Archaeological Report - Clashnevin 1, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)

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The excavation of the site at Clashnevin comprised a burnt mound which overlay a well, a trough and a small group of pits. The well was 7 m in diameter and over 2.5 m in depth. …

The excavation of the site at Clashnevin comprised a burnt mound which overlay a well, a trough and a small group of pits. The well was 7 m in diameter and over 2.5 m in depth.
It was fed by a spring at the base. The trough was located on the western side of the well.
A medieval date was returned from one of the basal fills of the well. The remains of a second burnt mound were located 40 m to the west. It comprised a trough and two pits.
A Middle Bronze Age date was returned from a fill of the trough. A small quantity of plant remains and animal bone was recovered primarily from the fills of the well and a pit at the western end of the site. Three ditches were located to the north of the mound of burnt material. The ditches correspond to a field boundary marked on the 1st ed. OS map sheet TN21.

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  • 1. Eachtra JournalIssue 11 [ISSN 2009-2237] Archaeological Excavation Report E3586 - Clashnevin 1, Co. Tipperary Burnt Mound and Well
  • 2. EACHTRAArchaeological Projects Archaeological Excavation Report Clashnevin 1 Co Tipperary Burnt Mound and Well Date: December 2011 Client: Laois County Council and National Roads Authority Project: N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Contract 1) E No: E3586Excavation Director: Jo Moran Written by: Jacinta Kiely and Jo Moran
  • 3. Archaeological Excavation Report Clashnevin 1 Co Tipperary Excavation Director Jo Moran Written By Jacinta Kiely and Jo Moran EACHTRA Archaeological Projects CORK GALWAY The Forge, Innishannon, Co. Cork Unit 10, Kilkerrin Park, Liosbain Industrial Estate, Galwaytel: 021 4701616 | web: www.eachtra.ie | email: info@eachtra.ie tel: 091 763673 | web: www.eachtra.ie | email: galway@eachtra.ie
  • 4. © Eachtra Archaeological Projects 2011 The Forge, Innishannon, Co Cork Set in 12pt Garamond Printed in Ireland
  • 5. Table of Contents Summary���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������iii Acknowledgements�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� iv1 Scope of the project �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Route location��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 13 Receiving environment ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 34 Archaeological and historical background ��������������������������������������������������������������������� 45 Site Location and Topography �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 76 Excavation methodology ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 97 Excavation results �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 9 Fulachtfiadh/burntmound����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 9 Well�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������12 Trough�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������16 Pits���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������17 Featuresatthewesternendofthesite���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������19 Modernagriculturalactivity���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������22 Lithics��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������24 Plantremains����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������24 � Animalbone����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������24 Modernfinds���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������24 Charcoal���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������25 Radiocarbondates�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������258 Discussion �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 269 References ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������30Appendix 1 Stratigraphic Index �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 32Appendix 2 Site Matrix ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 33Appendix 3 Groups and Subgroups ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������38Appendix 4 Analysis of the plant remains ������������������������������������������������������������������������54Appendix 5 Bone report ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������60Appendix 6 Finds Register ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 63 i
  • 6. List of Figures Figure 1: Portion of map of Ireland showing the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme (Contract 1)� ����������������������������������������������������������� 2 Figure 2: Discovery series OS map showing the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme (Contract 1) and the location of all excavation sites� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 5 Figure 3: Portion of the Ist edition Ordnance Survey Map TN21 showing the location of Clashnevin 1� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 8 Figure 4: Location and extent of Clashnevin 1 E3586 on the N7 Castletown to Nenagh ����������������10 Figure 5: Post-excavation plan of Clashnevin 1 E3586� �������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 11 � Figure 6: Post-excavation plan of well C�25 and trough C�24� �������������������������������������������������������������������� 13 Figure 7: Section of trough C�24 and well C�25� ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 15 Figure 8: Post-excavation of pits C�140 and C�228� �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������20 Figure 9: Section of pit C�140 and stake-holes C�175, C�177, C�187, C�179 and ditches C�19 and C�20� ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������21 Figure 10: Prehistoric sites on and in the environs of N7 Castletown to Nenagh� ��������������������������������28 List of Plates Plate 1: Aerial view of Clashnevin 1 to left and Clashnevin 2 to right of photograph�� �������������������� 7 Plate 2: View of mound of burtn material from south-east� �������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Plate 3: Mid excavation of well C�25 from south-west� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 14 Plate 4: View of well C�25 from south� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 14 Plate 5: View of well C�25 full of water from east� ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 16 Plate 6: Mid excavation of trough C�24 from south� Note well C�25 to right� ������������������������������������ 17 � Plate 7: Mid-excavation of pit C�50 from south� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 18 Plate 8: Mid-excavation of pit C�74 from west� ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 18 Plate 9: View of pit C�53� ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 19 Plate 10: Mid-excavation of trough C�140 from south� ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������23 Plate 11: Mid-excavation of well C�228 from north� ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������23 List of Tables Table 1: Dimensions of pits associated with well C�25 �������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 16 Table 2: Dimensions of pits associated with burnt mound ����������������������������������������������������������������������� 19 Table 3: Dimensions of pits in the western part of the site �����������������������������������������������������������������������22 Table 4: Dimensions of ditches and drains ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������24 Table 5: Radiocarbon dates �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������25 Table 6: Radiocarbon dates from the burnt mound sites on the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Contract 1) �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������27ii
  • 7. Clashnevin 1-e3586 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/SummaryThe excavation of the site at Clashnevin comprised a burnt mound which overlay a well, atrough and a small group of pits. The well was 7 m in diameter and over 2.5 m in depth.It was fed by a spring at the base. The trough was located on the western side of the well.A medieval date was returned from one of the basal fills of the well. The remains of asecond burnt mound were located 40 m to the west. It comprised a trough and two pits.A Middle Bronze Age date was returned from a fill of the trough. A small quantity ofplant remains and animal bone was recovered primarily from the fills of the well and apit at the western end of the site. Three ditches were located to the north of the moundof burnt material. The ditches correspond to a field boundary marked on the 1st ed. OSmap sheet TN21.Road project name N7 Castletown to NenaghSite name Clashnevin 1E no. E3586Site director Jo MoranTownland ClashnevinParish BallymackeyCounty TipperaryBarony Upper OrmondOS Map Sheet No. TN21National Grid Reference 192462 178888Elevation 87 m O.D. iii
  • 8. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Acknowledgements The project was commissioned by Laois County Council and was funded by the Na- tional Roads Authority under the National Development Plan (2000-2006). The project archaeologist was Niall Roycroft. Kildare County Council supervised the archaeological contract with RE staff of Pat Dowling and Colum Fagan. Kildare County Council Senior Executive Engineer was Joseph Kelly and Kildare County Council Senior Engineer was John Coppinger. The senior archaeologist was John Tierney and the post-excavation man- ager was Jacinta Kiely. Illustrations are by Maurizio Toscano, photographs by John Sun- derland and Eagle Photography and aerial photography by StudioLab. Specialist analysis was carried out by Mary Dillon, Penny Johnston, Margaret McCarthy, Farina Sternke and the 14 Chrono Centre at Queen’s University Belfast.iv
  • 9. Clashnevin 1-e3586 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/1 Scope of the projectEachtra Archaeological Projects were commissioned by Laois County Council and theNational Roads Authority to undertake archaeological works along 17.1 km (Contact1) of the 35km N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) national roadscheme (EIS approved in November 2005). The scheme runs from the eastern junctionof the present N7 Nenagh Bypass, North Tipperary a tie in to the M7/M8 Portlaoise-Castletown scheme to the south of Borris-in-Ossory in County Laois. The scheme is ap-proximately 191 hectares. Contract 1 comprises the western half of the scheme and runsfrom Clashnevin to Castleroan passing along the Tipperary North and Offaly countyborder regions. The Ministers Direction Number is A38. It was funded by the Irish Government under the National Development Plan 2000-2006. The total archaeological cost was administered by the National Roads Authoritythrough Laois County Council as part of the Authority’s commitment to protecting ourcultural heritage. The purpose of the archaeological services project was to conduct ar-chaeological site investigations within the lands made available for the scheme and toassess the nature and extent of any new potential archaeological sites uncovered. Phase 1 of the project (archaeological testing of the route) was carried out in 2007under licence E3371, E3372 and E3375-8 issued by Department of the Environment Her-itage and Local Government (DoEHLG) in consultation with the National Museumof Ireland. The principal aim of this phase of the project was to test for any previouslyunknown sites by a programme of centreline and offset testing and to test sites of archaeo-logical potential identified in the EIS. Phase 2 of the project (resolution) involved the resolution of all archaeological sitesidentified within the proposed road corridor prior to commencement of the constructionof the road. This phase of the project was carried out from June 2007 to February 2008and excavations were conducted under the management of a Senior Archaeologist. A totalof 27 sites were excavated during this phase of works under separate licences issued byDoEHLG. A post-excavation assessment and strategy document was prepared in Phase 3 of theproject to present a management strategy for dealing with post-excavation work aris-ing from archaeological works along the route of the new N7 Castletown to Nenagh. Itincluded a proposal for post-excavation and archiving work and a budget for the works.2 Route locationThe route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh road is located in Counties North Tipperaryand Offaly (OF) (Figure 1). The project (Contract 1) involves the construction of c. 17.5km of the N7 from Clashnevin east of Nenagh to Castleroan south-east of Dunkerrin. Itpasses through the townlands of Clashnevin, Derrybane, Newtown, Lissanisky, Killeisk,Garavally, Derrycarney, Garrynafanna, Gortnadrumman, Kilgorteen, Falleen, Knock-ane, Clash, Park, Rosdremid (OF), Clynoe (OF), Cullenwaine, Moneygall, Greenhills, 1
  • 10. 2 182550 198900 215250 193300 193300 ! ( Nenagh issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 Derg (Lough) 182950 182950 172600 172600 0 5 10 182550 198900 Kilometres 215250 ± Figure 1: Portion of map of Ireland showing the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme (Contract 1)� arChaeologiCal exCavation report
  • 11. Clashnevin 1-e3586 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/Drumbaun, Busherstown (OF), Drumroe (OF), Moatquarter, Loughan (OF) and Cas-tleroan (OF). The townlands are located in the parishes of Ballymackey, Cullenwaine,Castletownely, Rathnaveoge, Finglas and Dunkerrin and the baronies of Upper Ormond,Ikerrin and Clonisk, The route begins at the eastern end of the Nenagh bypass at Clashnevin c. 5 km eastof Nenagh and continues eastward on the northern side of the existing N7 in Co. Tip-perary. It crosses a number of third class roads to the north of Toomyvara and 0.7 kmeast of Clash crossroads crosses the Ollatrim River. It extends into County Offaly directlyeast of Park. From here it crosses the R490 0.6 km north of Moneygall. It extends backin County Tipperary and through the demesne of Greenhills before crossing the existingN7 at the junction of Greenhills and Drumbaun townlands. It crosses back into CountyOffaly and climbs east into Busherstown and Drumroe. It crosses the Keeloge Streaminto Moatquarter in County Tipperary and extends northeast back into County Offalythrough the townlands of Loughan and Castleroan 1.4 km southwest of Dunkerrin.3 Receiving environmentNorth Tipperary is bounded on the west by the River Shannon and Lough Derg withthe Silvermines, to the south, and small hills extending towards Devilsbit and BorrisnoeMountains to the east. The mountains are composed largely of Silurian strata and OldRed Sandstone. Copper, silver and lead deposits have been mined in the Silvermines. Thegeology of the lowlands consists of Carboniferous limestone covered by glacial drift inaddition to tracts of raised bog. The western portion of the study area is drained by the Ollatrim River which flowswestwards into the River Ballintotty which in turns drains into the River Nenagh. Theeastern portion is drained by the Keeloge Stream and other small water sources. These risein the foothills of the Silvermine Mountains and flow north. The Keeloge drains into theLittle Brosna River c. 1 km south of Shinrone, Co Offaly. The Brosna turns north anddrains into the Shannon south of Banagher. The largest population centre in the area is Nenagh. The smaller population centres,are Toomyvara, Moneygall and Dunkerrin. The soils on the route are characterised by 80% grey brown podzolics, 10% gleys, 5%brown earths and 5% basin peat. They are derived from glacial till of predominantly Car-boniferous limestone composition. These soils occur in Tipperary and Offaly and have awide use range being suitable for both tillage and pasture (Gardiner and Radford 1980,97-99). Land use along the route was a mix of grassland devoted to intensive dairying andcattle-rearing and tillage. 3
  • 12. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report 4 Archaeological and historical background Archaeological sites of numerous periods were discovered along the route of the new road (Figure 2). The periods are referred to as follows: Mesolithic (c. 8000 to 4000 BC), Neo- lithic (c. 4000 to 2000 BC), Bronze Age (c. 2000 to 600 BC), and Iron Age (c. 500 BC to AD 500), early medieval period (c. AD 500 to 1100), medieval period (c. AD 1100 to 1650), post-medieval period (c. AD 1650 to the present). Mesolithic (c. 8000 to 4000 BC) The earliest known human settlement in Ireland dates from the Mesolithic period (c. 8000 BC - 4000 BC). The majority of the evidence (flint scatters) for Mesolithic occupa- tion has come from the river valleys. No evidence for the Mesolithic was recorded on the route. Neolithic (c. 4000 to 2000 BC) The Neolithic Period is characterised by the introduction of agriculture and the begin- nings of the clearance of the woodlands. The population increased and became more sedentary in nature. The most important Neolithic site in the vicinity was at Tullahedy recorded on the route of the Nenagh by-pass. It was a specialist chert arrow manufactur- ing site. No evidence for a Neolithic site was recorded on the route but stone tools dating to the Neolithic were recorded at Busherstown E3661, Clash E3660, Cullenwaine E3741 and Greenhills 2 and 3 E3637 and E3658. Stone tools dating to the late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age were recorded at Busherstown E3661, Castleroan E3909, Cullenwaine E3741, Derrybane 1 E3585, Drumroe E3773, Greenhills 1 E3638 and Moatquarter E3910 Bronze Age (c. 2000 to 600BC) The Bronze Age is characterised by the introduction of metallurgy and an increase in settlement and burial sites. Copper ores were mined and copper, bronze and gold items manufactured. The range of burial site types includes cist graves, pit and urn burials, cremation cemeteries, barrows, ring-ditches and wedge tombs. Stone circles and stand- ing stones also date to the Bronze Age. Both enclosed and unenclosed settlement sites are known. The most prolific Bronze Age site type is the fulacht fiadh. These monuments survive as low mounds of charcoal rich black silt, packed with heat-shattered stones, and generally situated close to a water source. Fulachta fiadh are generally classified as ‘cook- ing places’, whereby stones were heated in a hearth and subsequently placed in a trough of water, the water continued to boil with the addition of hot stones and wrapped food was cooked within the hot water. The trough eventually filled with small stones, ash and charcoal that were removed, forming the basis of the familiar mound.4
  • 13. 190400 196200 202000 207800 Clashnevin 1 186400 186400 Clashnevin 1-e3586 Castleroan 1 E 3909 Busherstown 1 E 3661 Loughan 1 E 4000 Greenhills 3 E 3658 Moneygall 2 Culleenwaine 1 E 3635 E 3741 Moatquarter 1 Clynoe 2 E 3910 E 3774 181800 181800 Park 1 Drumroe 1 Garravally Kilgorteen 1 E 3659 E 3773 E 3589 E 3739 Drumbaun 2 Derrybane 2 E 3912 E 3591 Greenhills 1 Greenhills 2 E 3638 E 3637 Clashnevin 2 E 3590 Clash 1 Park 2 E 3660 E 3772 Derrycarney 1 E 3740 Clashnevin 1 Derrybane 1 Killeisk 1 E 3586 E 3585 E 3587 177200 177200 0 3 6 Kilometres ± 190400 196200 202000 207800 Figure 2: Discovery series OS map showing the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme (Contract 1) and the location of all excavation http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/5 sites�
  • 14. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Two new fulachta fiadh or burnt mounds were recorded at Clashnevin 1 E3586, Cullenwaine E3741 and six at three separate locations in Greenhills, E3638, E3637 and E3658. Evidence of nine roundhouses or partial round structures were recorded; two at Castleroan E3909, Derrybane 2 E3591 and Drumbaun 2 E3912 and one at Clash E3660, Drumroe E3773 and Moatquarter E3910. Iron Age (c. 500 BC to AD 500) Upto recently there was little evidence of a significant Iron Age presence in Munster. Settlement sites are few and far between as well as being difficult to identify (Woodman, 2000) while the material culture of this period is limited. Linear earthworks, believed to have marked tribal boundaries, and hillforts are two of the most visible monuments of the period. Ten percent of sites excavated on NRA road schemes in recent years have produced Iron Age dates. The dates have led to the identification of 30 new Iron Age sites in Munster from road schemes in counties Cork, Limerick and Tipperary (McLaughlin 2008, 51). These include a ditched enclosure in Ballywilliam and a wooden trackway in Annaholty Bog excavated on the route of the N7 Nenagh-Limerick (Taylor 2008, 54). Evidence of domestic activity dating to the Late Bronze Age / Early Iron Age was re- corded at Clashnevin 2. Early medieval period (c. AD 400 to 1100) The early medieval period is characterised by the arrival of Christianity to Ireland. The characteristic monument type of the period is the ringfort. Ringforts are the most nu- merous archaeological monument found in Ireland, with estimates of between 30,000 and 50,000 illustrated on the first edition of the Ordnance Survey 6” maps of the 1840’s (Barry 1987). As a result of continued research, the construction of these monuments has a narrow date range during the early medieval period between the 7th and 9th centuries AD. Although there are some very elaborate examples of ringforts, they often take the form of a simple earth or stone enclosure functioning as settlements for all classes of secu- lar society (Stout 1997). North Tipperary is rich in early ecclesiastical sites and the remains of these religious centres are at the core of some of the towns and villages. Roscrea, for example, was chosen by St Cronan as a location for his monastery in the seventh century as it was located at the crossroads on the Slighe Dála, an important roadway in early medieval times (NIAH 2006, 4-8). A possible early medieval enclosure and associated road way was recorded at Killeisk E3587. A denuded ringfort (OF046-013) was excavated at Clynoe 2 E3774. High and later medieval periods (c. AD 1100 to 1650) This period is characterized by the arrival of the Anglo-Normans and the building of tow- er houses. The Anglo-Normans obtained charters in the thirteenth century for the towns6
  • 15. Clashnevin 1-e3586 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/ Clashnevin 1 (E3586) 0 30 60 Meters ±Plate 1: Aerial view of Clashnevin 1 to left and Clashnevin 2 to right of photograph��of Nenagh, Roscrea, Thurles and Templemore and established markets. Nenagh grewrapidly in the aftermath of the granting of the lands of Munster to Theobald fitzWalter in1185 (ibid. 8). Moated sites represent the remains of isolated, semi-defended homesteadsin rural areas. They were build mainly in the late thirteenth and early fourteenth cen-turies in counties, such as Wexford, Kilkenny, Tipperary, mid-Cork and Limerick, thatwere colonised by English settlers (O’Conor 1998, 58). The Archaeological Inventory forNorth Tipperary lists 39 moated sites (2002, 298). A newly recorded moated site was excavated at Busherstown E3661.Post-medieval period (c. 1650 to the present).The post-medieval period is characterised by mills, limekilns, workhouses, country hous-es and associated demesnes, vernacular buildings and field systems (Figure 3). A smalldemesne associated with a county house was recorded at Greenhills.5 Site Location and TopographyClashnevin I was located 5 km east of Nenagh and c. 100 m north of the eastern end ofthe Nenagh bypass (Plate 1). It was the westernmost of the sites on the route. Clashnevin2 was located 100 m to the east and Derrybane I was located 175 m further east. The sitewas located centrally in a large flat field, c. 87m OD. The surrounding land is in pastureand most of the field boundaries in the vicinity have been removed by the landowner. 7
  • 16. 8 192402 193402 BALLINREE NEWTOWN 179468 179468 LISSANISKY issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 CLASHNEVIN Derrybane 2 Clashnevin 1 Clashnevin 1 RATHFALLA Derrybane 1 DERRYBANE 178818 178818 BALLINTOTTY KNOCKAHUNNA SHANBALLY BALLYNALICK 0 300 600 ¥ Meters 192402 193402 Figure 3: Portion of the Ist edition Ordnance Survey Map TN21 showing the location of Clashnevin 1� arChaeologiCal exCavation report
  • 17. Clashnevin 1-e3586 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/There are no water courses in the immediate area. A modern field drain was located 600m to the east, the water within flows to the northwest.6 Excavation methodologyThe site was mechanically stripped of topsoil under strict archaeological supervision.Stripping was done with a tracked machine with a flat toothless bucket. Topsoil strippingcommenced in the areas of identified archaeology and continued radially outward untilthe limit of the road take was reached or until the limit of the archaeological remains wasfully defined. A grid was set up in the excavation area(s) and all archaeological featureswere sufficiently cleaned, recorded and excavated so as to enable an accurate and mean-ingful record of the site to be preserved. The excavation, environmental sampling, sitephotographs, site drawings, find care and retrieval, on-site recording and site archive wasas per the Procedures for Archaeological works as attached to the licence method state-ments for excavation licences. The site was excavated from 9 June 2007 to the 11 August 2007. Only areas withinthe LMA (lands made available) were resolved. The full extent of the area of excavationmeasured 3590 m sq (Figure 4). The full record of excavated contexts is recorded in the context register (Appendix 1)and the stratigraphic matrix (Appendix 2). Detailed stratigraphic descriptions are foundin the groups and sub-groups text (Appendix 3). The context register and site photographsmaybe viewed in the EAPOD (Eachtra Archaeological Projects office database) in theaccompanying CD.7 Excavation resultsThe excavation of the site at Clashnevin comprised a burnt mound which overlay a well, atrough and a small group of pits. The well was 7 m in diameter and over 2.5 m in depth.It was fed by a spring at the base. The trough was located on the western side of the well.A medieval date was returned from one of the basal fills of the well. The remains of asecond burnt mound were located 40 m to the west. It comprised a trough, small pit anda possible well. A Middle Bronze Age date was returned from a fill of the trough. Threeditches were located parallel and to the north of the eastern mound of burnt material.The ditches correspond to a field boundary marked on the 1st ed. OS map sheet TN21.Fulacht fiadh/burnt moundA large spread of burnt mound material (C.3) was recorded in the northeast quadrant ofthe site. The mound measured 17 m in diameter by 0.32 m in depth (Figure 5, Plate 2). Asecond small layer of burnt mound material was recorded to the south-east. The two lay- 9
  • 18. 192097 192467 19283710 179119 179119 DERRYBANE 120 0 issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 11 0 0 CLASHNEVIN 100 0 900 178889 178889 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 BALLINTOTTY 100 178659 178659 KNOCKAHUNNA Clashnevin 1 (E3586) 0 100 200 BA L LYN AL I CK Metres ± 192097 192467 192837 Figure 4: Location and extent of Clashnevin 1 E3586 on the N7 Castletown to Nenagh arChaeologiCal exCavation report
  • 19. 192445 192500 ± Clashnevin 1-e3586 119 109 19 178912 178912 47 117 20 53 103 77 49 Well 141 50 Trough 24 Mound material 25 5 7 75 152 74 228 O ) 87 m O.D. 18 212 140 229 104 178880 178880 0 20 m 192445 192500 Figure 5: Post-excavation plan of Clashnevin 1 E3586� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/11
  • 20. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Plate 2: View of mound of burtn material from south-east� ers were part of the same mound of burnt material originally. The mound was truncated by ploughing in the recent past. Well The well (C.25) was 7 m in diameter and was excavated to a depth of 2.5 m (Figure 6, Plates 3 and 4). The well was fed by a spring at the base. When the well was fully exca- vated the spring filled the well in a few hours (Plate 5). The well was sub-circular in plan and broad U-shape in profile. In total 29 fills (C.56, C.57, C.67, C.68, C.69, C.70, C.71, C.72, C.73, C.84, C.87, C.88, C.89, C.90, C.91, C.92, C.110, C.121, C.134, C.136, C.201, C.213, C.214, C.215, C.216, C.217, C.218, C.219 and C.227) were recorded in the area of the well (Figure 7). A further ten fills were recorded in the pits that cut the sides of the well and the fills within the well. The fills were primarily silts and clays, deposited dur- ing episodes of silting and deposition in the well. Animal bone was recovered from 13 of the fills (C.56, C.57, C.68, C.69, C.70, C.71, C.84, C.91, C.135, C.136, C.201, C.213 and C.218) from the well. The identified species included cattle, sheep/goat, pig, horse and red deer. Organic material, leaves, shells and wood was recovered from the fills at the base of the well (C.213, C.218 and C.227). A medieval date of cal AD 982-1040 (UB-12363) was returned from alder charcoal from one of the basal fills. Several small cuts (C.55, C.103, C.141, C.150, C.156, C.189, C.210, C.222 and C.246) were recorded within the area of the well. The western slope of the well was cut by three pits (C.103, C.156 and C.246) and a post-hole (C.189). Pit (C.55) was located on the up-12
  • 21. 192483 192493 ± 20 Clashnevin 1-e3586 103 55 18 77 49 141 156 Well 178903 178903 50 210 203 7 Trough 24 25 Mound material 5 178897 178897 75 74 80 0 5m 192483 192493 Figure 6: Post-excavation plan of well C�25 and trough C�24� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/13
  • 22. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Plate 3: Mid excavation of well C�25 from south-west� Plate 4: View of well C�25 from south� 14
  • 23. Clashnevin 1 South facing facing of C.25, C.24 and C.55 C.98 C.68 C.85 C.57 C.93 C.94 C.69 C.25 C.95 Clashnevin 1-e3586 C.70 C.96 C.24 C.72 C.71 C.92 C. 21 4 C.110 C.90 C.44 C.88 C.45 C.56 C.55 C.89 C.67 C.84 C.68 C.87 C.70 C.57 C.71 C.91 C.201 C.217 C.69 C.92 Bone C.25 C.214 C.215 C.216 C.213 C.219 C.218 Wood C.227 0 1m Figure 7: Section of trough C�24 and well C�25� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/15
  • 24. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Plate 5: View of well C�25 full of water from east� per eastern edge of the well. Two pits (C.150 and C.222) cut the fills of the well: the pit (C.150) cut three well-fills (C.67, C.84 and C.87) and pit (C.222), to the north-east, cut the well-fill (C.136). The most substantial of the pits was pit C.103 on the upper western side of the well. It measured 1.8 m by 1.25 by 0.8 m in depth. It had cut pit C.246. A possible posthole C.189 was located in the base of pit C.246. Pit C.210 was located to the west of trough C.24. The majority of the pits were located on the north-western side of the well close to the trough C.24. The slope on this side of the well was gentler which may indicate that access to the well was via the north-west. It is possible that the more substantial of the pits e.g. C.103 may have been used as boiling pits. Context Length (m) Width (m) Depth (m) Location 55 0.84 0.4 0.2 NE edge 103 1.8 1.25 0.8 NW edge 141 1.12 0.8 0.11 E edge 150 0.27 0.34 0.13 Cut fills 156 0.56 0.42 0.21 NW edge 210 0.84 0.74 0.45 W side 222 1.2 0.94 0.55 NE side 246 NW edge Table 1: Dimensions of pits associated with well C�2516
  • 25. Clashnevin 1-e3586 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/Plate 6: Mid excavation of trough C�24 from south� Note well C�25 to right�TroughThe trough (C.24) was located immediately west of the well. It remained dry for the du-ration of the excavation and was probably originally filled from the well. It was rectangu-lar in plan and measured 2.5 m by 1.5 m by 0.5 m deep (Plate 6). The base of the troughcut gravel subsoil and there was no evidence of stone or timber lining. The eastern end ofthe trough cut a small pit (C.203).PitsThree pits (C.49, C.50 and C.74) underlay the mound of burnt material. The fills of thethree pits were derived from burnt mound material (Plate 7). Pits C.49 and C.50 werelocated parallel to one another and adjacent to the trough C.24. The base of the pits wasirregular. They may not have functioned as boiling pits. Pit C.74 was located over 4.5 m tothe south of the trough. Two post-holes (C.75 and C.80) were situated on the north-east-ern side of pit C.74 (Plate 8). They were in close proximity to one another and to the pit. Three other pits (C.5, C.53 and C.104) were not covered by the layers of burnt moundmaterial and were located to the east and south of the mound respectively. Pits C.5 andC.104 were small and shallow and Pit C.104 was filled with burnt mound material. PitC.53 (Plate 9) was very regular in plan and may have been a boiling pit associated withthe activities at the burnt mound. 17
  • 26. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Plate 7: Mid-excavation of pit C�50 from south� Plate 8: Mid-excavation of pit C�74 from west�18
  • 27. Clashnevin 1-e3586 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/Plate 9: View of pit C�53� Context Length (m) Width (m) Depth (m) Location 5 1 0.7 0.18 External to mound 49 1.15 0.61 0.12 Underlay mound 50 1.12 0.82 0.38 Underlay mound 53 1.1 1 0.3 External to mound 74 1.2 0.9 0.32 Underlay mound 104 0.34 0.3 0.1 External to mound 203 0.7 0.4 0.21 Edge of trough C24Table 2: Dimensions of pits associated with burnt moundFeatures at the western end of the siteThree pits (C.140, C.228 and C.229) and a group of 13 stake-holes were located c. 40 mto the west of the area of the well (Figure 8). All the stake-holes were associated with pitC.140. No mound of burnt material was recorded at the western end of the site. Pit C.140 was the easternmost of the three pits (Plate 10). It measured 2.5 m by 2 mby 0.4 m in depth and was filled with burnt mound material. A middle Bronze Age dateof cal BC 1262-1110 1103-1072 1068-1056 (UB -12362) was returned from one of the fillsof the pit. The pit had cut the eastern edge of an earlier pit C.152. Pit C.152 measuredc. 1.5 m in diameter. Seven stake-holes (C.177-180, C.187-188 and C.190) cut the baseof the pit and another 11 stake-holes (C.173-176, C.181-C.185, C.192 and C.194) werelocated on the northern and eastern edge of the pit (Figure 9). The ground between the 19
  • 28. 192427 19243220 194 192 173 182 181 183 184 175 174 152 177 185 187 176 179 178 228 188 178892 178892 180 issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 190 140 229 178889 178889 0 ± 3m 192427 192432 Figure 8: Post-excavation of pits C�140 and C�228� arChaeologiCal exCavation report
  • 29. Clashnevin 1 East facing section of C.19 and C.20 Slot trench 2 C.3 C.25 C.27 C.40 C.41 C.25 C.38 C.37 Clashnevin 1-e3586 C.36 C.29 C.39 C.30 C.31 C.33 C.32 C.20 C.19 Clashnevin 1 East facing profile of C.175, C.177, C.187, C.179 and C.140 C.140 C.140 C.175 C.187 C.177 C.179 10 cm 0 50 cm Figure 9: Section of pit C�140 and stake-holes C�175, C�177, C�187, C�179 and ditches C�19 and C�20� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/21
  • 30. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report stakeholes on the northern and eastern side of the pit sloped towards the eastern side of the pit. Four of the stake-holes (C.178, C.188, C.190 and C.180) cut part of the base of the pit and could have held a timber lining in place. The remainder of the stake-holes may have formed a rectangular structure measuring 1.5 m east-west by 0.8 m north-south. Or the stake-holes on the northern edge (C.175, C.174, C.183, C.181, C.182 and C.184) may have formed a screen 1.5 m in length, with the other three stake-holes (C.194, C.192 and C.173) to the rear measuring 1 m in length. A Middle Bronze Age date cal BC 1262-1110 1103-1072 1068-1056 (UB-12362) was returned from hazel charcoal from one of the fills of the trough. The small shallow pit C.229 was located 2.5 m west of pit C.240 and on the eastern edge of the large pit C.228. Pit C.228 measured 5.5 m in diameter by at least 1.55 m in depth (Plate 11). The base of the pit was not excavated. It was truncated by a modern field drain C.230. A total of 12 silty clays and sandy fills were recorded in the pit. The fills were devoid of any inclusions, with the exception of small amounts of charcoal. Some frag- ments of wood and animal bone were recorded in the basal fills. Context Length (m) Width (m) Depth (m) 140 2.5 2 0.4 152 1.5 1.5 0.4 228 5.9 5.6 1.55 229 1 0.9 0.13 Table 3: Dimensions of pits in the western part of the site Modern agricultural activity Three ditches (C.19, C.20 and C.109) were located parallel and to the north of the mound of burnt material. The ditches were orientated east/west and extended beyond the LMA to the northwest and northeast (Plates 12 and 13). A fourth ditch C.7 was located to the east of the mound. This ditch was cut by C.19 and extended beyond the LMA to the south. The ditches correspond to field boundaries marked on the 1st ed. OS map sheet TN021 (Figure 3). In particular to the south-eastern corner of one field boundary and the north-eastern corner of the field boundary in the adjoining field to the south. The three parallel ditches (C.109, C.19 and C.20) represent three phases of the south-eastern corner of one of the field boundaries. The ditches truncated the northern edge of the mound of burnt material and the well. Animal bone and a small assemblage of charred cereals were recovered from the fills of the middle and northernmost ditches C.19 and C.109. Modern pottery and glass was recovered from the fills of ditches C.7 and C.19.22
  • 31. Clashnevin 1-e3586 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/Plate 10: Mid-excavation of trough C�140 from south�Plate 11: Mid-excavation of well C�228 from north� 23
  • 32. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Context Length (m) Width (m) Depth (m) Orientation 7 37.5 1.96 1.1 NS 18 40 0.28 0.28 NS 19 5.9 5.6 1.55 EW 20 17.5 1.52 0.5 EW 47 7.88 1.23 0.27 NNW/SSE 109 22 1.05 0.58 EW 119 4 1.24 0.47 NNE/SSW 212 21.5 1.15 0.22 NNW/SSE 230 31.5 1.43 0.47 NNW/SSE Table 4: Dimensions of ditches and drains The National Ploughing Championships were held at the site in the 1950’s. At least some of the plough furrows recorded in the area to date to this period. Field drains and water pipes were recorded in the area of the site. Lithics The lithics were examined by Farina Sternke. All the chert fragments were identified as natural. Plant remains The plant remains were examined by Penny Johnston (Appendix 4). A small assemblage of plant remains was recovered a fill from the ditch (C.19) and from six of the fills of the well (C.25) and two of the fills of the trough (C.24). Most of the cereal grains from Clashnevin 1 were identified as oat and barley, with oat the predominant type recovered. As oat grains are not common in prehistoric deposits it is likely that most of the plant remains from the site were not associated with the burnt mound, but with the later use of the site in the medieval and modern periods. Animal bone The animal bone was examined by Margaret McCarthy (Appendix 5). The faunal samples from the Bronze Age and medieval periods are quite small and little economic informa- tion can be obtained from the results aside from documenting the occurrence of certain species. Animal bones were recovered from a layer of heat-shattered stone C.3 and from various fills of a large pit C.228 that was used to contain food waste. The sample from the pit C.228 is dominated by large and medium mammal remains and the only identified species are cattle and sheep/goat. The well (C.25) contained 60 animal bones and these were found in small amounts in thirteen separate fills. Identified species include cattle, sheep/goat, pig, horse and red deer. The well was used for the disposal of primary butch- ery debris as well as food waste from the table. A number of later modern ditches represented the final phase of activity and the bulk of the animal bones from the site were recovered from these features, in particular ditch24
  • 33. Clashnevin 1-e3586 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/C.19. The faunal sample is dominated by the remains of cattle with all other species in-cluding horse, sheep/goat, pig, red deer and rabbit being recovered in considerably smallernumbers.Modern findsThe modern finds were examined by Sara Camples (Appendix 6). Modern glass, potteryand metal were recovered from the fills of ditches C.7 and C.19 and from the layer C.3 ofburnt mound material.CharcoalThe charcoal was identified for radiocarbon dating by Mary Dillon. Hazel and alder char-coal was identified from the fills of pit C.140 and the well C.25.Radiocarbon datesRadiocarbon analysis was carried out by the 14 Chrono Centre in Queen’s UniversityBelfast. Dates were calibrated using Calib Rev5.0.2 (©1986-2005 M.Stuiver & P.J. Re-imer) and in conjunction with Stuiver & Reimer 1993 and Reimer et al. 2004. Lab Context Material Un-calibrated δ 13 C 1 sigma 2 sigma calibration code date calibration UB- 151 Hazel charcoal 2949 +/-24 -26.2 BC 1251-1243 BC 1262-1110 1103- 12362 from pit C.140 1213-1125 1072 1068-1056 UB- 213 Alder charcoal 1014+/-22 -28.1 AD 995-1007 AD 982-1040 12363 from well C.25 1011-1026Table 5: Radiocarbon dates 25
  • 34. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report 8 Discussion A fulacht fiadh / burnt mound was recorded on low level ground in Clashnevin. The lay- ers of burnt mound material overlay a trough, pits and a well. Many theories speculate as to the actual use of burnt mound/fulacht fiadh sites (e.g. O’Kelly 1954; Ó Drisceoil 1988). We recognise the sites archaeologically by the remains of charcoal and heat shattered stones but as Ó Néill (2004) points out, these are the remains of a technology (the use of hot stones known as ‘pyrolithic technology’), rather than specific indications of the aims of the process. The large trough and smaller pits indicate that there was extensive use of hot stone technology at this site and that it was probably used for heating water. Burnt mounds are the most common Bronze Age sites found in Ireland. Estimates suggest that at least 4,500 examples are known. The characteristic site-type is found in low-lying and damp ground and consists of a mound of charcoal-rich black sediment that is packed with heat shattered stones and forms a horse-shoe shape around a pit or trough that filled with water. In many cases all that survives to the present day are black charcoal rich deposits with fragments of shattered stones visible in ploughed fields. These sites are associated with the process of roasting stones to heat water. The remains of these ‘pyrolithic technologies’ (terminology follows Ó Néill 2004) produce the tell-tale deposits rich in charcoal and heat-affected stone. Debate continues about their use, as hot water is required for many processes including cooking, brewing, washing, dyeing and, most recently it has been argued that some burnt mounds were primarily used to boil and cure meat for long term storage (Roycroft 2006). Traditionally these sites have been interpreted as ancient cooking places, where large stones were heated in fires and then added to the water filled trough the extreme heat of the stones eventually heating the water in the trough until it reached boiling point. Experimental cooking at reconstructed sites such as Ballyvourney (O’Kelly 1954) has demonstrated that meat wrapped in straw and placed into a boiling trough can be cooked quite effectively. The perceived lack of any animal bones from these excavated sites has been used as an argument against this theory. More recently however there is a growing corpus of sites which have produced animal bone (Tourunen 2008) including, though the amounts are small, all of the burnt mounds sites on the N7 (Contract 1). The traditional perception of the burnt mound site is that they are isolated features on the landscape situated on marginal ground away from settlement. Recent studies how- ever are requiring a re-evaluation of this perception. It can be regarded as certain that the settlement sites and associated burnt mounds are only one part of a wider prehistoric landscape which also includes lithic production and metalworking sites as well as burial sites (Sternke 2009). Each of the six sites excavated on the N7 was located with a 1km ra- dius of a Bronze Age settlement site, Clashnevin within 1 km east of Derrybane 2 E3591, the site at Park E3772 was one of complex of burnt mound sites in the vicinity of Park 1 E3659 and the three sites at Greenhills (E3638, E3637, and E3658) within 1 km east of Drumbaun E3912.26
  • 35. Clashnevin 1-e3586 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/ The inventory for North Tipperary lists 77 burnt mounds (Farrelly 2002) and the in-ventory for Offaly lists 14 (O’Brien 1997) (Figure 7). Many more sites have been recordedsince the inventories were published. A total of six burnt mounds including Clashnevinwere excavated on the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Contract 1) (Figure 10). At least 15burnt mound sites were excavated on the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Contract 2) with aconcentration of 11 sites in the townland of Camlin. Burnt mounds were also excavatedon the route of the Nenagh by-pass and the Limerick Ring Road. Site Name E No. Radiocarbon date 2 sigma calibration Period Clashnevin 1 E3586 BC 1262-1110 1103-1072 1068-1056 Middle Bronze Age Clashnevin 1 E3586 AD 982-1040 Medieval Cullenwaine E3741 BC 2462 - 2294 Early Bronze Age Greenhills 1 E3638 BC 2133 - 1950 Early Bronze Age Greenhills 2 E3637 BC 1889-1748 Early Bronze Age Greenhills 2 E3637 BC 2561-2536 2492-2299 Early Bronze Age Greenhills 3 E3658 BC 1125-975 954-943 Middle Bronze Age Greenhills 3 E3658 BC 2465-2286 2246-2243 Early Bronze Age Greenhills 3 E3658 BC 1876-1841 1823-1797 1781-1683 Early Bronze Age Park 2 E3772 BC 1508-1422 Middle Bronze Age Park 2 E3772 BC 1527-1433 Middle Bronze AgeTable 6: Radiocarbon dates from the burnt mound sites on the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Contract 1) Most dated burnt mound sites have a focus of activity in the Middle to Late BronzeAge (Brindley and Lanting 1990; and see graph of dates in Ó Néill 2003/2004). In allten radiocarbon dates were obtained from the burnt mound sites on the route of the N7Castletown to Nenagh. The majority of the sites are Early Bronze Age in date. There are six main types of archaeological features encountered at burnt mound sites;wells/springs, layers/deposits, hearths, trough/boiling pits, smaller pits, and stakeholes/postholes. Five of the six feature types were recorded at Clashnevin. The Bronze Age siteat Clashnevin was divided into two separate areas. A mound of burnt material overlay atrough, pits and a well at the eastern end of the site. A second burnt mound comprising atrough, pit and well was located at the western end. The mound in the eastern section of the site overlay a trough, pits and a large well.There was no water course in proximity to the site but the well, cut into the water tablewould have provided any water that was needed. A medieval date was returned from oneof the basal fills of the well. The well, which was cut into a natural spring, was re-used inthe late historic period. The surface of the well was covered by a shallow layer of burntmound material. The act of repeated ploughing spread the layers of burnt mound mate-rial and covered the surface of the well. The mound at Clashnevin did not survive to anygreat height, being 0.3 m high on average. No formal hearth was identified in associationwith the mound. A substantial trough was located on the western side of the well. Noevidence of lining in the form of stake-holes was recorded in the trough. There were asmall number of pits associated with the burnt mound. The majority were irregular inplan. Three of the pits, including C.103 on the western edge of the well may have been 27
  • 36. 191232 20823228 ¢ 184059 184059 issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 178059 178059 191232 208232 Barrow (11) Cairn (1) Fulacht Fiadh (15) Megalithic tomb (3) Pit group (3) Standing stone (9) 0 2.5 5 Burnt spread (2) Cremation (2) Linkardstown burial (2) Mound (6) Settlement site (9) Km Figure 10: Prehistoric sites on and in the environs of N7 Castletown to Nenagh� arChaeologiCal exCavation report
  • 37. Clashnevin 1-e3586 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/used as boiling pits. They may have held containers made from organic material such asbaskets or wooden buckets. A similar well, more substantial in size, was recorded in association with a numberof burnt mounds at Camlin, south of Roscrea, on the route of the N7 (Contract 2). Thewell at Camlin comprised a natural spring, measuring 20 m in diameter, which had beenmodified into a well (Roycroft 2008). The second burnt mound was located 40 m to the east. No actual mound was record-ed in this part of the site but the fills of the pit (C.140) were derived from layers of a burntmound. The pit C.140 may have functioned as a trough. Stake-holes were recorded in thebase of the trough. The stake-holes would have held a timber lining in place when thetrough was in use. Stake-holes to the east of the trough enclosed a rectangular hollow onthe eastern edge of the trough. A second pit was located on the north-western side of thetrough. It is envisaged that the three components of the trough would have functioned inunison in food processes. There were six burnt mound sites recorded on the route of the N7 (Contract 1). Allof the sites conformed to a general common design. There were a number of differencesthat distinguished one site from another. For example, the water source that was used ateach site was different. A substantial well was recorded at Clashnevin, a less substantialwell was recorded at Park. In addition the sites at Greenhills and Park were located onthe edge of wet boggy ground. There was no obvious water source at Cullenwaine. Therewere no stone tools recovered from the burnt mound at Clashnevin. In contrast they wererecovered from four of the other five sites. The presence of the flint and chert scraperssuggests that hide-processing and wood- and/or bone-working were some of the activitiesthat could have been carried out at these sites. 29
  • 38. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report 9 References Brindley, A.L. and Lanting, J.N. (1990) ‘The dating of fulachta fiadh’, in Buckley, V. (ed.) Burnt Offerings. International contributions to burnt mound archaeology, 55-56. Dublin, Wordwell. Farrelly, J., and O’Brien, C. (2002) Archaeological Inventory of County Tipperary Vol. 1 - North Tipperary, The Stationery Office Dublin. Frazer, W. (2009) Archaeological Assessment Report Nenagh NRA Service Area Park townland, North Co. Tipperary and Roshedrid and Clynoe townlands, Co. Offaly 09E122. Margaret Gowan & Co. Ltd. Unpublished report. Gardiner, M.J. and Radford,T. (1980) Soil Associations of Ireland and Their Land Use Potential. Dublin, An Foras Talúntais. McLaughlin, M. and Conran, S. (2008) ‘The emerging Iron Age of South Munster’ in Seanda, Issue 3, 51-53. Dublin. National Inventory of Architectural Heritage (2006) An Introduction to the Architectural Heritage of North Tipperary. Government of Ireland. O’Brien, C. (1997) Archaeological Inventory of County Offaly, The Stationery Office, Dublin. O’Conor, K.D. (1998) The Archaeology of Medieval Rural Settlement in Ireland, Discovery Programme Monographs No 3, Discovery Programme/Royal Irish Academy Dublin. O’Kelly, M.J. (1954) Excavations and experiments in Irish cooking places. Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Vol 84. Ó Néill, J. (2003/2004) Lapidibus in igne calefactis coquebatur: The historical burnt mound “tradition”, Journal of Irish Archaeology Vol. XII & XIII. Reimer, P.J., Baillie, M.G.L., Bard, E., Bayliss, A., Beck, J.W., Bertrand, C., Blackwell, P.G., Buck, C.E., Burr, G., Cutler, K.B., Damon, P.E., Edwards, R.L., Fairbanks, R.G., Friedrich, M., Guilderson, T.P., Hughen, K.A., Kromer, B., McCormac, F.G., Manning, S., Bronk Ramsey, C., Reimer, R.W., Remmele, S., Southon, J.R., Stuiver, M., Talamo, S., Taylor, F.W., van der Plicht, J. and Weyhenmeyer, C.E. (2004) ‘IntCal04 Terrestrial Radiocarbon Age Calibration, 0–26 Cal Kyr BP’, Radiocarbon 46, 1029-1058.30
  • 39. Clashnevin 1-e3586 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/Roycroft, N. (2006) A theory on Boiled Bull and Burnt Mounds, Seanda Issue 1, 38-39, National Road Authority, Dublin.Roycroft, N. (2008) Before, during and after the Kingdom of Ely, Seanda, Issue 3, 34- 35, National Road Authority, Dublin.Sternke, F. (2009) More than meets the eye; an appraisal of the lithic assemblages from the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Contract 1). Seanda. Issue 4, 30-31,National Road Authority, Dublin.Stuiver, M., and Reimer, P.J. (1993) ‘Extended (super 14) C data base and revised CALIB 3.0 (super 14) C age calibration program’, Radiocarbon 35, 215-230.Stout, M. (1997) The Irish Ringfort. Dublin, Four Courts Press.Taylor, K. (2008) ‘At home and on the road: two Iron Age sites in County Tipperary’ in Seanda, Issue 3, 54-55. Dublin.Tourunen, A. (2008) Fauna and fulachta fiadh: animal bones from burnt mounds on the N9/N10 Carlow Bypass. In J. O’Sullivan and M. Stanley (eds.), Roads, Rediscovery and Research. Archaeology and the National Roads Authority Monograh Series No. 5. Wordwell.Woodman, P.C. (2000) ‘Hammers and Shoeboxes: New Agendas for Prehistory’., pp. 1 -10 in Desmond, A., Johnson, G., McCarthy, M., Sheehan, J. and Shee Twohig, E. New Agendas in Irish Prehistory. Papers in commemoration of Liz Anderson. Bray, Wordwell. 31
  • 40. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Appendix 1 Stratigraphic Index Please see attached CD.32
  • 41. Clashnevin 1-e3586 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/ Appendix 2 Site Matrix 33
  • 42. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report34
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  • 44. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report36
  • 45. Clashnevin 1-e3586 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/ 37
  • 46. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Appendix 3 Groups and Subgroups Group Number Amount/ Context No 1 Natural deposits Topsoil C.1 Subsoil C.2 2 Layers of burnt mound 2 layers of burnt mound C.3 & C.111 material material 3 Pits 18 pits 3:1 8 pits are associated C.55, C.103, C.141, C.150, with well C.25 C.156, C.210, C.222 & C.246 3:2 1 pit associated with C.203 trough C.24 3:3 3 pits associated with C.49, C.50 & C.74 mound 3:4 3 pits external to the C.5, C.53 & C.104 mound 3:5 3 pits in W area of site C.140, C.228 & C.229 4 Stakeholes 19 Stakeholes C.113, C.173, C.174, C.175, C.176, C.177, C.178, C.179, C.180 C.181, C.182, C.183, C.184, C.185, C.187, C.188, C.190, C.192 & C.194 5 Well 1 well C.25 6 Trough 1 trough C.24 7 Postholes 3 postholes C.75, C.80 & C.189 8 Ditches 7 ditches C.7, C.18, C.19, C.20, C.47, 1 drain C.109, C.117, C.119, C.212 & C.230 9 Natural Features 6 natural features C.13, C.42, C.43, C.77, C.83 & C.117 10 Void numbers C.23, C.34, C.35, C.52, C.58, C.64, C.65, C.86, C.97, C.99, C.100, C.102, C.114, C.116, C.118, C.122, C.142, C.152, C.170, C.186, C.202, C.220 & C.233. Group 1 Natural Deposits Topsoil C.1 A firm, mid brown sandy silt, with occasional fine and medium, and moderate coarse sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles. Occasional small sub-angular stones. The topsoil reached a maximum depth of 0.5m. This represented the topsoil which had formed across the site.38
  • 47. Clashnevin 1-e3586 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/Subsoil C.2A compact, mid yellowish orange pebbly sand. Frequent fine and medium sub-angularand sub-rounded, and moderate coarse angular, sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles.Occasional small sub-angular and sub-rounded stones.This layer represents the natural subsoil that occurs across the site.Group 2 Burnt mound layersC.3A firm, mid to dark brownish black sandy silt. Moderate coarse angular and sub-angularpebbles. Moderate small and medium angular and sub-angular stones. Occasional char-coal flecks. The mound measured 17.6m east west by 17.5m and reached a maximumdepth of 0.32m. This deposit was the disturbed remains of a burnt mound.C.111A soft, dark black sandy silt with occasional fine, medium and coarse angular and sub-angular pebbles. Moderate small angular and sub-angular stones as well as occasionalcharcoal flecks. The spread measured 1.3m east west by 1m and had a maximum depthof 0.04m. A spread of material with burnt stone and charcoal. Base was light yellowish white,and may have been natural material altered by heat. The fill was associated with pit C.75and C.74 and posthole C.80 and may have been a remnant of the material dumped intothese features.Group 3 PitsA total of 18 pits were excavated at the site. Eight of the pits were associated with the wellC.25, one pit cut the trough C.24, six of the pits were associated with the burnt moundand three pits were located in the western part of the site. Context Length (m) Width (m) Depth (m) Location 55 0.84 0.4 0.2 Cut fills 103 1.8 1.25 0.8 NW edge 141 1.12 0.8 0.11 E edge 150 0.27 0.34 0.13 Cut fills 156 0.56 0.42 0.21 NW edge 210 0.84 0.74 0.45 W side 222 1.2 0.94 0.55 NE side 246 NW edgeTable of dimensions of pits associated with well C�25 39
  • 48. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Subgroup 3:1 Pits associated with well C.25 Pit C.55 filled with C.44 and C.45 The pit was irregular in plan. Corners were square on east, west, northwest and southwest, rounded on north, south, northeast and southeast. The break of slope top was impercep- tible on southwest, gradual on north and south, sharp elsewhere. Sides were gentle and convex on north, moderate and convex on south and east, moderate and smooth on west. The break of slope base was imperceptible on northeast and northwest, sharp on east and west, gradual elsewhere. Base was irregular in plan and was flat in profile. The pit meas- ured 0.84m north south by 0.4m and had a maximum depth of 0.2m. The pit contained two fills. The upper fill was a soft, light brownish grey sandy silt, with occasional pebbles, stones and charcoal flecks. The basal fill was a Soft, light orangish brown sandy silt with occasional pebbles and stones, charcoal flecks. Cut of possible pit, filled with C.44 and C.45, both of which contained flecks of char- coal and burnt bone. The pit cut the fills of the well C.25. Pit C.103 filled with C.81 The pit was oval in plan with rounded corners. The break of slope top and base was sharp. Sides were steep and smooth. Base was sub-circular to oval in plan and concave in profile. Cut was possibly truncated by C.81 above. This cut may re-cut context C.246. The pit measured 1.8m by 1.25m and had a maximum depth of 0.8m. The fill was a soft, mid blackish brown sandy silt with moderate pebbles and stones. Cut of pit, filled with C.81 on north-western edge of well. Pit C.141 filled with C.115 The pit was sub-circular in plan with rounded corners. The break of slope top was im- perceptible. Sides were gentle and concave. The break of slope base was imperceptible. Base was sub-circular in plan and concave in profile. The pit measured 1.12m northeast southwest by 0.8m and had a maximum depth of 0.11m. The fill was a soft, mid grey silty sand with occasional stones and charcoal flecks Cut of possible shallow pit, filled with C.115. Located on the east edge of the well C.25. Pit C.150 filled with C.149 Oval in plan with rounded corners. The break of slope top was imperceptible on south, west and northwest, gradual elsewhere. Base was oval in plan and flat in profile. The pit measured 0.37m east west by 0.24m and had a maximum depth of 0.13m. The fill was a soft, light orangish grey sandy silt with moderate pebbles and occasional charcoal. Small pit was cut into the fills (C.84, C.87 and C.67) of Well C.25.40
  • 49. Clashnevin 1-e3586 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/Pit C.156 filled with C.155The pit was oval in plan with rounded corners. The break of slope top was imperceptibleon southeast, sharp on north and south, gradual elsewhere. Sides were moderate andsmooth on west, moderate and convex elsewhere. The break of slope base was sharp onnorth and west, gradual elsewhere. Base was oval in plan and pointed in profile. The pitmeasured 0.56m east west by 0.42 and had a maximum depth of 0.21m. The fill was abrown grey sandy silt. Cut of pit/possible posthole, filled with C.155. Cut was located at northwest corner ofWell C.25.Pit C.210 filled with C.209The pit was oval in plan with rounded corners. The break of slope top was gradual on eastand north east, sharp elsewhere. Sides were moderate and irregular on north, moderateand convex on south and west, moderate and smooth on east. The break of slope basewas gradual on northwest and north, imperceptible elsewhere. Base was oval in plan andflat in profile. The pit measured 0.84m north south by 0.74 and had a maximum depthof 0.45m. The fill was a soft, dark brownish black sandy silt with occasional pebbles andcharcoal flecks. Cut of pit, filled with C.209. Pit was located at western side of Well C.25. This fillcontained burnt stones and charcoal flecks. It maybe related to trough C.24, and twopossible postholes C.156 and C.189.Pit C.222 filled with C.135The pit was irregular in plan. The corners were rounded on south and southeast, squareelsewhere. The break of slope top was imperceptible on east and southwest, sharp on northand northwest, gradual elsewhere. Sides were moderate and concave on north, moderateand convex on south and west, moderate and irregular on east. The break of slope basewas imperceptible on northeast, southeast, southwest and northwest, gradual on north,south, east and west. Base was irregular in plan and flat in profile. The pit measured 1.2meast west by 0.94m and had a maximum depth of 0.55m. The fill was a soft, light grey siltyclay with occasional stones and charcoal. Pit located at the northeast side of Well C.25, where it cuts into the layer, C.136. Thisfeature was visible in the west facing section of C.25.Pit C.246 filled with C.120 and C.147The pit was oval in plan with rounded corners. The break of slope top was sharp. Sideswere steep and smooth/stepped on north, moderate and smooth on south and east, steepon west. Base was sub-rectangular in plan and flat in profile. The pit was orientatednortheast southwest. The upper fill was a soft, dark brownish black stony silt with fre-quent pebbles and charcoal. The basal layer was a soft, light yellowish grey sandy silt withoccasional pebbles. 41
  • 50. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Pit cut by pit C.103. Located in area of activity west and northwest side of large the well, C.25. The base of the pit was cut by posthole C.189. General Interpretation Six of the pits (C.103, C.141, C.156, C.210, C.222 and C.246) were located in the sides of the well. Two (C.141 and C.222) were located on the eastern side and four on the western. Two of the pits (C.55 and C.150) cut the fills of the well. Subgroup 3:2 and 3 Pits associated with mound and trough Context Length (m) Width (m) Depth (m) Location 5 1 0.7 0.18 External to mound 49 1.15 0.61 0.12 Underlay mound 50 1.12 0.82 0.38 Underlay mound 53 1.1 1 0.3 External to mound 74 1.2 0.9 0.32 Underlay mound 104 0.34 0.3 0.1 External to mound 203 0.7 0.4 0.21 Edge of trough C24 Table of dimensions of pits associated with burnt mound and trough Pit C.5 filled with C.4 The pit measured 1.1m southeast northwest by 0.7m and had a maximum depth of 0.18m and was square in plan. The corners rounded on south, square elsewhere. The break of slope top was imperceptible on southeast, sharp on north and west, gradual elsewhere. Sides were vertical and smooth on north and west, moderate and convex on south and east. The break of slope base was imperceptible on northeast, southwest and northwest, gradual elsewhere. Base was square in plan and flat in profile. The fill was a firm, mid grey sandy silt with occasional pebbles, stones and charcoal. A pit related to the burnt mound activities. It was located 3.4 m to the east of the main mound. Pit C.49 filled with C.78 The pit measured 1.15 m by 0.61 m by 0.12 m in depth. It was oval in plan with sloping sides. Base was flat. The fill was a grey black stony silty sand. The pit was located north of the trough and parallel and E of pit C.50. The burnt mound material could have accumulated in a natural hollow. Pit C.50 filled with C.59 and C.60 The pit measured 1.12 by 0.82 by 0.38 m in depth. It was oval in plan with sloping sides and a rounded base. The fills were sandy silts derived from burnt mound material. The pit was located 2 m W of pit C.49. It was similar to both pit C.49 and pit C.74. The burnt mound material could have accumulated in a natural hollow.42
  • 51. Clashnevin 1-e3586 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/Pit C.53 filled with C.54The pit was circular in plan. The break of slope top was gradual on south, sharp/gradualon west, sharp elsewhere. Sides were steep and concave on north, gentle and concave onsouth, steep and smooth on east, steep and stepped on west. The break of slope base wasgradual on north, sharp elsewhere. Base was oval in plan and flat in profile. The pit meas-ured 1.1m by 1m and had a maximum depth of 0.3m. The fill was a friable, compact, midto dark brown sandy silt with frequent pebbles, stones and charcoal. Cut of possible pit, filled with C.54 - a mix of sandy brown/black soil, charcoal andheat-shattered stones. There was no evidence of fire-reddened material to suggest burn-ing in situ. It was possible that this pit was the repository for the discarded remains of ahearth.Pit C.74 filled with C.62The pit was circular in plan with rounded corners. The break of slope top was impercep-tible on west and northeast, gradual elsewhere. Sides were moderate and smooth on west,moderate and convex elsewhere. The break of slope base was imperceptible on northeast,gradual elsewhere. Base was circular in plan and flat in profile. The fill was soft, darkblack sandy silt with frequent pebbles and occasional charcoal flecks. The pit measured1.2m northwest southeast by 0.9m and had a maximum depth of 0.32m. Cut of pit filled with C.62. The pit was similar to pits C.75 and C.50 and the fills werederived from burnt mound layers.Pit C.104 filled with C.101The small pit was oval in plan. The sides sloped to rounded base. It measured 0.34 by 0.3by 0.1 in depth. The fill was a brown clay sand. Small pit located 2 m to the south of the main mound of burnt material.Pit C.203 filled with C.205The cut of pit was oval in plan with rounded corners. The break of slope top was gradualon south, imperceptible elsewhere. Sides were moderate and convex. The break of slopebase was gradual. Base was oval in plan and flat in profile. C.203 was truncated by C.24at southeast corner. The pit measured 0.7m east west by 0.4m and had a maximum depthof 0.21m. The fill was a soft, light greyish brown sandy silt with pebbles. Cut of possible pit, filled with C.205, located at southeast corner of trough C.24. Notvisible in the EW section drawing of the trough. The northern and western sides wereremoved during excavation of trough C.24.General InterpretationThree of the pits (C.5, C.53 and C.104) were not covered by the layers of burnt moundmaterial and were located to the south-east, east and south of the mound respectively. Pit(C.74) was located 4.5 m south of the trough and pits C.49 and C.50 were located northof the trough and parallel to one another. The pit C.203 cut the fills of the trough C.24. 43
  • 52. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Subgroup 4 Pits in Western part of site Context Length (m) Width (m) Depth (m) 140 4 3 0.4 In W section of site 228 5.9 5.6 1.55 In W section of site 229 1 0.9 0.13 In W section of site Table of dimensions of pits in western part of the site Pit C.140 filled with C.131, C.145, C.148, C.151, and C.146 The pit was sub-oval and sub-rectangular in plan. The break of slope top was impercep- tible on northeast, gradual on north, south and west, sharp elsewhere. Sides were steep and smooth on south and east, gentle/moderate and smooth on north and west. The break of slope base was gradual. Base was sub-oval and sub-rectangular in plan and flat in profile. The pit measured 4m east west by 3m and had a maximum depth of 0.4m. The dimensions include the earlier pit C.152 to the west. The uppermost fill C.131 was a soft, loose, mid blackish brown silty sand with occasional pebbles and charcoal flecks. The next layer C.145 was a soft, loose, mid brownish black silty clay/sand with frequent pebbles and charcoal. Layer C.148 was a soft, compact, dark black silty clay/sand with frequent pebbles and charcoal. The next fill was a soft, loose, mid greyish black silty clay/ sand. The basal layer was a soft, compact, dark black silty clay/sand with frequent pebbles and charcoal. Cut of pit. Irregular in shape with an associated cluster of stakeholes to the northeast, where break of slope was imperceptible and natural was white/grey in colour. The fills were derived from burnt mound material. The pit cut the eastern edge of an earlier pit C.152. Pit C.228 filled with C.132, C.233, C.234, C.235, C.236, C.237, C.238, C.239, C.240, C.241, C.242, C.243 The pit was oval in plan with rounded corners. The break of slope top was gradual on north, northeast and northwest, sharp elsewhere. Sides were steep and irregular. The break of slope base was sharp. The pit measured 5.9m north south by 5.6 and had a maxi- mum depth of 1.55m. The pit contained 12 fills in total. The upper five fills were all very similar in texture and composition with variation in colour being the only differential factor. The fills were silty clays with the colour ranging from light yellowish grey to a dark brown grey. The next six fills also had similar properties. The composition of the fills were predominantly a silty or clayey sand with slight variations in colour but generally a mid to dark brown. The basal fill was a soft, dark brown silty clay with moderate pebbles and occasional charcoal. The cut of possible oval pit, located between a linear feature C.230 and a small pit C.229. The base of the pit could not be reached due to the depth in the section. The cut was truncated by a modern water pipe. Some wood was recovered from the basal fills of the pit.44
  • 53. Clashnevin 1-e3586 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/Pit C.229 fillled with C. 244 and C.245The small pit was oval in plan with sloping sides and rounded base. The fills were a siltyclay and a silty sand. The pit was located to the immediate east of the large pit C.228.Group 4 Stakeholes19 stakeholes were excavated in the area of the excavation. One of the stakeholes C.113was associated with the burnt mound. The other 18 stakeholes were associated with pitC.140 at the western end of the site.Stakehole C.113 filled with C.112 The feature was round in plan. The break of slope top was gradual on north and west,sharp on south and east. The break of slope base was gradual. The base was rounded inplan and pointed in profile. The stakehole measured 0.11m east west by 0.10m and had amaximum depth of 0.19m. The fill was a soft, mid grey silty clay. Cut of possible stakehole. Located near to the pit C.50, but otherwise isolated.Stakehole C.173 filled with C.157The stakehole was oval in plan. The break of slope top was sharp. Sides were steep. Thebreak of slope base was gradual. Base was tapered point and concave. Top was orientatedto the south from base. The stakehole measured 0.11m east west by 0.10m and had amaximum depth of 0.14m. The fill was a soft, dark grey, clayey silty sand with occasionalpebbles and charcoal. Stakehole associated with the cut C.140.Stakehole C.174 filled with C.158The feature was round in plan. The break of slope top was sharp and the sides were steep.The break of slope base was gradual. The base was tapered point and concave. The topwas orientated southeast from base. The fill was a soft, dark grey, clayey silty sand. Thecut measured 0.1m by 0.1m and had a maximum depth of 0.18m. Stakehole associated with the cut C.140.Stakehole C.175 filled with C.159The feature was round in plan. The break of slope top was sharp to gradual. The sides weresteep. The break of slope of the base was gradual. The base was tapered point. The top wasvertically orientated from base. The fill was a soft, dark grey, clayey sandy silt. The cutmeasured 0.10m by 0.10m and had a maximum depth of 0.13m. Stakehole associated with the cut C.140.Stakehole C.176 filled with C.160Sub-round in plan. The break of slope top was sharp. The sides were steep. The breakof slope base was gradual. The base was tapered point and concave. Top was orientated 45
  • 54. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report north from base. The fill was a soft, dark grey, clayey silty sand. The cut measured 0.09m by 0.09m and had a maximum depth of 0.20m. Stakehole associated with the cut C.140. Stakehole C.177 filled with C.161 Sub-round in plan. The break of slope top was sharp and the sides were steep. The break of slope base was gradual. The base was tapered point and gradual. The top was orientated southwest from the base. The fill was a soft, dark grey, clayey silty sand. The cut measured 0.12m by 0.12m and had a maximum depth of 0.17m. Stakehole associated with the cut C.140. Stakehole C.178 filled with C.162 Sub-oval in plan. The break of slope top was sharp. The sides were steep. The break of slope base was gradual. The base was tapered point and concave. The top was vertically orientated from base. The fill was a soft, dark grey, clayey silty sand. The cut measured 0.08m by 0.08m and had a maximum depth of 0.07m. Stakehole associated with the cut C.140. Stakehole C.179 filled with C.163 Sub-round in plan. The break of slope top was sharp. The sides were steep. The break of slope base was sharp. The base was flat and concave. The top was orientated vertically from base. The fill was a soft, dark grey, clayey silty sand. The cut measured 0.08m by 0.08m and had a maximum depth of 0.16m. Stakehole associated with the cut C.140. Stakehole C.180 filled with C.164 Round in plan with sharp corners. One side was missing making it difficult to determine shape. Sides were steep. The break of slope base was gradual. The base was tapered point and concave. The top was orientated vertically from base. the fill was a soft, dark blackish grey clayey silty sand with occasional fine pieces of charcoal. The cut measured 0.16m by 0.13m and had a maximum depth of 0.34m. Stakehole associated with the cut C.140. Stakehole C.181 filled with C.165 Sub-oval to round in plan. The break of slope top was gradual. The sides were steep. The break of slope base was sharp. The base was flat and concave. The top was orientated verti- cally from base. The fill was a soft, dark grey, clayey silty sand. The cut measured 0.08m by 0.06m and had a maximum depth of 0.06m. Stakehole associated with the cut C.140. Stakehole C.182 filled with C.166 Oval in plan. The break of slope top was sharp. The sides were steep. The break of slope base was gradual. The base was tapered point and concave. The top was orientated verti-46
  • 55. Clashnevin 1-e3586 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/cally from base. The fill was a soft, dark grey, clayey silty sand with occasional fine piecesof charcoal, mostly found at top of fill. The cut measured 0.13m by 0.11m and had amaximum depth of 0.11m Stakehole associated with the cut C.140.Stakehole C.183 filled with C.167Rounded in plan. The break of slope top was sharp to gradual. The sides were steep togradual. The break of slope base was gradual. The base was concave and flat. The top wasorientated east from base. The fill was a soft, dark grey, clayey sandy silt with moderate fine sub-angular pebbles.The cut measured 0.10m by 0.10m and had a maximum depth of 0.10m. Stakehole associated with the cut C.140.Stakehole C.184 filled with C.168Rounded in plan. The break of slope top was sharp. The sides were steep. The break ofslope base was gradual. The base was tapered point and concave. The top was orientatednortheast from base. The fill was a soft, dark grey, clayey silty sand with occasional finepieces of charcoal. The cut measured 0.10m by 0.10m and had a maximum depth of0.19m. Stakehole associated with the cut C.140.Stakehole C.185 filled with C.169Sub-oval in plan. The break of slope top was gradual to sharp. The sides were vertical.The break of slope base was gradual. The base was concave and tapered point. The topwas orientated northwest from base. The fill was a soft, dark grey, clayey silty sand withoccasional fine sub-angular pebbles and occasional fine pieces of charcoal, mostly foundat top of fill. Stakehole associated with the cut C.140.Stakehole C.187 filled with C.171Round in plan. The break of slope top was gradual. The sides were steep. The break ofslope base was gradual. The base was tapered point and concave. The top was orientatedsouthwest from base. The fill was a soft, dark grey, clayey silty sand. The cut measured0.07m by 0.07m and had a maximum depth of 0.06m. Stakehole associated with the cut C.140.Stakehole C.188 filled with C.172Sub-rounded in plan, one side was missing. The break of slope top was gradual. The sideswere steep. The break of slope base was gradual. The base was tapered point and concave.The top was orientated southwest from base. The fill was a soft, dark grey, clayey siltysand. Stakehole associated with the cut C.140. 47
  • 56. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Stakehole C.190 filled with C.191 Rounded/irregular in plan with sharp corners. The break of slope top was sharp. The break of slope base was gradual. The base was tapered point and concave. The top was orientated north from base. the fill was a soft, dark grey, clayey silty sand with occasional fine sub-angular pebbles and occasional fine pieces of charcoal, mostly found at top of fill. The cut measured 0.10m by 0.09m and had a maximum depth of 0.18m. Stakehole associated with the cut C.140. Stakehole C.192 filled with C.193 Rounded in plan. The break of slope top was sharp. The sides were steep. The break of slope base was gradual. The base was tapered point and concave. The top was orientated northeast from base. The fill was a soft, dark grey, clayey silty sand. The cut measured 0.07m by 0.06m and had a maximum depth of 0.09m. Stakehole associated with the cut C.140. Stakehole C.194 filled with C.195 Rounded in plan. The break of slope top was sharp. The sides were steep. The break of slope base was gradual. The base was tapered rounded point. The top was orientated northeast from base. The fill was a soft, dark grey, clayey silty sand.The cut measured 0.08m by 0.08m and had a maximum depth of 0.16m. Stakehole associated with the cut C.140. General Interpretation Seven of the stakeholes (C.177, C.178, C.179, C.180, C.187, C.188 and C.190) are located on the base of pit C.140. Looks like they form wooden lining measuring 0.8 m north- south by 1.8 m east-west. Nine of the stake-holes (C.175, C.174, C.183, C.181, C.182, C.184, C.194, C.192 and C.173) are located in a line, 1.8 m long, at the eastern end of the northern side of pit C.140. Two of the stake-holes (C.176 and C.185) are located on the eastern edge of pit C.140. Group 5 Well Well C.25 filled with C.110, C.90, C.88, C.56, C.84, C.134, C.87, C.67, C.89, C.136, C.91, C.68, C.217, C.201, C.57, C.69, C.219, C.70, C.121, C.71, C.72, C.213, C.215, C.218, C.73, C.214, C.92, C.216, C.227, The well was sub-circular in plan with rounded corners. The break of slope top was sharp on north, gradual elsewhere. Sides were steep and stepped on north and south, steep and smooth/stepped on east, moderate and stepped on west. Base was sub-circular in plan. It was broad U-shape in profile. In total 29 fills were recorded in the excavation of the well. The 29 fills were primarily silts and clays. The hue of the colours varied between light to dark and yellow to blue while the primary colour was either brown or grey depending on the density of stone and organic inclusions. Animal bone was recovered from 11 of the48
  • 57. Clashnevin 1-e3586 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/fills (C.56, C.57, C.68, C.69, C.70, C.71, C.87, C.136, C.201, C.213 and C.218) of thewell. Organic material, leaves, shells and wood was recovered from the fills at the base ofthe well (C.213, C.218 and C.227). Cut of a well. Sides were stepped, facilitating access to lower portion, which heldwater. The lower fills are high in organic matter, which possibly indicates debris, whichcollected in the water and settled at the base of the well. Subsequent fills indicate bothnatural silting episodes and deposition of cultural fills containing bone and antler. Fillswould indicate dumping of domestic materials, which would not necessarily be associ-ated with the primary use of the well. The well was related to pits C.103, C.122, C.56 andtrough C.24. It was truncated to the north by a ditch C.20.Group 6 TroughTrough C.24 filled with C.98, C.85, C.93, C.95, C.94 and C.96The trough was sub-rectangular in plan with rounded corners. The break of slope top wasgradual on east and west, sharp on north and south. Sides were steep and irregular/under-cut on north, gentle and smooth on east, steep and smooth on south and west. The breakof slope base was gradual on east, sharp elsewhere. Base was sub-rectangular in plan andflat in profile. The trough measured 2.6m east west by 1.6m and had a maximum depthof 0.47m. In total six fills were recorded in the trough. The uppermost fill was a firm, darkgreyish brown sandy silt with occasional pebbles. The next fill was a stiff, mid brownishgrey sandy silt with occasional pebbles. The third fill was a firm, dark brown sandy siltwith frequent pebbles and occasional charcoal flecks. The fourth fill was a weakly ce-mented, light orangish grey silty sand. The fifth fill was a soft, mid bluish brown stony siltwith frequent pebbles and occasional charcoal flecks. The basal fill was a firm, mid bluishblack silt with moderate pebbles and occasional charcoal flecks. Cut of trough filled by C.98, C.85, C.93, C.95, C.94 and C.96. The fills of this con-text contain charcoal and heat-shattered stone, suggesting repeated periods of usage. Thiscontext was related to well C.25 and pit C.103 by function. The trough was the result oftechnology, which used hot stones to heat water.Group 7 PostholesTwo of the postholes (C.75 and C.80) were located adjacent to each other and the third(C.189) was located on the western edge of the well C.25Posthole C.75 filled with C.66The post was circular in plan with rounded corners. The break of slope top was impercep-tible on west and northeast, gradual elsewhere. Sides were moderate and smooth on west,moderate and convex elsewhere. The break of slope base was imperceptible on northeast,gradual elsewhere. Base was circular in plan and flat in profile. The post measured 0.55 49
  • 58. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report m northwest southeast by 0.31m and had a maximum depth of 0.32m. The fill was a soft, dark black sandy silt with moderate pebbles and occasional stones and charcoal flecks. Cut of posthole filled with C.66. Fills are similar to fills of pits C.74 and C.50 and were derived from burnt mound layers. Posthole C.80 filled with C.79 The posthole was a sub-circular in plan with rounded corners. The break of slope top was gradual on north, sharp elsewhere. Sides were moderate and convex on north, moder- ate and smooth on south, vertical and smooth on east and west. The break of slope base was gradual on north and west, imperceptible on south, sharp elsewhere. Base was sub- circular in plan and pointed in profile. The posthole measured 0.24m north south by 0.2m and had a maximum depth of 0.18m. The fill was a soft, dark black sandy silt with occasional pebbles. Cut of posthole and filled with C.79. The posthole is located south of posthole C.75. Posthole C.189 filled with C.130 Oval in plan with rounded corners. The break of slope top was gradual on southeast, sharp elsewhere. Sides were vertical and smooth on north and south, moderate and smooth on east and west. Base could not be excavated as it was under water. The posthole measured 0.61m east west by 0.52m. The fill was a very soft, mid brownish grey sandy silt. Cut of posthole, filled with C.130. Posthole is located at northwest corner of Well C.25. Group 8 Ditches and drains Context Length (m) Width (m) Depth (m) Orientation 7 37.5 1.96 1.1 NS 18 40 0.28 0.28 NS 19 5.9 5.6 1.55 EW 20 17.5 1.52 0.5 EW 47 7.88 1.23 0.27 NNW-SSE 109 22 1.05 0.58 EW 119 4 1.24 0.47 NNE-SSW 212 21.5 1.15 0.22 NNW-SSE 230 31.5 1.43 0.47 NNW-SSE Table of dimensions of ditches Ditch C.7 filled with C.8, C.9, C.10, C.11, C.12, C.14, C.15 and C.16 A linear ditch orientated north-south. The break of slope top was sharp on east and west. Sides were steep and smooth. The break of slope base was gradual on east and west. Base was concave in profile. The ditch measured 1.96m wide by 37.5 long and had a maximum depth of 1.1m. The five upper fills were all weakly cemented silty sands in a variety of different colours. The three lower fills including the basal fill were all silt based with a moderate density of stone inclusions.50
  • 59. Clashnevin 1-e3586 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/ Cut of modern field boundary ditch. The cut was recorded in section; eight separatefills were recorded that included modern artefacts (mostly glass, but also a shoe-sole anda horseshoe).Drain C.18 filled with C.17.A linear stone filled drain orientated north-south. Located to the west of ditch C.7. It wasover 40 m in length by 0.28 m wide by 0.28 m in depth. Cut of modern drain. Extended beyond LMA to the south and truncated by ditchC.20 to the north.Ditch C.19 filled with C.27, C.29, C.30 and C.33Linear in plan and orientated east-west. The break of slope top and base was gradual onnorth and south. Sides were moderate and smooth on north, gentle and stepped on south.Base was concave in profile. Cut C.19 was truncated to the south by C.20 and to thenorth by C109. The ditch measured 2.15m wide by and had a maximum depth of 0.55m. Cut of modern field boundary ditch.Ditch C.20 filled with C.36, C.37 and C.39Linear in plan and orientated NNW by SSE. The break of slope top and base was gradualon north and south. The sides were gentle, smooth on north, and south. Base was concavein profile. The ditch was truncated to the north side by C.19. The ditch measured 1.52mwide and had a maximum depth of 0.50m. The upper fill was a soft, weakly cemented,mid brownish grey sandy silt. The middle fill was a very soft compact grey silt. The basalfill was a very soft, weakly cemented, mid yellowish brown clayey silt. Cut of modern field boundary ditch.Ditch C.47 filled with C.46Linear in plan and orientated NNW-SSE. Sides were moderate and irregular on north,gentle and stepped on south. The break of slope base was gradual on north and south.Base was concave in profile. This ditch truncates ditch C19. The ditch measured 7.88m by1.23m wide and had a maximum depth of 0.27m. The fill was a soft, compact, silty sandwith occasional medium and coarse sub-rounded pebbles. Cut of modern field boundary ditch. The ditch truncates and terminates within ditchC.19.Ditch C.109 filled with C.105, C.106, C.107 and C.108Linear in plan and orientated east-west. The break of slope top was gradual on north,southern side was moderate and smooth. Base was linear in plan, concave in profile. Theditch measured 1.05m wide and had a maximum depth of 0.58m. Cut of ditch, filled with C.105, C.106, C.107 and C.108. This was possibly the oldestof three ditches recorded north of the mound. It was truncated by ditch C.19. 51
  • 60. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Ditch C.119 filled with C.123 and C.208 The feature was linear in plan. The break of slope top was sharp on northeast and south- west. Sides are steep and smooth. The break of slope base was gradual on northeast and southwest. Base was linear in plan, concave in profile. The ditch measured 1.24m wide and had a maximum depth of 0.47m. The upper fill was a firm, compact, mid brown silty sand. The basal fill was a very soft, compact, mid brownish orange sandy silt. Cut of linear ditch, which truncated ditch, cut C.19 in Section 5. Cut was very straight, indicating formation from human activity. Ditch C.212 filled with C.211 Oval in plan with rounded corners. The break of slope top was gradual. East and west sides were moderate and concave. The break of slope base was gradual. Base was oval in plan and concave in profile. The ditch measured 1.15m wide and had a maximum depth of 0.22m. The fill was a soft, mid greyish brown silty clay. Cut of shallow modern ditch located to east of ditch C.7. Ditch C.230 filled with C.231 and C.232. Sub-circular in plan with rounded corners. The break of slope top was gradual. The sides were moderate and stepped on east and west. The break of slope base was gradual. The base was sub-circular in plan and concave in profile. The upper fill was a soft, mid brown silty clay with occasional stones. The basal fill was a soft, dark brown silty clay with mod- erate stones. The cut measured 1.43m wide and had a maximum depth of 0.47m. Cut of drainage ditch orientated NNW-SSE. It truncated pit C.228 in the western part of the site. General Interpretation There were a series of agricultural ditches recorded within the area of the excavation. Two field ditches, orientated north-south and east-west, were annotated on the first edition OS map sheet TI21. Ditches C.7 is located on the line of the north-south field boundary. C.47 maybe a drain associated with C.7. Ditches C.20, C.19 and C.109 represent at least two phases of the east-west ditch. C.119 is associated with ditch C.19. Ditches C.212 and C.230 are possible drainage ditches, orientated in the same direction. Group 10 Natural Features/Root activity Natural feature C.13 filled with C.6 The natural feature was irregular in plan. Corners were rounded on south, west, southeast and northwest were square elsewhere. The break of slope top was sharp on north, east and southeast, gradual elsewhere. Sides were vertical and smooth on north and east, moderate and convex on south and west. The break of slope base was sharp on north and northeast, gradual elsewhere. Base was irregular in plan and flat in profile. The fill was a firm, mid52
  • 61. Clashnevin 1-e3586 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/grey sandy silt. The feature measured 0.85m southeast northwest by 0.67m and had amaximum depth of 0.28m. Cut of possible tree-bole.Natural feature C.42 filled with C.21Sub-circular in plan with rounded corners. The break of slope top was sharp on east,northeast and southwest, gradual elsewhere. Sides were vertical and smooth on east, mod-erate and convex elsewhere. The break of slope base was sharp on east and southwest,gradual elsewhere. Base was irregular in plan and flat in profile. The cut measured 0.74msoutheast northwest by 0.67m and had a maximum depth of 0.26m. The fill was a soft,mid black clayey silt. Cut of possible tree-bole.Natural feature C.43 filled with C.22Irregular in plan. Corners were square on north and south, rounded elsewhere. The breakof slope top was imperceptible on east, sharp on north and gradual elsewhere. Sides weresteep and concave on north, moderate and convex elsewhere. The break of slope base wasimperceptible on west and northwest and gradual elsewhere. Base was irregular in planand flat in profile. The cut measured 0.76m southeast northwest by 0.42m and had amaximum depth of 0.16m. The fill was a soft, mid black clayey silt. Cut of possible tree-bole.Natural feature C.77Brown sandy clay shallow layer. It was located to the S of C.117.Probably associated with ditch C.7.Natural feature C.83 filled with C.63 and C.82The bole was square in plan. Corners were rounded on northwest and sharp elsewhere.The break of slope top was gradual on northwest and sharp elsewhere. Sides were steepand concave on northwest and southeast. The break of slope base was sharp. Base wassquare in plan and concave in profile. The bole measured 3.55m northwest southeast by1.63m and had a maximum depth of 0.47m. The uppermost fill was a mid brown siltysand. The basal fill was a mid greyish brown clayey sand. Possible tree bole, filled with C.63 and C.82. Formed by removal of a tree.Natural feature C.117 filled with C.76Irregular in plan. It was located on the E side of ditch C.7 and to the N of C.77. Cut of possible tree-bole.Void numbersC.23, C.34, C.35, C.52, C.58, C.64, C.65, C.86, C.97, C.99, C.100, C.102, C.114, C.116,C.118, C.122, C.142, C.152, C.170, C.186, C.202, C.220 and C.233. 53
  • 62. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Appendix 4 Analysis of the plant remains Penny Johnston Introduction This report details the results of plant remains analysis carried out on samples from Clashnevin 1, Co. Tipperary. The site comprised a fulacht fiadh/burnt mound with an associated trough and well. Methodology The samples were collected on site as bulk soil and were processed using machine-as- sisted floatation (following guidelines in Pearsall 2000). The floating material (or ‘flot’) from each sample was collected in a stack of geological sieves (the smallest mesh size was 250mm). When all the carbonised material was collected the flot was then air-dried in paper-lined drying trays prior to storage in airtight plastic bags. The flots were scanned under low-powered magnification and the results of prelimi- nary scanning were presented in an assessment report (Johnston 2009). The results of the assessment report are listed in Table 1 at the end of this report. Samples were selected for further analysis on the basis of the preliminary assessment. This selection was limited to samples that contained plant material Plant remains were extracted from the flots and the material was identified under low-powered magnification (x 10 to x 40) using a binocular microscope. The results of identification are presented in Table 2 at the end of this report. Nomenclature and taxonomic order follow Stace (1997). Use of scientific names is restricted to the tables at the end of the report in order to facili- tate easy reading of this text. Results A total of 87 samples from Clashnevin 1 were scanned. Assessment revealed that only 8% of these contained seeds (8 samples). In all cases the quantities of plant remains recovered were small, with just 14 cereal grains, 7 weed seeds and 8 fragments of hazelnut shell fragments found. The site at Clashnevin 1 was a burnt mound that overlay a trough and a well. Charcoal from the fill of a pit (C.140) returned a Middle Bronze Age radiocarbon date of cal BC 1262 – 1056 (UB – 12362). This date appears to reflect use of the burnt mound. Another radiocarbon date from the fill of the well, cal AD 982 – 1040 (UB – 12363) indicated that use of the site extended into the early medieval period, although perhaps this usage was limited to use of the well. The plant remains from the site were concentrated in the area of the linear feature/ditch (C.19) and from the area around the trough (C.24). This recovery of charred seeds, even despite the fact that they were found in very small amounts, is relatively unusual at fulacht54
  • 63. Clashnevin 1-e3586 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/fiadh/burnt mound sites, where charred seeds are generally rare an incidental inclusionsin the archaeological deposits (Johnston 2007, 70). Most of the cereal grains from Clashnevin 1 were identified as oat and barley, with oatthe predominant type recovered. The barley grains were all identified as from the hulledtype, no naked barley grains were found. The cereal assemblage from this site, mostlyoat and some barley, is most like samples taken from early medieval sites (for example inMonk et al. 1998). As oat grains are not common in prehistoric deposits it is likely thatmost of the plant remains from the site were not associated with use of the burnt mound,but rather were associated with the later use of the site that is also reflected in the earlymedieval radiocarbon date from the site.SummaryThe plant remains from Clashnevin 1, a site with a burnt mound, trough and well, in-cluded a small assemblage of cereals, weed seeds and hazelnut shell fragments. The as-semblage is relatively unusual, since charred plant remains are not often recovered fromburnt mound sites. However, it resembles an early medieval cereal assemblage and it istherefore possible that the plant remains from Clashnevin 1 are contemporary with theearly medieval radiocarbon date that was obtained from the fill of the well. 55
  • 64. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report References Johnston, P. 2009 Assessment of environmental remains from the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty). Unpublished technical report for Eachtra Archaeological Projects. Johnston, P. 2007 ‘Analysis of carbonised plant remains’ in Grogan, E., O’Donnell, L. and Johnston, P. The Bronze Age Landscapes of the Pipeline to the West. Bray, Wordwell, 70 – 79. Monk, M.A., Tierney, J. and Hannon, M. 1998 ‘Archaeobotanical studies and early medieval Munster,’ pp. 65 – 75 in Monk, M.A. and Sheehan, J. (eds) Early Medieval Munster. Archaeology, history and society. Cork, Cork University Press. Pearsall, D. 2000 Paleoethnobotany: a Handbook of Procedures. New York, Academic Press. Stace, C.A. 1997 (second edition) New Flora in the British Isles, Cambridge. Cambridge University Press.56
  • 65. Clashnevin 1-e3586 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/Table 1Sample Context Charcoal Seeds Percentage11 3 Medium Absent 10019 60 High Absent 5022 62 High Absent 10023 73 Medium Absent 10028 79 Medium Absent 10030 66 High Absent 10045 101 Low Absent 10047 112 Low Absent 10048 98 Medium Absent 10049 85 Medium Low 10050 93 Medium Absent 10051 94 Low Absent 10052 95 Medium Absent 10053 96 Medium Low 10054 81 Low Absent 10056 121 Low Absent 10060 57 Absent Absent 10061 56 Low Low 10062 88 Low Absent 10063 90 Low Absent 10064 87 Low Absent 10065 67 Low Absent 10066 71 Low Absent 10067 70 Low Low 10068 72 High Absent 10069 92 Low Absent 10070 69 Low Absent 10071 68 Low Low 10072 70 Low Absent 10073 131 Low Absent 10074 145 Medium Absent 10075 146 High Absent 10081 110 Low Absent 10083 84 Medium Absent 10092 147 Low Absent 100101 148 High Absent 100102 151 High Absent 100106 105 Low Absent 100107 106 Low Absent 100108 107 Low Absent 100109 108 Low Absent 100 57
  • 66. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Table 1 Sample Context Charcoal Seeds Percentage 110 157 Medium Absent 100 111 158 Low Absent 100 112 159 Medium Absent 100 113 160 Medium Absent 100 114 161 Low Absent 100 115 162 Low Absent 100 116 163 Low Absent 100 117 164 Low Absent 100 118 165 Low Absent 100 119 166 Low Absent 100 120 167 Low Absent 100 121 168 Low Absent 100 122 169 Low Absent 100 124 171 Low Absent 100 125 172 Low Absent 100 126 130 Low Absent 100 127 191 Low Absent 100 129 193 Absent Absent 100 133 205 Low Absent 100 134 44 Low Absent 100 135 45 Low Absent 100 143 129 Low Absent 100 145 201 Low Absent 100 162 217 Medium Absent 100 163 91 Medium Absent 100 164 135 Low Low 100 166 216 Low Absent 100 172 136 Low Absent 100 173 218 Low Absent 100 174 219 Low Low 100 175 213 Medium Absent 100 178 225 Absent Absent 100 180 223 High Medium 100 203 227 Low Absent 100 214 234 Low Absent 100 215 235 Low Absent 100 216 236 Absent Absent 100 217 237 Low Absent 100 218 238 Low Absent 100 220 240 Low Absent 100 221 241 Low Absent 100 222 242 Low Absent 10058
  • 67. Clashnevin 1-e3586 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/Table 1Sample Context Charcoal Seeds Percentage223 132 High Absent 100224 243 High Absent 100225 244 Low Absent 100226 245 Low Absent 100Table 1: Scanned samples from Clashnevin 1, Co� Tipperary (E3586)Table 2Context 85 96 56 70 68 45 135 219 223Sample 49 53 61 67 71 135 164 174 180Hazelnut shell fragments (Corylus avel- 2 2 1 3lana L.)Indeterminate seeds from the Knotgrass 1 1 1 1family (Polygonaceae)Cleavers (Galium aparine L.) 1Oat grains (Avena L. species) 1 8Barley grains (Hordeum vulgare L.) 2hulledIndeterminate cereal grains 1 1 1Rachis internodes from indeterminate 1cerealsIndeterminate grass seeds (Poaceae) 1Indeterminate weed seeds 1Table 2: Identified plant remains from Clashnevin 1, Co� Tipperary (E3586) 59
  • 68. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Appendix 5 Bone report The excavations at Clashnevin 1 identified deposits of charcoal-rich soils and heat-shat- tered stones indicating the remains of a Bronze Age burnt mound with an associated trough and pits. A second phase of medieval activity was also recognised through the reuse of a large well that was originally constructed in the Bronze Age to provide water for the trough. A number of later modern ditches represented the final phase of activity and the bulk of the animal bones from the site were recovered from these features. Faunal samples from the Bronze Age and medieval periods are quite small and little economic information can be obtained from the results aside from documenting the occurrence of certain species. The material is described below by the three main phases of activity identified by the excavators. Bronze Age activity Animal bones relating to this phase of activity were recovered from a layer of heat-shat- tered stone (C3) and from various fills of a large pit (C228) that was used to contain food waste. A complete adult horse molar and the distal portion of a sheep/goat tibia were re- covered from the layer of burnt mound material. The sheep/goat tibia is unfused distally and belongs to an individual that was less than two years of age at slaughter. Four fills of the large pit (C228) collectively yielded a total sample of 61 bones with the bulk of these coming from one fill (C132, Table 1). Cow S/G* LM* MM* Total C132 1 6 10 23 40 C239 - 2 - 10 12 C242 1 - 6 - 7 C243 1 - - 1 2 TOTAL 3 8 16 34 61 S/G* Sheep/Goat LM* Large mammal MM* Medium mammal Table 1: Distribution of species in pit (C228) fills The sample is dominated by large mammal and medium mammal remains and the only identified species are cattle and sheep/goat. Cattle are represented by the distal fused portions of two scapulae and the distal fused portion of a metatarsus, representing an individual that was between two to two and a half years of age at death. Sheep/goat is the only species to be represented in any quantity with eight of the 11 identified fragments being from this species. The bones were found in two of the pit fills and identified speci- mens include five teeth, a tibia, a vertebra and a pelvis. All of the bones represent adult individuals and none show signs of having been butchered.60
  • 69. Clashnevin 1-e3586 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/Bronze Age/Medieval activityThe large well (C25) was originally used as a water source for the trough in the BronzeAge. A medieval date was obtained from deposits at the base of the well and it is thereforeassumed that most of the animal bones date to this period of activity at the site. In all,the well contained 60 animal bones and these were found in small amounts in thirteenseparate fills. Identified species include cattle, sheep/goat, pig, horse and red deer. Sixteencattle bones were identified and the individual elements include almost all parts of theskeleton indicating that the well was used for the disposal of primary butchery debris aswell as food waste from the table. There are twelve sheep/goat bones and the sample isdominated by loose teeth and upper limb bone fragments. Horse is attested through therecovery of the distal fused end of a tibia, the distal fused portion of a femur and a tooth.The femur was chopped crudely in a lateral direction indicating that horseflesh was con-sumed at the site in the medieval period. A poorly preserved shaft of a red deer, Cervuselaphus, antler was recovered from C57 and a chopped piece of antler tine was found inC70. Analysis of the age structure of the animals is made difficult by the small numbersof bones recovered and by the absence of teeth-bearing mandibles although all of the sur-viving epiphyses indicate that cattle and sheep are from sub-adult or adult animals withno bones from young animals being recovered. Some of the bones show traces of butcheryrelating to the dismemberment of the carcass and skeletal element representation showsan equal balance of meat bearing and peripheral fragments indicating that slaughteringand primary butchery were undertaken in the vicinity of the site during the medievalperiod. Horse Cow S/G* Pig Red Deer LM* MM* TOTALC56 - 1 1 - - - 6 8C57 1 2 2 - 1 - - 6C68 1 - 1/1 1 - - - 4C69 - 2 1 - - - - 3C70 - 1 1 - 1 - - 3C71 - 1 1 - - - - 2C84 - - - - - 2 - 2C91 - 1 - - - - - 1C135 - 4 3 7 - 2 4 20C136 - 1 - - - - 1 2C201 1 - 1 - - - - 2C213 - 3 - - - 3 - 6C218 - - - - - 1 - 1TOTAL 3 16 12 8 2 8 11 60S/G* Sheep/Goat LM* Large mammal MM* Medium mammalTable 2: Distribution of species in well fills 61
  • 70. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Later activity Three modern ditches collectively yielded a total sample of 332 bones. These are generally poorly preserved with high rates of fragmentation and a disproportionate amount of large and medium mammal fragments, indicative of poor preservation conditions (Table 3). Horse Cow S/G* Pig Red Deer Rabbit LM* MM* TOTAL C19 1 31 7 7 1 12 103 118 280 C47 - - - - - - - 4 4 C109 1 5 - - - - 42 - 48 TOTAL 2 36 7 7 1 12 145 122 332 S/G* Sheep/Goat LM* Large mammal MM* Medium mammal Table 3: Distribution of species in ditches The faunal sample is dominated by the remains of cattle with all other species includ- ing horse, sheep/goat, pig, red deer and rabbit being recovered in considerably smaller numbers. The largest individual sample of cattle bones came from ditch (C19) and al- though nearly all parts of the skeleton are represented, the remains consist mostly of small cranial fragments and loose teeth. Limited ageing evidence indicates that the two individuals represented were reared to a prime slaughtering age. Sheep/goat and pig are equally represented by a range of meat-bearing and peripheral elements. Single finds of horse bones were found in two ditches, a complete first phalanx in ditch (C19) and a molar in ditch (C209). The twelve rabbit bones were all recovered from ditch (C19) and the remains represent a single adult individual. The livestock samples include limb bones from mature individuals and a few chop marks are associated with dismemberment and stripping meat from the bones.62
  • 71. Clashnevin 1-e3586 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3586-clashnevin1-co-tipperary/Appendix 6 Finds RegisterMetal findsIronStrip (E3586:11:1) Fe. L. 102.72 mm., W. 22.79 mm., Th. 3.18 mm. Incomplete. Rectan-gular in shape, irregular-cut ends. Very corroded.Horseshoe (E3586:15:1) Fe. L. 59.11 mm., W. 64.63 mm., Th. 4.4mm. Incomplete. Smallhorseshoe. Very corroded.Strip (E3586:15:2) Fe. L. 171.68 mm., W. 21.53 mm., Th. 6.13 mm. Incomplete. Rectan-gular in shape, irregular-cut ends. Very corroded.GlassThree entire bottles, eight bottle fragments and one cap in total were recovered from site.They all appear to be modern in date (Late 19th/20th Century). The only bottle that canbe approximately dated is a clear glass container (E3586:11:4) for “Camp Coffee” marked‘Paterson, Glasgow’. Camp Coffee is a Scottish food product, a glutinous brown substancewhich consists of sugar, coffee essence, and chicory essence. This is generally used as asubstitute for coffee, by mixing with warm milk, and it is also used as an ingredient in cof-fee cake and other confections. It was originally produced by a company named Paterson,based in Glasgow since 1885. (Cfr. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camp_Coffee). The remaining two are a clear green winebottle (E3586:9:1) and a small ointment bottle (E3586:11:2). They both keep cork frag-ments internally. The cap (E3586:10:2) is embossed on the top with the mark ‘CARTONS’.PotteryFour sherds of modern pottery were recovered from site.Glazed red earthenwareOne body sherd from C.124; one rim and one body sherdTransfer printed wareOne plate rim sherd with brown decoration from C.3. 63
  • 72. issUe 11: eaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaeologiCal exCavation report Co.No. Find No. Type Dating Form 3 4 Transfer Printed Ware 19th/20th Plate 124 1 Glazed Red Earthenware 19th Jug? 125 1 Glazed Red Earthenware (x2) 19th Basin Websites www.wikipedia.org64