Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 2, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
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Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 2, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)

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The excavation of the site at Clashnevin 2 comprised a group of stake-holes, pits, post-holes and layers. The domestic activity was dated to the late Bronze Age / early Iron Age. ...

The excavation of the site at Clashnevin 2 comprised a group of stake-holes, pits, post-holes and layers. The domestic activity was dated to the late Bronze Age / early Iron Age.
The two dates were returned from the fill of a pit and an occupation layer. Evidence of wild food exploitation was found in tandem with evidence for cereal cultivation. A small assemblage of animal bone was recovered from two of the occupation layers.

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    Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 2, Co. Tipperary (Ireland) Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 2, Co. Tipperary (Ireland) Document Transcript

    • Eachtra JournalIssue 11 [ISSN 2009-2237] Archaeological Excavation Report E3590 - Clashnevin 2, Co. Tipperary Stake-holes, Post-holes, Pits and Layers
    • EACHTRAArchaeological Projects Archaeological Excavation Report Clashnevin 2 Co Tipperary Stake-holes, Post-holes, Pits and Layers Date: July 2011 Client: Laois County Council and National Roads Authority Project: N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Contract 1) E No: E3590Excavation Director: Jo Moran Written by: Jacinta Kiely
    • Archaeological Excavation Report Clashnevin 2 Co Tipperary Excavation Director Jo Moran Written By Jacinta Kiely EACHTRA Archaeological Projects CORK GALWAY The Forge, Innishannon, Co. Cork Unit 10, Kilkerrin Park, Liosbain Industrial Estate, Galwaytel: 021 4701616 | web: www.eachtra.ie | email: info@eachtra.ie tel: 091 763673 | web: www.eachtra.ie | email: galway@eachtra.ie
    • © Eachtra Archaeological Projects 2011 The Forge, Innishannon, Co Cork Set in 12pt Garamond Printed in Ireland
    • Table of Contents Summary���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������iii Acknowledgements�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� iv1 Scope of the project �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Route location��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 13 Receiving environment ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 34 Archaeological and historical background ��������������������������������������������������������������������� 45 Site location and topography ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 76 Excavation methodology ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 97 Excavation results �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 9 Pits��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 9 � OccupationLayers�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������17 Post-holes������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������17 Stake-holes���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������17 ModernActivity����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������19 Plantremains����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������19 � Animalbone�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������20 � Charcoal���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������20 Radiocarbondates�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������208 Discussion ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������209 References ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������23Appendix 1 Stratigraphic Index �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 24Appendix 2 Site matrix �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������25Appendix 3 Groups and Subgroups ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 27Appendix 4 Analysis of the plant remains ������������������������������������������������������������������������44Appendix 5 Animal bone report ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 51 i
    • List of Figures Figure 1: Portion of map of Ireland showing the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme (Contract 1)� ����������������������������������������������������������� 2 Figure 2: Discovery series OS map showing the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme (Contract 1) and the location of all excavation sites� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 5 Figure 3: Portion of the Ist edition Ordnance Survey Map TN21 showing the location of Clashnevin 2� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 8 Figure 4: Location and extent of Clashnevin 2 E3590 on the N7 Castletown to Nenagh �����������������10 Figure 5: Post-excavation plan of Clashnevin 2 E3590� ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 11 Figure 6: Sections of pits C�19, C�121, C�18, C�17, C�131 and C�133� �������������������������������������������������������������� 13 Figure 7: Post-excavation plan of the central southern part of Clashnevin E3590� ���������������������������� 15 Figure 8: Sections of post-holes C�60, C�90, C134 and C�44� ������������������������������������������������������������������������ 18 Figure 9: Prehistoric sites on and in the environs of N7 Castletown to Nenagh� ��������������������������������21 List of Plates Plate 1: Aerial view of Clashnevin 1 to left and Clashnevin 2 to right of photograph�� �������������������� 7 Plate 2: View of southern section of area of excavation from west� ����������������������������������������������������� 12 Plate 3: Mid-excavation of pit C�137 on right and occupation layer C�127 on left� �������������������������� 14 Plate 4: Post-excavation of pit C�121� Pit C�60 is located in the right background and stakehole C�53 in the left� ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 14 � Plate 5: View of group of pits C�15, C�16, C�17 and C�18 from north�������������������������������������������������������� 16 Plate 6: Post-excavation of post-hole C�60� ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 16 Plate 7: Post-excavation of the cluster of 13 stake-holes from north-east� ���������������������������������������� 19 List of Tables Table 1: Dimensions of the pits �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Table 2: Dimensions of post-holes ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 17 Table 3: Radiocarbon dates �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������20ii
    • Clashnevin 2-e3590 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/SummaryThe excavation of the site at Clashnevin 2 comprised a group of stake-holes, pits, post-holes and layers. The domestic activity was dated to the late Bronze Age / early Iron Age.The two dates were returned from the fill of a pit and an occupation layer. Evidence ofwild food exploitation was found in tandem with evidence for cereal cultivation. A smallassemblage of animal bone was recovered from two of the occupation layers.Road project name N7 Castletown to NenaghSite name Clashnevin 2E no. E3590Site director Jo MoranTownland ClashnevinParish BallymackeyCounty TipperaryBarony Upper OrmondOS Map Sheet No. TN21National Grid Reference 192591 178929Elevation 89 m O.D. iii
    • issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Acknowledgements The project was commissioned by Laois County Council and was funded by the Na- tional Roads Authority under the National Development Plan (2000-2006). The project archaeologist was Niall Roycroft. Kildare County Council supervised the archaeological contract with RE staff of Pat Dowling and Colum Fagan. Kildare County Council Senior Executive Engineer was Joseph Kelly and Kildare County Council Senior Engineer was John Coppinger. The senior archaeologist was John Tierney and the post-excavation man- ager was Jacinta Kiely. Illustrations are by Maurizio Toscano, photographs by John Sun- derland and Eagle Photography and aerial photography by StudioLab. Specialist analysis was carried out by Mary Dillon, Penny Johnston and Margaret McCarthy and the 14 Chrono Centre at Queen’s University Belfast.iv
    • Clashnevin 2-e3590 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/1 Scope of the projectEachtra Archaeological Projects were commissioned by Laois County Council and theNational Roads Authority to undertake archaeological works along 17.1 km (Contact1) of the 35km N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) national roadscheme (EIS approved in November 2005). The scheme runs from the eastern junctionof the present N7 Nenagh Bypass, North Tipperary a tie in to the M7/M8 Portlaoise-Castletown scheme to the south of Borris-in-Ossory in County Laois. The scheme is ap-proximately 191 hectares. Contract 1 comprises the western half of the scheme and runsfrom Clashnevin to Castleroan passing along the Tipperary North and Offaly countyborder regions. The Ministers Direction Number is A38. It was funded by the Irish Government under the National Development Plan 2000-2006. The total archaeological cost was administered by the National Roads Authoritythrough Laois County Council as part of the Authority’s commitment to protecting ourcultural heritage. The purpose of the archaeological services project was to conduct ar-chaeological site investigations within the lands made available for the scheme and toassess the nature and extent of any new potential archaeological sites uncovered. Phase 1 of the project (archaeological testing of the route) was carried out in 2007under licence E3371, E3372 and E3375-8 issued by Department of the Environment Her-itage and Local Government (DoEHLG) in consultation with the National Museumof Ireland. The principal aim of this phase of the project was to test for any previouslyunknown sites by a programme of centreline and offset testing and to test sites of archaeo-logical potential identified in the EIS. Phase 2 of the project (resolution) involved the resolution of all archaeological sitesidentified within the proposed road corridor prior to commencement of the constructionof the road. This phase of the project was carried out from June 2007 to February 2008and excavations were conducted under the management of a Senior Archaeologist. A totalof 27 sites were excavated during this phase of works under separate licences issued byDoEHLG. A post-excavation assessment and strategy document was prepared in Phase 3 of theproject to present a management strategy for dealing with post-excavation work aris-ing from archaeological works along the route of the new N7 Castletown to Nenagh. Itincluded a proposal for post-excavation and archiving work and a budget for the works.2 Route locationThe route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh road is located in Counties North Tipperaryand Offaly (OF) (Figure 1). The project (Contract 1) involves the construction of c. 17.5km of the N7 from Clashnevin east of Nenagh to Castleroan south-east of Dunkerrin. Itpasses through the townlands of Clashnevin, Derrybane, Newtown, Lissanisky, Killeisk,Garavally, Derrycarney, Garrynafanna, Gortnadrumman, Kilgorteen, Falleen, Knock-ane, Clash, Park, Rosdremid (OF), Clynoe (OF), Cullenwaine, Moneygall, Greenhills, 1
    • 2 182550 198900 215250 193300 193300 ! ( Nenagh issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 Derg (Lough) 182950 182950 172600 172600 0 5 10 182550 198900 Kilometres 215250 ± Figure 1: Portion of map of Ireland showing the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme (Contract 1)� arChaeologiCal exCavation report
    • Clashnevin 2-e3590 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/Drumbaun, Busherstown (OF), Drumroe (OF), Moatquarter, Loughan (OF) and Cas-tleroan (OF). The townlands are located in the parishes of Ballymackey, Cullenwaine,Castletownely, Rathnaveoge, Finglas and Dunkerrin and the baronies of Upper Ormond,Ikerrin and Clonisk, The route begins at the eastern end of the Nenagh bypass at Clashnevin c. 5 km eastof Nenagh and continues eastward on the northern side of the existing N7 in Co. Tip-perary. It crosses a number of third class roads to the north of Toomyvara and 0.7 kmeast of Clash crossroads crosses the Ollatrim River. It extends into County Offaly directlyeast of Park. From here it crosses the R490 0.6 km north of Moneygall. It extends backin County Tipperary and through the demesne of Greenhills before crossing the existingN7 at the junction of Greenhills and Drumbaun townlands. It crosses back into CountyOffaly and climbs east into Busherstown and Drumroe. It crosses the Keeloge Streaminto Moatquarter in County Tipperary and extends northeast back into County Offalythrough the townlands of Loughan and Castleroan 1.4 km southwest of Dunkerrin.3 Receiving environmentNorth Tipperary is bounded on the west by the River Shannon and Lough Derg withthe Silvermines, to the south, and small hills extending towards Devilsbit and BorrisnoeMountains to the east. The mountains are composed largely of Silurian strata and OldRed Sandstone. Copper, silver and lead deposits have been mined in the Silvermines. Thegeology of the lowlands consists of Carboniferous limestone covered by glacial drift inaddition to tracts of raised bog. The western portion of the study area is drained by the Ollatrim River which flowswestwards into the River Ballintotty which in turns drains into the River Nenagh. Theeastern portion is drained by the Keeloge Stream and other small water sources. These risein the foothills of the Silvermine Mountains and flow north. The Keeloge drains into theLittle Brosna River c. 1 km south of Shinrone, Co Offaly. The Brosna turns north anddrains into the Shannon south of Banagher. The largest population centre in the area is Nenagh. The smaller population centres,are Toomyvara, Moneygall and Dunkerrin. The soils on the route are characterised by 80% grey brown podzolics, 10% gleys, 5%brown earths and 5% basis peat. They are derived from glacial till of predominantly Car-boniferous limestone composition. These soils occur in Tipperary and Offaly and have awide use range being suitable for both tillage and pasture (Gardiner and Radford 1980,97-99). Land use along the route was a mix of grassland devoted to intensive dairying andcattle-rearing and tillage. 3
    • issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report 4 Archaeological and historical background Archaeological sites of numerous periods were discovered along the route of the new road (Figure 2). The periods are referred to as follows: Mesolithic (c. 8000 to 4000 BC), Neo- lithic (c. 4000 to 2000 BC), Bronze Age (c. 2000 to 600 BC), and Iron Age (c. 500 BC to AD 500), early medieval period (c. AD 500 to 1100), medieval period (c. AD 1100 to 1650), post-medieval period (c. AD 1650 to the present). Mesolithic (c. 8000 to 4000 BC) The earliest known human settlement in Ireland dates from the Mesolithic period (c. 8000 BC - 4000 BC). The majority of the evidence (flint scatters) for Mesolithic occupa- tion has come from the river valleys. No evidence for the Mesolithic was recorded on the route. Neolithic (c. 4000 to 2000 BC) The Neolithic Period is characterised by the introduction of agriculture and the begin- nings of the clearance of the woodlands. The population increased and became more sedentary in nature. The most important Neolithic site in the vicinity was at Tullahedy recorded on the route of the Nenagh by-pass. It was a specialist chert arrow manufactur- ing site. No evidence for a Neolithic site was recorded on the route but stone tools dating to the Neolithic were recorded at Busherstown E3661, Clash E3660, Cullenwaine E3741 and Greenhills 2 and 3 E3637 and E3658. Stone tools dating to the late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age were recorded at Busherstown E3661, Castleroan E3909, Cullenwaine E3741, Derrybane 1 E3585, Drumroe E3773, Greenhills 1 E3638 and Moatquarter E3910 Bronze Age (c. 2000 to 600BC) The Bronze Age is characterised by the introduction of metallurgy and an increase in settlement and burial sites. Copper ores were mined and copper, bronze and gold items manufactured. The range of burial site types includes cist graves, pit and urn burials, cremation cemeteries, barrows, ring-ditches and wedge tombs. Stone circles and stand- ing stones also date to the Bronze Age. Both enclosed and unenclosed settlement sites are known. The most prolific Bronze Age site type is the fulacht fiadh. These monuments survive as low mounds of charcoal rich black silt, packed with heat-shattered stones, and generally situated close to a water source. Fulachta fiadh are generally classified as ‘cook- ing places’, whereby stones were heated in a hearth and subsequently placed in a trough of water, the water continued to boil with the addition of hot stones and wrapped food was cooked within the hot water. The trough eventually filled with small stones, ash and charcoal that were removed, forming the basis of the familiar mound.4
    • 190400 196200 202000 207800 Clashnevin 2 186400 186400 Clashnevin 2-e3590 Castleroan 1 E 3909 Busherstown 1 E 3661 Loughan 1 Greenhills 3 E 4000 E 3658 Moneygall 2 Culleenwaine 1 E 3635 E 3741 Moatquarter 1 Clynoe 2 E 3910 E 3774 181800 181800 Park 1 Drumroe 1 Garravally Kilgorteen 1 E 3659 E 3773 E 3589 E 3739 Drumbaun 2 Derrybane 2 E 3912 E 3591 Greenhills 1 Greenhills 2 E 3638 E 3637 Clashnevin 2 E 3590 Clash 1 Park 2 E 3660 E 3772 Derrycarney 1 E 3740 Clashnevin 1 Derrybane 1 Killeisk 1 E 3586 E 3585 E 3587 177200 177200 0 3 6 Kilometres ± 190400 196200 202000 207800 Figure 2: Discovery series OS map showing the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme (Contract 1) and the location of all excava- http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/5 tion sites�
    • issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Two new fulachta fiadh or burnt mounds were recorded at Clashnevin 1 E3586, Cullenwaine E3741 and six at three separate locations in Greenhills, E3638, E3637 and E3658. Evidence of nine roundhouses or partial round structures were recorded; two at Castleroan E3909, Derrybane 2 E3591 and Drumbaun 2 E3912 and one at Clash E3660, Drumroe E3773 and Moatquarter E3910. Iron Age (c. 500 BC to AD 500) Upto recently there was little evidence of a significant Iron Age presence in Munster. Settlement sites are few and far between as well as being difficult to identify (Woodman, 2000) while the material culture of this period is limited. Linear earthworks, believed to have marked tribal boundaries, and hillforts are two of the most visible monuments of the period. Ten percent of sites excavated on NRA road schemes in recent years have produced Iron Age dates. The dates have led to the identification of 30 new Iron Age sites in Munster from road schemes in counties Cork, Limerick and Tipperary (McLaughlin 2008, 51). These include a ditched enclosure in Ballywilliam and a wooden trackway in Annaholty Bog excavated on the route of the N7 Nenagh-Limerick (Taylor 2008, 54). Evidence of domestic activity dating to the Late Bronze Age / Early Iron Age was re- corded at Clashnevin 2. Early medieval period (c. AD 400 to 1100) The early medieval period is characterised by the arrival of Christianity to Ireland. The characteristic monument type of the period is the ringfort. Ringforts are the most nu- merous archaeological monument found in Ireland, with estimates of between 30,000 and 50,000 illustrated on the first edition of the Ordnance Survey 6” maps of the 1840’s (Barry 1987). As a result of continued research, the construction of these monuments has a narrow date range during the early medieval period between the 7th and 9th centuries AD. Although there are some very elaborate examples of ringforts, they often take the form of a simple earth or stone enclosure functioning as settlements for all classes of secu- lar society (Stout 1997). North Tipperary is rich in early ecclesiastical sites and the remains of these religious centres are at the core of some of the towns and villages. Roscrea, for example, was chosen by St Cronan as a location for his monastery in the seventh century as it was located at the crossroads on the Slighe Dála, an important roadway in early medieval times (NIAH 2006, 4-8). A possible early medieval enclosure and associated road way was recorded at Killeisk E3587. A denuded ringfort (OF046-013) was excavated at Clynoe 2 E3774. High and later medieval periods (c. AD 1100 to 1650) This period is characterized by the arrival of the Anglo-Normans and the building of tow- er houses. The Anglo-Normans obtained charters in the thirteenth century for the towns6
    • Clashnevin 2-e3590 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/ Clashnevin 1 (E3586) 0 30 60 Meters ±Plate 1: Aerial view of Clashnevin 1 to left and Clashnevin 2 to right of photograph��of Nenagh, Roscrea, Thurles and Templemore and established markets. Nenagh grewrapidly in the aftermath of the granting of the lands of Munster to Theobald fitzWalter in1185 (ibid. 8). Moated sites represent the remains of isolated, semi-defended homesteadsin rural areas. They were build mainly in the late thirteenth and early fourteenth cen-turies in counties, such as Wexford, Kilkenny, Tipperary, mid-Cork and Limerick, thatwere colonised by English settlers (O’Conor 1998, 58). The Archaeological Inventory forNorth Tipperary lists 39 moated sites (2002, 298). A newly recorded moated site was excavated at Busherstown E3661.Post-medieval period (c. 1650 to the present).The post-medieval period is characterised by mills, limekilns, workhouses, country hous-es and associated demesnes, vernacular buildings and field systems (Figure 3). A smalldemesne associated with a county house was recorded at Greenhills.5 Site location and topographyClashnevin 2 was located 5 km east of Nenagh and c. 100 m north of the eastern end ofthe Nenagh bypass (Plate 1). It was the westernmost of the sites on the route. Clashnevin1 was located 100 m to the west and Derrybane I was located 100 m further east. The sitewas located centrally in a large flat field, c. 89m OD. The surrounding land is in pastureand most of the field boundaries in the vicinity have been removed by the landowner.There are no water courses in the immediate area. A modern field drain was located 600m to the east, the water within flows to the northwest. 7
    • 8 192402 193402 BALLINREE NEWTOWN 179468 179468 LISSANISKY issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 CLASHNEVIN Derrybane 2 Clashnevin 2 Clashnevin 1 RATHFALLA Derrybane 1 DERRYBANE 178818 178818 BALLINTOTTY KNOCKAHUNNA SHANBALLY BALLYNALICK 0 300 600 ¥ Meters 192402 193402 Figure 3: Portion of the Ist edition Ordnance Survey Map TN21 showing the location of Clashnevin 2� arChaeologiCal exCavation report
    • Clashnevin 2-e3590 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/6 Excavation methodologyThe site was mechanically stripped of topsoil under strict archaeological supervision.Stripping was done with a tracked machine with a flat toothless bucket. Topsoil strippingcommenced in the areas of identified archaeology and continued radially outward untilthe limit of the road take was reached or until the limit of the archaeological remains wasfully defined. A grid was set up in the excavation area(s) and all archaeological featureswere sufficiently cleaned, recorded and excavated so as to enable an accurate and mean-ingful record of the site to be preserved. The excavation, environmental sampling, sitephotographs, site drawings, find care and retrieval, on-site recording and site archive wasas per the Procedures for Archaeological works as attached to the licence method state-ments for excavation licences. The site was excavated from 21 July 2007 to the 11 August 2007. Only areas withinthe LMA (lands made available) were resolved. The full extent of the area of excavationmeasured 1870 m sq (Figure 4). The full record of excavated contexts is recorded in the context register (Appendix 1)and the stratigraphic matrix (Appendix 2). Detailed stratigraphic descriptions are foundin the groups and sub-groups text (Appendix 3). The context register and site photographsmaybe viewed in the EAPOD (Eachtra Archaeological Projects office database) in theaccompanying CD.7 Excavation resultsThe excavation of the site at Clashnevin comprised a group of stake-holes, pits, post-holesand layers. The domestic activity was dated to the late Bronze Age / early Iron Age. Themajority of the activity was clustered in two distinct areas in the southern section of thesite (Figure 5, plate 2).PitsA total of 16 pits were recorded in the area of the excavation. The pits could be dividedinto two general categories; large and small. They were located across the entire area ofthe excavation. Three of the pits (C.19, C.121 and C.137) were substantially larger in size than the restof the group (Figure 6). Small quantities of plant remains were recovered from one of thepits C.19. A layer of occupation material C.127 was located to the west of pit C.137 (Plate3). A very small quantity of charred plant remains including hazelnut shell and cerealgrains were recovered from the layer. The third large pit C.121 was located 9 m to the eastof the main focus of activity. Two post-holes (C.60 and C.134), a small pit C.128 and astake-hole C.53 were located in proximity to the pit (Plate 4). 9
    • 192213 192583 19295310 179152 179152 DERRYBANE 140 0 130 0 issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 120 0 11 0 0 CLASHNEVIN 100 0 900 178922 178922 800 700 600 500 400 KNOCKAHUNNA 300 178692 178692 Clashnevin 2 (E3590) 0 100 200 Metres ± 192213 192583 192953 Figure 4: Location and extent of Clashnevin 2 E3590 on the N7 Castletown to Nenagh arChaeologiCal exCavation report
    • 192570 192600 163 ± Clashnevin 2-e3590 161 153 178934 178934 159 157 155 165 O ) 89 m O.D. 143 133 134 60 131 125 53 121 178920 178920 19 128 115 140 137 103 127 92 90 37 4 15 44 49 64 58 17 48 62 112 9 7 110 0 10 m Layers 192570 192600 Figure 5: Post-excavation plan of Clashnevin 2 E3590� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/11
    • issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Plate 2: View of southern section of area of excavation from west� Context Dimensions Shape 15 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.4 Circular 16 0.5 x 0.2 x 0.29 Oval 17 0.8 x 0.46 x 0.23 Oval 18 0.6 x 0.4 x 0.3 Oval 19 1.9 x 1.4 x 0.74 Sub-oval 37 0.51 x 0.24 x Sub-oval 121 2.2 x 1.7 x 0.11 Sub-rectangular 125 1.99 x 1.14 x 0.5 Irregular 128 0.35 x 0.34 x 0.19 Circular 131 0.36 x 0.39 x 0.18 Circular 133 0.86 x 076 x 0.23 Irregular 137 2.52 x 1.43 x 0.34 Sub-oval 143 0.4 x 0.23 x 0.14 Oval 157 0.17 x 0.16 x 0.24 Circular 159 0.19 x 0.12 x 0.12 Oval 163 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.2 Circular Table 1 Dimensions of the pits Five of the pits (C.15, C.16, C.17, C.18 and C.37) were located in close proximity to one another (Figure 7, Plate 5). Charred plant remains, in particular weed seeds from the dock and goosefoot families, was recovered from the fills of three of the pits C.15, C.17 and C.18. Seven of the stake-holes (C.110, C.112, C.118, C.120, C.24, C.26 and C.32) formed a possible screen, 3 m in length, to the immediate west of four of the pit group.12
    • Clashnevin 2 South facing section C.23 Clashnevin 2-e3590 C.20 C.24 C.19 Clashnevin 2 South-east facing section of C.121 C.122 C.121 Clashnevin 2 Clashnevin 2 South-west facing section of C.18 and C.17 South-east facing section of C.131 and C.133 C.130 C.132 C.12 C.13 C.131 C.133 C.17 0 500 mm C.18 Figure 6: Sections of pits C�19, C�121, C�18, C�17, C�131 and C�133� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/13
    • issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Plate 3: Mid-excavation of pit C�137 on right and occupation layer C�127 on left� Plate 4: Post-excavation of pit C�121� Pit C�60 is located in the right background and stakehole C�53 in the left�14
    • Clashnevin 2-e3590 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/ ± 192593 192597 19 115 137 108 103 140 127178917 178917 105 146 90 92 86 84 82 99 101 37 39 4 77 30 32 44 28 26 15 58 16 24 120 18 81 118 64 94 76 74 89 98 96 17 47 71 66 52 56 62178912 178912 43 112 68 114 9 7 110 Layers 0 2.5 m 192593 192597 Figure 7: Post-excavation plan of the central southern part of Clashnevin E3590� Seven of the pits (C.125, C.131, C.133, C.143, C.157, C.159 and C.163) were located in the northern part of the site. Two of the pits C.131 and C.133 were adjacent to one an- other. A third pit C.125, which was irregular in plan, was located to the south-east. Two more pits C.159 and C.157 were located 9 m to the north. They were the smallest of the pits recorded. Three of the stake-holes (C.153, C.155 and C.161) formed a possible screen, 3.4 m in length, 3.7 m to the east of the pits. 15
    • issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Plate 5: View of group of pits C�15, C�16, C�17 and C�18 from north� Plate 6: Post-excavation of post-hole C�60�16
    • Clashnevin 2-e3590 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/ Small quantities of charred plant remains were recovered from the fills of the pitC.157 and two of the stake-holes C.153 and C.165. Each sample only contained a singleplant item. The two pits C.143 and C.163 were located on the western and northern periphery ofthe site respectively.Occupation LayersFour small layers (C.9, C.48, C.49 and C.127) of occupation material were associatedwith the group of stake-holes and pits. Small quantities of animal bone were recoveredfrom layers C.48 and C.49 and charred plant remains from C.9 and C.127.Post-holesFour post-holes were located in the southern section of the site. Two (C.44 and C.90) werelocated 1 m apart to the west of the large pit C.137. The other two (C.60 and C.134) werelocated in proximity to the large pit C.121 (Figure 8, Plate 6).Context Dimensions Shape44 0.27 x 0.24 x 0.38 Circular60 0.56 x 0.56 x 0.5 Circular90 0.25 x 0.23 x 0.33 Circular134 0.55 x 0.4 x 0.44 OvalTable 2 Dimensions of post-holesStake-holesA total of 45 stake-holes were recorded in the area of the excavation. Seven of the stake-holes (C.110, C.112, C.118, C.120, C.24, C.26 and C.32) may have formed a screen 5m in length to the west of four pits. Three other stake-holes (C.28, C.30 and C.39) werelocated to the north of the line of six. 13 of the stake-holes (C.43, C.47, C.52, C.56, C.71, C.74, C.76, C.81, C.89, C.94,C.96, C.98 and C.114) formed a cluster 1 m in diameter 1.5 m to the west of the line ofsix (Plate 7). 14 of the stake-holes (C.58, C.77, C.82, C.84, C.86, C.90, C.99, C.101, C.103, C.105,C.108, C.115, C.140 and C.146) formed a second broad cluster, 3 m in diameter, 1.5 mto the north of the cluster of 13. Four more stake-holes (C.62, C.64, C.66 and C.68) werelocated 3 m to the west of the cluster of 13. One of the stake-hole C.53 was located adjacent to the large pit C.121. A further four stake-holes (C.153, C.155, C.161 and C.165) were located in the north-ern section of the site. These have been described above. A small quantity of charred seeds and weeds were recovered from the fills of four ofthe stake-holes (C.56, C.62, C.71 and C.76). 17
    • issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Clashnevin 2 Clashnevin 2 North facing section North-east facing section of C.90 C.61 C.91 C.79 C.90 C.60 Clashnevin 2 Clashnevin 2 South-east facing section of C.134 East facing section of C.44 C.135 C.45 C.136 C.44 C.134 0 500 mmFigure 8: Sections of post-holes C�60, C�90, C134 and C�44�18
    • Clashnevin 2-e3590 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/Plate 7: Post-excavation of the cluster of 13 stake-holes from north-east�Modern ActivityA series of furrows and a portion of a field boundary were recorded in the area of the ex-cavation. Two of the furrows (C.4 and C.7) truncated the area of activity in the southernsection of the site.Plant remainsThe plant remains were examined by Penny Johnston (Appendix 4). Charred seeds werepresent in 58% of the samples (14 samples). This is a relatively high percentage for ephem-eral prehistoric occupation sites. The plant remains from this site included a small quan-tity of hazelnut shell fragments, a very small quantity of cereal grains, numerous weedseeds (in particular those from the dock and the goosefoot families), fragments of fruitstones (from sloes or cherries) and possible berry or tuber fragments. The dock seedsmake up more than two thirds of the entire seed assemblage from this part of the site. Itis tentatively suggested that they were at the site because they were deliberately collectedas food. In addition to this it should be noted that the second most common seed typerecovered from this site were goosefoots. The fact that these made up an additional 13%of the assemblage at this site lends credence to the suggestion that this assemblage mayrepresent deliberately collected wild foods. 19
    • issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Animal bone The animal bone was examined by Margaret McCarthy (Appendix 5). Two occupation layers produced small samples of animal bone. Nine fragments were recovered from oc- cupation layer (C.48) and identified species from here include cattle and hare. A larger faunal sample was recovered from occupation layer (C.49) and the two identified species in this collection of 50 bones are cattle and horse. The bones are soft and eroded and have clearly suffered from the effects of weathering during prolonged exposure on the living surface of the site. Charcoal The charcoal was identified for radiocarbon dating by Mary Dillon. Hazel charcoal was identified from the fill of pit C.17 and occupation layer C.127. Radiocarbon dates Radiocarbon analysis was carried out by the 14 Chrono Centre in Queen’s University Belfast. Dates were calibrated using Calib Rev5.0.2 (©1986-2005 M.Stuiver & P.J. Re- imer) and in conjunction with Stuiver & Reimer 1993 and Reimer et al. 2004. Lab Context Material Un-calibrated δ 13 1 sigma calibration 2 sigma code date C calibration UB- 12 Hazel charcoal 2461+/-20 -25.7 BC 749-687 666- BC 754-685 12364 from pit C.17 643 591-577 567-514668-609 599-483 466-415 UB- 127 Hazel charcoal 2498+/-36 -26.6 BC 765-732 691-678 BC 788-507 459- 12365 from layer C.127 675-661 650-545 453 439-419 Table 3: Radiocarbon dates 8 Discussion The site at Clashnevin comprised a small group of prehistoric features, dated to Late Bronze Age / Early Iron Age. No actual structure was recorded at Clashnevin but the group of post-holes, pits and stake-holes are indicative of a temporary habitation site. Some of the stake-holes may have formed screens or shelter belts. No artefacts were recov- ered from the site. A small assemblage of plant remains and animal bone was recovered from four occupation layers. The plant remains recovered from the site were unusual for two different reasons. Firstly there was a relatively high percentage, for an ephemeral prehistoric occupation site, of charred seeds present in the samples. Secondly 70% of the charred seed types were from the dock and the goosefoot families, weed seeds. The dominant presence of the weed seeds would indicate that the assemblage represents deliberately collected wild foods, including the ubiquitous hazelnut. Evidence of wild food exploitation was found in20
    • 191232 208232 ¢ Clashnevin 2-e3590 184059 184059 178059 178059 191232 208232 Barrow (11) Cairn (1) Fulacht Fiadh (15) Megalithic tomb (3) Pit group (3) Standing stone (9) 0 2.5 5 Burnt spread (2) Cremation (2) Linkardstown burial (2) Mound (6) Settlement site (9) Km Figure 9: Prehistoric sites on and in the environs of N7 Castletown to Nenagh� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/21
    • issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report tandem with evidence for cereal cultivation. The only identifiable cereal grains recovered from Clashnevin 2 were two grains of barley. But seven grains of indeterminate cereal grains were also recorded. The site at Clashnevin is one of a small number of prehistoric sites where there is evidence to suggest that the exploitation of wild food included a wide variety of plant types. The site is small but is very significant as it does contribute to an understanding of the Bronze Age and Iron Age landscape in this part of North Tipperary. There were no recorded prehistoric settlement sites in the vicinity prior to the commencement of infra- structural works (Figure 9). Further more substantial evidence of Bronze Age settlement was recorded to the east of Clashnevin at Derrybane 2 E3591.22
    • Clashnevin 2-e3590 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/9 ReferencesFarrelly, J., and O’Brien, C. (2002) Archaeological Inventory of County Tipperary Vol. 1 - North Tipperary, The Stationery Office Dublin.Gardiner, M.J. and Radford,T. (1980) Soil Associations of Ireland and Their Land Use Potential. Dublin, An Foras Talúntais.McLaughlin, M. and Conran, S. (2008) ‘The emerging Iron Age of South Munster’ in Seanda, Issue 3, 51-53. Dublin.National Inventory of Architectural Heritage (2006) An Introduction to the Architectural Heritage of North Tipperary. Government of Ireland.O’Brien, C. (1997) Archaeological Inventory of County Offaly, The Stationery Office, Dublin.O’Conor, K.D. (1998) The Archaeology of Medieval Rural Settlement in Ireland, Discovery Programme Monographs No 3, Discovery Programme/Royal Irish Academy Dublin.Reimer, P.J., Baillie, M.G.L., Bard, E., Bayliss, A., Beck, J.W., Bertrand, C., Blackwell, P.G., Buck, C.E., Burr, G., Cutler, K.B., Damon, P.E., Edwards, R.L., Fairbanks, R.G., Friedrich, M., Guilderson, T.P., Hughen, K.A., Kromer, B., McCormac, F.G., Manning, S., Bronk Ramsey, C., Reimer, R.W., Remmele, S., Southon, J.R., Stuiver, M., Talamo, S., Taylor, F.W., van der Plicht, J. and Weyhenmeyer, C.E. (2004) ‘IntCal04 Terrestrial Radiocarbon Age Calibration, 0–26 Cal Kyr BP’, Radiocarbon 46, 1029-1058.Stuiver, M., and Reimer, P.J. (1993) ‘Extended (super 14) C data base and revised CALIB 3.0 (super 14) C age calibration program’, Radiocarbon 35, 215-230.Stout, M. (1997) The Irish Ringfort. Dublin, Four Courts Press.Taylor, K. (2008) ‘At home and on the road: two Iron Age sites in County Tipperary’ in Seanda, Issue 3, 54-55. Dublin.Woodman, P.C. (2000) ‘Hammers and Shoeboxes: New Agendas for Prehistory’., pp. 1 -10 in Desmond, A., Johnson, G., McCarthy, M., Sheehan, J. and Shee Twohig, E. New Agendas in Irish Prehistory. Papers in commemoration of Liz Anderson. Bray, Wordwell. 23
    • issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Appendix 1 Stratigraphic Index Please see attached CD.24
    • Clashnevin 2-e3590 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/Appendix 2 Site matrix 25
    • issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report26
    • Clashnevin 2-e3590 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/Appendix 3 Groups and SubgroupsGroup Description Amount/Description Context NoNumber1 Natural deposits Topsoil C.1 Subsoil C.22 Layers 4 layers C.9, C.48, C.49 and C.1273 Pits 16 pits C.15, C.16, C.17, C.18, C.19, C.37, C.121, C.125, C.128, C.131, C.133, C.137, C.143, C.157, C.159 and C.1634 Postholes 4 postholes C.44, C.60, C.90 and C.1345 Stakeholes 45 stakeholes C.24, C.26, C.28, C.30, C.32, C.39, C.43, C.47, C.52, C.53, C.56, C.58, C.62, C.64, C.66, C.68, C.71, C.74, C.76, C.77, C.81, C.82, C.84, C.86, C.89, C.92, C.94, C.96, C.98, C.99, C.101, C.103, C.105, C.108, C.110, C.112, C.114, C.118, C.120, C.140, C.146, C.153, C.155, C.161 and C.1656 Furrows 6 furrows C.3, C.4 C.7, C.22, C.36 and C.1427 Modern features 1 ditch C.1488 Natural features 1 natural hollow C.1159 Void numbers C.38, C.72, C.126, C.148, C.149 and C.150Group 1 Natural DepositsTopsoil C.1The topsoil was a soft, mid brown sandy silt with inclusions of moderate pebbles and oc-casional small stones. It reached a maximum depth of 0.76m. This represented the topsoil which had formed across the site the northern portion ofthe site.Subsoil C.2A soft, light brownish, orangish yellow sandy silt. The natural subsoil across the site can vary widely, probably due to glacial activity.Pockets and veins of sand and sandy gravels are found throughout site.Group 2 LayersLayer C.9 The layer was a soft, dark orangish brown sandy silt with occasional fine pebbles andmoderate flecks of charcoal. It measured 0.7 north south by 0.6m and had a maximumdepth of 0.2m. Layer of material located to SW of two small pits C.17 and C.18. Similar in colourand composition to fills of the pits. 27
    • issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Layer C.48 A loose, mid orangish brown sand with moderate fine pebbles and bone. It measured 1.4m wide and had a maximum depth of 0.1m and was orientated northwest southeast. Possible redeposit of topsoil located 0.5 m SW of deposit C.49. May have originated as topsoil from a ditch dug to accommodate a water pipe. May be related to C.49. Layer C.49 A loose, mid orangish brown silty sand with occasional fine pebbles, stones, charcoal flecks and bone. The deposit measured 1.5m north south by 1.5m and had a maximum depth of 0.4m. Truncated by water pipe. Layer C.127 The spread was a very soft, compact, dark brownish black silty sand with charcoal inclu- sions. It measured 1.6m north south by 1.4m and had a maximum depth of 0.1m. The natural underneath the spread seems to have been effected by heat. Likely a result of in- situ burning but there was not enough burning to indicate a substantial hearth. Interpretation Four small layers of occupation material associated with group of stake-holes and pits. Small quantities of animal bone were recovered from layers C.48 and C.49 and charred plant remains from C.9 and C.127. Group 3 Pits Context Dimensions Shape 15 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.4 Circular 16 0.5 x 0.2 x 0.29 Oval 17 0.8 x 0.46 x 0.23 Oval 18 0.6 x 0.4 x 0.3 Oval 19 1.9 x 1.4 x 0.74 Sub-oval 37 0.51 x 0.24 x Sub-oval 121 2.2 x 1.7 x 0.11 Sub-rectangular 125 1.99 x 1.14 x 0.5 Irregular 128 0.35 x 0.34 x 0.19 Circular 131 0.36 x 0.39 x 0.18 Circular 133 0.86 x 076 x 0.23 Irregular 137 2.52 x 1.43 x 0.34 Sub-oval 143 0.4 x 0.23 x 0.14 Oval 157 0.17 x 0.16 x 0.24 Circular 159 0.19 x 0.12 x 0.12 Oval 163 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.2 Circular28
    • Clashnevin 2-e3590 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/Pit C.15 filled with C.10 and C.14This pit was sub-circular in plan. Corners were square on NE; rounded elsewhere. Breakof slope base was sharp. Sides were moderate and smooth on N and E and were verticaland smooth on S and W. Break of slope base was gradual on W; sharp elsewhere. Base wassquare in plan and flat in profile. The pit measured 0.5 by 0.5m and reached a maximumdepth of 0.4m. Two fills were recorded in the pit. The upper fill was a soft, compact, darkblack silty sand. The basal fill was a firm, compact, mid brown silty sand. Pit in close proximity to three other pits C.16, C.17, C.18 and layer C.9.Pit C.16 filled with C.11The pit was oval in plan with square corners. Break of slope on top was sharp. Sides weremoderate and stepped on N and S; vertical and stepped on E; vertical and smooth on W.Break of slope base was gradual. Base was oval in plan and pointed in profile. The fill wasa firm, compact, mid brown silty sand. Pit in close proximity to three other pits C.15, C.17, C.18 and layer C.9.Pit C.17 filled with C.12The pit was oval in plan with rounded corners. Break of slope on top was imperceptible onN, SE and NW, it was gradual on W and NE and sharp on S, E and SW. The sides weregentle and smooth on N; vertical and smooth on S and E; moderate and convex on W.Break of slope base was sharp on S and SE; gradual elsewhere. Base was oval in plan andflat in profile. It measured 0.8m north south by 0.5 and had a maximum depth of 0.2m.The fill was a soft, dark orangish brown sandy silt. Pit in close proximity to three other pits C.15, C.16, C.18 and layer C.9.Pit C.18 filled with C.13The pit was oval in plan with rounded corners. Break of slope top was sharp. Sides werevertical and smooth. Break of slope base was gradual. Base was oval in plan and flat inprofile. The pit measured 0.6m north south by 0.4m and had a maximum depth of 0.3m.The pit was occupied by one fill which was a soft, dark orangish brown sandy silt. Oc-casional fine angular and sub-angular pebbles. Occasional small angular and sub-angularstones. Pit in close proximity to three other pits C.15, C.16, C.17 and layer C.9.Pit C.19 filled with C.23, C.20 and C.41The pit was sub-oval in plan. Corners were square on SW; rounded elsewhere. Break ofslope top was sharp to gradual on E; gradual on S and SE; sharp elsewhere. Sides weresteep and smooth on S; steep and concave elsewhere. Break of slope base was gradual onE and SE; sharp elsewhere. Base was oval in plan was tapered blunt point in profile. Thepit measured 1.9m by 1.4m and had a maximum depth of 0.6m. The pit contained threefills. The upper and middle fills were sandy silts and the basal fill was a black clayey siltwith inclusions of charcoal. 29
    • issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Cut of large pit located 2 m NW of pit C.137. Pit C.37 filled with C.34 The pit was sub-circular in plan. Corners were square on N; rounded elsewhere. Break of slope top was sharp. The sides were vertical and smooth on N and W; gentle and smooth on S and E. Break of slope base is sharp on N and W; gradual on S and E. Base is sub- circular in plan; concave in profile. The fill was a soft, loose, mid brown sandy silt. Located 0.75 m NW of pit C.16. Pit C.121 filled with C.122 Large pit sub-rectangular in plan with rounded corners. Break of slope top was sharp. Sides were gentle and smooth on N and S; vertical and smooth on E. Break of slope base was sharp. Base was sub-rectangular in plan and flat to concave in profile. The pit meas- ured 2.2m northeast southwest by 1.7m and had a maximum depth of 0.11m. The fill was a soft, compact mid to dark blackish, greyish brown silty sandy clay. Located 8 m E of pit C.137. Pit C.125 filled with C.123 and C.124 The pit was irregular in plan. Corners were square on NW and SW; rounded elsewhere. Break of slope top was sharp on W, SW and NW; gradual elsewhere. Sides were gentle and smooth on N; moderate and irregular on S; moderate and convex on E; steep and ir- regular on W. Break of slope base was gradual on W and NW; sharp elsewhere. Base was irregular in plan and concave in profile. It measured 2m north south by 1.1m and had a maximum depth of 0.5m. The upper fill was a light yellow brown silty sand. The basal fill was a light orange brown silty sand. Irregular pit. Pit C.128 filled with C.129 Pit circular in plan. Break of slope top was sharp. Sides were vertical and smooth on S; gentle and smooth elsewhere. Break of slope base was sharp. Base was sub-circular in plan and flat in profile. The pit measured 0.35 east west by 0.34m and had a maximum depth of 0.19m. The fill was a soft, compact, mid brown silty sand. Cut of circular pit 1.5 m S of pit C.121. Pit C.131 filled with C.130 Circular in plan with rounded corners. Break of slope top was gradual on N, W, NE and NW; imperceptible elsewhere. Sides were moderate and smooth on N; moderate and con- vex on W; gentle and smooth on S and E. Break of slope base was gradual on W and NW; imperceptible elsewhere. Base was circular in plan and flat in profile. The pit measured 0.36m by 0.39m and had a maximum depth of 0.2m. The fill was a loose, light yellowish brown silty sand. Pit located adjacent to pit C.133 and NW of pit C.125.30
    • Clashnevin 2-e3590 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/Pit C.133 filled with C.132Irregular in plan. Corners were square on N; rounded elsewhere. Break of slope base wassharp on N, SW and NW; gradual on S and NE; imperceptible on E, W and SE. Sideswere moderate and smooth on N; gentle and convex on S and W; gentle and smooth onE. Break of slope base was gradual on S, NE, SW and NW; imperceptible elsewhere. Basewas irregular in plan and flat in profile. The pit measured 0.86m north south by 0.76mand had a maximum depth of 0.2m. The fill was a loose, dark brownish black silty sand. Pit located adjacent to pit C.133 and NW of pit C.125.Pit C.137 filled with C.138Sub-circular in plan. Corners were square on W, NW and SW; rounded elsewhere. Breakof slope top was gradual on N, NE and NW; sharp elsewhere. Sides were gentle andsmooth on N; vertical and smooth on S and E; steep and smooth on W. Break of slopebase was gradual on N, W, NE and NW; sharp elsewhere. Base was sub-circular in planand flat in profile. The pit measured 2.5m north south by 1.4m and had a maximumdepth of 0.34. The fill was a very soft, mid yellowish brownish grey sand. Large shallow pit located W of occupation layer C.127.Pit C.143 filled with C.144Oval in plan with square to rounded corners. Break of slope top was sharp. Sides weregentle to vertical and smooth on N and E; vertical and smooth on S and W. Break of slopebase was sharp. Base was oval in plan and flat in profile. The pit measured 0.4m northsouth by 0.23m and reached a depth of 0.14m. The fill was a soft, mid brown silty clay. Small pit located 8.5 m W of pit C.133.Pit C.157 filled with C.156The pit is circular in plan. Corners were square on E; rounded elsewhere. Break of slopetop was sharp. Sides were vertical and concave on E; vertical and smooth elsewhere. Breakof slope base was gradual on E; sharp elsewhere. Base was circular in plan, flat in profile.The pit measured 0.2m by 0.2m and had a maximum depth of 0.2m. The pit containedone fill which was a loose, mid greyish brown silty sand. Cut of small pit located 0.8 m E of C.159.Pit C.159 filled with C.158Oval in plan. Corners were square on N, NW and SW; rounded elsewhere. Break of slopetop was gradual on S, E and SE; sharp elsewhere. Sides were vertical and smooth on Nand W; moderate and smooth on S and E. Break of slope base was gradual on S, E andSE; sharp elsewhere. Base was oval in plan and flat in profile. The pit measured 0.19 eastwest by 0.12m and had a maximum depth of 0.12m The pit contained one fill which was a Cut of possible small pit located 0.8 m W of C.157. 31
    • issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Pit C.163 filled with C.162 The pit is sub-circular in plan. Break of slope top was sharp on S; gradual elsewhere. Sides were moderate and smooth/undercut on NNE; moderate and smooth elsewhere. Break of slope base was gradual. Base was sub-circular in plan and concave in profile. The pit measured 0.5m by 0.5m and had a maximum depth of 0.2m. The fill was a soft, firm, dark blackish brown silty clay. Cut of small pit on N edge of area of excavation 11 m N of pit C.157 Interpretation Four of the pits (C.15-C.18) were located in close proximity to one another in a rectangu- lar arrangement measuring 0.7 m by 0.35 m. Charred plant remains were recovered from the fills of three of the pits C.15, C.17 and C.18. Seven stake-holes (C.110, C.112, C.118, C.120, C.24, C.26 and C.32) forming a possible screen, 3 m in length, were located to the west. A fifth pit C.37 similar in size was located to the north. Three of the pits (C.19, C.121 and C.137) were large in size and oval in plan. Plant remains were recovered from pit C.19. Seven of the pits were located in the northern part of the site. C,131 and C.133 were adjacent to one another. Pit C.125 was irregular in plan and located to the SE of them. Pits C.159 and C.157 were situated in close proximity. They are the smallest of the pits and could be the base of post-holes. Charred plant remains were recovered from the fill of pit C.157. Three stakeholes (C.155, C.153 and C.161) 3.7 m to the E may have formed a screen 3.5 m in length for the pits. Pit C.143 and C.163 were on the W and N periphery of the site. Group 4 Posthole Context Dimensions Shape 44 0.27 x 0.24 x 0.38 Circular 60 0.56 x 0.56 x 0.5 Circular 90 0.25 x 0.23 x 0.33 Circular 134 0.55 x 0.4 x 0.44 Oval Posthole C.44 filled with C.45 Circular in plan. Break of slope top and base was sharp. Sides were vertical and smooth. Base was circular in plan and flat in profile. The posthole measured 0.27m by 0.24m and had a maximum depth of 0.4m. The fill was a black brown silty sand and included char- coal and packing stones. Large posthole located 1.15 m S of C.90. Posthole C.60 filled with C.61 and C.79 Circular in plan with rounded corners. Break of slope top was sharp/gradual on NE and SE; sharp elsewhere. Sides were vertical and smooth on N and W; steep and convex on E and S. Break of slope base was gradual on S; imperceptible elsewhere. Base was circular32
    • Clashnevin 2-e3590 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/in plan and flat in profile. The posthole measured 0.56m by 0.56m and had a maximumdepth of 0.5m Two fills were recorded in the posthole. The upper fill was a mid greybrown sandy silt. The basal layer was a mid orange brown sandy silt. Large posthole located on edge of pit C.121.Posthole C.90 filled with C.91The post was circular in plan. Break of slope top and base is sharp. Sides are vertical. Baseis circular in plan. It measured 0.25 m by 0.23 and was 0.33 m in depth. The fill was ablack brown silt clay. Large posthole located 1.15 m N of post C.44.Posthole C.134 filled with C.135 and C.136The post was oval in plan with break of slope top is sharp to gradual. Sides are stepped.Break of slope base is sharp. Base is circular in plan; flat in profile. Top is orientated Efrom base. It measured 0.55 by 0.4 by 0.44 m in depth. The fills were brown silty clays.InterpretationFour postholes located in the S section of the site. Two (C.44 and C.90) were located 1 mapart and two (C.60 and C.134) were on the edge of one of the large pits C.121.Group 5 StakeholesStakehole C.24 filled with C.25The stakehole was oval in plan. Break of slope top was gradual. Sides were vertical. Breakof slope base was sharp. Base was circular in plan and concave in profile. The fill was asoft, mid greyish brown sandy, silty clay. Stakehole associated with stakeholes C.26, C.28, C.30 and C.32.Stakehole C.26 filled with C.27The stakehole was very irregular in plan. Break of slope top was sharp. Sides were vertical.Break of slope base was sharp. Base was oval in plan and concave in profile. The fill wassoft, mid greyish brown sandy, silty clay. Stakehole associated with stakeholes C.24, C.28, C.30 and C.32.Stakehole C.28 filled with C.29The stakehole was oval in plan. Break of slope top was gradual. Sides were vertical. Breakof slope base was sharp. Base was circular in plan and concave in profile. The fill was asoft, mid greyish brown sandy, silty clay. Stakehole associated with stakeholes C.24, C.26, C.30 and C.32. 33
    • issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Stakehole C.30 filled with C.31 Description The stakehole was oval in plan. Break of slope top was sharp. Sides were vertical. Break of slope base was sharp. Base was circular in plan and concave in profile. Top was orientated NW from base. The fill was a soft, mid greyish brown sandy, silty clay. Stakehole associated with stakeholes C.24, C.26, C.28 and C.32. Stakehole C.32 filled with C.33 The stakehole was circular in plan with rounded corners. Break of slope top was sharp. Sides were vertical. E side was undercut. Break of slope base was moderate. Base was ta- pered blunt point in profile. Top was orientated slightly NW of base. The fill was a firm, mid brown sandy, silty clay. Stakehole associated with stakeholes C.24, C.26, C.28 and C.30. Stakehole C.39 filled with C.40 The stakehole was oval in plan. Break of slope top was gradual. Sides were vertical. Break of slope base was sharp. Base was oval in plan and concave in profile. Top was orientated S from base. The fill was a soft brown sandy silt. Stakehole cut the base of pit C.37. Stakehole C.43 filled with C.42 The stakehole was rounded in plan with rounded corners. Break of slope top and base was sharp. Sides were vertical and smooth. Base was rounded in plan and tapered point in profile. The fill was a loose, mid orangish brown silty sand. Stakehole associated with stakeholes C.47, C.52, C.56, C.71, C.74, C.76, C.81, C.89, C.94, C.96 and C.98. Stakehole C.47 filled with C.46 The stakehole was rounded in plan with rounded corners. Break of slope top was sharp. Sides were vertical and smooth. Break of slope base was gradual on S and SW and sharp elsewhere. Base was oval in plan and tapered point in profile. The fill was a loose, mid orangish brown silty sand. Stakehole associated with stakeholes C.43, C.52, C.56, C.71, C.74, C.76, C.81, C.89, C.94, C.96 and C.98. Stakehole C.52 filled with C.51 The stakehole was rounded in plan with rounded corners. Break of slope top was gradual on N, W, NW and SW and sharp elsewhere. Sides were moderate and smooth on N and W; vertical and smooth on S and E. Break of slope base was gradual on N; sharp else- where. Base was rounded in plan and tapered blunt point in profile. The fill was a loose mid orangish brown silty sand.34
    • Clashnevin 2-e3590 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/ Stakehole associated with stakeholes C.43, C.47, C.56, C.71, C.74, C.76, C.81, C.89,C.94, C.96 and C.98.Stakehole C.53 filled with C.54The stakehole was sub-oval in plan. Break of slope top was gradual on E, NE and SE;sharp elsewhere. Sides were vertical and concave on N; steep and smooth on E; verticaland smooth on S; vertical and undercut on W. Break of slope base was gradual on N, Eand NE; sharp elsewhere. Base was sub-circular in plan and tapered point in profile. Thefill was a soft, dark greyish black sandy silt with inclusions of charcoal. Stakehole located on N side of pit C.121.Stakehole C.56 filled with C.55The stakehole was rounded in plan with rounded corners. Break of slope top and basewas sharp. Sides were vertical and smooth. Base was rounded in plan and tapered pointin profile. The fill was a loose, mid orangish brown silty sand. Stakehole associated with stakeholes C.43, C.47, C.52, C.71, C.74, C.76, C.81, C.89,C.94, C.96 and C.98.Stakehole C.58 filled with C.59The stakehole was circular in plan. Break of slope top was sharp. Sides were vertical.Break of slope base was gradual. Base was oval in plan and concave in profile. Top wasorientated S from base. The fill was a soft, light brown sandy silty clay. Located W of posthole C.44.Stakehole C.62 filled with C.63The stakehole was sub-rounded in plan. Break of slope top was gradual on N; sharp else-where. Sides were vertical. Break of slope base was sharp. Base was oval in plan and flatin profile. Top was orientated vertically from base. The fill was a soft, mid to light brownsandy silty clay with charcoal inclusions. Stakehole related to cluster of four stakeholes C.68, C.64 and C.66.Stakehole C.64 filled with C.65The stakehole was circular to irregular in plan. Break of slope top was sharp. Sides werevertical. Break of slope base was gradual. Base was oval in plan and concave in profile.Top was orientated S from base. The fill was a soft, light brown sandy silty clay. Stakehole related to cluster of four stakeholes C.68, C.62 and C.66.Stakehole C.66 filled with C.67The stakehole was sub-oval in plan. Break of slope top was sharp. Sides were vertical.Break of slope base was gradual. Base of profile was uncertain. The fill was a soft, lightbrown silty sandy clay and occasional small sub-angular stones. Stakehole related to cluster of four stakeholes C.68, C.62 and C.64. 35
    • issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Stakehole C.68 filled with C.69 The stakehole was oval in plan. Break of slope top and base was sharp. Sides were vertical. Base was oval in plan and concave in profile. Top was orientated vertically from base. The fill was a soft, light brown sandy silty clay. Stakehole related to cluster of four stakeholes C.66, C.62 and C.64. Stakehole C.71 filled with C.70 The stakehole was oval in plan. Break of slope top was sharp. Sides were vertical and smooth. Break of slope base was sharp. Base was oval in plan and tapered point in profile. The fill was a loose, mid orangish brown silty sand. Stakehole associated with stakeholes C.43, C.47, C.52, C.56, C.74, C.76, C.81, C.89, C.94, C.96 and C.98. Stakehole C.74 filled with C.73 The stakehole was rounded in plan. Break of slope top was sharp. Sides were vertical and smooth. Break of slope base was sharp. Base was rounded in plan and tapered blunt point in profile. The fill was a loose, mid orangish brown silty sand. Stakehole associated with stakeholes C.43, C.47, C.52, C.56, C.71, C.76, C.81, C.89, C.94, C.96 and C.98. Stakehole C.76 filled with C.75 The stakehole was round in plan. Break of slope top was sharp. Sides were vertical and smooth. Break of slope base was sharp. Base was rounded in plan and tapered blunt point in profile. The fill was a loose, mid orangish brown silty sand. Stakehole associated with stakeholes C.43, C.47, C.52, C.56, C.71, C.74, C.81, C.89, C.94, C.96 and C.98. Stakehole C.77 filled with C.78 The stakehole was oval in plan. Break of slope top and base was sharp. Sides were vertical. Base was flat in plan and concave in profile. Top was orientated W from base. The fill was a soft, light brown sandy silt. Stakehole located in base of furrow C.4. Stakehole C.81 filled with C.80 The stakehole was rounded in plan. Break of slope top was sharp. Sides were vertical and smooth. Break of slope base was sharp. Base was rounded in plan and tapered point in profile. The fill was a loose, mid orangish brown silty sand. Stakehole associated with stakeholes C.43, C.47, C.52, C.56, C.71, C.74, C.76, C.89, C.94, C.96 and C.98.36
    • Clashnevin 2-e3590 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/Stakehole C.82 filled with C.83The stakehole was oval in plan. Break of slope top and base was sharp. Sides were verti-cal. Base was oval in plan and tapered point in profile. Top was orientated vertically frombase. The fill was a soft to firm, light brown sandy silt. Stakehole associated with C.84, C.86, C.90 and C.92.Stakehole C.84 filled with C.85The stakehole was oval in plan. Break of slope top and base was sharp. Sides were vertical.Base was circular in plan and tapered point in profile. Top was orientated vertically frombase. The fill was a soft to firm, light brown sandy silt. Stakehole associated with C.82, C.86, C.90 and C.92.Stakehole C.86 filled with C.87DescriptionThe stakehole was circular in plan. Break of slope top and base was sharp. Sides werevertical. Base was tapered point and concave in profile. The fill was a soft to firm, lightbrown sandy silt. Stakehole associated with C.82, C.84, C.90 and C.92.Stakehole C.89 filled with C.88The stakehole was circular in plan. Break of slope top and base was sharp. Sides werevertical and smooth. Base was rounded in plan and tapered blunt point in profile. The fillwas a loose, mid orangish brown silty sand. Stakehole associated with stakeholes C.43, C.47, C.52, C.56, C.71, C.74, C.76, C.81,C.94, C.96 and C.98.Stakehole C.94 filled with C.93The stakehole was oval in plan. Break of slope top and base was sharp. Sides were verticaland smooth. Base was rounded in plan and tapered point in profile. The fill was a loose,mid orangish brown silty sand. Stakehole associated with stakeholes C.43, C.47, C.52, C.56, C.71, C.74, C.76, C.81,C.89, C.96 and C.98.Stakehole C.96 filled with C.95The stakehole was circular in plan with rounded corners. Break of slope top and base wassharp. Sides were vertical and smooth. Base was rounded in plan and tapered blunt pointin profile. The fill was a loose, mid orangish brown silty sand. Stakehole associated with stakeholes C.43, C.47, C.52, C.56, C.71, C.74, C.76, C.81,C.89, C.94 and C.98. 37
    • issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Stakehole C.98 filled with C.97 The stakehole was oval in plan with rounded corners. Break of slope top and base was sharp. Sides were vertical and smooth. Base was rounded in plan and tapered point in profile. The fill was a loose, mid orangish brown silty sand. Stakehole associated with stakeholes C.43, C.47, C.52, C.56, C.71, C.74, C.76, C.81, C.89, C.94 and C.96. Stakehole C.99 filled with C.100 The stakehole was sub-oval in plan. Break of slope top and base was sharp. Sides were vertical. N side was slightly undercut. Base was oval in plan and concave in profile. Top was orientated vertically from base. The fill was a soft, mid brown sandy silt. Stakehole located W of stakehole C.101. Stakehole C.101 filled with C.102 The stakehole was sub-oval in plan. Break of slope top and base was sharp. Sides were vertical. Base was sub-oval in plan and flat in profile. Top was orientated vertically from base. The fill was a soft, mid brown sandy silt. Stakehole located E of stakehole C.99. Stakehole C.103 filled with C.104 The stakehole was circular in plan. Break of slope top and base was sharp. Sides were vertical. Base was oval in plan and tapered point in profile. Top was orientated vertically from base. The fill was a soft, mid blackish brown sandy silt. Moderate fine sub-angular stones and moderate small pieces of charcoal. Stakehole located near stakeholes C.105 and C.108. Stakehole C.105 filled with C.106 The stakehole was circular in plan. Break of slope top was gradual. Sides were vertical. Break of slope base was sharp. Base was circular in plan and concave in profile. Top was orientated vertically from base. The fill was a firm, mid brown sandy silt. Stakehole located near stakeholes C.103 and C.108. Stakehole C.108 filled with C.107 The stakehole was circular in plan. Break of slope top and base was sharp. Sides were vertical. Base was circular in plan and concave in profile. The fill was a soft to firm, light brown sandy silt. Stakehole located near stakeholes C.103 and C.105. Stakehole C.110 filled with C.109 The stakehole was circular in plan with rounded corners. Break of slope top and base was sharp. Sides were vertical and smooth. Base was circular in plan and tapered point in profile. Stakehole located at the S end of the site.38
    • Clashnevin 2-e3590 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/Stakehole C.112 filled with C.111The stakehole was sub-circular in plan with rounded corners. Break of slope top and basewas sharp. Sides were vertical and smooth. Base was circular in plan and tapered point inprofile. The fill was a firm, mid brown silty sand with occasional medium pebbles. Stakehole associated with stakeholes C.118 and C.120.Stakehole C.114 filled with C.113 DescriptionThe stakehole was circular in plan with rounded corners. Break of slope top and base wassharp. Sides were steep and smooth. Base was circular in plan and concave in profile. Thefill was a firm, mid brown silty sand with occasional medium and large pebbles. Stakehole associated with stakeholes C.43, C.47, C.52, C.56, C.71, C.74, C.76, C.81,C.89, C.94 and C.96.Stakehole C.118 filled with C.117The stakehole was oval in plan with rounded corners. Break of slope top was sharp. Sideswere steep and smooth. Base was circular in plan and concave in profile. The fill was afirm, mid brown silty sand with occasional medium pebbles. Stakehole associated with stakeholes C.112 and C.120.Stakehole C.120 filled with C.119The stakehole was oval in plan with rounded corners. Break of slope top and base wassharp. Sides were steep and smooth. Base was oval in plan and flat in profile. The fill wasa firm, mid brown silty sand with occasional medium pebbles. Stakehole associated with stakeholes C.112 and C.118.Stakehole C.140 filled with C.139The stakehole was circular in plan with rounded corners. Break of slope top and base wassharp. Sides were vertical and smooth. Base was circular in plan and tapered blunt pointin profile. The fill was a Loose, mid orangish brown silty sand. Stakehole associated with C.103, C.105 and C.108.Stakehole C.146 filled with C.145The stakehole was circular in plan with rounded corners. Break of slope top and base wassharp. Sides were vertical and smooth. Base was circular in plan and tapered blunt pointin profile. The fill was a loose, mid orangish brown silty sand. Stakehole cut layer C.127.Stakehole C.153 filled with C.152The stakehole was circular in plan with rounded corners. Break of slope top and base wassharp. Sides were steep and smooth. Base was circular in plan and tapered in profile. Thefill was a very soft, mid greyish brown sand with occasional medium sub-circular pebbles. Stakehole associated with stakeholes C.155 and C.161. 39
    • issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Stakehole C.155 filled with C.154 The stakehole was circular in plan with rounded corners. Break of slope top and base was sharp. Sides were steep and smooth. Base was circular in plan and concave in profile. The fill was a very soft, dark brownish black pebbly sand with frequent medium and coarse pebbles. Stakehole associated with stakeholes C.153 and C.161. Stakehole C.161 filled with C.160 The stakehole was circular in plan with rounded corners. Break of slope top and base was sharp. Sides were steep and smooth. Base was circular in plan and pointed in profile. The fill was a very soft dark black sand with frequent medium pebbles. Stakehole associated with stakeholes C.153 and C.155. Stakehole C.165 filled with C.164 The stakehole was circular in plan with rounded corners. Break of slope top and base was sharp. Sides were vertical and smooth. Base was circular in plan and tapered blunt point in profile. The fill was a soft, mid yellowish brown silty clay. Stakehole associated with pits C.159 and C.157. Interpretation Seven of the stakeholes (C.110, C.112, C.118, C.120, C.24, C.26 and C.32) may have formed a screen 5 m in length. Three other stakeholes (C.28, C.30 and C.39) were located near the N end of the line of six. 13 of the stakeholes (C.43, C.47, C.52, C.56, C.71, C.74, C.76, C.81, C.89, C.94, C.96, C.98 and C.114) formed a cluster 1 m in diameter 1.5 m W of the line of six. 14 of the stakeholes (C.58, C.77, C.82, C.84, C.86, C.90, C.99, C.101, C.103, C.105, C.108, C.115, C.140 and C.146) formed a second cluster 3 m in diameter and was located 1.5 m N of the cluster of 13. Four more stakeholes (C.62, C.64, C.66 and C.68) were located 3 m W of the cluster of 13. One stakehole C.53 were located in proximity to pit C.121. Three stakeholes (C.153, C.155 and C.161) formed a line 3.4 m in length in the N sec- tion of the site. One additional stakehole C.165 was located to the W. Charred seeds were recovered from the fills of stakeholes C.56, C.62, C.71, C.76, C.153 and C.165.40
    • Clashnevin 2-e3590 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/Group 6 FurrowsContext Dimensions Orientation3 10 x 1 x 0.06 EW4 12 x 1.1 x 0.07 EW7 15 x 0.8 x 0.1 EW22 14 x 0.7 x 0.1 EW36 18 x 0.6 x 0.05 EW142 0.8 x 0.4 x 0.3 EWFurrow C.3 filled with C.5The feature was linear in plan with square corners. Break of slope top and base was grad-ual. Sides were gentle and smooth. Base was square in plan; flat/concave in profile. Thefurrow measured 10m east west by 1m and reached a maximum depth of 0.06m. The fillwas a soft, loose, light brown sandy silt. Cut of possible modern furrow. Related to two other possible furrows C7 and C4 inthe same grid. Orientated E-W. Probably hand-dug ‘ridge and furrow’ type furrow.Furrow C.4 filled with C.6The feature was linear in plan with square corners. Break of slope and base was gradual.Sides were gentle and smooth. Base is square in plan; flat/concave in profile. The furrowmeasured 12m east west by 1.1m and had a maximum depth of 0.07m. The fill was a soft,loose, light brown sandy silt. Cut of possible modern furrow. Related to two other possible furrows C7 and C3 insame grid. Orientated E-W. Probably hand-dug ‘ridge and furrow’ type furrow.Furrow C.7 filled with C.8The feature was linear in plan with square corners. Break of slope top was gradual onNorth imperceptible on South. Sides were moderate and smooth on North gentle andsmooth on South. Break of slope base was gradual on North and South. Base was irregu-lar in plan and flat in profile. The furrow measured 15m east west by 0.8m and had a maximum depth of 0.1m. Thefill was a soft, light yellowish brown sandy silt. Cut of possible modern furrow. Related to possible furrow C4 in same grid. Orien-tated E-W. Probably hand-dug ‘ridge and furrow’ type furrow.Furrow C.22 filled with C.21The furrow was linear in plan. Break of slope top was gradual on North sharp on South.Sides were moderate and smooth on North, steep and smooth on South. Break of slopebase was gradual. Base was linear in plan; concave in profile. The feature measured 14mby 0.7m and had a maximum depth of 0.1m. The fill was a very soft, compact, mid brownsilty sand. Cut of shallow furrow. Similar to other furrows in close proximity. 41
    • issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Furrow C.36 filled with C.35 The furrow was linear in plan. Break of slope top and base was gradual on Northern and Southern sides: gentle and smooth on North, gentle and irregular on South. Base was linear in plan and flat in profile. The furrow measured 18m east west by 0.6m by 0.05m deep. The fill was a very soft, compact, mid brown silty sand. Cut of linear furrow. Related to other ‘ridge and furrow’ features running in an E-W direction. Furrow C.142 filled with C.141 The furrow is square in plan with square corners. Break of slope top was imperceptible on SE; gradual on S; sharp elsewhere. The sides were vertical and smooth on N and W; gentle and convex on S; moderate and smooth on E. Break of slope base was imperceptible on E and SE; gradual on S; sharp elsewhere. Base was square in plan and flat in profile. The furrow measured 0.8m east west by 0.4m and had a maximum depth of 0.3m. The fill was a loose, mid brown silty sand. Cut of furrow. Part of ‘ridge and furrow’ system. Interpretation The furrows were orientated E-W and were spaced at interval of c. 4 m. Furrows C.4 and C.7 truncated the area of archaeological activity at the southern section of the site. Group 7 Modern features Ditch C.148 filled with C.147 The ditch was located in the NE section of the site. Break of slope top was gradual. Sides were moderate and stepped on NE; moderate and smooth on SW. Break of slope base was sharp. Base was linear in plan and concave in profile. The ditch measured 28m east west by 1.35m wide and had a maximum depth of 0.53m. The fill was a firm, mid orangish brown clayey, sandy silt. The ditch was hand dug and functioned as either a field boundary or drainage ditch. It is not marked on any editions of the OS maps and may therefore be quite recent. It has been disturbed by ploughing. Group 8 Natural features Natural hollow C.115 filled with C.116 The depression was sub-circular to irregular in plan. Corners were rounded on S and square on E and W. Break of slope top was sharp. Sides were gentle and concave on E; gentle and undercut elsewhere. Break of slope base was gradual. Base was irregular in plan and flat in profile. The hollow measured 0.2m north south by 0.18m and had a maximum depth of 0.17m..42
    • Clashnevin 2-e3590 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/Group 9 Void numbersC.38, C.72, C.126, C.148, C.149 and C.150 43
    • issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Appendix 4 Analysis of the plant remains Penny Johnston Introduction This report details the results of plant remains analysis carried out on sieved samples from Clashnevin 2, Co. Tipperary. The site comprised a series of stake-holes, post-holes and pits. A radiocarbon date indicated Late Bronze Age occupation. Methodology The samples were collected on site as bulk soil and were processed using machine-as- sisted floatation (following guidelines in Pearsall 2000). The floating material (or ‘flot’) from each sample was collected in a stack of geological sieves (the smallest mesh size was 250mm). When all the carbonised material was collected the flot was then air-dried in paper-lined drying trays prior to storage in airtight plastic bags. The flots were scanned under low-powered magnification and the results of prelimi- nary scanning were presented in an assessment report (Johnston 2009). A total of 32 samples from the site were sieved. Flots were retrieved from 24 samples and the results of the assessment are listed in Table 1 at the end of this report. A total of 8 samples did not contain any plant material and did not produce flots (these are listed in Table 2 at the end of this report). Charred seeds were present in 14 of the samples from the site. Plant remains were extracted from the flots and the material was identified under low-powered magnification (x 10 to x 40) using a binocular microscope. The plant remains in the sam- ples are listed in Table 3 at the end of this report. Nomenclature and taxonomic order fol- low Stace (1997). Use of scientific names is restricted to the tables at the end of the report in order to facilitate easy reading of this text. Results Charred seeds were present in 58% of the samples (14 samples). This is a relatively high percentage for ephemeral prehistoric occupation sites. The plant remains from this site in- cluded a small quantity of hazelnut shell fragments, a very small quantity of cereal grains, numerous weed seeds (in particular those from the dock and the goosefoot families), fragments of fruit stones (from sloes or cherries) and possible berry or tuber fragments. Seeds were recovered in greatest quantity from the southern part of the site. The re- maining samples that contained seeds were recovered from a small group of features in the northern part of the site. Each group of samples contained different plant assemblages and these are dealt with separately below.44
    • Clashnevin 2-e3590 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/ The plant remains assemblage from the southern part of the site included materialfrom the following samples: C.10 (S.5), C.12 (S.7), C.13 (S.8), C.23 (S.9), C.9 (S.16), C.55(S.28), C.63 (S.32), C.70 (S.36), C.75 (S.40), C.127 (S.61), C.136 (S.68) and C.147 (S.76). Most of the plant remains were recovered in very small amounts apart from the weedsfrom the dock family (76 seeds were counted from this part of the site). The remains weremixed with other weed seeds (including fat hen and grass seeds), a small quantity of ce-real grains (4, where identifiable these were barley) and waste (shell fragments) from theconsumption of hazelnuts. The predominance of seeds from the dock family is illustratedin the pie-chart (Figure 1); dock seeds make up more than two thirds of the entire seedassemblage from this part of the site. Grass and weeds 11% Goosefoots 13% Ceralia 5% Barley 2% Dock/Knotgrasses 69% Figure 1: Percentage cereal composition in deposits at the southern part of the site A comparative assemblage of plant remains that was rich in seeds of the dock familywas found in samples from three Middle Bronze Age round houses excavated at Mitchel-stown 1, Co. Cork (Johnston 2005). At this site the quantity of dock seeds recovered wasgreater than at Clashnevin 2, but this could be the result of greater sampling frequency.Over all, the results for both sites are remarkably similar, with large quantities of dockseeds found, very small numbers of cereal grains and no cereal chaff recovered. Because the seeds from the dock family were recovered in relatively large amountsfrom Clashnevin 2 and from Mitchelstown 1, particularly when contrasted to the numberof other plant types found, it is tentatively possible to suggest that they were at the sitebecause they were deliberately collected as food. The seeds are edible and they have beenfound amongst the gut contents of prehistoric bog bodies (Behre 2008, 68). 45
    • issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Cereals usually tend to survive in greater quantities than other plant types in archaeo- logical deposits because part of the process of preparing them for consumption includes heating them (usually to remove chaff) and this can cause charring and consequently preservation by carbonisation. Similarly, hazelnut shell fragments are common in archae- ological deposits because after kernel extraction the hard nut shell is often thrown on the fire in order to discard the waste. Once again this often leads to carbonisation and preser- vation. On the other hand, it is relatively unusual to retrieve large quantities of weed seeds from prehistoric deposits. Why is there such a disproportionate retrieval of weed seeds from Clashnevin 2 (and indeed at Mitchelstown 1)? It is possible that they were charred because they were being roasted as a flavour enhancement: the cultivated buckwheat is a near relation and this is frequently roasted prior to cooking. However, Behre (2008, 66) thinks that large, pure (or almost pure) samples of col- lected weed seeds must be found to corroborate suggestions that these plants were delib- erately collected in the past. From the examples listed, it is clear that he identified almost pure samples as ones where more than 75% of the sample contents are the same seed types (in some instances 99.5% of the sample was the same plant type). The pie-chart demon- strates that the results from Clashnevin 2 are not pure enough to fit into this category. In addition, no effort has been made here to divide the seeds from the dock/knotgrass family into separate identifiable categories. This is because of the dual constraints of poor preservation and a limited budget. The plants from this family of seeds have a very wide ecological platform and full identification is unlikely to contribute a great deal to the understanding of the habitat that these seeds were retrieved from (dock/knotgrass family plants are hardy ruderals that colonise waste and disturbed ground). Because the results from Clashnevin 2 do not conform to the standards set by Behre it is impossible to say whether or not these seeds were deliberately collected. How else might these charred seed types have become incorporated into archaeologi- cal deposits? It is possible that these were burnt as waste, by-products from crop process- ing that were discarded and put on a fire as a disposal mechanism. But this suggestion is less likely than collection for food because of the complete absence of chaff in any of the samples that were examined from the site. Despite the fact that chaff tends to burn to ash quicker than many other plant component parts, in particular seeds (see Boardman and Jones 1990), if this assemblage represented crop processing by-products it is likely that at least some chaff would have been recovered. In addition to this it should be noted that the second most common seed type recovered from this site were goosefoots, plant types that have been deliberately collected (Behre 2008, 68 – 69) and may even have been cultivated (Stokes and Rowley-Conwy 2002). The fact that these made up an additional 13% of the assemblage at this site lends credence to the suggestion that this assemblage may represent deliberately collected wild foods. The only identifiable cereal grains recovered from Clashnevin 2 were barley. Just two grains were found (associated with pits C.17 and C.18) and since preservation was poor, these could not be identified to type. Barley was the most common Bronze Age cereal identified from Co. Tipperary sites excavated along the route of the N8 Cashel to Mitch-46
    • Clashnevin 2-e3590 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/elstown, although most of these samples are apparently from a Middle Bronze Age kilnand the assemblage is therefore a somewhat atypical one (Halwas 2009, 265 – 269). How-ever, barley was also the most common cereal type identified at the Middle Bronze Agesettlement site at Chancellorsland Site A, Co. Tipperary (McClatchie 2008, 475). In gen-eral, both wheat and barley are recovered in Irish Bronze Age contexts, and barley tendsto be the most common cereal type recovered, certainly from the Middle Bronze Ageonwards. Comparative Late Bronze Age plant remains assemblages from Co. Tipperarysettlement sites include the material from Ballyveelsih and Curraghatoor. At both of thesesites barley was the most common grain type found (Monk 1987, 30– 31. McClatchie2007, 64 – 65). Small quantities of goosefoots and knotgrass were also identified at Cur-raghatoor (McClatchie 2007, 64 – 66). The plant remains from another Late Bronze Agesite excavated along the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh at Clash 1 also indicatedthat barley was the most common cereal type of this period (Johnston 2010). A small group of contexts in the northern part of the site also included plant remains:C.152 (S.78), C.156 (S.82) and C.164 (S.84). The plant remains assemblage from this partof the site was sparse and each sample contained a single plant item each, respectively anindeterminate cereal grain, a sloe or cherry stone and one seed from the dock/knotgrassfamily. The plant remains assemblage from this part of the site is so sparse it is likely thatthese represent the recovery of stray plant fragments and it is not a significant indicator ofactivity in this part of the site. 47
    • issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report References Behre, K.-E. 2008 ‘Collected seeds and fruits from herbs as prehistoric food’, Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 17, 65 – 73. Halwas, S. 2009 ‘Macro-plant remains’, pp. 262 – 275 in McQuade, M., Molloy, B. and Moriarty, C. In the Shadow of the Galtees. Archaeological excavations along the N8 Cashel to Mitchelstown Road Scheme. Dublin, National Roads Authority. Johnston, P. 2010 Analysis of the plant remains from Clash 1. Unpublished technical report for Eachtra Archaeological Projects. Johnston, P. 2009 Assessment of environmental remains from the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty). Unpublished technical report for Eachtra Archaeological Projects. Johnston, P. 2005 Appendix 4 Charred plant remains from Mitchelstown 1, Co. Cork (04E1072). Unpublished technical report for Eachtra Archaeological Projects. McClatchie, M. 2008 ‘Plant remains from Site A’, pp. 473 – 478 in Doody, M. The Ballyhoura Hills Project. Dublin. Discovery Programme Monograph No. 7. McClatchie, M. 2007 ‘Plant remains’, pp. 62 – 67 in Doody, M. Excavations at Curraghatoor, Co. Tipperary. Cork, UCC Department of Archaeology Archaeological Monograph. Monk, M. 1987 ‘Appendix V: the charred plant remains from Ballyveelish, pp. 30 – 31 in Doody, M. ‘Late Bronze Age settlement, Ballyveelish 2, Co. Tipperary’. In Cleary, R.M. Hurley, M.F. and Twohig E.A. (eds.) Archaeological Excavations on the Cork-Dublin Gas Pipeline (1981-82). Cork, Department of Archaeology. Pearsall, D. 2000 Paleoethnobotany: a Handbook of Procedures. New York, Academic Press. Stokes, P. and Rowley-Conwy, P. 2002 ‘Iron Age Cultigen? Experimental Return Rates for Fat Hen (Chenopodium album L.)’, Environmental Archaeology. The Journal of Human Palaeoecology, 7, 95 – 99.48
    • Clashnevin 2-e3590 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/Table 1Sample Context Charcoal Seeds Percentage5 10 Medium Low 1007 12 Medium Medium 1008 13 Low Medium 1009 23 Low Low 10011 25 Low Absent 10015 34 Low Absent 10016 9 High Low 10024 46 Low Absent 10027 54 High Absent 10028 55 Low Low 10032 63 Low Low 10036 70 Low Low 10040 75 Low Low 10045 91 Low Absent 10054 109 Low Absent 10061 127 High Low 10068 136 Low Low 10069 138 Low Absent 10070 139 Low Absent 10076 147 Low Low 10078 152 Low Low 10081 162 Low Absent 10082 156 Low Low 10084 164 Low Low 100Table 1: Scanned samples from Clashnevin 2, Co� Tipperary (E3590) Table 2 Sample Context 12 27 13 29 14 33 18 78 19 83 34 67 41 80 55 111Table 2: Samples that did not produce flots 49
    • issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Table 3 Context 10 12 13 23 9 55 63 70 75 127 136 147 152 156 164 Sample 5 7 8 9 16 28 32 36 40 61 68 76 78 82 84 Hazelnut shell 1 1 fragments (Cory- lus avellana L.) Fat-hen (Chenop- 1 odium album L.) Indeterminate 6 4 3 seeds from the goosefoot family (Chenopodiace- ae) Indeterminate 1 seeds from the pink fam- ily (Caryophyl- laceae) Black bindweed 2 1 1 2 1 (Fallopia con- volvulus (L.) Á. Löve) Indeterminate 3 37 15 1 1 1 10 1 1 seeds from the Knotgrass family (Polygonaceae) Cherries: plum/ 1 sloe/cherry stones (Prunus L. species) Barley grains 1 1 (Hordeum vul- gare L.) Indeterminate 3 2 1 1 cereal grains Indeterminate 1 grass seeds (Poaceae) Indeterminate 3 1 1 4 2 weed seeds Possible tuber or 1 1 1 berry fragment Table 3: Identified plant remains from Clashnevin 2, Co� Tipperary (E3590)50
    • Clashnevin 2-e3590 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/Appendix 5 Animal bone reportThe excavated features and deposits at Clashnevin 2 were dated to the late Bronze Age/early Iron Age and two occupation layers associated with this prehistoric site producedsmall samples of animal bone. Nine fragments were recovered from occupation layer(C48) and identified species from here include cattle and hare. An adult cow is repre-sented by two worn molars and the capture of hares for their flesh and pelts is attestedfrom the recovery of seven lagomorph bones including humerus, tibia and loose teeth. Alarger faunal sample was recovered from occupation layer (C49) and the two identifiedspecies in this collection of 50 bones are cattle and horse. The bones are soft and erodedand have clearly suffered from the effects of weathering during prolonged exposure onthe living surface of the site. Identified cattle bones consist of midshaft fragments of ahumerus and a radius and four small pieces of vertebrae representing at least one adultindividual. The remains of a mature, perhaps male, horse are also present with identifiedspecimens including a fragmented mandible and 13 loose teeth including two canines.Eleven fragments are sufficiently large to indicate that they belong to a large-sized animalsuch as cattle or horse and the remaining 19 fragments are indeterminate. 51