.65 C.87 3.4 x 2.4 x 0.3 C.105 3.4 x 1.6 x 0.4 Table 2 Dimensions of hearths in Area 2 The postholes were located in association with the pits but did not form any apparent structure. Two of the posts (C.36 and C.37) were located adjacent to one another, 4 m to the south-east of the small cluster of pits, at the western end of Area 2. Three of postholes ((C.22, C.27 and C.28) were located in close proximity to one another in the central band of pits. An Early Bronze Age date of cal BC 1622–1512 (UB–15077) was returned from the posthole C.22. A small quantity of indeterminate animal bone was recovered from the posthole C.27. The remaining five posts (C.58, C.75, C.77, C.79, C.81 and C.83) were located close to one another to the east of pit C.49 at the northern end of the central band of pits. Posthole C.71 was located 4.5 m SE and posthole C.51 was located 2.5 m SW of the other five. A flint scaper and a hammerstone were recovered from the topsoil in Area 2. They were dated to the Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age period.16
  25. 25. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/Plate 6: Mid excavation of pit C�142 looking east�Area 3Area 3 was located 40 m east of Area 2. The area of excavation measured c. 15 m by 12m. Two pits (C.142 and C.149) and a corn drying kiln (C.145) were recorded in Area 3(Figure 7). The pits were located on the eastern side of the kiln. The pit C.142 was located 1.5 m to the east of the kiln. It contained ten fills whichlikely to have been derived from rake-out from the kiln (Plate 6). The pit was re-cut bypit C.143. Four fills were recorded in the re-cut pit C.143. They were similar to thoserecorded in pit C.142. Context Dimensions C.142 2.25 x 1.46 x 0.62 C.143 0.78 x 0.76 x 0.26 C.149 0.42 x 0.25 x 0.26Table 3 Dimensions of pits in Area 3 The kiln was a figure-of-eight type kiln it comprised two oval chambers separated byan elongated flue. The kiln measured a maximum of 6.2m by 2.2m and was orientatednorth–south with the opening to the north. The sides of the kiln were stone lined whilethe interior showed signs of collapse and deliberate backfilling (Plate 7). The stone lin-ing was best preserved within the area of the drying chamber. The revetment stones werelarge rounded limestone and sandstone field stones set three courses high by two stones indepth. The stone revetment in the area of the entrance was the least well preserved. Evi- 17
  26. 26. iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report 192855 192863 ± Area 3 200 212 213 214 215 143 216 217 142 179023 179023 Kiln 149 145 0 5m 192855 192863 Figure 7: Post excavation plan of Area 3 Plate 7: Mid excavation of kiln C�145 looking south�18
  27. 27. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/Plate 8: Post excavation of kiln C�145 looking north�dence of a hearth was recorded towards the northern end of the flue. The flue measured c.2.5 m in length (Plate 8). The drying chamber measured c. 0.8 m wide internally. In total 31 fills were recorded within the kiln (C.168, C.169, C.170, C.171, C.172,C.184, C.189, C.190, C.191, C.192, C.193, C.194, C.195, C.196, C.197, C.198, C.199,C.201 C.,202, C.203, C.204, C.205, C.206, C.207, C.208, C.209, C.210, C.211, C.218)(Figure 8). The stratagraphic evidence suggested three or four phases of use for the kiln.The upper fills in the kiln were brown sandy silts and clays and were derived from thebackfill of the kiln. Some of the basal layers included burnt clay, charcoal and charredplant remains and were derived from rake-out of the kiln. The western edge of the northern bowl was lined with six stakeholes (C.212, C.213,C.214, C.215, C.216 and C.217) and a centrally placed posthole (C.200). They may haveformed part of a shelter or roof associated with the entrance. No stakeholes were record-ed on the eastern side of the kiln. Plant remains were recovered in large amounts from the kiln and the pit at Area3 (see Appendix 5). Some of the layers that overlay the area of the hearth were rich inplant remains and probably represent rake-out from the drying chamber. The cerealswere primarily oats followed by a smaller quantity of wheat, mostly identified as breadwheat. Much smaller quantities of barley and rye were also found. The proportionsfrom the pit C.142 were the same as those from the kiln. A medieval date of cal AD1181–1269 (UB–15040) was returned from oat grains from one of the fills that overlaythe hearth in the kiln. 19
  28. 28. 20 Derrybane 1 Area 3 West facing section of kiln C.145 C.201 C.199 C.193 C.205 C.168 C.202 C.204 C.191 C.170 C.203 C.184 C.171 C.172 C.195 C.189 C.145 C.192 Derrybane 1 Area 3 West facing section of Pit C.142 iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 C.183 C.167 C.180 C.166 C.182 C.165 C.164 C.180 C.181 C.143 C.181 C.180 C.179 C.177 C.177 C.175 C.178 C.176 C.174 C.175 C.174 C.142 C.142 Derrybane 1 Area 1 West facing section of pit C.153 C.154 C.188 C.187 # # # C.185 # # # # # # # # # # # # ## # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # C.155 # # # # # C.173 C.156 C.186 10 cm 0 50 cm C.153 Figure 8: Section of pits C�142 and C�153 and kiln C�145 archaeological excavation report
  29. 29. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/ Plate 9: Convex end scraper E3585:1:1 Lithic artefactsThe lithics, a retouched artefact (Plate 9) and a possible macro tool, were examined by Fa-rina Sternke (Appendix 4). The retouched artefact was a small convex end scraper whichwas produced on a bipolar split pebble flake. The scraper dates to the Late Neolithic/EarlyBronze Age (Beaker period). The macro tool is a possible quartz hammer stone. It bears possible traces of wear ontwo opposed slightly flattened ends. It may also date to the Late Neolithic/Early BronzeAge.Plant remainsThe plant remains were examined by Penny Johnston (Appendix 5). A total of 36 sampleswere scanned and plant remains were present in 25 samples. The plant remains from bothArea 1 and Area 2 are so scattered that it is likely that they are incidental finds. On theother hand, plant remains were recovered in large amounts from the kiln and the pit atArea 3. The cereals were primarily oats followed by a smaller quantity of wheat, mostlyidentified as bread wheat. Much smaller quantities of barley and rye were also found. Thisassemblage of cereal remains is typical of medieval deposits, possibly even dating to thelater medieval period. 21
  30. 30. iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report Animal bone The animal bone was examined by Margaret McCarthy (Appendix 6). Small quantities were recovered from two features, from a post-hole C.27 in Area 2 and the backfill of the kiln in Area 3. Charcoal The charcoal was examined by Mary Dillon in advance of radiocarbon dating. Radiocarbon dates Radiocarbon analysis was carried out by the 14 Chrono Centre in Queen’s University Belfast (Appendix 6). Dates were calibrated using Calib Rev5.0.2 (©1986-2005 M.Stuiver P.J. Reimer) and in conjunction with Stuiver Reimer 1993 and Reimer et al. 2004. Lab no. Con- Material Un-calibrated δ 13 C Calibrated BC 2– Period text date sigma dates 15040 171 Oat from kiln C145 810+/-26 -30.0 medieval in Area 3 cal AD 1181-1269 15075 140 Oak charcoal from 1192 +/- 16 -28.0 cal AD 778-885 early medieval hearth C105 in Area 2 15076 63 Pomoideae charcoal 922+/-21 -29.8 cal AD 1035-1162 medieval from pit C62 in Area 2 15077 5 Oak charcoal from 3292 +/- 21 -28.3 cal BC 1622-1512 Early Bronze stakehole C22 in Age Area 2 Table 4 Radiocarbon dates22
  31. 31. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/8 DiscussionA group of pits, postholes, hearths and a corn-drying kiln were recorded in three separatecuttings at Derrybane 1. The evidence from two stone artefacts, radiocarbon dates andthe plant remains assemblage suggested that at least three different phases of activity wererecorded at Derrybane. Radiocarbon dates were returned from the Bronze Age and earlyand later medieval periods.Prehistoric periodAn Early Bronze Age radiocarbon date was returned from one of the pits in Area 2. Aflint scraper and a hammerstone, dated to the Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age Periodwere recovered from the topsoil. It is difficult to know how many of the pits or postholesin Area 1 and 2 belong to the Early Bronze Age phase of activity. Bronze Age domestic and funerary activity in the form of a series of cremation pits,three structures and associated post-holes, hearths, pits and stake-holes, dated to theEarly and Middle Bronze Age were recorded in two cuttings at Derrybane 2 E3591located c. 350 m east of Derrybane 1. Prehistoric activity, dated to the Middle and LateBronze Age, was recorded at Clashnevin 1 E3586 and Clashnevin 2 E3590 located c.100 m to the west of Derrybane 1. The lowlying land stretching from Clashnevin toDerrybane was settled in the Bronze Age and it is likely that many of the small pits andpostholes recorded at Derrybane are contemporary with this phase of activity.Medieval periodA hearth at the eastern end of Area 2 was dated to the early medieval period. Two otherhearths were recorded in Area 2 and one in Area 1. The hearths maybe contemporarywith one another and with some of the pits recorded in Area 2. No charred plant remainsor archaeometallurgical residues were recorded in association with the hearths. A pit in Area 2 was dated to the medieval period. A corn-drying kiln and associatedpit were recorded in Area 3. The kiln was dated to the medieval period, slightly laterthan the pit in Area 2. The kiln was a figure-of-eight type with an elongated flue. It wasstone lined and orientated north-south with the entrance to the north. Monk and Kel-liher (2005, 79) have noted that some kilns display features which would have enhancedtheir use, for example kilns built into banks, narrowing flues where the floor rises tomeet the drying chamber and fire pits in front of flues. There was no evidence that the kiln at Derrybane was associated with a field bound-ary or that there was a change in the level of the floor of the flue. The base of a hearthwas recorded at the northern edge of the flue. Some of the layers associated with the areaof the hearth, C.191 and C.171 in particular, were very rich in charred plant remainswhile charred plant remains were scarce or absent in many of the layers of backfill in theflue. Corn-drying kilns were used to dry cereal grains and other crops in order to facili-tate crop processing, to harden grains prior to grinding and to convert the grain into 23
  32. 32. iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report malt; the process of making malt is described in some early texts, and differs only mini- mally from the manner of malt preparation today (Binchy 1980). Lowering the moisture content of the grains also made them less susceptible to mould, fungal and insect attack and therefore increased the likelihood that they would come through storage intact. Drying kilns first appear in Britain during the Roman period, and it is possible that their use may have been due to necessity; to fumigate the grain crops in order to stop the spread of the stored product pest, the grain weevil (Sitophilus granarius): the earliest findings of these beetles from archaeological contexts in Northwestern Europe are all from within the Roman Empire (Reilly 2003). It is not known when the grain weevil was introduced into Ireland, the earliest example found to date is from late Viking/early Anglo-Norman levels at Waterford (Reilly 2003) and the use of kilns in this country predates this (e.g. a radiocarbon date of Cal AD 410-485 was obtained from Kiltenan North, Co. Limerick: 02E0666). Their use continued in some parts of Ireland into the relatively recent past, Scott (1951) described several kilns that were still in use up to the beginning of the twentieth century. These examples demonstrate that the timeframe during which these monuments were in use was vast, spanning revolutionary changes in the approach to and organisation of agriculture in Ireland. O’Sullivan and Downey (2005) suggest that the geographical distribution of kilns is predominantly northern and western based on patterns in early nineteenth century Ordnance Survey maps. However, this pattern may have occurred due to the usage of the kilns in these areas in the more recent past; many archaeological examples of corn drying kilns have been found in Leinster and Munster during the course of recent infra- structural development. This suggests that they are a common archaeological site type and medieval texts suggest that there may even have been one kiln for communal use in every rural neighbourhood (Kelly, 1998). A series of early medieval and medieval dates were returned from features at Park 1 E3659, Busherstown E3661 and Killeisk E3587, sites located on the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Contract 1). More than 15 corn-drying kilns, dated to the early medieval period, were recorded at Busherstown in an annex associated with a moated site. The moated site and ditched annex at Busherstown were dated to the later medieval period. No definite settlement site, contemporary with the kilns was recorded at Bush- erstown. At least one corn-drying kiln, dated to the early medieval period was recorded at Park. The archaeological activity at Park was recorded over a distance of c. 400 m and while no definite domestic structure was associated with the kiln it is likely that at least one was located in the vicinity. A kiln and associated pit, located 1.5 m to the west of the kiln, were excavated at Killeisk. The kiln was located to the west of an enclosure and may have been used by the occupiers of the enclosure. The radiocarbon date returned from the pit was contemporary with date from the kiln at Derrybane but the date from the kiln itself was later.24
  33. 33. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/Site Name Features Lab. No. 2-sigma cal AD radiocarbon dateKilleisk E3587 Pit C.364 UB––15089 1167–1262Killeisk E3587 Kiln C.358 UB––15090 1420–1617Busherstown E3661 Kiln C.74 UB––15050 658–766Busherstown E3661 Kiln C.490 UB––15051 657–769Busherstown E3661 Kiln C.355 UB––15053 713–888Park E3659 Kiln C.291 UB––15045 685–862Table 5 Radiocarbon dates from other medieval sites with kilns on the N7 (Contract 1)� The frequency of the plant remains and the dominance of the different species re-covered from the kilns on the N7 (Contract 1) were varied. Monk and Kelleher (2005,85) commented on this pattern which was apparent in the eight detailed plant remainsstudies they examined from kilns excavated on sites in Counties Kilkenny, Westmeath,Louth, Dublin, Tipperary, Limerick and Cork. The cereals recorded in the kiln at Der-rybane were primarily oats followed by a smaller quantity of wheat, mostly identified asbread wheat. Much smaller quantities of barley and rye were also found. By contrast theplant remains from the kiln at Killeisk were almost exclusively wheat, however a largeportion of grain was not identifiable to type at Killeisk (Johnston 2010). The general re-sults from the kilns at Busherstown indicate that barley was the most common cereal typefound, representing 59% of the identifiable cereal assemblage (Johnston 2010), followedby oats. The general pattern of barley being dominant over oats (and all other cereal types)holds for samples from most of the individual kilns, but there were a few exceptions. Theremaining cereals from these samples included both wheat and rye, although these wereonly recovered in small portions. 25
  34. 34. iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report 9 References Binchy, D.A. 1980 ‘Brewing in eighth-century Ireland’ in B.G. Scott (ed.) Studies in Early Ireland: Essays in honour of M.V. Duignan. Farrelly, J., and O’Brien, C. (2002) Archaeological Inventory of County Tipperary Vol. 1 - North Tipperary, The Stationery Office Dublin. Gardiner, M.J. and Radford,T. (1980) Soil Assocaitions of Ireland and Their Land Use Potential. Dublin, An Foras Talúntais. Johnston, P. (2010) Plant remains report in Final Excavation report Busherstown E3661 Co. Offaly. Eachtra Archaeological Projects Unpublished report. Johnston, P. (2010) Plant remains report in Final Excavation report Killeisk E3587 Co. Tipperary. Eachtra Archaeological Projects Unpublished report. Kelly, F. 1998 Early Irish Farming Dublin: Institute for Advanced Studies. McLaughlin, M. and Conran, S. (2008) ‘The emerging Iron Age of South Munster’ in Seanda, Issue 3, 51-53. Dublin. Monk, M. and Kelleher, E. (2005) An assessment of the archaeological evidence for Irish corn-drying kilns in the light of the results of archaeological experiments and archaeobotanical studies in JIA, Volume XIV 2005, 79-113. National Inventory of Architectural Heritage (2006) An Introduction to the Architectural Heritage of North Tipperary. Government of Ireland. O’Conor, K.D. (1998) The Archaeology of Medieval Rural Settlement in Ireland, Discovery Programme Monographs No 3, Discovery Programme/Royal Irish Academy Dublin. O’Sullivan, M. and Downey, L. 2005 ‘Corn-Drying Kilns’ Archaeology Ireland, Vol. 19, No.3, 32-35. Reilly, E. 2003 The contribution of insect remains to an understanding of the environment of Viking-age and medieval Dublin in Duffy, S. (ed.) Medieval Dublin IV Dublin Four Courts Press. Reimer, P.J., Baillie, M.G.L., Bard, E., Bayliss, A., Beck, J.W., Bertrand, C., Blackwell, P.G., Buck, C.E., Burr, G., Cutler, K.B., Damon, P.E., Edwards, R.L., Fairbanks, R.G., Friedrich, M., Guilderson, T.P., Hughen, K.A., Kromer, B., McCormac,26
  35. 35. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/ F.G., Manning, S., Bronk Ramsey, C., Reimer, R.W., Remmele, S., Southon, J.R., Stuiver, M., Talamo, S., Taylor, F.W., van der Plicht, J. and Weyhenmeyer, C.E. (2004) ‘IntCal04 Terrestrial Radiocarbon Age Calibration, 0–26 Cal Kyr BP’, Radiocarbon 46, 1029-1058.Scott, L. 1951 ‘Corn Drying Kilns’ Antiquity 25, 196-208.Stuiver, M., and Reimer, P.J. (1993) ‘Extended (super 14) C data base and revised CALIB 3.0 (super 14) C age calibration program’, Radiocarbon 35, 215-230.Stout, M. (1997) The Irish Ringfort. Dublin, Four Courts Press.Taylor, K. (2008) ‘At home and on the road: two Iron Age sites in County Tipperary’ in Seanda, Issue 3, 54-55. Dublin.Woodman, P.C. (2000) ‘Hammers and Shoeboxes: New Agendas for Prehistory’., pp. 1 -10 in Desmond, A., Johnson, G., McCarthy, M., Sheehan, J. and Shee Twohig, E. New Agendas in Irish Prehistory. Papers in commemoration of Liz Anderson. Bray, Wordwell. 27
  36. 36. iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report Appendix 1 Stratigraphic Index Please see attached CD.28
  37. 37. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/Appendix 2 Site Matrix 29
  38. 38. iSSUe 11: eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report30
  39. 39. Derrybane 1-e3585 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3585-derrybane1-co-tipperary/ 31

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