Eachtra JournalIssue 11                                               [ISSN 2009-2237]            Archaeological Excavatio...
EACHTRAArchaeological Projects                          Archaeological Excavation Report                          Clashnev...
Archaeological Excavation Report                                           Clashnevin 2                                   ...
© Eachtra Archaeological Projects 2011  The Forge, Innishannon, Co Cork        Set in 12pt Garamond          Printed in Ir...
Table of Contents       Summary�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������...
List of Figures     Figure	1:	   Portion	 of	 map	 of	 Ireland	 showing	 the	 route	 of	 the	 N7	 Castletown	 to	 Nenagh	 ...
Clashnevin 2-e3590                                 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/Summ...
issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237                           arChaeologiCal exCavation report              Acknowl...
Clashnevin 2-e3590                                  http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/1  ...
2                                      182550                                                  198900                     ...
Clashnevin 2-e3590                                  http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/Dru...
issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237                               arChaeologiCal exCavation report              4  ...
190400                                                               196200                                               ...
issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237                               arChaeologiCal exCavation report                 ...
Clashnevin 2-e3590                                           http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipp...
8                                                           192402                                                        ...
Clashnevin 2-e3590                                   http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/6 ...
192213                                                     192583                                   19295310     179152   ...
192570                                                                      192600                                        ...
issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237                                      arChaeologiCal exCavation report          ...
Clashnevin 2        South facing section                                                                                  ...
issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237                                        arChaeologiCal exCavation report        ...
Clashnevin 2-e3590                                               http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-...
issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237                                            arChaeologiCal exCavation report    ...
Clashnevin 2-e3590                                      http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary...
issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237                           arChaeologiCal exCavation report     Clashnevin 2    ...
Clashnevin 2-e3590                                           http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipp...
issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237                                  arChaeologiCal exCavation report              ...
191232                                                                                                         208232     ...
issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237                              arChaeologiCal exCavation report              tand...
Clashnevin 2-e3590                                  http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/9  ...
issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237     arChaeologiCal exCavation report              Appendix 1 Stratigraphic Inde...
Clashnevin 2-e3590       http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/Appendix 2 Site matrix        ...
issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237   arChaeologiCal exCavation report26
Clashnevin 2-e3590                                    http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/A...
issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237                            arChaeologiCal exCavation report              Layer ...
Clashnevin 2-e3590                                   http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/Pi...
issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237                            arChaeologiCal exCavation report                  Cu...
Clashnevin 2-e3590                                   http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/Pi...
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 2, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 2, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 2, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 2, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 2, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 2, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 2, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 2, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 2, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 2, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 2, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 2, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 2, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 2, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 2, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 2, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 2, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 2, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 2, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 2, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 2, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 2, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
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Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 2, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)

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The excavation of the site at Clashnevin 2 comprised a group of stake-holes, pits, post-holes and layers. The domestic activity was dated to the late Bronze Age / early Iron Age.
The two dates were returned from the fill of a pit and an occupation layer. Evidence of wild food exploitation was found in tandem with evidence for cereal cultivation. A small assemblage of animal bone was recovered from two of the occupation layers.

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Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 2, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)

  1. 1. Eachtra JournalIssue 11 [ISSN 2009-2237] Archaeological Excavation Report E3590 - Clashnevin 2, Co. Tipperary Stake-holes, Post-holes, Pits and Layers
  2. 2. EACHTRAArchaeological Projects Archaeological Excavation Report Clashnevin 2 Co Tipperary Stake-holes, Post-holes, Pits and Layers Date: July 2011 Client: Laois County Council and National Roads Authority Project: N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Contract 1) E No: E3590Excavation Director: Jo Moran Written by: Jacinta Kiely
  3. 3. Archaeological Excavation Report Clashnevin 2 Co Tipperary Excavation Director Jo Moran Written By Jacinta Kiely EACHTRA Archaeological Projects CORK GALWAY The Forge, Innishannon, Co. Cork Unit 10, Kilkerrin Park, Liosbain Industrial Estate, Galwaytel: 021 4701616 | web: www.eachtra.ie | email: info@eachtra.ie tel: 091 763673 | web: www.eachtra.ie | email: galway@eachtra.ie
  4. 4. © Eachtra Archaeological Projects 2011 The Forge, Innishannon, Co Cork Set in 12pt Garamond Printed in Ireland
  5. 5. Table of Contents Summary���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������iii Acknowledgements�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� iv1 Scope of the project �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Route location��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 13 Receiving environment ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 34 Archaeological and historical background ��������������������������������������������������������������������� 45 Site location and topography ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 76 Excavation methodology ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 97 Excavation results �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 9 Pits��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 9 � OccupationLayers�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������17 Post-holes������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������17 Stake-holes���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������17 ModernActivity����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������19 Plantremains����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������19 � Animalbone�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������20 � Charcoal���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������20 Radiocarbondates�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������208 Discussion ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������209 References ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������23Appendix 1 Stratigraphic Index �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 24Appendix 2 Site matrix �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������25Appendix 3 Groups and Subgroups ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 27Appendix 4 Analysis of the plant remains ������������������������������������������������������������������������44Appendix 5 Animal bone report ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 51 i
  6. 6. List of Figures Figure 1: Portion of map of Ireland showing the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme (Contract 1)� ����������������������������������������������������������� 2 Figure 2: Discovery series OS map showing the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme (Contract 1) and the location of all excavation sites� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 5 Figure 3: Portion of the Ist edition Ordnance Survey Map TN21 showing the location of Clashnevin 2� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 8 Figure 4: Location and extent of Clashnevin 2 E3590 on the N7 Castletown to Nenagh �����������������10 Figure 5: Post-excavation plan of Clashnevin 2 E3590� ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 11 Figure 6: Sections of pits C�19, C�121, C�18, C�17, C�131 and C�133� �������������������������������������������������������������� 13 Figure 7: Post-excavation plan of the central southern part of Clashnevin E3590� ���������������������������� 15 Figure 8: Sections of post-holes C�60, C�90, C134 and C�44� ������������������������������������������������������������������������ 18 Figure 9: Prehistoric sites on and in the environs of N7 Castletown to Nenagh� ��������������������������������21 List of Plates Plate 1: Aerial view of Clashnevin 1 to left and Clashnevin 2 to right of photograph�� �������������������� 7 Plate 2: View of southern section of area of excavation from west� ����������������������������������������������������� 12 Plate 3: Mid-excavation of pit C�137 on right and occupation layer C�127 on left� �������������������������� 14 Plate 4: Post-excavation of pit C�121� Pit C�60 is located in the right background and stakehole C�53 in the left� ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 14 � Plate 5: View of group of pits C�15, C�16, C�17 and C�18 from north�������������������������������������������������������� 16 Plate 6: Post-excavation of post-hole C�60� ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 16 Plate 7: Post-excavation of the cluster of 13 stake-holes from north-east� ���������������������������������������� 19 List of Tables Table 1: Dimensions of the pits �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Table 2: Dimensions of post-holes ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 17 Table 3: Radiocarbon dates �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������20ii
  7. 7. Clashnevin 2-e3590 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/SummaryThe excavation of the site at Clashnevin 2 comprised a group of stake-holes, pits, post-holes and layers. The domestic activity was dated to the late Bronze Age / early Iron Age.The two dates were returned from the fill of a pit and an occupation layer. Evidence ofwild food exploitation was found in tandem with evidence for cereal cultivation. A smallassemblage of animal bone was recovered from two of the occupation layers.Road project name N7 Castletown to NenaghSite name Clashnevin 2E no. E3590Site director Jo MoranTownland ClashnevinParish BallymackeyCounty TipperaryBarony Upper OrmondOS Map Sheet No. TN21National Grid Reference 192591 178929Elevation 89 m O.D. iii
  8. 8. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Acknowledgements The project was commissioned by Laois County Council and was funded by the Na- tional Roads Authority under the National Development Plan (2000-2006). The project archaeologist was Niall Roycroft. Kildare County Council supervised the archaeological contract with RE staff of Pat Dowling and Colum Fagan. Kildare County Council Senior Executive Engineer was Joseph Kelly and Kildare County Council Senior Engineer was John Coppinger. The senior archaeologist was John Tierney and the post-excavation man- ager was Jacinta Kiely. Illustrations are by Maurizio Toscano, photographs by John Sun- derland and Eagle Photography and aerial photography by StudioLab. Specialist analysis was carried out by Mary Dillon, Penny Johnston and Margaret McCarthy and the 14 Chrono Centre at Queen’s University Belfast.iv
  9. 9. Clashnevin 2-e3590 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/1 Scope of the projectEachtra Archaeological Projects were commissioned by Laois County Council and theNational Roads Authority to undertake archaeological works along 17.1 km (Contact1) of the 35km N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) national roadscheme (EIS approved in November 2005). The scheme runs from the eastern junctionof the present N7 Nenagh Bypass, North Tipperary a tie in to the M7/M8 Portlaoise-Castletown scheme to the south of Borris-in-Ossory in County Laois. The scheme is ap-proximately 191 hectares. Contract 1 comprises the western half of the scheme and runsfrom Clashnevin to Castleroan passing along the Tipperary North and Offaly countyborder regions. The Ministers Direction Number is A38. It was funded by the Irish Government under the National Development Plan 2000-2006. The total archaeological cost was administered by the National Roads Authoritythrough Laois County Council as part of the Authority’s commitment to protecting ourcultural heritage. The purpose of the archaeological services project was to conduct ar-chaeological site investigations within the lands made available for the scheme and toassess the nature and extent of any new potential archaeological sites uncovered. Phase 1 of the project (archaeological testing of the route) was carried out in 2007under licence E3371, E3372 and E3375-8 issued by Department of the Environment Her-itage and Local Government (DoEHLG) in consultation with the National Museumof Ireland. The principal aim of this phase of the project was to test for any previouslyunknown sites by a programme of centreline and offset testing and to test sites of archaeo-logical potential identified in the EIS. Phase 2 of the project (resolution) involved the resolution of all archaeological sitesidentified within the proposed road corridor prior to commencement of the constructionof the road. This phase of the project was carried out from June 2007 to February 2008and excavations were conducted under the management of a Senior Archaeologist. A totalof 27 sites were excavated during this phase of works under separate licences issued byDoEHLG. A post-excavation assessment and strategy document was prepared in Phase 3 of theproject to present a management strategy for dealing with post-excavation work aris-ing from archaeological works along the route of the new N7 Castletown to Nenagh. Itincluded a proposal for post-excavation and archiving work and a budget for the works.2 Route locationThe route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh road is located in Counties North Tipperaryand Offaly (OF) (Figure 1). The project (Contract 1) involves the construction of c. 17.5km of the N7 from Clashnevin east of Nenagh to Castleroan south-east of Dunkerrin. Itpasses through the townlands of Clashnevin, Derrybane, Newtown, Lissanisky, Killeisk,Garavally, Derrycarney, Garrynafanna, Gortnadrumman, Kilgorteen, Falleen, Knock-ane, Clash, Park, Rosdremid (OF), Clynoe (OF), Cullenwaine, Moneygall, Greenhills, 1
  10. 10. 2 182550 198900 215250 193300 193300 ! ( Nenagh issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 Derg (Lough) 182950 182950 172600 172600 0 5 10 182550 198900 Kilometres 215250 ± Figure 1: Portion of map of Ireland showing the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme (Contract 1)� arChaeologiCal exCavation report
  11. 11. Clashnevin 2-e3590 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/Drumbaun, Busherstown (OF), Drumroe (OF), Moatquarter, Loughan (OF) and Cas-tleroan (OF). The townlands are located in the parishes of Ballymackey, Cullenwaine,Castletownely, Rathnaveoge, Finglas and Dunkerrin and the baronies of Upper Ormond,Ikerrin and Clonisk, The route begins at the eastern end of the Nenagh bypass at Clashnevin c. 5 km eastof Nenagh and continues eastward on the northern side of the existing N7 in Co. Tip-perary. It crosses a number of third class roads to the north of Toomyvara and 0.7 kmeast of Clash crossroads crosses the Ollatrim River. It extends into County Offaly directlyeast of Park. From here it crosses the R490 0.6 km north of Moneygall. It extends backin County Tipperary and through the demesne of Greenhills before crossing the existingN7 at the junction of Greenhills and Drumbaun townlands. It crosses back into CountyOffaly and climbs east into Busherstown and Drumroe. It crosses the Keeloge Streaminto Moatquarter in County Tipperary and extends northeast back into County Offalythrough the townlands of Loughan and Castleroan 1.4 km southwest of Dunkerrin.3 Receiving environmentNorth Tipperary is bounded on the west by the River Shannon and Lough Derg withthe Silvermines, to the south, and small hills extending towards Devilsbit and BorrisnoeMountains to the east. The mountains are composed largely of Silurian strata and OldRed Sandstone. Copper, silver and lead deposits have been mined in the Silvermines. Thegeology of the lowlands consists of Carboniferous limestone covered by glacial drift inaddition to tracts of raised bog. The western portion of the study area is drained by the Ollatrim River which flowswestwards into the River Ballintotty which in turns drains into the River Nenagh. Theeastern portion is drained by the Keeloge Stream and other small water sources. These risein the foothills of the Silvermine Mountains and flow north. The Keeloge drains into theLittle Brosna River c. 1 km south of Shinrone, Co Offaly. The Brosna turns north anddrains into the Shannon south of Banagher. The largest population centre in the area is Nenagh. The smaller population centres,are Toomyvara, Moneygall and Dunkerrin. The soils on the route are characterised by 80% grey brown podzolics, 10% gleys, 5%brown earths and 5% basis peat. They are derived from glacial till of predominantly Car-boniferous limestone composition. These soils occur in Tipperary and Offaly and have awide use range being suitable for both tillage and pasture (Gardiner and Radford 1980,97-99). Land use along the route was a mix of grassland devoted to intensive dairying andcattle-rearing and tillage. 3
  12. 12. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report 4 Archaeological and historical background Archaeological sites of numerous periods were discovered along the route of the new road (Figure 2). The periods are referred to as follows: Mesolithic (c. 8000 to 4000 BC), Neo- lithic (c. 4000 to 2000 BC), Bronze Age (c. 2000 to 600 BC), and Iron Age (c. 500 BC to AD 500), early medieval period (c. AD 500 to 1100), medieval period (c. AD 1100 to 1650), post-medieval period (c. AD 1650 to the present). Mesolithic (c. 8000 to 4000 BC) The earliest known human settlement in Ireland dates from the Mesolithic period (c. 8000 BC - 4000 BC). The majority of the evidence (flint scatters) for Mesolithic occupa- tion has come from the river valleys. No evidence for the Mesolithic was recorded on the route. Neolithic (c. 4000 to 2000 BC) The Neolithic Period is characterised by the introduction of agriculture and the begin- nings of the clearance of the woodlands. The population increased and became more sedentary in nature. The most important Neolithic site in the vicinity was at Tullahedy recorded on the route of the Nenagh by-pass. It was a specialist chert arrow manufactur- ing site. No evidence for a Neolithic site was recorded on the route but stone tools dating to the Neolithic were recorded at Busherstown E3661, Clash E3660, Cullenwaine E3741 and Greenhills 2 and 3 E3637 and E3658. Stone tools dating to the late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age were recorded at Busherstown E3661, Castleroan E3909, Cullenwaine E3741, Derrybane 1 E3585, Drumroe E3773, Greenhills 1 E3638 and Moatquarter E3910 Bronze Age (c. 2000 to 600BC) The Bronze Age is characterised by the introduction of metallurgy and an increase in settlement and burial sites. Copper ores were mined and copper, bronze and gold items manufactured. The range of burial site types includes cist graves, pit and urn burials, cremation cemeteries, barrows, ring-ditches and wedge tombs. Stone circles and stand- ing stones also date to the Bronze Age. Both enclosed and unenclosed settlement sites are known. The most prolific Bronze Age site type is the fulacht fiadh. These monuments survive as low mounds of charcoal rich black silt, packed with heat-shattered stones, and generally situated close to a water source. Fulachta fiadh are generally classified as ‘cook- ing places’, whereby stones were heated in a hearth and subsequently placed in a trough of water, the water continued to boil with the addition of hot stones and wrapped food was cooked within the hot water. The trough eventually filled with small stones, ash and charcoal that were removed, forming the basis of the familiar mound.4
  13. 13. 190400 196200 202000 207800 Clashnevin 2 186400 186400 Clashnevin 2-e3590 Castleroan 1 E 3909 Busherstown 1 E 3661 Loughan 1 Greenhills 3 E 4000 E 3658 Moneygall 2 Culleenwaine 1 E 3635 E 3741 Moatquarter 1 Clynoe 2 E 3910 E 3774 181800 181800 Park 1 Drumroe 1 Garravally Kilgorteen 1 E 3659 E 3773 E 3589 E 3739 Drumbaun 2 Derrybane 2 E 3912 E 3591 Greenhills 1 Greenhills 2 E 3638 E 3637 Clashnevin 2 E 3590 Clash 1 Park 2 E 3660 E 3772 Derrycarney 1 E 3740 Clashnevin 1 Derrybane 1 Killeisk 1 E 3586 E 3585 E 3587 177200 177200 0 3 6 Kilometres ± 190400 196200 202000 207800 Figure 2: Discovery series OS map showing the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme (Contract 1) and the location of all excava- http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/5 tion sites�
  14. 14. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Two new fulachta fiadh or burnt mounds were recorded at Clashnevin 1 E3586, Cullenwaine E3741 and six at three separate locations in Greenhills, E3638, E3637 and E3658. Evidence of nine roundhouses or partial round structures were recorded; two at Castleroan E3909, Derrybane 2 E3591 and Drumbaun 2 E3912 and one at Clash E3660, Drumroe E3773 and Moatquarter E3910. Iron Age (c. 500 BC to AD 500) Upto recently there was little evidence of a significant Iron Age presence in Munster. Settlement sites are few and far between as well as being difficult to identify (Woodman, 2000) while the material culture of this period is limited. Linear earthworks, believed to have marked tribal boundaries, and hillforts are two of the most visible monuments of the period. Ten percent of sites excavated on NRA road schemes in recent years have produced Iron Age dates. The dates have led to the identification of 30 new Iron Age sites in Munster from road schemes in counties Cork, Limerick and Tipperary (McLaughlin 2008, 51). These include a ditched enclosure in Ballywilliam and a wooden trackway in Annaholty Bog excavated on the route of the N7 Nenagh-Limerick (Taylor 2008, 54). Evidence of domestic activity dating to the Late Bronze Age / Early Iron Age was re- corded at Clashnevin 2. Early medieval period (c. AD 400 to 1100) The early medieval period is characterised by the arrival of Christianity to Ireland. The characteristic monument type of the period is the ringfort. Ringforts are the most nu- merous archaeological monument found in Ireland, with estimates of between 30,000 and 50,000 illustrated on the first edition of the Ordnance Survey 6” maps of the 1840’s (Barry 1987). As a result of continued research, the construction of these monuments has a narrow date range during the early medieval period between the 7th and 9th centuries AD. Although there are some very elaborate examples of ringforts, they often take the form of a simple earth or stone enclosure functioning as settlements for all classes of secu- lar society (Stout 1997). North Tipperary is rich in early ecclesiastical sites and the remains of these religious centres are at the core of some of the towns and villages. Roscrea, for example, was chosen by St Cronan as a location for his monastery in the seventh century as it was located at the crossroads on the Slighe Dála, an important roadway in early medieval times (NIAH 2006, 4-8). A possible early medieval enclosure and associated road way was recorded at Killeisk E3587. A denuded ringfort (OF046-013) was excavated at Clynoe 2 E3774. High and later medieval periods (c. AD 1100 to 1650) This period is characterized by the arrival of the Anglo-Normans and the building of tow- er houses. The Anglo-Normans obtained charters in the thirteenth century for the towns6
  15. 15. Clashnevin 2-e3590 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/ Clashnevin 1 (E3586) 0 30 60 Meters ±Plate 1: Aerial view of Clashnevin 1 to left and Clashnevin 2 to right of photograph��of Nenagh, Roscrea, Thurles and Templemore and established markets. Nenagh grewrapidly in the aftermath of the granting of the lands of Munster to Theobald fitzWalter in1185 (ibid. 8). Moated sites represent the remains of isolated, semi-defended homesteadsin rural areas. They were build mainly in the late thirteenth and early fourteenth cen-turies in counties, such as Wexford, Kilkenny, Tipperary, mid-Cork and Limerick, thatwere colonised by English settlers (O’Conor 1998, 58). The Archaeological Inventory forNorth Tipperary lists 39 moated sites (2002, 298). A newly recorded moated site was excavated at Busherstown E3661.Post-medieval period (c. 1650 to the present).The post-medieval period is characterised by mills, limekilns, workhouses, country hous-es and associated demesnes, vernacular buildings and field systems (Figure 3). A smalldemesne associated with a county house was recorded at Greenhills.5 Site location and topographyClashnevin 2 was located 5 km east of Nenagh and c. 100 m north of the eastern end ofthe Nenagh bypass (Plate 1). It was the westernmost of the sites on the route. Clashnevin1 was located 100 m to the west and Derrybane I was located 100 m further east. The sitewas located centrally in a large flat field, c. 89m OD. The surrounding land is in pastureand most of the field boundaries in the vicinity have been removed by the landowner.There are no water courses in the immediate area. A modern field drain was located 600m to the east, the water within flows to the northwest. 7
  16. 16. 8 192402 193402 BALLINREE NEWTOWN 179468 179468 LISSANISKY issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 CLASHNEVIN Derrybane 2 Clashnevin 2 Clashnevin 1 RATHFALLA Derrybane 1 DERRYBANE 178818 178818 BALLINTOTTY KNOCKAHUNNA SHANBALLY BALLYNALICK 0 300 600 ¥ Meters 192402 193402 Figure 3: Portion of the Ist edition Ordnance Survey Map TN21 showing the location of Clashnevin 2� arChaeologiCal exCavation report
  17. 17. Clashnevin 2-e3590 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/6 Excavation methodologyThe site was mechanically stripped of topsoil under strict archaeological supervision.Stripping was done with a tracked machine with a flat toothless bucket. Topsoil strippingcommenced in the areas of identified archaeology and continued radially outward untilthe limit of the road take was reached or until the limit of the archaeological remains wasfully defined. A grid was set up in the excavation area(s) and all archaeological featureswere sufficiently cleaned, recorded and excavated so as to enable an accurate and mean-ingful record of the site to be preserved. The excavation, environmental sampling, sitephotographs, site drawings, find care and retrieval, on-site recording and site archive wasas per the Procedures for Archaeological works as attached to the licence method state-ments for excavation licences. The site was excavated from 21 July 2007 to the 11 August 2007. Only areas withinthe LMA (lands made available) were resolved. The full extent of the area of excavationmeasured 1870 m sq (Figure 4). The full record of excavated contexts is recorded in the context register (Appendix 1)and the stratigraphic matrix (Appendix 2). Detailed stratigraphic descriptions are foundin the groups and sub-groups text (Appendix 3). The context register and site photographsmaybe viewed in the EAPOD (Eachtra Archaeological Projects office database) in theaccompanying CD.7 Excavation resultsThe excavation of the site at Clashnevin comprised a group of stake-holes, pits, post-holesand layers. The domestic activity was dated to the late Bronze Age / early Iron Age. Themajority of the activity was clustered in two distinct areas in the southern section of thesite (Figure 5, plate 2).PitsA total of 16 pits were recorded in the area of the excavation. The pits could be dividedinto two general categories; large and small. They were located across the entire area ofthe excavation. Three of the pits (C.19, C.121 and C.137) were substantially larger in size than the restof the group (Figure 6). Small quantities of plant remains were recovered from one of thepits C.19. A layer of occupation material C.127 was located to the west of pit C.137 (Plate3). A very small quantity of charred plant remains including hazelnut shell and cerealgrains were recovered from the layer. The third large pit C.121 was located 9 m to the eastof the main focus of activity. Two post-holes (C.60 and C.134), a small pit C.128 and astake-hole C.53 were located in proximity to the pit (Plate 4). 9
  18. 18. 192213 192583 19295310 179152 179152 DERRYBANE 140 0 130 0 issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 120 0 11 0 0 CLASHNEVIN 100 0 900 178922 178922 800 700 600 500 400 KNOCKAHUNNA 300 178692 178692 Clashnevin 2 (E3590) 0 100 200 Metres ± 192213 192583 192953 Figure 4: Location and extent of Clashnevin 2 E3590 on the N7 Castletown to Nenagh arChaeologiCal exCavation report
  19. 19. 192570 192600 163 ± Clashnevin 2-e3590 161 153 178934 178934 159 157 155 165 O ) 89 m O.D. 143 133 134 60 131 125 53 121 178920 178920 19 128 115 140 137 103 127 92 90 37 4 15 44 49 64 58 17 48 62 112 9 7 110 0 10 m Layers 192570 192600 Figure 5: Post-excavation plan of Clashnevin 2 E3590� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/11
  20. 20. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Plate 2: View of southern section of area of excavation from west� Context Dimensions Shape 15 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.4 Circular 16 0.5 x 0.2 x 0.29 Oval 17 0.8 x 0.46 x 0.23 Oval 18 0.6 x 0.4 x 0.3 Oval 19 1.9 x 1.4 x 0.74 Sub-oval 37 0.51 x 0.24 x Sub-oval 121 2.2 x 1.7 x 0.11 Sub-rectangular 125 1.99 x 1.14 x 0.5 Irregular 128 0.35 x 0.34 x 0.19 Circular 131 0.36 x 0.39 x 0.18 Circular 133 0.86 x 076 x 0.23 Irregular 137 2.52 x 1.43 x 0.34 Sub-oval 143 0.4 x 0.23 x 0.14 Oval 157 0.17 x 0.16 x 0.24 Circular 159 0.19 x 0.12 x 0.12 Oval 163 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.2 Circular Table 1 Dimensions of the pits Five of the pits (C.15, C.16, C.17, C.18 and C.37) were located in close proximity to one another (Figure 7, Plate 5). Charred plant remains, in particular weed seeds from the dock and goosefoot families, was recovered from the fills of three of the pits C.15, C.17 and C.18. Seven of the stake-holes (C.110, C.112, C.118, C.120, C.24, C.26 and C.32) formed a possible screen, 3 m in length, to the immediate west of four of the pit group.12
  21. 21. Clashnevin 2 South facing section C.23 Clashnevin 2-e3590 C.20 C.24 C.19 Clashnevin 2 South-east facing section of C.121 C.122 C.121 Clashnevin 2 Clashnevin 2 South-west facing section of C.18 and C.17 South-east facing section of C.131 and C.133 C.130 C.132 C.12 C.13 C.131 C.133 C.17 0 500 mm C.18 Figure 6: Sections of pits C�19, C�121, C�18, C�17, C�131 and C�133� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/13
  22. 22. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Plate 3: Mid-excavation of pit C�137 on right and occupation layer C�127 on left� Plate 4: Post-excavation of pit C�121� Pit C�60 is located in the right background and stakehole C�53 in the left�14
  23. 23. Clashnevin 2-e3590 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/ ± 192593 192597 19 115 137 108 103 140 127178917 178917 105 146 90 92 86 84 82 99 101 37 39 4 77 30 32 44 28 26 15 58 16 24 120 18 81 118 64 94 76 74 89 98 96 17 47 71 66 52 56 62178912 178912 43 112 68 114 9 7 110 Layers 0 2.5 m 192593 192597 Figure 7: Post-excavation plan of the central southern part of Clashnevin E3590� Seven of the pits (C.125, C.131, C.133, C.143, C.157, C.159 and C.163) were located in the northern part of the site. Two of the pits C.131 and C.133 were adjacent to one an- other. A third pit C.125, which was irregular in plan, was located to the south-east. Two more pits C.159 and C.157 were located 9 m to the north. They were the smallest of the pits recorded. Three of the stake-holes (C.153, C.155 and C.161) formed a possible screen, 3.4 m in length, 3.7 m to the east of the pits. 15
  24. 24. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Plate 5: View of group of pits C�15, C�16, C�17 and C�18 from north� Plate 6: Post-excavation of post-hole C�60�16
  25. 25. Clashnevin 2-e3590 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/ Small quantities of charred plant remains were recovered from the fills of the pitC.157 and two of the stake-holes C.153 and C.165. Each sample only contained a singleplant item. The two pits C.143 and C.163 were located on the western and northern periphery ofthe site respectively.Occupation LayersFour small layers (C.9, C.48, C.49 and C.127) of occupation material were associatedwith the group of stake-holes and pits. Small quantities of animal bone were recoveredfrom layers C.48 and C.49 and charred plant remains from C.9 and C.127.Post-holesFour post-holes were located in the southern section of the site. Two (C.44 and C.90) werelocated 1 m apart to the west of the large pit C.137. The other two (C.60 and C.134) werelocated in proximity to the large pit C.121 (Figure 8, Plate 6).Context Dimensions Shape44 0.27 x 0.24 x 0.38 Circular60 0.56 x 0.56 x 0.5 Circular90 0.25 x 0.23 x 0.33 Circular134 0.55 x 0.4 x 0.44 OvalTable 2 Dimensions of post-holesStake-holesA total of 45 stake-holes were recorded in the area of the excavation. Seven of the stake-holes (C.110, C.112, C.118, C.120, C.24, C.26 and C.32) may have formed a screen 5m in length to the west of four pits. Three other stake-holes (C.28, C.30 and C.39) werelocated to the north of the line of six. 13 of the stake-holes (C.43, C.47, C.52, C.56, C.71, C.74, C.76, C.81, C.89, C.94,C.96, C.98 and C.114) formed a cluster 1 m in diameter 1.5 m to the west of the line ofsix (Plate 7). 14 of the stake-holes (C.58, C.77, C.82, C.84, C.86, C.90, C.99, C.101, C.103, C.105,C.108, C.115, C.140 and C.146) formed a second broad cluster, 3 m in diameter, 1.5 mto the north of the cluster of 13. Four more stake-holes (C.62, C.64, C.66 and C.68) werelocated 3 m to the west of the cluster of 13. One of the stake-hole C.53 was located adjacent to the large pit C.121. A further four stake-holes (C.153, C.155, C.161 and C.165) were located in the north-ern section of the site. These have been described above. A small quantity of charred seeds and weeds were recovered from the fills of four ofthe stake-holes (C.56, C.62, C.71 and C.76). 17
  26. 26. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Clashnevin 2 Clashnevin 2 North facing section North-east facing section of C.90 C.61 C.91 C.79 C.90 C.60 Clashnevin 2 Clashnevin 2 South-east facing section of C.134 East facing section of C.44 C.135 C.45 C.136 C.44 C.134 0 500 mmFigure 8: Sections of post-holes C�60, C�90, C134 and C�44�18
  27. 27. Clashnevin 2-e3590 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/Plate 7: Post-excavation of the cluster of 13 stake-holes from north-east�Modern ActivityA series of furrows and a portion of a field boundary were recorded in the area of the ex-cavation. Two of the furrows (C.4 and C.7) truncated the area of activity in the southernsection of the site.Plant remainsThe plant remains were examined by Penny Johnston (Appendix 4). Charred seeds werepresent in 58% of the samples (14 samples). This is a relatively high percentage for ephem-eral prehistoric occupation sites. The plant remains from this site included a small quan-tity of hazelnut shell fragments, a very small quantity of cereal grains, numerous weedseeds (in particular those from the dock and the goosefoot families), fragments of fruitstones (from sloes or cherries) and possible berry or tuber fragments. The dock seedsmake up more than two thirds of the entire seed assemblage from this part of the site. Itis tentatively suggested that they were at the site because they were deliberately collectedas food. In addition to this it should be noted that the second most common seed typerecovered from this site were goosefoots. The fact that these made up an additional 13%of the assemblage at this site lends credence to the suggestion that this assemblage mayrepresent deliberately collected wild foods. 19
  28. 28. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Animal bone The animal bone was examined by Margaret McCarthy (Appendix 5). Two occupation layers produced small samples of animal bone. Nine fragments were recovered from oc- cupation layer (C.48) and identified species from here include cattle and hare. A larger faunal sample was recovered from occupation layer (C.49) and the two identified species in this collection of 50 bones are cattle and horse. The bones are soft and eroded and have clearly suffered from the effects of weathering during prolonged exposure on the living surface of the site. Charcoal The charcoal was identified for radiocarbon dating by Mary Dillon. Hazel charcoal was identified from the fill of pit C.17 and occupation layer C.127. Radiocarbon dates Radiocarbon analysis was carried out by the 14 Chrono Centre in Queen’s University Belfast. Dates were calibrated using Calib Rev5.0.2 (©1986-2005 M.Stuiver P.J. Re- imer) and in conjunction with Stuiver Reimer 1993 and Reimer et al. 2004. Lab Context Material Un-calibrated δ 13 1 sigma calibration 2 sigma code date C calibration UB- 12 Hazel charcoal 2461+/-20 -25.7 BC 749-687 666- BC 754-685 12364 from pit C.17 643 591-577 567-514668-609 599-483 466-415 UB- 127 Hazel charcoal 2498+/-36 -26.6 BC 765-732 691-678 BC 788-507 459- 12365 from layer C.127 675-661 650-545 453 439-419 Table 3: Radiocarbon dates 8 Discussion The site at Clashnevin comprised a small group of prehistoric features, dated to Late Bronze Age / Early Iron Age. No actual structure was recorded at Clashnevin but the group of post-holes, pits and stake-holes are indicative of a temporary habitation site. Some of the stake-holes may have formed screens or shelter belts. No artefacts were recov- ered from the site. A small assemblage of plant remains and animal bone was recovered from four occupation layers. The plant remains recovered from the site were unusual for two different reasons. Firstly there was a relatively high percentage, for an ephemeral prehistoric occupation site, of charred seeds present in the samples. Secondly 70% of the charred seed types were from the dock and the goosefoot families, weed seeds. The dominant presence of the weed seeds would indicate that the assemblage represents deliberately collected wild foods, including the ubiquitous hazelnut. Evidence of wild food exploitation was found in20
  29. 29. 191232 208232 ¢ Clashnevin 2-e3590 184059 184059 178059 178059 191232 208232 Barrow (11) Cairn (1) Fulacht Fiadh (15) Megalithic tomb (3) Pit group (3) Standing stone (9) 0 2.5 5 Burnt spread (2) Cremation (2) Linkardstown burial (2) Mound (6) Settlement site (9) Km Figure 9: Prehistoric sites on and in the environs of N7 Castletown to Nenagh� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/21
  30. 30. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report tandem with evidence for cereal cultivation. The only identifiable cereal grains recovered from Clashnevin 2 were two grains of barley. But seven grains of indeterminate cereal grains were also recorded. The site at Clashnevin is one of a small number of prehistoric sites where there is evidence to suggest that the exploitation of wild food included a wide variety of plant types. The site is small but is very significant as it does contribute to an understanding of the Bronze Age and Iron Age landscape in this part of North Tipperary. There were no recorded prehistoric settlement sites in the vicinity prior to the commencement of infra- structural works (Figure 9). Further more substantial evidence of Bronze Age settlement was recorded to the east of Clashnevin at Derrybane 2 E3591.22
  31. 31. Clashnevin 2-e3590 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/9 ReferencesFarrelly, J., and O’Brien, C. (2002) Archaeological Inventory of County Tipperary Vol. 1 - North Tipperary, The Stationery Office Dublin.Gardiner, M.J. and Radford,T. (1980) Soil Associations of Ireland and Their Land Use Potential. Dublin, An Foras Talúntais.McLaughlin, M. and Conran, S. (2008) ‘The emerging Iron Age of South Munster’ in Seanda, Issue 3, 51-53. Dublin.National Inventory of Architectural Heritage (2006) An Introduction to the Architectural Heritage of North Tipperary. Government of Ireland.O’Brien, C. (1997) Archaeological Inventory of County Offaly, The Stationery Office, Dublin.O’Conor, K.D. (1998) The Archaeology of Medieval Rural Settlement in Ireland, Discovery Programme Monographs No 3, Discovery Programme/Royal Irish Academy Dublin.Reimer, P.J., Baillie, M.G.L., Bard, E., Bayliss, A., Beck, J.W., Bertrand, C., Blackwell, P.G., Buck, C.E., Burr, G., Cutler, K.B., Damon, P.E., Edwards, R.L., Fairbanks, R.G., Friedrich, M., Guilderson, T.P., Hughen, K.A., Kromer, B., McCormac, F.G., Manning, S., Bronk Ramsey, C., Reimer, R.W., Remmele, S., Southon, J.R., Stuiver, M., Talamo, S., Taylor, F.W., van der Plicht, J. and Weyhenmeyer, C.E. (2004) ‘IntCal04 Terrestrial Radiocarbon Age Calibration, 0–26 Cal Kyr BP’, Radiocarbon 46, 1029-1058.Stuiver, M., and Reimer, P.J. (1993) ‘Extended (super 14) C data base and revised CALIB 3.0 (super 14) C age calibration program’, Radiocarbon 35, 215-230.Stout, M. (1997) The Irish Ringfort. Dublin, Four Courts Press.Taylor, K. (2008) ‘At home and on the road: two Iron Age sites in County Tipperary’ in Seanda, Issue 3, 54-55. Dublin.Woodman, P.C. (2000) ‘Hammers and Shoeboxes: New Agendas for Prehistory’., pp. 1 -10 in Desmond, A., Johnson, G., McCarthy, M., Sheehan, J. and Shee Twohig, E. New Agendas in Irish Prehistory. Papers in commemoration of Liz Anderson. Bray, Wordwell. 23
  32. 32. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Appendix 1 Stratigraphic Index Please see attached CD.24
  33. 33. Clashnevin 2-e3590 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/Appendix 2 Site matrix 25
  34. 34. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report26
  35. 35. Clashnevin 2-e3590 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/Appendix 3 Groups and SubgroupsGroup Description Amount/Description Context NoNumber1 Natural deposits Topsoil C.1 Subsoil C.22 Layers 4 layers C.9, C.48, C.49 and C.1273 Pits 16 pits C.15, C.16, C.17, C.18, C.19, C.37, C.121, C.125, C.128, C.131, C.133, C.137, C.143, C.157, C.159 and C.1634 Postholes 4 postholes C.44, C.60, C.90 and C.1345 Stakeholes 45 stakeholes C.24, C.26, C.28, C.30, C.32, C.39, C.43, C.47, C.52, C.53, C.56, C.58, C.62, C.64, C.66, C.68, C.71, C.74, C.76, C.77, C.81, C.82, C.84, C.86, C.89, C.92, C.94, C.96, C.98, C.99, C.101, C.103, C.105, C.108, C.110, C.112, C.114, C.118, C.120, C.140, C.146, C.153, C.155, C.161 and C.1656 Furrows 6 furrows C.3, C.4 C.7, C.22, C.36 and C.1427 Modern features 1 ditch C.1488 Natural features 1 natural hollow C.1159 Void numbers C.38, C.72, C.126, C.148, C.149 and C.150Group 1 Natural DepositsTopsoil C.1The topsoil was a soft, mid brown sandy silt with inclusions of moderate pebbles and oc-casional small stones. It reached a maximum depth of 0.76m. This represented the topsoil which had formed across the site the northern portion ofthe site.Subsoil C.2A soft, light brownish, orangish yellow sandy silt. The natural subsoil across the site can vary widely, probably due to glacial activity.Pockets and veins of sand and sandy gravels are found throughout site.Group 2 LayersLayer C.9 The layer was a soft, dark orangish brown sandy silt with occasional fine pebbles andmoderate flecks of charcoal. It measured 0.7 north south by 0.6m and had a maximumdepth of 0.2m. Layer of material located to SW of two small pits C.17 and C.18. Similar in colourand composition to fills of the pits. 27
  36. 36. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Layer C.48 A loose, mid orangish brown sand with moderate fine pebbles and bone. It measured 1.4m wide and had a maximum depth of 0.1m and was orientated northwest southeast. Possible redeposit of topsoil located 0.5 m SW of deposit C.49. May have originated as topsoil from a ditch dug to accommodate a water pipe. May be related to C.49. Layer C.49 A loose, mid orangish brown silty sand with occasional fine pebbles, stones, charcoal flecks and bone. The deposit measured 1.5m north south by 1.5m and had a maximum depth of 0.4m. Truncated by water pipe. Layer C.127 The spread was a very soft, compact, dark brownish black silty sand with charcoal inclu- sions. It measured 1.6m north south by 1.4m and had a maximum depth of 0.1m. The natural underneath the spread seems to have been effected by heat. Likely a result of in- situ burning but there was not enough burning to indicate a substantial hearth. Interpretation Four small layers of occupation material associated with group of stake-holes and pits. Small quantities of animal bone were recovered from layers C.48 and C.49 and charred plant remains from C.9 and C.127. Group 3 Pits Context Dimensions Shape 15 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.4 Circular 16 0.5 x 0.2 x 0.29 Oval 17 0.8 x 0.46 x 0.23 Oval 18 0.6 x 0.4 x 0.3 Oval 19 1.9 x 1.4 x 0.74 Sub-oval 37 0.51 x 0.24 x Sub-oval 121 2.2 x 1.7 x 0.11 Sub-rectangular 125 1.99 x 1.14 x 0.5 Irregular 128 0.35 x 0.34 x 0.19 Circular 131 0.36 x 0.39 x 0.18 Circular 133 0.86 x 076 x 0.23 Irregular 137 2.52 x 1.43 x 0.34 Sub-oval 143 0.4 x 0.23 x 0.14 Oval 157 0.17 x 0.16 x 0.24 Circular 159 0.19 x 0.12 x 0.12 Oval 163 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.2 Circular28
  37. 37. Clashnevin 2-e3590 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/Pit C.15 filled with C.10 and C.14This pit was sub-circular in plan. Corners were square on NE; rounded elsewhere. Breakof slope base was sharp. Sides were moderate and smooth on N and E and were verticaland smooth on S and W. Break of slope base was gradual on W; sharp elsewhere. Base wassquare in plan and flat in profile. The pit measured 0.5 by 0.5m and reached a maximumdepth of 0.4m. Two fills were recorded in the pit. The upper fill was a soft, compact, darkblack silty sand. The basal fill was a firm, compact, mid brown silty sand. Pit in close proximity to three other pits C.16, C.17, C.18 and layer C.9.Pit C.16 filled with C.11The pit was oval in plan with square corners. Break of slope on top was sharp. Sides weremoderate and stepped on N and S; vertical and stepped on E; vertical and smooth on W.Break of slope base was gradual. Base was oval in plan and pointed in profile. The fill wasa firm, compact, mid brown silty sand. Pit in close proximity to three other pits C.15, C.17, C.18 and layer C.9.Pit C.17 filled with C.12The pit was oval in plan with rounded corners. Break of slope on top was imperceptible onN, SE and NW, it was gradual on W and NE and sharp on S, E and SW. The sides weregentle and smooth on N; vertical and smooth on S and E; moderate and convex on W.Break of slope base was sharp on S and SE; gradual elsewhere. Base was oval in plan andflat in profile. It measured 0.8m north south by 0.5 and had a maximum depth of 0.2m.The fill was a soft, dark orangish brown sandy silt. Pit in close proximity to three other pits C.15, C.16, C.18 and layer C.9.Pit C.18 filled with C.13The pit was oval in plan with rounded corners. Break of slope top was sharp. Sides werevertical and smooth. Break of slope base was gradual. Base was oval in plan and flat inprofile. The pit measured 0.6m north south by 0.4m and had a maximum depth of 0.3m.The pit was occupied by one fill which was a soft, dark orangish brown sandy silt. Oc-casional fine angular and sub-angular pebbles. Occasional small angular and sub-angularstones. Pit in close proximity to three other pits C.15, C.16, C.17 and layer C.9.Pit C.19 filled with C.23, C.20 and C.41The pit was sub-oval in plan. Corners were square on SW; rounded elsewhere. Break ofslope top was sharp to gradual on E; gradual on S and SE; sharp elsewhere. Sides weresteep and smooth on S; steep and concave elsewhere. Break of slope base was gradual onE and SE; sharp elsewhere. Base was oval in plan was tapered blunt point in profile. Thepit measured 1.9m by 1.4m and had a maximum depth of 0.6m. The pit contained threefills. The upper and middle fills were sandy silts and the basal fill was a black clayey siltwith inclusions of charcoal. 29
  38. 38. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Cut of large pit located 2 m NW of pit C.137. Pit C.37 filled with C.34 The pit was sub-circular in plan. Corners were square on N; rounded elsewhere. Break of slope top was sharp. The sides were vertical and smooth on N and W; gentle and smooth on S and E. Break of slope base is sharp on N and W; gradual on S and E. Base is sub- circular in plan; concave in profile. The fill was a soft, loose, mid brown sandy silt. Located 0.75 m NW of pit C.16. Pit C.121 filled with C.122 Large pit sub-rectangular in plan with rounded corners. Break of slope top was sharp. Sides were gentle and smooth on N and S; vertical and smooth on E. Break of slope base was sharp. Base was sub-rectangular in plan and flat to concave in profile. The pit meas- ured 2.2m northeast southwest by 1.7m and had a maximum depth of 0.11m. The fill was a soft, compact mid to dark blackish, greyish brown silty sandy clay. Located 8 m E of pit C.137. Pit C.125 filled with C.123 and C.124 The pit was irregular in plan. Corners were square on NW and SW; rounded elsewhere. Break of slope top was sharp on W, SW and NW; gradual elsewhere. Sides were gentle and smooth on N; moderate and irregular on S; moderate and convex on E; steep and ir- regular on W. Break of slope base was gradual on W and NW; sharp elsewhere. Base was irregular in plan and concave in profile. It measured 2m north south by 1.1m and had a maximum depth of 0.5m. The upper fill was a light yellow brown silty sand. The basal fill was a light orange brown silty sand. Irregular pit. Pit C.128 filled with C.129 Pit circular in plan. Break of slope top was sharp. Sides were vertical and smooth on S; gentle and smooth elsewhere. Break of slope base was sharp. Base was sub-circular in plan and flat in profile. The pit measured 0.35 east west by 0.34m and had a maximum depth of 0.19m. The fill was a soft, compact, mid brown silty sand. Cut of circular pit 1.5 m S of pit C.121. Pit C.131 filled with C.130 Circular in plan with rounded corners. Break of slope top was gradual on N, W, NE and NW; imperceptible elsewhere. Sides were moderate and smooth on N; moderate and con- vex on W; gentle and smooth on S and E. Break of slope base was gradual on W and NW; imperceptible elsewhere. Base was circular in plan and flat in profile. The pit measured 0.36m by 0.39m and had a maximum depth of 0.2m. The fill was a loose, light yellowish brown silty sand. Pit located adjacent to pit C.133 and NW of pit C.125.30
  39. 39. Clashnevin 2-e3590 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3590-clashnevin2-co-tipperary/Pit C.133 filled with C.132Irregular in plan. Corners were square on N; rounded elsewhere. Break of slope base wassharp on N, SW and NW; gradual on S and NE; imperceptible on E, W and SE. Sideswere moderate and smooth on N; gentle and convex on S and W; gentle and smooth onE. Break of slope base was gradual on S, NE, SW and NW; imperceptible elsewhere. Basewas irregular in plan and flat in profile. The pit measured 0.86m north south by 0.76mand had a maximum depth of 0.2m. The fill was a loose, dark brownish black silty sand. Pit located adjacent to pit C.133 and NW of pit C.125.Pit C.137 filled with C.138Sub-circular in plan. Corners were square on W, NW and SW; rounded elsewhere. Breakof slope top was gradual on N, NE and NW; sharp elsewhere. Sides were gentle andsmooth on N; vertical and smooth on S and E; steep and smooth on W. Break of slopebase was gradual on N, W, NE and NW; sharp elsewhere. Base was sub-circular in planand flat in profile. The pit measured 2.5m north south by 1.4m and had a maximumdepth of 0.34. The fill was a very soft, mid yellowish brownish grey sand. Large shallow pit located W of occupation layer C.127.Pit C.143 filled with C.144Oval in plan with square to rounded corners. Break of slope top was sharp. Sides weregentle to vertical and smooth on N and E; vertical and smooth on S and W. Break of slopebase was sharp. Base was oval in plan and flat in profile. The pit measured 0.4m northsouth by 0.23m and reached a depth of 0.14m. The fill was a soft, mid brown silty clay. Small pit located 8.5 m W of pit C.133.Pit C.157 filled with C.156The pit is circular in plan. Corners were square on E; rounded elsewhere. Break of slopetop was sharp. Sides were vertical and concave on E; vertical and smooth elsewhere. Breakof slope base was gradual on E; sharp elsewhere. Base was circular in plan, flat in profile.The pit measured 0.2m by 0.2m and had a maximum depth of 0.2m. The pit containedone fill which was a loose, mid greyish brown silty sand. Cut of small pit located 0.8 m E of C.159.Pit C.159 filled with C.158Oval in plan. Corners were square on N, NW and SW; rounded elsewhere. Break of slopetop was gradual on S, E and SE; sharp elsewhere. Sides were vertical and smooth on Nand W; moderate and smooth on S and E. Break of slope base was gradual on S, E andSE; sharp elsewhere. Base was oval in plan and flat in profile. The pit measured 0.19 eastwest by 0.12m and had a maximum depth of 0.12m The pit contained one fill which was a Cut of possible small pit located 0.8 m W of C.157. 31

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