Eachtra JournalIssue 11                                      [ISSN 2009-2237]           Archaeological Excavation Report  ...
EACHTRAArchaeological Projects                           Archaeological Excavation Report                           Clash ...
Archaeological Excavation Report                                                       Clash                              ...
© 2011The Forge, Innishannon, Co Cork     Set in 12pt Garamond       Printed in Ireland
Table of Contents       Summary�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������...
List of Figures     Figure	1:	         Portion	of	map	of	Ireland	showing	the	route	of	the	N7	Castletown	to	Nenagh	(Derrin-...
Clash-E3660                                             http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3660-clash-co-tipperary/Summa...
issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237                           arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport              Acknowl...
Clash-E3660                                              http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3660-clash-co-tipperary/1   ...
2                     180000                               190000                              200000                     ...
Clash-E3660                                              http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3660-clash-co-tipperary/Drum...
issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237                               arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport              4  ...
190400                                                                 196200                                             ...
issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237                               arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport                 ...
Clash-E3660                                                      http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3660-clash-co-tipper...
8                                                       198899                                            199899          ...
Clash-E3660                                               http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3660-clash-co-tipperary/6  ...
198678                                                 199048                                               19941810      ...
199020                                                                              199074                                ...
issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237                                    arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport            ...
Clash-E3660                                    http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3660-clash-co-tipperary/Plate	3:	 Post...
14                                                                                                                        ...
Clash 1                                            Clash 1           E3660                                              E3...
issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237                                            arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport    ...
Clash-E3660                             http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3660-clash-co-tipperary/Plate	5:	 Mid-excavat...
issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237                               arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport              Pla...
Clash-E3660                                                    http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3660-clash-co-tipperar...
issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237   arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport                                             ...
Clash-E3660                                               http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3660-clash-co-tipperary/8  ...
issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237                                arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport              9 ...
23     Appendix 1 Stratigraphic report     N7 Castle-     town Nenagh     Clash 1     E3660     Context #     Context     ...
24     5    Field Drain     0003           Hard, indurated, mid orangish            62.43 X   Fill of cut C0003 only seen ...
25     11   Cut                    0017   Circular/irregular in plan with          0.42 x    Cut of natural feature (possi...
26     18   Cut               0019   Sub-circular in plan with rounded      0.45 x     Cut of a probable non-archaeologica...
Archaeological Report - Clash, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clash, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clash, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clash, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clash, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clash, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clash, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clash, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clash, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clash, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clash, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clash, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clash, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clash, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clash, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clash, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clash, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clash, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clash, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clash, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clash, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clash, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clash, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clash, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clash, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Clash, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
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Archaeological Report - Clash, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)

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The excavation of the site at Clash comprised a truncated Bronze Age house dating to the Late Bronze Age. The structure was defined by a double ring of post-holes, the inner ring was concentric with the outer ring, but neither ring was complete. The internal diameter of the complete structure was 6.2 m. The entrance to the house faced east-northeast and measured 1.2 m in width. A small pit and four stake-holes were located centrally in the structure.

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Archaeological Report - Clash, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)

  1. 1. Eachtra JournalIssue 11 [ISSN 2009-2237] Archaeological Excavation Report E3660 - Clash, Co. Tipperary Bronze Age House
  2. 2. EACHTRAArchaeological Projects Archaeological Excavation Report Clash Co. Tipperary Bronze Age House July 2011 Client: Laois County Council and National Roads Authority N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Contract 1) Project:: E no: E3660 Excavation Director John Tierney Written by: John Tierney
  3. 3. Archaeological Excavation Report Clash Co. Tipperary Excavation Director John Tierney Written By John Tierney EACHTRA Archaeological Projects CORK GALWAY The Forge, Innishannon, Co. Cork Unit 10, Kilkerrin Park, Liosbain Industrial Estate, Galwaytel: 021 4701616 | web: www.eachtra.ie | email: info@eachtra.ie tel: 091 763673 | web: www.eachtra.ie | email: galway@eachtra.ie
  4. 4. © 2011The Forge, Innishannon, Co Cork Set in 12pt Garamond Printed in Ireland
  5. 5. Table of Contents Summary���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������iii Acknowledgements�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� iv1 Scope of the project �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Route location��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 13 Receiving environment ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 34 Archaeological and historical background ��������������������������������������������������������������������� 4 Mesolithic(c�8000to4000BC)���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4 Neolithic(c�4000to2000BC)������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 4 � BronzeAge(c�2000to600BC)����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4 IronAge(c�500BCtoAD500)����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 6 Earlymedievalperiod(c�AD400to1100)����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 6 Highandlatermedievalperiods(c�AD1100to1650)���������������������������������������������������������������� 6 Post-medievalperiod(c�1650tothepresent)��������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 75 Site Location and Topography �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 76 Excavation methodology ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 97 Excavation results �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 98 Discussion �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 219 References ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������22Appendix 1 Stratigraphic report �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������23Appendix 2 Site Matrix ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 39Appendix 3 Group and subgroups ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������40Appendix 4 Plant remains ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������46Appendix 5 Lithics report �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 49 i
  6. 6. List of Figures Figure 1: Portion of map of Ireland showing the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrin- sallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme (Contract 1)� ������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 Figure 2: Discovery series Ordnance survet map showing the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme (Contract 1) and the location of all excavation sites� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 5 Figure 3: Portion of the Ist edition Ordnance Survey Map OF47 showing the location of Clash� ��� 8 Figure 4: Location and extent of Clash E3660 on the N7 Castletown to Nenagh �������������������������������10 Figure 5: Post-excavation plan of Clash E3660� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 11 Figure 6: Post-excavation plan of the Bronze Age house at Clash� ���������������������������������������������������������� 14 Figure 7: Sections of C�33, C�36, C�31, C�3 and C�52� ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 15 List of Plates Plate 1: Aerial view of Clash, note the Ollatrim River in the middle ground and the excavation at Park E3659 in the background� �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 7 � Plate 2: View of area of excavation at Clash from west, note the area of the Bronze Age house on the southern edge of the area of excavation� ������������������������������������������������������������������������ 12 Plate 3: Post-excavation of post-hole C�8� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 13 Plate 4: Post-excavation of post-hole C�18������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 13 Plate 5: Mid-excavation of pit C�36� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 17 Plate 6: Mid-excavation of pit C�10� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 17 Plate 7: Mid-excavation of pit C�23�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 18 Plate 8: View of flint blade E3660:1:1� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������20 List of Tables Table 1: Dimensions of the outer wall of the structure �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Table 2: Dimensions of the inner wall of the structure �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 16 Table 3: Dimensions of the features in the interior of the structure ������������������������������������������������������������� 16 Table 4: Dimensions of features in proximity to the structure� ����������������������������������������������������������������������� 16 Table 5: Dimensions of non-archaeological features ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 19 Table 6: Radiocarbon dates ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 19ii
  7. 7. Clash-E3660 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3660-clash-co-tipperary/SummaryThe excavation of the site at Clash comprised a truncated Bronze Age house dating to theLate Bronze Age. The structure was defined by a double ring of post-holes, the inner ringwas concentric with the outer ring, but neither ring was complete. The internal diameterof the complete structure was 6.2 m. The entrance to the house faced east-northeast andmeasured 1.2 m in width. A small pit and four stake-holes were located centrally in thestructure.Road project name N7 Castletown to NenaghSite name ClashE no. E3660Site director John TierneyTownland ClashParish BallymackeyCounty TipperaryBarony Upper OrmondOS Map Sheet No. TN22National Grid Reference 199051 180559 iii
  8. 8. issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport Acknowledgements The project was commissioned by Laois County Council and was funded by the Na- tional Roads Authority under the National Development Plan (2000-2006). The project archaeologist was Niall Roycroft. Kildare County Council supervised the archaeological contract with RE staff of Pat Dowling and Colum Fagan. Kildare County Council Sen- ior Executive Engineer was Joseph Kelly and Kildare County Council Senior Engineer was John Coppinger. The senior archaeologist was John Tierney and the post-excavation manager was Jacinta Kiely. Illustrations are by Maurizio Toscano, photographs by John Sunderland and Eagle Photography and aerial photography by StudioLab. Specialist anal- ysis was carried out by Mary Dillon and Penny Johnston and the 14 Chrono Centre at Queen’s University Belfast.iv
  9. 9. Clash-E3660 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3660-clash-co-tipperary/1 Scope of the projectEachtra Archaeological Projects were commissioned by Laois County Council and theNational Roads Authority to undertake archaeological works along 17.1 km (Contact1) of the 35km N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) national roadscheme (EIS approved in November 2005). The scheme runs from the eastern junctionof the present N7 Nenagh Bypass, North Tipperary a tie in to the M7/M8 Portlaoise-Castletown scheme to the south of Borris-in-Ossory in County Laois. The scheme is ap-proximately 191 hectares. Contract 1 comprises the western half of the scheme and runsfrom Clashnevin to Castleroan passing along the Tipperary North and Offaly countyborder regions. The Ministers Direction Number is A38. It was funded by the Irish Government under the National Development Plan 2000-2006. The total archaeological cost was administered by the National Roads Authoritythrough Laois County Council as part of the Authority’s commitment to protecting ourcultural heritage. The purpose of the archaeological services project was to conduct ar-chaeological site investigations within the lands made available for the scheme and toassess the nature and extent of any new potential archaeological sites uncovered. Phase 1 of the project (archaeological testing of the route) was carried out in 2007under licence E3371, E3372 and E3375-8 issued by Department of the Environment Her-itage and Local Government (DoEHLG) in consultation with the National Museumof Ireland. The principal aim of this phase of the project was to test for any previouslyunknown sites by a programme of centreline and offset testing and to test sites of archaeo-logical potential identified in the EIS. Phase 2 of the project (resolution) involved the resolution of all archaeological sitesidentified within the proposed road corridor prior to commencement of the constructionof the road. This phase of the project was carried out from June 2007 to February 2008and excavations were conducted under the management of a Senior Archaeologist. A totalof 27 sites were excavated during this phase of works under separate licences issued byDoEHLG. A post-excavation assessment and strategy document was prepared in Phase 3 of theproject to present a management strategy for dealing with post-excavation work aris-ing from archaeological works along the route of the new N7 Castletown to Nenagh. Itincluded a proposal for post-excavation and archiving work and a budget for the works.2 Route locationThe route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh road is located in Counties North Tipperaryand Offaly (OF) (Figure 1). The project (Contract 1) involves the construction of c. 17.5km of the N7 from Clashnevin east of Nenagh to Castleroan south-east of Dunkerrin. Itpasses through the townlands of Clashnevin, Derrybane, Newtown, Lissanisky, Killeisk,Garavally, Derrycarney, Garrynafanna, Gortnadrumman, Kilgorteen, Falleen, Knock-ane, Clash, Park, Rosdremid (OF), Clynoe (OF), Cullenwaine, Moneygall, Greenhills, 1
  10. 10. 2 180000 190000 200000 210000 220000 196000 196000 ( ! Nenagh issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 Derg (Lough) 185000 185000 174000 174000 0 8 16 Kilometres ± 180000 190000 200000 210000 220000 arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport Figure 1: Portion of map of Ireland showing the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme (Contract 1)�
  11. 11. Clash-E3660 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3660-clash-co-tipperary/Drumbaun, Busherstown (OF), Drumroe (OF), Moatquarter, Loughan (OF) and Cas-tleroan (OF). The townlands are located in the parishes of Ballymackey, Cullenwaine,Castletownely, Rathnaveoge, Finglas and Dunkerrin and the baronies of Upper Ormond,Ikerrin and Clonisk, The route begins at the eastern end of the Nenagh bypass at Clashnevin c. 5 km eastof Nenagh and continues eastward on the northern side of the existing N7 in Co. Tip-perary. It crosses a number of third class roads to the north of Toomyvara and 0.7 kmeast of Clash crossroads crosses the Ollatrim River. It extends into County Offaly directlyeast of Park. From here it crosses the R490 0.6 km north of Moneygall. It extends backin County Tipperary and through the demesne of Greenhills before crossing the existingN7 at the junction of Greenhills and Drumbaun townlands. It crosses back into CountyOffaly and climbs east into Busherstown and Drumroe. It crosses the Keeloge Streaminto Moatquarter in County Tipperary and extends northeast back into County Offalythrough the townlands of Loughan and Castleroan 1.4 km southwest of Dunkerrin.3 Receiving environmentNorth Tipperary is bounded on the west by the River Shannon and Lough Derg withthe Silvermines, to the south, and small hills extending towards Devilsbit and BorrisnoeMountains to the east. The mountains are composed largely of Silurian strata and OldRed Sandstone. Copper, silver and lead deposits have been mined in the Silvermines. Thegeology of the lowlands consists of Carboniferous limestone covered by glacial drift inaddition to tracts of raised bog. The western portion of the study area is drained by the Ollatrim River which flowswestwards into the River Ballintotty which in turns drains into the River Nenagh. Theeastern portion is drained by the Keeloge Stream and other small water sources. These risein the foothills of the Silvermine Mountains and flow north. The Keeloge drains into theLittle Brosna River c. 1 km south of Shinrone, Co Offaly. The Brosna turns north anddrains into the Shannon south of Banagher. The largest population centre in the area is Nenagh. The smaller population centres,are Toomyvara, Moneygall and Dunkerrin. The soils on the route are characterised by 80% grey brown podzolics, 10% gleys, 5%brown earths and 5% basis peat. They are derived from glacial till of predominantly Car-boniferous limestone composition. These soils occur in Tipperary and Offaly and have awide use range being suitable for both tillage and pasture (Gardiner and Radford 1980,97-99). Land use along the route was a mix of grassland devoted to intensive dairying andcattle-rearing and tillage. 3
  12. 12. issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport 4 Archaeological and historical background Archaeological sites of numerous periods were discovered along the route of the new road (Figure 2). The periods are referred to as follows: Mesolithic (c. 8000 to 4000 BC), Neo- lithic (c. 4000 to 2000 BC), Bronze Age (c. 2000 to 600 BC), and Iron Age (c. 500 BC to AD 500), early medieval period (c. AD 500 to 1100), medieval period (c. AD 1100 to 1650), post-medieval period (c. AD 1650 to the present). Mesolithic (c. 8000 to 4000 BC) The earliest known human settlement in Ireland dates from the Mesolithic period (c. 8000 BC - 4000 BC). The majority of the evidence (flint scatters) for Mesolithic occupa- tion has come from the river valleys. No evidence for the Mesolithic was recorded on the route. Neolithic (c. 4000 to 2000 BC) The Neolithic Period is characterised by the introduction of agriculture and the begin- nings of the clearance of the woodlands. The population increased and became more sedentary in nature. The most important Neolithic site in the vicinity was at Tullahedy recorded on the route of the Nenagh by-pass. It was a specialist chert arrow manufactur- ing site. No evidence for a Neolithic site was recorded on the route but stone tools dating to the Neolithic were recorded at Busherstown E3661, Clash E3660, Cullenwaine E3741 and Greenhills 2 and 3 E3637 and E3658. Stone tools dating to the late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age were recorded at Busherstown E3661, Castleroan E3909, Cullenwaine E3741, Derrybane 1 E3585, Drumroe E3773, Greenhills 1 E3638 and Moatquarter E3910 Bronze Age (c. 2000 to 600BC) The Bronze Age is characterised by the introduction of metallurgy and an increase in settlement and burial sites. Copper ores were mined and copper, bronze and gold items manufactured. The range of burial site types includes cist graves, pit and urn burials, cremation cemeteries, barrows, ring-ditches and wedge tombs. Stone circles and stand- ing stones also date to the Bronze Age. Both enclosed and unenclosed settlement sites are known. The most prolific Bronze Age site type is the fulacht fiadh. These monuments survive as low mounds of charcoal rich black silt, packed with heat-shattered stones, and generally situated close to a water source. Fulachta fiadh are generally classified as ‘cook- ing places’, whereby stones were heated in a hearth and subsequently placed in a trough of water, the water continued to boil with the addition of hot stones and wrapped food was cooked within the hot water. The trough eventually filled with small stones, ash and charcoal that were removed, forming the basis of the familiar mound.4
  13. 13. 190400 196200 202000 207800 Clash-E3660 186400 186400 Castleroan 1 E 3909 Clash 1 Busherstown 1 E 3661 Loughan 1 Greenhills 3 E 4000 E 3658 Moneygall 2 Culleenwaine 1 E 3635 E 3741 Moatquarter 1 Clynoe 2 E 3910 E 3774 181800 181800 Park 1 Drumroe 1 Garravally Kilgorteen 1 E 3659 E 3773 E 3589 E 3739 Drumbaun 2 Derrybane 2 E 3912 E 3591 Greenhills 1 Greenhills 2 E 3638 E 3637 Clashnevin 2 E 3590 Clash 1 Park 2 E 3660 E 3772 Derrycarney 1 E 3740 Clashnevin 1 Derrybane 1 Killeisk 1 E 3586 E 3585 E 3587 177200 177200 0 3 6 Kilometres ± 190400 196200 202000 207800 Figure 2: Discovery series Ordnance survet map showing the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme (Contract 1) and the location of all http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3660-clash-co-tipperary/5 excavation sites�
  14. 14. issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport Two new fulachta fiadh or burnt mounds were recorded at Clashnevin 1 E3586, Cullenwaine E3741 and six at three separate locations in Greenhills, E3638, E3637 and E3658. Evidence of nine roundhouses or partial round structures were recorded; two at Castleroan E3909, Derrybane 2 E3591 and Drumbaun 2 E3912 and one at Clash E3660, Drumroe E3773 and Moatquarter E3910. Iron Age (c. 500 BC to AD 500) Upto recently there was little evidence of a significant Iron Age presence in Munster. Settlement sites are few and far between as well as being difficult to identify (Woodman, 2000) while the material culture of this period is limited. Linear earthworks, believed to have marked tribal boundaries, and hillforts are two of the most visible monuments of the period. Ten percent of sites excavated on NRA road schemes in recent years have produced Iron Age dates. The dates have led to the identification of 30 new Iron Age sites in Munster from road schemes in counties Cork, Limerick and Tipperary (McLaughlin 2008, 51). These include a ditched enclosure in Ballywilliam and a wooden trackway in Annaholty Bog excavated on the route of the N7 Nenagh-Limerick (Taylor 2008, 54). Early medieval period (c. AD 400 to 1100) The early medieval period is characterised by the arrival of Christianity to Ireland. The characteristic monument type of the period is the ringfort. Ringforts are the most nu- merous archaeological monument found in Ireland, with estimates of between 30,000 and 50,000 illustrated on the first edition of the Ordnance Survey 6” maps of the 1840’s (Barry 1987). As a result of continued research, the construction of these monuments has a narrow date range during the early medieval period between the 7th and 9th centuries AD. Although there are some very elaborate examples of ringforts, they often take the form of a simple earth or stone enclosure functioning as settlements for all classes of secu- lar society (Stout 1997). North Tipperary is rich in early ecclesiastical sites and the remains of these religious centres are at the core of some of the towns and villages. Roscrea, for example, was chosen by St Cronan as a location for his monastery in the seventh century as it was located at the crossroads on the Slighe Dála, an important roadway in early medieval times (NIAH 2006, 4-8). A possible early medieval enclosure and associated road way was recorded at Killeisk E3587. A denuded ringfort (OF046-013) was excavated at Clynoe 2 E3774. High and later medieval periods (c. AD 1100 to 1650) This period is characterized by the arrival of the Anglo-Normans and the building of tow- er houses. The Anglo-Normans obtained charters in the thirteenth century for the towns of Nenagh, Roscrea, Thurles and Templemore and established markets. Nenagh grew rapidly in the aftermath of the granting of the lands of Munster to Theobald fitzWalter in6
  15. 15. Clash-E3660 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3660-clash-co-tipperary/1185 (ibid. 8). Moated sites represent the remains of isolated, semi-defended homesteadsin rural areas. They were build mainly in the late thirteenth and early fourteenth cen-turies in counties, such as Wexford, Kilkenny, Tipperary, mid-Cork and Limerick, thatwere colonised by English settlers (O’Conor 1998, 58). The Archaeological Inventory forNorth Tipperary lists 39 moated sites (2002, 298). A newly recorded moated site was excavated at Busherstown E3661.Post-medieval period (c. 1650 to the present).The post-medieval period is characterised by mills, limekilns, workhouses, country hous-es and associated demesnes, vernacular buildings and field systems (Figure 3). A smalldemesne associated with a county house was recorded at Greenhills.5 Site Location and TopographyThe site at Clash 1 was located c. 300m to the west of the Ollatrim River (Plate 1). Theland was in pasture and sloped to the river. The extensive prehistoric and medieval site atPark E3659 was located on the eastern bank of the Ollatrim River.Plate 1: Aerial view of Clash, note the Ollatrim River in the middle ground and the excavation at Park E3659 in the background� 7
  16. 16. 8 198899 199899 ROSDREHID CLYNOE CARROWEA BALLYKNOCKANE 181208 181208 Ollatrim (River) Park 2 issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 Park 1 PARK Clash 1 180558 180558 CLASH 0 300 600 ¥ Meters 198899 199899 Figure 3: Portion of the Ist edition Ordnance Survey Map OF47 showing the location of Clash� arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport
  17. 17. Clash-E3660 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3660-clash-co-tipperary/6 Excavation methodologyThe site was mechanically stripped of topsoil under strict archaeological supervision.Stripping was done with a tracked machine with a flat toothless bucket. Topsoil strippingcommenced in the areas of identified archaeology and continued radially outward untilthe limit of the road take was reached or until the limit of the archaeological remains wasfully defined. A grid was set up in the excavation area(s) and all archaeological featureswere sufficiently cleaned, recorded and excavated so as to enable an accurate and mean-ingful record of the site to be preserved. The excavation, environmental sampling, sitephotographs, site drawings, find care and retrieval, on-site recording and site archive wasas per the Procedures for Archaeological works as attached to the licence method state-ments for excavation licences. The site was excavated from 8 September 2008 to the 22 September 2008. Only areaswithin the LMA (lands made available) were resolved. The full extent of the area of exca-vation measured 3400 m sq (Figure 4). The full record of excavated contexts is recorded in the context register and the strati-graphic matrix (Appendix 1). Detailed stratigraphic descriptions are found in the groupsand sub-groups text (Appendix 2). The context register maybe viewed in the EAPOD(Eachtra Archaeological Projects office database) in the accompanying CD.7 Excavation resultsThe partial remains of a Bronze Age structure were recorded in the south-eastern cornerof the area of excavation, on the edge of the LMA. The features were grouped in an areameasuring 10 m sq. A ditch, orientated south-west – north-east bisected the area of thesite. There were a group of furrows located to the west of the ditch and orientated in thesame direction. Eight features of uncertain date were scattered across the area of the ex-cavation (Figure 5, plate 2).The StructureA truncated house was identified in the south-eastern area of the excavation at Clash. Itwas defined by a double ring of post-holes (Figure 6), the inner ring was concentric withthe outer ring, but neither ring was complete. The internal diameter of the complete struc-ture was 6.1 m and it would have enclosed an area of 29.2 m2 if the circuit was complete.The entrance to the house, between two slot trenches, faced east-northeast and measured1.2 m in width. The outer wall of the structure comprised four post-holes (C.8, C.31, C.33 and C.56)and two slot trenches (C.28 and C.52). The post-holes were located on the south-easternside only, representing c. 90 degrees of the total possible circumference of the outer wall.The slot trenches were situated on either side of the entrance set back slightly from thering of posts. 9
  18. 18. 198678 199048 19941810 PA R K 82 00 180805 180805 81 00 80 00 CLASH issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 79 00 O ll atrim (R iver) 78 00 180575 180575 770 0 760 0 750 0 740 0 730 0 720 0 710 0 180345 180345 Clash 1 (E3660) 0 100 200 Metres ± 198678 199048 199418 Figure 4: Location and extent of Clash E3660 on the N7 Castletown to Nenagh arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport
  19. 19. 199020 199074 ± Clash-E3660 180579 180579 71 84 70 11 16 O ) 115 m O.D. 3 79 93 30 36 81 69 18 52 47 23 43 28 83 180557 180557 9 25 33 10 31 67 76 58 0 25 m 74 92 55 199020 199074 Figure 5: Post-excavation plan of Clash E3660� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3660-clash-co-tipperary/11
  20. 20. issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport Plate 2: View of area of excavation at Clash from west, note the area of the Bronze Age house on the southern edge of the area of excavation� Context Number Dimensions (m) (l x w x d) Feature 8 0.42 x 0.3 x 0.35 Post-hole 28 0.60 x 1.10 x 0.03 Slot trench 31 0.34 x 0.32 x 0.8 Post-hole 33 0.4 x 0.35 x 0.38 Post-hole 52 2.23 x 0.40 x 0.11 Slot trench 56 0.32 x 0.28 x 0.21 Post-hole Table 1: Dimensions of the outer wall of the structure The interval between the post-holes was irregular. Post-holes C.33 and C.56 were lo- cated adjacent to one another, but the gap between C.31 and C.33 was more that 4 m. The post-holes were quite substantial in size (Figure 7, plate 3) but the posts themselves may have been removed as no post-pipes were recorded. Packing stones survived in post- hole C.8. The slot trenches were located on either side of the area of the entrance. The slot trench C.28 was very shallow and truncated. The second slot had survived to a depth of 0.11 m. Small quantities of charred seeds were recorded in the fills of post-holes C.8 and C.56. A Late Bronze Age date cal BC 1111-1103 1085-1064 1056-920 (UB 12360) was returned from post-hole C.31. The inner wall comprised four post-holes (C.18, C.25, C.45 and C.48), two pits (C.10 and C.36) and a slot trench C.47. The post-holes were located on the south-eastern, north- eastern and north-northwestern sides, representing more than 180 degrees of the total possible circumference of the inner wall. The two post-holes C.45 and C.48 flank the en-12
  21. 21. Clash-E3660 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3660-clash-co-tipperary/Plate 3: Post-excavation of post-hole C�8�Plate 4: Post-excavation of post-hole C�18� 13
  22. 22. 14 87 88 ± 93 81 30 36 52 issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 18 47 43 28 23 46 45 40 41 8 35 56 9 25 33 10 31 0 5 m Figure 6: Post-excavation plan of the Bronze Age house at Clash� arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport
  23. 23. Clash 1 Clash 1 E3660 E3660 South facing section of C.52 West facing section of C.3 Clash-E3660 # C.38 # # C.59 # # C.52 C.36 Clash 1 E3660 Clash 1 South west facing section of C.33 E3660 South facing section of C.31 # # # # # C.43 # C.32 # # # # # C.33 C.31 Clash 1 E3660 North east facing section of C.3 C.13 C.12 0 500 mm C.3 Figure 7: Sections of C�33, C�36, C�31, C�3 and C�52� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3660-clash-co-tipperary/15
  24. 24. issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport trance. Large stones were recorded in the fills of two of the post-holes and the slot trench (C.18, C.45 and C.49) (Plate 4). They probably functioned as packing stones. Context Number Dimensions (m) (l x w x d) Type 10 0.63 x 0.61 x 0.28 Pit 18 0.45 x 0.4 x 0.27 Post 25 0.4 x 0.38 x 0.15 Post 36 1.36 x 0.62 x 0.2 Pit 48 0.17 x 0.12 x 0.37 Post 45 0.62 x 0.3 x 0.45 Possible double post 47 1.35 x 0.85 x 0.17 Truncated slot trench Table 2: Dimensions of the inner wall of the structure Small quantities of charred plant remains were recorded in the fills of the two pits (C.10 and C.36) (Plates 5 and 6). A Late Bronze Age date cal BC 895-868 862-855 850- 800 (UB 12361) was returned from the pit C.36. Four stakeholes (C.35, C.40, C.41 and C.46) and a pit C.23 were located in the central interior of the structure (Plate 7). Small quantities of charred plant remains were recorded in the fill of pit C.23. Context Number Dimensions (m) (l x w x d) Type 23 0.45 x 0.45 x 0.35 Post-hole 35 0.11 x 0.11 x 0.11 Stake-hole 41 0.10 x 0.09 x 0.12 Stake-hole 40 0.10 x 0.07 x 0.12 Stake-hole 46 0.09 x 0.08 x 0.12 Stake-hole Table 3: Dimensions of the features in the interior of the structure Three stake-holes C. 9, C.88 and C.87, a pit C.30 and two irregular features (C.81 and C.93) were located outside the area of the structure. The pit was located close to and north of the entrance. Two of the stake-holes C.88 and C.87 were located adjacent to one another 5.5 m northeast of the entrance. The two irregular features were located 1 m southeast of them. The third stake-hole was located 0.5 m west of the external circuit of the outer wall of the structure. Context Number Dimensions (m) (l x w x d) Type 9 0.08 x 0.06 x 0.05 Stake-hole 10 0.63 x 0.61 x 0.28 Pit 81 0.80 x 0.22 x 0.18 Irregular 87 0.12 x 0.08 x 0.22 Stake-hole 88 0.09 x 0.08 x 0.18 Stake-hole 93 0.54 x 0.21 x 0.07 Irregular Table 4: Dimensions of features in proximity to the structure�16
  25. 25. Clash-E3660 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3660-clash-co-tipperary/Plate 5: Mid-excavation of pit C�36�Plate 6: Mid-excavation of pit C�10� 17
  26. 26. issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport Plate 7: Mid-excavation of pit C�23� Modern agricultural features A field drain (C.3), aligned northeast-southwest bisected and extended beyond the area of excavation (Figure 4). It was marked on the 25 inch (1897-1913) OS map sheet TN22. The furrows located on the western side of the ditch are contemporary with the ditch. The ditch measured 1.26 m in width and 0.27 m in depth (Figure 7). Two sherds of post-medieval pottery, cream ware, 18th/19th century in date, and transfer print ware, 19th/20th century in date, were recovered from the ditch. Five of the furrows (C.58, C.67, C.74, C.76 and C.92) were located in the south-west corner of the site. They were all aligned northeast - southwest and were similar in length, width and depth. A single furrow (C.79) was located approximately 21.5 m north of these furrows. It shared the same alignment as the other furrows and the ditch. Features of uncertain date There were an additional eight features recorded in the area of the excavation. There were scattered across the area of the excavation and were all, with the exception of C.16, located on the western side of the ditch C.3. Two (C.55 and C.69) were located in close proximity to the furrows. The majority were shallow in depth and varied in terms of size and shape. The fills were brown sandy silts and included charcoal. They may have been associated with modern agriculture. No artefacts or ecofacts were recovered from any of the features. Context Number Dimensions (m) (l x w x d) 11 0.42 x 0.46 x 0.1018
  27. 27. Clash-E3660 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3660-clash-co-tipperary/16 0.50 x 0.55 x 0.1555 1.10 x 0.46 x 0.0869 0.58 x 0.45 x 0.1570 0.37 x 0.3 x 0.1571 0.24 x 0.21 x 0.0983 0.55 x 0.21 x 0.0984 0.57 x 0.56 x 0.25Table 5: Dimensions of non-archaeological featuresPlant remainsThe plant remains were examined by Penny Johnston (Appendix 3). Seeds were recordedin five samples from three pits (C.36, C.23 and C.10) and two post-holes (C.8 and C.56).In all cases the quantities of plant remains recovered were small, with just 15 grains of ce-reals found in total from the site. Where identifiable, the cereals were barley and it is likelythat these were brought to site as foodstuffs. Other seeds included wild plants such asBlack bindweed (from the dock family) and flax. Both of these plant remains could havebeen collected either as food or as accidental inclusions gathered with the crop plants.LithicsThe lithics were examined by Farina Sternke (Appendix 4). A single flint blade (E3660:1:1)was recovered from the topsoil in the area of the Bronze Age house (Plate 8). It dates tothe first half of the Neolithic.CharcoalThe charcoal was examined by Mary Dillon in advance of radiocarbon dating.Radiocarbon datesRadiocarbon analysis was carried out by the 14 Chrono Centre in Queen’s UniversityBelfast. Dates were calibrated using Calib Rev5.0.2 (©1986-2005 M.Stuiver P.J. Re-imer) and in conjunction with Stuiver Reimer 1993 and Reimer et al. 2004.Lab code Context Material Un-calibrated δ 13 C 2 sigma Period date calibrationUB- C.32 Salix/populus charcoal cal BC 1039- -23.3 cal BC 1111- Middle-Late12360 from post-hole C.31 1033 1029- 1103 1085-1064 Bronze Age 973 957-939 1056-920UB- C.38 Prunus charcoal from cal BC -19.1 cal BC 895- Late Bronze12361 pit C.36 835-806 868 862-855 Age 850-800Table 6: Radiocarbon dates 19
  28. 28. issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport Plate 8: View of flint blade E3660:1:1�20
  29. 29. Clash-E3660 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3660-clash-co-tipperary/8 DiscussionEvidence of three phase of activity was recorded at Clash. The site is located 300 m, on asaddle, to the west of the Ollatrim River. An extensive archaeological complex dating tothe prehistoric and medieval periods has been recorded in Park townland, on the easternbank of the Ollatrim. A flint blade ((E3660:1:1) dating to the first half of the Neolithic was recovered fromthe topsoil. None of the features recorded on site could be assigned to the Neolithicperiod. The main phase of activity at the site dated to the Late Bronze Age. The incompleteremains of a structure was located in the south-eastern corner of the site on the edge of theLMA. It was defined by a double ring of post-holes but neither ring was complete. Theinternal diameter of the complete structure was 6.1 m and it would have enclosed an areaof 29.2 m2 if the circuit was complete. The entrance to the house faced east-northeast. A recent survey of Bronze Age houses in southern Ireland lists a total of 41 BronzeAge sites where 81 individual structures have been recorded (Doody 2007, 86–7). How-ever, surveys are quickly out of date at the moment, since development-led archaeologyhas resulted in an explosion of Bronze Age archaeology (Bruck 2009a, xvi). The excava-tion of nine Bronze Age houses on the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh will furtherincrease this number. Radiocarbon dates are pending for eight of the nine structures onthe N7 from the townlands of Castleroan, Derrybane, Drumbaun, Drumroe and Moat-quarter, the Late Bronze Age structure at Clash is the only definite to date. The numbersof Bronze Age structures may have to be revised on receipt of the dates. There is a diversityin house size, internal pattern and construction materials. In Britain there appears to bea number of regionally distinct house styles (Doody 2007, 97) but there is no establishedevidence for regional variation amongst Irish examples as yet. However, the discovery ofaxial symmetry in several houses excavated in Tipperary and North Cork has been noted(Tierney and Johnston 2009, 105). A similar phenomenon has also been identified inBritain (Guilbert 1982, 68– 9; Brück 1999). Three of the round post-built structures excavated on the N7 were constructed alongthe principle of axial symmetry. This means that house seemed to be arranged on a sortof axis between the entrance and a post-hole directly opposite it, two post-holes flank theentrance and the remaining post-holes have a corresponding partner at either side of theaxis. The distance between the post-holes on either side of the axis is roughly the same(Tierney and Johnston ibid). Three other incomplete structures, including the one atClash, may have originally been constructed along the same principles. The plant remains recovered at Clash are comparable to other domestic sites, for ex-ample Chancellorsland, Curraghatoor and Ballyvellish, in Co. Tipperary. At all of thesesites barley was the most common Bronze Age crop type and at many retrieval was spo-radic and poor. The final phase of occupation at Clash was in the modern period and was character-ised by a field boundary and furrows. 21
  30. 30. issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport 9 References Bruck, J. (2009a) Overview of findings, pp. xvi – xviii in McQuade, M., Molloy, B. and Moriarty, C. In the Shadow of the Galtees. Archaeological excavations along the route of the N8 Cashel to Mitchelstown Road Scheme. Dublin, National Roads Authority. Doody, M. (2007) Excavations at Curraghatoor, Co. Tipperary, University College Cork. Farrelly, J., and O’Brien, C. (2002) Archaeological Inventory of County Tipperary Vol. 1 - North Tipperary, The Stationery Office Dublin. Gardiner, M.J. and Radford,T. (1980) Soil Assocaitions of Ireland and Their Land Use Potential. Dublin, An Foras Talúntais. Guilbery, G. (1982) ‘Post-ring symmetry in roundhouses at Moel y Gaer and some other sites in prehistoric Britain’, in P J Drury (ed), Structural Recognition: approaches to the interpretation of excavated remains of buildings, 67 – 86. British Archaeological Reports 110. McLaughlin, M. and Conran, S. (2008) ‘The emerging Iron Age of South Munster’ in Seanda, Issue 3, 51-53. Dublin. National Inventory of Architectural Heritage (2006) An Introduction to the Architec- tural Heritage of North Tipperary. Government of Ireland. O’Conor, K.D. (1998) The Archaeology of Medieval Rural Settlement in Ireland, Discov- ery Programme Monographs No 3, Discovery Programme/Royal Irish Academy Dublin. Reimer, P.J., Baillie, M.G.L., Bard, E., Bayliss, A., Beck, J.W., Bertrand, C., Blackwell, P.G., Buck, C.E., Burr, G., Cutler, K.B., Damon, P.E., Edwards, R.L., Fairbanks, R.G., Friedrich, M., Guilderson, T.P., Hughen, K.A., Kromer, B., McCormac, F.G., Manning, S., Bronk Ramsey, C., Reimer, R.W., Remmele, S., Southon, J.R., Stuiver, M., Talamo, S., Taylor, F.W., van der Plicht, J. and Weyhenmeyer, C.E. (2004) ‘IntCal04 Terrestrial Radiocarbon Age Calibration, 0–26 Cal Kyr BP’, Radiocarbon 46, 1029-1058. Stuiver, M., and Reimer, P.J. (1993) ‘Extended (super 14) C data base and revised CALIB 3.0 (super 14) C age calibration program’, Radiocarbon 35, 215-230. Stout, M. (1997) The Irish Ringfort. Dublin, Four Courts Press. Taylor, K. (2008) ‘At home and on the road: two Iron Age sites in County Tipperary’ in Seanda, Issue 3, 54-55. Dublin. Woodman, P.C. (2000) ‘Hammers and Shoeboxes: New Agendas for Prehistory’., pp. 1 -10 in Desmond, A., Johnson, G., McCarthy, M., Sheehan, J. and Shee Twohig, E. New Agendas in Irish Prehistory. Papers in commemoration of Liz Anderson. Bray, Wordwell.22
  31. 31. 23 Appendix 1 Stratigraphic report N7 Castle- town Nenagh Clash 1 E3660 Context # Context Fill of Filled with Short Description Dimen- Interpretation Date Initials Type sions (m) (l x w x d) issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 1 Topsoil Firm, light greyish brown sandy silt. ?X?X This context represents the topsoil cover- 14/09/2007 NG Moderate medium and coarse sub- 0.2 ing the area of excavation. Post-Medieval angular pebbles. pottery sherds were recovered from this de- posit, indicating a recent date of formation. 2 Natural Stiff, light yellowish orange silty clay. This deposit represents naturally occur- 14/09/2007 NG Subsoil Moderate coarse sub-rounded peb- ring subsoil across area of excavation. Site bles. Moderate small and occasional stripped to this level. Colour and composi- medium sub-rounded stones. tion changes slightly across site. Context number represents the whole surface of subsoil. 3 Field Drain 0004, Linear in plan. Break of slope at top 62.43 x Cut of linear feature, most probably a field 17/09/2007 NG Cut 0005, and base is sharp on NW and SE. 1.26 x drain. Stones within fill suggest backfill- 0006, Sides gentle to steep in gradient and 0.27 ing for clearance or drainage. This context 0007, concaen to smooth in shape, Base is represents the amalgamted data from 0012, linear in plan; concave profile seven sections through the field drain, all 0013 information is averaged to include in strat index - original data can still be found on context sheets 4 Field Drain 0003 Firm, mid yellowish brown sand 62.43 x Fill of linear feature (field drain). Presence 17/09/2007 NG Fill silt. Moderate medium and coarse 1.29 x of charcoal suggests human activity in the sub-angular and sub-rounded peb- 0.25 area. Stones may have been deposited by bles. Moderate small and occasional deliberate backfilling for field clearance or medium and large sub-angular and drainage. This context represents the amal- sub-rounded stones. Occasional gamted data from seven sections through small pieces of charcoal. the field drain, all information is averaged to include in strat index - original data can still be found on context sheets. arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport
  32. 32. 24 5 Field Drain 0003 Hard, indurated, mid orangish 62.43 X Fill of cut C0003 only seen in Slot 2, 17/06/2007 ACH, Fill - Slot 2 brown sandy clay. Occasional medi- 1.14 x secondary fill of field drain. Related to MCH um sub-rounded pebbles. Occasional 0.33 context C0004 small angular stones. 6 Field Drain 0003 Indurated, dark reddish brown sandy 62.43 X Fill of cut C0003 only seen in Slot 2, pri- 17/06/2007 ACH, Fill - Slot 2 silt. Moderate medium angular peb- 0.48 x mary fill of field drain. MCH bles. Moderate small angular stones. 0.22 7 Field Drain 0003 Firm, mid yellowish brown sandy 62.43 Primary fill of cut C0003 only seen in Slot 18/09/2007 RK Fill - Slot 4 silt. Occasional fine and medium, x 1.0 x 4. Context was probably formed by alluvial issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 and moderate coarse sub-angular 0.15 action. Stone inclusions may indicate pos- and sub-rounded pebbles. Occasion- sible field clearance. al small and medium sub-angular and sub-rounded stones. 8 Posthole Cut 0024 Sub-circular in plan with rounded 0.42 x Cut of possible stone-packed posthole. Post 20/09/2007 DK corners. Break of slope top is 0.30 x pipe not visible - post probably removed. In gradual. Sides: steep and irregular 0.35 close proximity, and similar to cut C0033. on E; vertical and smooth elsewhere. Break of slope base is gradual. Base is sub-circular in plan; concave in profile. 9 Stakehole 0014 Oval in plan with rounded corners. 0.08 x Cut of possible stakehole, but not close to 19/09/2007 DOS Cut Break of slope top is sharp. Sides: 0.06 x any related structural features. steep and smooth on N; vertical else- 0.05 where. Break of slope base is gradual on S; sharp elsewhere. Base is oval in plan; pointed in profile. 10 Pit Cut 0022, Sub-circular in plan with rounded 0.63 x Cut of a sub-circular pit. Regular shape 19/09/2007 RW 0021 corners. Break of slope top is sharp 0.61 x and steep sides indicate that this pit was to gradual on N; sharp elsewhere. 0.28 intentionally dug. May be related to nearby Sides: moderate and irregular on cut C0023. N; vertical and concave on S and W; steep and smooth on E. Break of slope base is gradual on N; sharp elsewhere. Base is sub-circular in plan; flat in profile. arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport
  33. 33. 25 11 Cut 0017 Circular/irregular in plan with 0.42 x Cut of natural feature (possibly burnt 18/09/2007 MCH rounded corners. Break of slope top 0.46 x roots). Charcoal inclusions are indicative of is gradual. Sides: gentle/moderate 0.10 human activity - in-situ burning for root and irregular on S; gentle and con- clearance. cave elsewhere. Break of slope base is gradual. Base is irregular in plan; concave in profile. 12 Field Drain 0003 Mid brown sandy clay. Inclusions 62.43 X Primary fill of cut C0003 only seen in Slot 18/09/2007 KR Fill - Slot 1 of coarse angular pebbles, and small 1.55 x 1. Stone inclusions may indicate possible angular stones. 0.28 field clearance. issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 13 Field Drain 0003 Light orange clayey sand. Inclusions 62.43 X Secondary fill of cut C0003 only seen in 18/09/2007 KR Fill - Slot 1 of fine angular pebbles and small 0.31 x Slot 1. Possibly the equivalent to context angular stones. 0.12 C0004. May be related to C0005 and C0006. 14 Stakehole 0009 Loose, yellow/brown sand. Occa- 0.08 x Fill of possible stakehole C0009. Not close 19/09/2007 DOS Fill sional inclusions of charcoal. 0.06 x to any related structural features. 0.05 15 VOID 16 Pit Cut 0020 Oval in plan with rounded corners. 0.50 x Cut of a possible pit, may have formed due 18/09/2007 ACH Break of slope top is gradual. Sides: 0.55 x to natural factors but fairly regular in shape gentle and smooth on N; gentle and 0.15 concave on S; gentle and irregular on E; gentle and convex on W. Break of slope base is imperceptible. Base is oval in plan; tapered rounded point in profile. 17 Fill 0011 Firm, mid brown silty sand. Occa- 0.42 x Single fill of cut C0011, Most likely 18/09/2007 MCH sional medium sub-rounded pebbles. 0.46 x naturally deposited material. Charcoal Moderate small sub-rounded stones. 0.08 inclusions are indicative of possible burnt Moderate small pieces of charcoal. material - perhaps in situ burning of tree roots. arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport
  34. 34. 26 18 Cut 0019 Sub-circular in plan with rounded 0.45 x Cut of a probable non-archaeological fea- 18/09/2007 DOS corners. Break of slope top is sharp. 0.4 x ture. Possible geological borehole. Sides: moderate and irregular on N; 0.27 vertical and irregular/undercut on S and E; steep/vertical and irregular on W. Break of slope base is gradual on N, NE and NW; sharp elsewhere. Base is irregular in plan and profile. 19 Fill 0018 Soft, friable light greyish brown 0.45 x Fill of cut C0018. Possible redeposited ma- 18/09/2007 DOS issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 sandy silt. Occasional fine, medium 0.4 x terial from geological borehole. May have and coarse angular pebbles. Frequent 0.27 been dumped. small angular stones. Two medium and two large (0.48 x 0.29 x 0.06 m) (0.35 x 0.29 x 0.05 m) angular stones. Occasional charcoal flecks. 20 Pit Fill 0016 Firm, mid brown silty sand. Oc- 0.50 x Single fill of possible pit cut C0016. Natu- 18/09/2007 ACH casional fine sub-rounded pebbles. 0.15 x rally deposited context. Some charcoal Occasional small pieces of charcoal. 0.15 inclusions possibly indicate human activity - burning in-situ (tree roots?). 21 Pit Fill 0010 Stiff, mid yellowish brown silty clay. 0.63 x Context C0021 is the primary fill of pit 18/09/2007 RW Moderate small angular and sub- 0.61 x cut C0010. May have formed naturally, al- angular stones. Moderate charcoal 0.16 though the presence of redeposited natural flecks. Moderate flecks and occa- and layer of burnt material C0022 above sional small pieces of charcoal. may indicate that it was formed through backfilling into pit. 22 Pit Fill 0010 Stiff, dark greyish brown silty clay. 0.63 x Context C0022 is the secondary fill of 19/09/2007 RW Moderate small angular and sub- 0.61 x pit cut C0010. Formed through human angular stones. Frequent flecks and 0.08 activity - burnt material probably deposited small pieces of charcoal. Moderate into top of pit. Lower fill doesn’t appear to flecks and occasional small pieces of be heat affected, other than some charcoal burnt clay. and burnt clay inclusions (probably from C0022). Burnt clay in C0022 occurs as oc- casional flecks and blobs rather that a layer. arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport

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