Archaeological Report - Clash, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
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Archaeological Report - Clash, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)

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The excavation of the site at Clash comprised a truncated Bronze Age house dating to the Late Bronze Age. The structure was defined by a double ring of post-holes, the inner ring was concentric with ...

The excavation of the site at Clash comprised a truncated Bronze Age house dating to the Late Bronze Age. The structure was defined by a double ring of post-holes, the inner ring was concentric with the outer ring, but neither ring was complete. The internal diameter of the complete structure was 6.2 m. The entrance to the house faced east-northeast and measured 1.2 m in width. A small pit and four stake-holes were located centrally in the structure.

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    Archaeological Report - Clash, Co. Tipperary (Ireland) Archaeological Report - Clash, Co. Tipperary (Ireland) Document Transcript

    • Eachtra JournalIssue 11 [ISSN 2009-2237] Archaeological Excavation Report E3660 - Clash, Co. Tipperary Bronze Age House
    • EACHTRAArchaeological Projects Archaeological Excavation Report Clash Co. Tipperary Bronze Age House July 2011 Client: Laois County Council and National Roads Authority N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Contract 1) Project:: E no: E3660 Excavation Director John Tierney Written by: John Tierney
    • Archaeological Excavation Report Clash Co. Tipperary Excavation Director John Tierney Written By John Tierney EACHTRA Archaeological Projects CORK GALWAY The Forge, Innishannon, Co. Cork Unit 10, Kilkerrin Park, Liosbain Industrial Estate, Galwaytel: 021 4701616 | web: www.eachtra.ie | email: info@eachtra.ie tel: 091 763673 | web: www.eachtra.ie | email: galway@eachtra.ie
    • © 2011The Forge, Innishannon, Co Cork Set in 12pt Garamond Printed in Ireland
    • Table of Contents Summary���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������iii Acknowledgements�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� iv1 Scope of the project �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Route location��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 13 Receiving environment ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 34 Archaeological and historical background ��������������������������������������������������������������������� 4 Mesolithic(c�8000to4000BC)���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4 Neolithic(c�4000to2000BC)������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 4 � BronzeAge(c�2000to600BC)����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4 IronAge(c�500BCtoAD500)����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 6 Earlymedievalperiod(c�AD400to1100)����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 6 Highandlatermedievalperiods(c�AD1100to1650)���������������������������������������������������������������� 6 Post-medievalperiod(c�1650tothepresent)��������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 75 Site Location and Topography �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 76 Excavation methodology ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 97 Excavation results �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 98 Discussion �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 219 References ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������22Appendix 1 Stratigraphic report �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������23Appendix 2 Site Matrix ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 39Appendix 3 Group and subgroups ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������40Appendix 4 Plant remains ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������46Appendix 5 Lithics report �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 49 i
    • List of Figures Figure 1: Portion of map of Ireland showing the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrin- sallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme (Contract 1)� ������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 Figure 2: Discovery series Ordnance survet map showing the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme (Contract 1) and the location of all excavation sites� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 5 Figure 3: Portion of the Ist edition Ordnance Survey Map OF47 showing the location of Clash� ��� 8 Figure 4: Location and extent of Clash E3660 on the N7 Castletown to Nenagh �������������������������������10 Figure 5: Post-excavation plan of Clash E3660� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 11 Figure 6: Post-excavation plan of the Bronze Age house at Clash� ���������������������������������������������������������� 14 Figure 7: Sections of C�33, C�36, C�31, C�3 and C�52� ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 15 List of Plates Plate 1: Aerial view of Clash, note the Ollatrim River in the middle ground and the excavation at Park E3659 in the background� �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 7 � Plate 2: View of area of excavation at Clash from west, note the area of the Bronze Age house on the southern edge of the area of excavation� ������������������������������������������������������������������������ 12 Plate 3: Post-excavation of post-hole C�8� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 13 Plate 4: Post-excavation of post-hole C�18������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 13 Plate 5: Mid-excavation of pit C�36� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 17 Plate 6: Mid-excavation of pit C�10� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 17 Plate 7: Mid-excavation of pit C�23�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 18 Plate 8: View of flint blade E3660:1:1� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������20 List of Tables Table 1: Dimensions of the outer wall of the structure �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Table 2: Dimensions of the inner wall of the structure �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 16 Table 3: Dimensions of the features in the interior of the structure ������������������������������������������������������������� 16 Table 4: Dimensions of features in proximity to the structure� ����������������������������������������������������������������������� 16 Table 5: Dimensions of non-archaeological features ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 19 Table 6: Radiocarbon dates ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 19ii
    • Clash-E3660 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3660-clash-co-tipperary/SummaryThe excavation of the site at Clash comprised a truncated Bronze Age house dating to theLate Bronze Age. The structure was defined by a double ring of post-holes, the inner ringwas concentric with the outer ring, but neither ring was complete. The internal diameterof the complete structure was 6.2 m. The entrance to the house faced east-northeast andmeasured 1.2 m in width. A small pit and four stake-holes were located centrally in thestructure.Road project name N7 Castletown to NenaghSite name ClashE no. E3660Site director John TierneyTownland ClashParish BallymackeyCounty TipperaryBarony Upper OrmondOS Map Sheet No. TN22National Grid Reference 199051 180559 iii
    • issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport Acknowledgements The project was commissioned by Laois County Council and was funded by the Na- tional Roads Authority under the National Development Plan (2000-2006). The project archaeologist was Niall Roycroft. Kildare County Council supervised the archaeological contract with RE staff of Pat Dowling and Colum Fagan. Kildare County Council Sen- ior Executive Engineer was Joseph Kelly and Kildare County Council Senior Engineer was John Coppinger. The senior archaeologist was John Tierney and the post-excavation manager was Jacinta Kiely. Illustrations are by Maurizio Toscano, photographs by John Sunderland and Eagle Photography and aerial photography by StudioLab. Specialist anal- ysis was carried out by Mary Dillon and Penny Johnston and the 14 Chrono Centre at Queen’s University Belfast.iv
    • Clash-E3660 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3660-clash-co-tipperary/1 Scope of the projectEachtra Archaeological Projects were commissioned by Laois County Council and theNational Roads Authority to undertake archaeological works along 17.1 km (Contact1) of the 35km N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) national roadscheme (EIS approved in November 2005). The scheme runs from the eastern junctionof the present N7 Nenagh Bypass, North Tipperary a tie in to the M7/M8 Portlaoise-Castletown scheme to the south of Borris-in-Ossory in County Laois. The scheme is ap-proximately 191 hectares. Contract 1 comprises the western half of the scheme and runsfrom Clashnevin to Castleroan passing along the Tipperary North and Offaly countyborder regions. The Ministers Direction Number is A38. It was funded by the Irish Government under the National Development Plan 2000-2006. The total archaeological cost was administered by the National Roads Authoritythrough Laois County Council as part of the Authority’s commitment to protecting ourcultural heritage. The purpose of the archaeological services project was to conduct ar-chaeological site investigations within the lands made available for the scheme and toassess the nature and extent of any new potential archaeological sites uncovered. Phase 1 of the project (archaeological testing of the route) was carried out in 2007under licence E3371, E3372 and E3375-8 issued by Department of the Environment Her-itage and Local Government (DoEHLG) in consultation with the National Museumof Ireland. The principal aim of this phase of the project was to test for any previouslyunknown sites by a programme of centreline and offset testing and to test sites of archaeo-logical potential identified in the EIS. Phase 2 of the project (resolution) involved the resolution of all archaeological sitesidentified within the proposed road corridor prior to commencement of the constructionof the road. This phase of the project was carried out from June 2007 to February 2008and excavations were conducted under the management of a Senior Archaeologist. A totalof 27 sites were excavated during this phase of works under separate licences issued byDoEHLG. A post-excavation assessment and strategy document was prepared in Phase 3 of theproject to present a management strategy for dealing with post-excavation work aris-ing from archaeological works along the route of the new N7 Castletown to Nenagh. Itincluded a proposal for post-excavation and archiving work and a budget for the works.2 Route locationThe route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh road is located in Counties North Tipperaryand Offaly (OF) (Figure 1). The project (Contract 1) involves the construction of c. 17.5km of the N7 from Clashnevin east of Nenagh to Castleroan south-east of Dunkerrin. Itpasses through the townlands of Clashnevin, Derrybane, Newtown, Lissanisky, Killeisk,Garavally, Derrycarney, Garrynafanna, Gortnadrumman, Kilgorteen, Falleen, Knock-ane, Clash, Park, Rosdremid (OF), Clynoe (OF), Cullenwaine, Moneygall, Greenhills, 1
    • 2 180000 190000 200000 210000 220000 196000 196000 ( ! Nenagh issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 Derg (Lough) 185000 185000 174000 174000 0 8 16 Kilometres ± 180000 190000 200000 210000 220000 arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport Figure 1: Portion of map of Ireland showing the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme (Contract 1)�
    • Clash-E3660 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3660-clash-co-tipperary/Drumbaun, Busherstown (OF), Drumroe (OF), Moatquarter, Loughan (OF) and Cas-tleroan (OF). The townlands are located in the parishes of Ballymackey, Cullenwaine,Castletownely, Rathnaveoge, Finglas and Dunkerrin and the baronies of Upper Ormond,Ikerrin and Clonisk, The route begins at the eastern end of the Nenagh bypass at Clashnevin c. 5 km eastof Nenagh and continues eastward on the northern side of the existing N7 in Co. Tip-perary. It crosses a number of third class roads to the north of Toomyvara and 0.7 kmeast of Clash crossroads crosses the Ollatrim River. It extends into County Offaly directlyeast of Park. From here it crosses the R490 0.6 km north of Moneygall. It extends backin County Tipperary and through the demesne of Greenhills before crossing the existingN7 at the junction of Greenhills and Drumbaun townlands. It crosses back into CountyOffaly and climbs east into Busherstown and Drumroe. It crosses the Keeloge Streaminto Moatquarter in County Tipperary and extends northeast back into County Offalythrough the townlands of Loughan and Castleroan 1.4 km southwest of Dunkerrin.3 Receiving environmentNorth Tipperary is bounded on the west by the River Shannon and Lough Derg withthe Silvermines, to the south, and small hills extending towards Devilsbit and BorrisnoeMountains to the east. The mountains are composed largely of Silurian strata and OldRed Sandstone. Copper, silver and lead deposits have been mined in the Silvermines. Thegeology of the lowlands consists of Carboniferous limestone covered by glacial drift inaddition to tracts of raised bog. The western portion of the study area is drained by the Ollatrim River which flowswestwards into the River Ballintotty which in turns drains into the River Nenagh. Theeastern portion is drained by the Keeloge Stream and other small water sources. These risein the foothills of the Silvermine Mountains and flow north. The Keeloge drains into theLittle Brosna River c. 1 km south of Shinrone, Co Offaly. The Brosna turns north anddrains into the Shannon south of Banagher. The largest population centre in the area is Nenagh. The smaller population centres,are Toomyvara, Moneygall and Dunkerrin. The soils on the route are characterised by 80% grey brown podzolics, 10% gleys, 5%brown earths and 5% basis peat. They are derived from glacial till of predominantly Car-boniferous limestone composition. These soils occur in Tipperary and Offaly and have awide use range being suitable for both tillage and pasture (Gardiner and Radford 1980,97-99). Land use along the route was a mix of grassland devoted to intensive dairying andcattle-rearing and tillage. 3
    • issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport 4 Archaeological and historical background Archaeological sites of numerous periods were discovered along the route of the new road (Figure 2). The periods are referred to as follows: Mesolithic (c. 8000 to 4000 BC), Neo- lithic (c. 4000 to 2000 BC), Bronze Age (c. 2000 to 600 BC), and Iron Age (c. 500 BC to AD 500), early medieval period (c. AD 500 to 1100), medieval period (c. AD 1100 to 1650), post-medieval period (c. AD 1650 to the present). Mesolithic (c. 8000 to 4000 BC) The earliest known human settlement in Ireland dates from the Mesolithic period (c. 8000 BC - 4000 BC). The majority of the evidence (flint scatters) for Mesolithic occupa- tion has come from the river valleys. No evidence for the Mesolithic was recorded on the route. Neolithic (c. 4000 to 2000 BC) The Neolithic Period is characterised by the introduction of agriculture and the begin- nings of the clearance of the woodlands. The population increased and became more sedentary in nature. The most important Neolithic site in the vicinity was at Tullahedy recorded on the route of the Nenagh by-pass. It was a specialist chert arrow manufactur- ing site. No evidence for a Neolithic site was recorded on the route but stone tools dating to the Neolithic were recorded at Busherstown E3661, Clash E3660, Cullenwaine E3741 and Greenhills 2 and 3 E3637 and E3658. Stone tools dating to the late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age were recorded at Busherstown E3661, Castleroan E3909, Cullenwaine E3741, Derrybane 1 E3585, Drumroe E3773, Greenhills 1 E3638 and Moatquarter E3910 Bronze Age (c. 2000 to 600BC) The Bronze Age is characterised by the introduction of metallurgy and an increase in settlement and burial sites. Copper ores were mined and copper, bronze and gold items manufactured. The range of burial site types includes cist graves, pit and urn burials, cremation cemeteries, barrows, ring-ditches and wedge tombs. Stone circles and stand- ing stones also date to the Bronze Age. Both enclosed and unenclosed settlement sites are known. The most prolific Bronze Age site type is the fulacht fiadh. These monuments survive as low mounds of charcoal rich black silt, packed with heat-shattered stones, and generally situated close to a water source. Fulachta fiadh are generally classified as ‘cook- ing places’, whereby stones were heated in a hearth and subsequently placed in a trough of water, the water continued to boil with the addition of hot stones and wrapped food was cooked within the hot water. The trough eventually filled with small stones, ash and charcoal that were removed, forming the basis of the familiar mound.4
    • 190400 196200 202000 207800 Clash-E3660 186400 186400 Castleroan 1 E 3909 Clash 1 Busherstown 1 E 3661 Loughan 1 Greenhills 3 E 4000 E 3658 Moneygall 2 Culleenwaine 1 E 3635 E 3741 Moatquarter 1 Clynoe 2 E 3910 E 3774 181800 181800 Park 1 Drumroe 1 Garravally Kilgorteen 1 E 3659 E 3773 E 3589 E 3739 Drumbaun 2 Derrybane 2 E 3912 E 3591 Greenhills 1 Greenhills 2 E 3638 E 3637 Clashnevin 2 E 3590 Clash 1 Park 2 E 3660 E 3772 Derrycarney 1 E 3740 Clashnevin 1 Derrybane 1 Killeisk 1 E 3586 E 3585 E 3587 177200 177200 0 3 6 Kilometres ± 190400 196200 202000 207800 Figure 2: Discovery series Ordnance survet map showing the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme (Contract 1) and the location of all http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3660-clash-co-tipperary/5 excavation sites�
    • issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport Two new fulachta fiadh or burnt mounds were recorded at Clashnevin 1 E3586, Cullenwaine E3741 and six at three separate locations in Greenhills, E3638, E3637 and E3658. Evidence of nine roundhouses or partial round structures were recorded; two at Castleroan E3909, Derrybane 2 E3591 and Drumbaun 2 E3912 and one at Clash E3660, Drumroe E3773 and Moatquarter E3910. Iron Age (c. 500 BC to AD 500) Upto recently there was little evidence of a significant Iron Age presence in Munster. Settlement sites are few and far between as well as being difficult to identify (Woodman, 2000) while the material culture of this period is limited. Linear earthworks, believed to have marked tribal boundaries, and hillforts are two of the most visible monuments of the period. Ten percent of sites excavated on NRA road schemes in recent years have produced Iron Age dates. The dates have led to the identification of 30 new Iron Age sites in Munster from road schemes in counties Cork, Limerick and Tipperary (McLaughlin 2008, 51). These include a ditched enclosure in Ballywilliam and a wooden trackway in Annaholty Bog excavated on the route of the N7 Nenagh-Limerick (Taylor 2008, 54). Early medieval period (c. AD 400 to 1100) The early medieval period is characterised by the arrival of Christianity to Ireland. The characteristic monument type of the period is the ringfort. Ringforts are the most nu- merous archaeological monument found in Ireland, with estimates of between 30,000 and 50,000 illustrated on the first edition of the Ordnance Survey 6” maps of the 1840’s (Barry 1987). As a result of continued research, the construction of these monuments has a narrow date range during the early medieval period between the 7th and 9th centuries AD. Although there are some very elaborate examples of ringforts, they often take the form of a simple earth or stone enclosure functioning as settlements for all classes of secu- lar society (Stout 1997). North Tipperary is rich in early ecclesiastical sites and the remains of these religious centres are at the core of some of the towns and villages. Roscrea, for example, was chosen by St Cronan as a location for his monastery in the seventh century as it was located at the crossroads on the Slighe Dála, an important roadway in early medieval times (NIAH 2006, 4-8). A possible early medieval enclosure and associated road way was recorded at Killeisk E3587. A denuded ringfort (OF046-013) was excavated at Clynoe 2 E3774. High and later medieval periods (c. AD 1100 to 1650) This period is characterized by the arrival of the Anglo-Normans and the building of tow- er houses. The Anglo-Normans obtained charters in the thirteenth century for the towns of Nenagh, Roscrea, Thurles and Templemore and established markets. Nenagh grew rapidly in the aftermath of the granting of the lands of Munster to Theobald fitzWalter in6
    • Clash-E3660 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3660-clash-co-tipperary/1185 (ibid. 8). Moated sites represent the remains of isolated, semi-defended homesteadsin rural areas. They were build mainly in the late thirteenth and early fourteenth cen-turies in counties, such as Wexford, Kilkenny, Tipperary, mid-Cork and Limerick, thatwere colonised by English settlers (O’Conor 1998, 58). The Archaeological Inventory forNorth Tipperary lists 39 moated sites (2002, 298). A newly recorded moated site was excavated at Busherstown E3661.Post-medieval period (c. 1650 to the present).The post-medieval period is characterised by mills, limekilns, workhouses, country hous-es and associated demesnes, vernacular buildings and field systems (Figure 3). A smalldemesne associated with a county house was recorded at Greenhills.5 Site Location and TopographyThe site at Clash 1 was located c. 300m to the west of the Ollatrim River (Plate 1). Theland was in pasture and sloped to the river. The extensive prehistoric and medieval site atPark E3659 was located on the eastern bank of the Ollatrim River.Plate 1: Aerial view of Clash, note the Ollatrim River in the middle ground and the excavation at Park E3659 in the background� 7
    • 8 198899 199899 ROSDREHID CLYNOE CARROWEA BALLYKNOCKANE 181208 181208 Ollatrim (River) Park 2 issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 Park 1 PARK Clash 1 180558 180558 CLASH 0 300 600 ¥ Meters 198899 199899 Figure 3: Portion of the Ist edition Ordnance Survey Map OF47 showing the location of Clash� arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport
    • Clash-E3660 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3660-clash-co-tipperary/6 Excavation methodologyThe site was mechanically stripped of topsoil under strict archaeological supervision.Stripping was done with a tracked machine with a flat toothless bucket. Topsoil strippingcommenced in the areas of identified archaeology and continued radially outward untilthe limit of the road take was reached or until the limit of the archaeological remains wasfully defined. A grid was set up in the excavation area(s) and all archaeological featureswere sufficiently cleaned, recorded and excavated so as to enable an accurate and mean-ingful record of the site to be preserved. The excavation, environmental sampling, sitephotographs, site drawings, find care and retrieval, on-site recording and site archive wasas per the Procedures for Archaeological works as attached to the licence method state-ments for excavation licences. The site was excavated from 8 September 2008 to the 22 September 2008. Only areaswithin the LMA (lands made available) were resolved. The full extent of the area of exca-vation measured 3400 m sq (Figure 4). The full record of excavated contexts is recorded in the context register and the strati-graphic matrix (Appendix 1). Detailed stratigraphic descriptions are found in the groupsand sub-groups text (Appendix 2). The context register maybe viewed in the EAPOD(Eachtra Archaeological Projects office database) in the accompanying CD.7 Excavation resultsThe partial remains of a Bronze Age structure were recorded in the south-eastern cornerof the area of excavation, on the edge of the LMA. The features were grouped in an areameasuring 10 m sq. A ditch, orientated south-west – north-east bisected the area of thesite. There were a group of furrows located to the west of the ditch and orientated in thesame direction. Eight features of uncertain date were scattered across the area of the ex-cavation (Figure 5, plate 2).The StructureA truncated house was identified in the south-eastern area of the excavation at Clash. Itwas defined by a double ring of post-holes (Figure 6), the inner ring was concentric withthe outer ring, but neither ring was complete. The internal diameter of the complete struc-ture was 6.1 m and it would have enclosed an area of 29.2 m2 if the circuit was complete.The entrance to the house, between two slot trenches, faced east-northeast and measured1.2 m in width. The outer wall of the structure comprised four post-holes (C.8, C.31, C.33 and C.56)and two slot trenches (C.28 and C.52). The post-holes were located on the south-easternside only, representing c. 90 degrees of the total possible circumference of the outer wall.The slot trenches were situated on either side of the entrance set back slightly from thering of posts. 9
    • 198678 199048 19941810 PA R K 82 00 180805 180805 81 00 80 00 CLASH issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 79 00 O ll atrim (R iver) 78 00 180575 180575 770 0 760 0 750 0 740 0 730 0 720 0 710 0 180345 180345 Clash 1 (E3660) 0 100 200 Metres ± 198678 199048 199418 Figure 4: Location and extent of Clash E3660 on the N7 Castletown to Nenagh arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport
    • 199020 199074 ± Clash-E3660 180579 180579 71 84 70 11 16 O ) 115 m O.D. 3 79 93 30 36 81 69 18 52 47 23 43 28 83 180557 180557 9 25 33 10 31 67 76 58 0 25 m 74 92 55 199020 199074 Figure 5: Post-excavation plan of Clash E3660� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3660-clash-co-tipperary/11
    • issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport Plate 2: View of area of excavation at Clash from west, note the area of the Bronze Age house on the southern edge of the area of excavation� Context Number Dimensions (m) (l x w x d) Feature 8 0.42 x 0.3 x 0.35 Post-hole 28 0.60 x 1.10 x 0.03 Slot trench 31 0.34 x 0.32 x 0.8 Post-hole 33 0.4 x 0.35 x 0.38 Post-hole 52 2.23 x 0.40 x 0.11 Slot trench 56 0.32 x 0.28 x 0.21 Post-hole Table 1: Dimensions of the outer wall of the structure The interval between the post-holes was irregular. Post-holes C.33 and C.56 were lo- cated adjacent to one another, but the gap between C.31 and C.33 was more that 4 m. The post-holes were quite substantial in size (Figure 7, plate 3) but the posts themselves may have been removed as no post-pipes were recorded. Packing stones survived in post- hole C.8. The slot trenches were located on either side of the area of the entrance. The slot trench C.28 was very shallow and truncated. The second slot had survived to a depth of 0.11 m. Small quantities of charred seeds were recorded in the fills of post-holes C.8 and C.56. A Late Bronze Age date cal BC 1111-1103 1085-1064 1056-920 (UB 12360) was returned from post-hole C.31. The inner wall comprised four post-holes (C.18, C.25, C.45 and C.48), two pits (C.10 and C.36) and a slot trench C.47. The post-holes were located on the south-eastern, north- eastern and north-northwestern sides, representing more than 180 degrees of the total possible circumference of the inner wall. The two post-holes C.45 and C.48 flank the en-12
    • Clash-E3660 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3660-clash-co-tipperary/Plate 3: Post-excavation of post-hole C�8�Plate 4: Post-excavation of post-hole C�18� 13
    • 14 87 88 ± 93 81 30 36 52 issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 18 47 43 28 23 46 45 40 41 8 35 56 9 25 33 10 31 0 5 m Figure 6: Post-excavation plan of the Bronze Age house at Clash� arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport
    • Clash 1 Clash 1 E3660 E3660 South facing section of C.52 West facing section of C.3 Clash-E3660 # C.38 # # C.59 # # C.52 C.36 Clash 1 E3660 Clash 1 South west facing section of C.33 E3660 South facing section of C.31 # # # # # C.43 # C.32 # # # # # C.33 C.31 Clash 1 E3660 North east facing section of C.3 C.13 C.12 0 500 mm C.3 Figure 7: Sections of C�33, C�36, C�31, C�3 and C�52� http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3660-clash-co-tipperary/15
    • issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport trance. Large stones were recorded in the fills of two of the post-holes and the slot trench (C.18, C.45 and C.49) (Plate 4). They probably functioned as packing stones. Context Number Dimensions (m) (l x w x d) Type 10 0.63 x 0.61 x 0.28 Pit 18 0.45 x 0.4 x 0.27 Post 25 0.4 x 0.38 x 0.15 Post 36 1.36 x 0.62 x 0.2 Pit 48 0.17 x 0.12 x 0.37 Post 45 0.62 x 0.3 x 0.45 Possible double post 47 1.35 x 0.85 x 0.17 Truncated slot trench Table 2: Dimensions of the inner wall of the structure Small quantities of charred plant remains were recorded in the fills of the two pits (C.10 and C.36) (Plates 5 and 6). A Late Bronze Age date cal BC 895-868 862-855 850- 800 (UB 12361) was returned from the pit C.36. Four stakeholes (C.35, C.40, C.41 and C.46) and a pit C.23 were located in the central interior of the structure (Plate 7). Small quantities of charred plant remains were recorded in the fill of pit C.23. Context Number Dimensions (m) (l x w x d) Type 23 0.45 x 0.45 x 0.35 Post-hole 35 0.11 x 0.11 x 0.11 Stake-hole 41 0.10 x 0.09 x 0.12 Stake-hole 40 0.10 x 0.07 x 0.12 Stake-hole 46 0.09 x 0.08 x 0.12 Stake-hole Table 3: Dimensions of the features in the interior of the structure Three stake-holes C. 9, C.88 and C.87, a pit C.30 and two irregular features (C.81 and C.93) were located outside the area of the structure. The pit was located close to and north of the entrance. Two of the stake-holes C.88 and C.87 were located adjacent to one another 5.5 m northeast of the entrance. The two irregular features were located 1 m southeast of them. The third stake-hole was located 0.5 m west of the external circuit of the outer wall of the structure. Context Number Dimensions (m) (l x w x d) Type 9 0.08 x 0.06 x 0.05 Stake-hole 10 0.63 x 0.61 x 0.28 Pit 81 0.80 x 0.22 x 0.18 Irregular 87 0.12 x 0.08 x 0.22 Stake-hole 88 0.09 x 0.08 x 0.18 Stake-hole 93 0.54 x 0.21 x 0.07 Irregular Table 4: Dimensions of features in proximity to the structure�16
    • Clash-E3660 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3660-clash-co-tipperary/Plate 5: Mid-excavation of pit C�36�Plate 6: Mid-excavation of pit C�10� 17
    • issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport Plate 7: Mid-excavation of pit C�23� Modern agricultural features A field drain (C.3), aligned northeast-southwest bisected and extended beyond the area of excavation (Figure 4). It was marked on the 25 inch (1897-1913) OS map sheet TN22. The furrows located on the western side of the ditch are contemporary with the ditch. The ditch measured 1.26 m in width and 0.27 m in depth (Figure 7). Two sherds of post-medieval pottery, cream ware, 18th/19th century in date, and transfer print ware, 19th/20th century in date, were recovered from the ditch. Five of the furrows (C.58, C.67, C.74, C.76 and C.92) were located in the south-west corner of the site. They were all aligned northeast - southwest and were similar in length, width and depth. A single furrow (C.79) was located approximately 21.5 m north of these furrows. It shared the same alignment as the other furrows and the ditch. Features of uncertain date There were an additional eight features recorded in the area of the excavation. There were scattered across the area of the excavation and were all, with the exception of C.16, located on the western side of the ditch C.3. Two (C.55 and C.69) were located in close proximity to the furrows. The majority were shallow in depth and varied in terms of size and shape. The fills were brown sandy silts and included charcoal. They may have been associated with modern agriculture. No artefacts or ecofacts were recovered from any of the features. Context Number Dimensions (m) (l x w x d) 11 0.42 x 0.46 x 0.1018
    • Clash-E3660 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3660-clash-co-tipperary/16 0.50 x 0.55 x 0.1555 1.10 x 0.46 x 0.0869 0.58 x 0.45 x 0.1570 0.37 x 0.3 x 0.1571 0.24 x 0.21 x 0.0983 0.55 x 0.21 x 0.0984 0.57 x 0.56 x 0.25Table 5: Dimensions of non-archaeological featuresPlant remainsThe plant remains were examined by Penny Johnston (Appendix 3). Seeds were recordedin five samples from three pits (C.36, C.23 and C.10) and two post-holes (C.8 and C.56).In all cases the quantities of plant remains recovered were small, with just 15 grains of ce-reals found in total from the site. Where identifiable, the cereals were barley and it is likelythat these were brought to site as foodstuffs. Other seeds included wild plants such asBlack bindweed (from the dock family) and flax. Both of these plant remains could havebeen collected either as food or as accidental inclusions gathered with the crop plants.LithicsThe lithics were examined by Farina Sternke (Appendix 4). A single flint blade (E3660:1:1)was recovered from the topsoil in the area of the Bronze Age house (Plate 8). It dates tothe first half of the Neolithic.CharcoalThe charcoal was examined by Mary Dillon in advance of radiocarbon dating.Radiocarbon datesRadiocarbon analysis was carried out by the 14 Chrono Centre in Queen’s UniversityBelfast. Dates were calibrated using Calib Rev5.0.2 (©1986-2005 M.Stuiver & P.J. Re-imer) and in conjunction with Stuiver & Reimer 1993 and Reimer et al. 2004.Lab code Context Material Un-calibrated δ 13 C 2 sigma Period date calibrationUB- C.32 Salix/populus charcoal cal BC 1039- -23.3 cal BC 1111- Middle-Late12360 from post-hole C.31 1033 1029- 1103 1085-1064 Bronze Age 973 957-939 1056-920UB- C.38 Prunus charcoal from cal BC -19.1 cal BC 895- Late Bronze12361 pit C.36 835-806 868 862-855 Age 850-800Table 6: Radiocarbon dates 19
    • issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport Plate 8: View of flint blade E3660:1:1�20
    • Clash-E3660 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3660-clash-co-tipperary/8 DiscussionEvidence of three phase of activity was recorded at Clash. The site is located 300 m, on asaddle, to the west of the Ollatrim River. An extensive archaeological complex dating tothe prehistoric and medieval periods has been recorded in Park townland, on the easternbank of the Ollatrim. A flint blade ((E3660:1:1) dating to the first half of the Neolithic was recovered fromthe topsoil. None of the features recorded on site could be assigned to the Neolithicperiod. The main phase of activity at the site dated to the Late Bronze Age. The incompleteremains of a structure was located in the south-eastern corner of the site on the edge of theLMA. It was defined by a double ring of post-holes but neither ring was complete. Theinternal diameter of the complete structure was 6.1 m and it would have enclosed an areaof 29.2 m2 if the circuit was complete. The entrance to the house faced east-northeast. A recent survey of Bronze Age houses in southern Ireland lists a total of 41 BronzeAge sites where 81 individual structures have been recorded (Doody 2007, 86–7). How-ever, surveys are quickly out of date at the moment, since development-led archaeologyhas resulted in an explosion of Bronze Age archaeology (Bruck 2009a, xvi). The excava-tion of nine Bronze Age houses on the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh will furtherincrease this number. Radiocarbon dates are pending for eight of the nine structures onthe N7 from the townlands of Castleroan, Derrybane, Drumbaun, Drumroe and Moat-quarter, the Late Bronze Age structure at Clash is the only definite to date. The numbersof Bronze Age structures may have to be revised on receipt of the dates. There is a diversityin house size, internal pattern and construction materials. In Britain there appears to bea number of regionally distinct house styles (Doody 2007, 97) but there is no establishedevidence for regional variation amongst Irish examples as yet. However, the discovery ofaxial symmetry in several houses excavated in Tipperary and North Cork has been noted(Tierney and Johnston 2009, 105). A similar phenomenon has also been identified inBritain (Guilbert 1982, 68– 9; Brück 1999). Three of the round post-built structures excavated on the N7 were constructed alongthe principle of axial symmetry. This means that house seemed to be arranged on a sortof axis between the entrance and a post-hole directly opposite it, two post-holes flank theentrance and the remaining post-holes have a corresponding partner at either side of theaxis. The distance between the post-holes on either side of the axis is roughly the same(Tierney and Johnston ibid). Three other incomplete structures, including the one atClash, may have originally been constructed along the same principles. The plant remains recovered at Clash are comparable to other domestic sites, for ex-ample Chancellorsland, Curraghatoor and Ballyvellish, in Co. Tipperary. At all of thesesites barley was the most common Bronze Age crop type and at many retrieval was spo-radic and poor. The final phase of occupation at Clash was in the modern period and was character-ised by a field boundary and furrows. 21
    • issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport 9 References Bruck, J. (2009a) Overview of findings, pp. xvi – xviii in McQuade, M., Molloy, B. and Moriarty, C. In the Shadow of the Galtees. Archaeological excavations along the route of the N8 Cashel to Mitchelstown Road Scheme. Dublin, National Roads Authority. Doody, M. (2007) Excavations at Curraghatoor, Co. Tipperary, University College Cork. Farrelly, J., and O’Brien, C. (2002) Archaeological Inventory of County Tipperary Vol. 1 - North Tipperary, The Stationery Office Dublin. Gardiner, M.J. and Radford,T. (1980) Soil Assocaitions of Ireland and Their Land Use Potential. Dublin, An Foras Talúntais. Guilbery, G. (1982) ‘Post-ring symmetry in roundhouses at Moel y Gaer and some other sites in prehistoric Britain’, in P J Drury (ed), Structural Recognition: approaches to the interpretation of excavated remains of buildings, 67 – 86. British Archaeological Reports 110. McLaughlin, M. and Conran, S. (2008) ‘The emerging Iron Age of South Munster’ in Seanda, Issue 3, 51-53. Dublin. National Inventory of Architectural Heritage (2006) An Introduction to the Architec- tural Heritage of North Tipperary. Government of Ireland. O’Conor, K.D. (1998) The Archaeology of Medieval Rural Settlement in Ireland, Discov- ery Programme Monographs No 3, Discovery Programme/Royal Irish Academy Dublin. Reimer, P.J., Baillie, M.G.L., Bard, E., Bayliss, A., Beck, J.W., Bertrand, C., Blackwell, P.G., Buck, C.E., Burr, G., Cutler, K.B., Damon, P.E., Edwards, R.L., Fairbanks, R.G., Friedrich, M., Guilderson, T.P., Hughen, K.A., Kromer, B., McCormac, F.G., Manning, S., Bronk Ramsey, C., Reimer, R.W., Remmele, S., Southon, J.R., Stuiver, M., Talamo, S., Taylor, F.W., van der Plicht, J. and Weyhenmeyer, C.E. (2004) ‘IntCal04 Terrestrial Radiocarbon Age Calibration, 0–26 Cal Kyr BP’, Radiocarbon 46, 1029-1058. Stuiver, M., and Reimer, P.J. (1993) ‘Extended (super 14) C data base and revised CALIB 3.0 (super 14) C age calibration program’, Radiocarbon 35, 215-230. Stout, M. (1997) The Irish Ringfort. Dublin, Four Courts Press. Taylor, K. (2008) ‘At home and on the road: two Iron Age sites in County Tipperary’ in Seanda, Issue 3, 54-55. Dublin. Woodman, P.C. (2000) ‘Hammers and Shoeboxes: New Agendas for Prehistory’., pp. 1 -10 in Desmond, A., Johnson, G., McCarthy, M., Sheehan, J. and Shee Twohig, E. New Agendas in Irish Prehistory. Papers in commemoration of Liz Anderson. Bray, Wordwell.22
    • 23 Appendix 1 Stratigraphic report N7 Castle- town Nenagh Clash 1 E3660 Context # Context Fill of Filled with Short Description Dimen- Interpretation Date Initials Type sions (m) (l x w x d) issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 1 Topsoil Firm, light greyish brown sandy silt. ?X?X This context represents the topsoil cover- 14/09/2007 NG Moderate medium and coarse sub- 0.2 ing the area of excavation. Post-Medieval angular pebbles. pottery sherds were recovered from this de- posit, indicating a recent date of formation. 2 Natural Stiff, light yellowish orange silty clay. This deposit represents naturally occur- 14/09/2007 NG Subsoil Moderate coarse sub-rounded peb- ring subsoil across area of excavation. Site bles. Moderate small and occasional stripped to this level. Colour and composi- medium sub-rounded stones. tion changes slightly across site. Context number represents the whole surface of subsoil. 3 Field Drain 0004, Linear in plan. Break of slope at top 62.43 x Cut of linear feature, most probably a field 17/09/2007 NG Cut 0005, and base is sharp on NW and SE. 1.26 x drain. Stones within fill suggest backfill- 0006, Sides gentle to steep in gradient and 0.27 ing for clearance or drainage. This context 0007, concaen to smooth in shape, Base is represents the amalgamted data from 0012, linear in plan; concave profile seven sections through the field drain, all 0013 information is averaged to include in strat index - original data can still be found on context sheets 4 Field Drain 0003 Firm, mid yellowish brown sand 62.43 x Fill of linear feature (field drain). Presence 17/09/2007 NG Fill silt. Moderate medium and coarse 1.29 x of charcoal suggests human activity in the sub-angular and sub-rounded peb- 0.25 area. Stones may have been deposited by bles. Moderate small and occasional deliberate backfilling for field clearance or medium and large sub-angular and drainage. This context represents the amal- sub-rounded stones. Occasional gamted data from seven sections through small pieces of charcoal. the field drain, all information is averaged to include in strat index - original data can still be found on context sheets. arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport
    • 24 5 Field Drain 0003 Hard, indurated, mid orangish 62.43 X Fill of cut C0003 only seen in Slot 2, 17/06/2007 ACH, Fill - Slot 2 brown sandy clay. Occasional medi- 1.14 x secondary fill of field drain. Related to MCH um sub-rounded pebbles. Occasional 0.33 context C0004 small angular stones. 6 Field Drain 0003 Indurated, dark reddish brown sandy 62.43 X Fill of cut C0003 only seen in Slot 2, pri- 17/06/2007 ACH, Fill - Slot 2 silt. Moderate medium angular peb- 0.48 x mary fill of field drain. MCH bles. Moderate small angular stones. 0.22 7 Field Drain 0003 Firm, mid yellowish brown sandy 62.43 Primary fill of cut C0003 only seen in Slot 18/09/2007 RK Fill - Slot 4 silt. Occasional fine and medium, x 1.0 x 4. Context was probably formed by alluvial issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 and moderate coarse sub-angular 0.15 action. Stone inclusions may indicate pos- and sub-rounded pebbles. Occasion- sible field clearance. al small and medium sub-angular and sub-rounded stones. 8 Posthole Cut 0024 Sub-circular in plan with rounded 0.42 x Cut of possible stone-packed posthole. Post 20/09/2007 DK corners. Break of slope top is 0.30 x pipe not visible - post probably removed. In gradual. Sides: steep and irregular 0.35 close proximity, and similar to cut C0033. on E; vertical and smooth elsewhere. Break of slope base is gradual. Base is sub-circular in plan; concave in profile. 9 Stakehole 0014 Oval in plan with rounded corners. 0.08 x Cut of possible stakehole, but not close to 19/09/2007 DOS Cut Break of slope top is sharp. Sides: 0.06 x any related structural features. steep and smooth on N; vertical else- 0.05 where. Break of slope base is gradual on S; sharp elsewhere. Base is oval in plan; pointed in profile. 10 Pit Cut 0022, Sub-circular in plan with rounded 0.63 x Cut of a sub-circular pit. Regular shape 19/09/2007 RW 0021 corners. Break of slope top is sharp 0.61 x and steep sides indicate that this pit was to gradual on N; sharp elsewhere. 0.28 intentionally dug. May be related to nearby Sides: moderate and irregular on cut C0023. N; vertical and concave on S and W; steep and smooth on E. Break of slope base is gradual on N; sharp elsewhere. Base is sub-circular in plan; flat in profile. arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport
    • 25 11 Cut 0017 Circular/irregular in plan with 0.42 x Cut of natural feature (possibly burnt 18/09/2007 MCH rounded corners. Break of slope top 0.46 x roots). Charcoal inclusions are indicative of is gradual. Sides: gentle/moderate 0.10 human activity - in-situ burning for root and irregular on S; gentle and con- clearance. cave elsewhere. Break of slope base is gradual. Base is irregular in plan; concave in profile. 12 Field Drain 0003 Mid brown sandy clay. Inclusions 62.43 X Primary fill of cut C0003 only seen in Slot 18/09/2007 KR Fill - Slot 1 of coarse angular pebbles, and small 1.55 x 1. Stone inclusions may indicate possible angular stones. 0.28 field clearance. issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 13 Field Drain 0003 Light orange clayey sand. Inclusions 62.43 X Secondary fill of cut C0003 only seen in 18/09/2007 KR Fill - Slot 1 of fine angular pebbles and small 0.31 x Slot 1. Possibly the equivalent to context angular stones. 0.12 C0004. May be related to C0005 and C0006. 14 Stakehole 0009 Loose, yellow/brown sand. Occa- 0.08 x Fill of possible stakehole C0009. Not close 19/09/2007 DOS Fill sional inclusions of charcoal. 0.06 x to any related structural features. 0.05 15 VOID 16 Pit Cut 0020 Oval in plan with rounded corners. 0.50 x Cut of a possible pit, may have formed due 18/09/2007 ACH Break of slope top is gradual. Sides: 0.55 x to natural factors but fairly regular in shape gentle and smooth on N; gentle and 0.15 concave on S; gentle and irregular on E; gentle and convex on W. Break of slope base is imperceptible. Base is oval in plan; tapered rounded point in profile. 17 Fill 0011 Firm, mid brown silty sand. Occa- 0.42 x Single fill of cut C0011, Most likely 18/09/2007 MCH sional medium sub-rounded pebbles. 0.46 x naturally deposited material. Charcoal Moderate small sub-rounded stones. 0.08 inclusions are indicative of possible burnt Moderate small pieces of charcoal. material - perhaps in situ burning of tree roots. arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport
    • 26 18 Cut 0019 Sub-circular in plan with rounded 0.45 x Cut of a probable non-archaeological fea- 18/09/2007 DOS corners. Break of slope top is sharp. 0.4 x ture. Possible geological borehole. Sides: moderate and irregular on N; 0.27 vertical and irregular/undercut on S and E; steep/vertical and irregular on W. Break of slope base is gradual on N, NE and NW; sharp elsewhere. Base is irregular in plan and profile. 19 Fill 0018 Soft, friable light greyish brown 0.45 x Fill of cut C0018. Possible redeposited ma- 18/09/2007 DOS issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 sandy silt. Occasional fine, medium 0.4 x terial from geological borehole. May have and coarse angular pebbles. Frequent 0.27 been dumped. small angular stones. Two medium and two large (0.48 x 0.29 x 0.06 m) (0.35 x 0.29 x 0.05 m) angular stones. Occasional charcoal flecks. 20 Pit Fill 0016 Firm, mid brown silty sand. Oc- 0.50 x Single fill of possible pit cut C0016. Natu- 18/09/2007 ACH casional fine sub-rounded pebbles. 0.15 x rally deposited context. Some charcoal Occasional small pieces of charcoal. 0.15 inclusions possibly indicate human activity - burning in-situ (tree roots?). 21 Pit Fill 0010 Stiff, mid yellowish brown silty clay. 0.63 x Context C0021 is the primary fill of pit 18/09/2007 RW Moderate small angular and sub- 0.61 x cut C0010. May have formed naturally, al- angular stones. Moderate charcoal 0.16 though the presence of redeposited natural flecks. Moderate flecks and occa- and layer of burnt material C0022 above sional small pieces of charcoal. may indicate that it was formed through backfilling into pit. 22 Pit Fill 0010 Stiff, dark greyish brown silty clay. 0.63 x Context C0022 is the secondary fill of 19/09/2007 RW Moderate small angular and sub- 0.61 x pit cut C0010. Formed through human angular stones. Frequent flecks and 0.08 activity - burnt material probably deposited small pieces of charcoal. Moderate into top of pit. Lower fill doesn’t appear to flecks and occasional small pieces of be heat affected, other than some charcoal burnt clay. and burnt clay inclusions (probably from C0022). Burnt clay in C0022 occurs as oc- casional flecks and blobs rather that a layer. arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport
    • 27 23 Pit Cut 0027 Circular in plan with rounded 0.45 x Cut of pit, possibly not bottomed due to 18/09/2007 RK corners. Break of slope top is sharp. 0.45 x difficulty of excavation. May be related to Sides are steep and smooth. Break of 0.35 cut C0010 - similar fills, size and shape. slope base is sharp. Base is circular in plan; pointed in profile. 24 Fill 0008 Firm, mid greyish brown sandy silt. 0.42 x Single fill of possible posthole cut C0008. 20/09/2007 DK Occasional small and moderate large 0.30 x Context represents fill after post was sub-angular stones. Moderate small 0.35 removed from cut, therefore no post pipe pieces of charcoal. is present. Deposit may be a dump of material used to level out the cut. Stone issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 inclusions may have been used to stabilise the post. 25 Cut 0026 Irregular in plan. Break of slope top 0.4 x Context C0025 is an irregular cut, possibly 19/09/2007 DOS and base is gradual. Sides: moderate 0.38 x representing a hollow into which a burnt and irregular on N; moderate and 0.15 deposit was dumped. stepped on S. Base is sub-circular in plan; flat in profile. 26 Fill 0025 Soft, dark bluish brown stony silt. 0.4 x Context C0026 is the upper fill of an 19/09/2007 DOS Occasional fine, medium and coarse 0.38 x irregular cut or hollow C0025. Burnt mate- angular pebbles. Frequent small 0.15 rial indicates human activity - possibly a angular stones. Moderate small and dumped deposit. medium pieces of charcoal. 27 Pit Fill 0023 Strongly cemented, mid yellowish 0.45 x Context C0027 is the only fill of pit cut 18/09/2007 RK brown silty sand. Moderate medium 0.45 x C0023. Method of deposition could be and occasional coarse sub-angular 0.38 natural or due to human factors. C0027 is and sub-rounded pebbles. Moder- possibly related to cut C0010, C0021 and ate small and occasional medium C0022. sub-angular and sub-rounded stones. Occasional flecks and small pieces of charcoal. 28 Cut 0037 Irregular in plan with rounded 0.60 x Context C0028 most probably represents 19/09/2007 KR corners. Break of slope top and base 1.10 x a thin layer of material rather than a cut. is imperceptible. Sides are gentle and 0.03 Possibly a naturally occurring hollow. smooth. Base is irregular in plan; flat Burnt material in the fill is suggestive of in profile. human activity. arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport
    • 28 29 Fill 0030 Soft, mid greyish brown sandy silt. 0.75 x Context C0029 is the only fill within 19/09/2007 LJ Moderate fine sub-angular and 0.70 x C0030. Humanly derived material depos- sub-rounded; and frequent medium 0.11 ited within a natural depression. sub-angular pebbles. Frequent flecks of charcoal. 30 Cut 0029 Circular in plan. Break of slope top 0.75 x Context C0030 is most probably a natural 20/09/2007 LJ is imperceptible. Sides are gentle and 0.70 x depression, very shallow in depth. Charcoal concave. Base is oval in plan; concave 0.11 inclusions in fill C0029 indicate human in profile. activity, and may represent a dump of material rather than burning in situ. issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 31 Posthole Cut 0032 Circular in plan with rounded 0.34 x Context C0031 is the cut of a possible 19/09/2007 BV corners. Break of slope top is sharp. 0.32 x posthole. It is very deep and straight sided. Sides: vertical and undercut on W; 0.8 Excavated as far as possible although base vertical and irregular elsewhere. was not reached. Similar in appearance to Base is irregular in plan; concave in postholes C0008 and C0033. profile. 32 Posthole Fill 0031 Firm, mid yellowish brown sandy, 0.34 x Context C0032 is the single fill of possible 19/09/2007 BV pebbly silt. Occasional fine angular 0.32 x posthole C0031. Possible dump of material and sub-rounded; moderate me- 0.8 to level out cut following removal of post. dium and occasional coarse angular and sub-angular pebbles. Occa- sional small angular and sub-angular stones. Moderate flecks and occa- sional small pieces of charcoal. 33 Posthole Cut 0043 Circular in plan with rounded cor- 0.40 x Context C0033 is the cut of a possible 20/09/2007 ACH ners. Break of slope top and base is 0.35 x posthole. Charcoal inclusions in the fill gradual. Sides are steep and concave. 0.38 C0043 are indicative of human impact Base is sub-circular in plan; flat in in the area. Stone inclusions may repre- profile. sent possible packing material for a post. Similar in function and close in proximity to cut C0008. 34 Stakehole 0035 Weakly cemented, light grey sandy 0.11 x Fill of stakehole cut C0035. Related to 21/09/2007 RK Fill silt. Moderate flecks and small pieces 0.11 x nearby stakehole cuts C0042, C0046 and of charcoal. 0.11 C0041. 35 Stakehole 0034 Circular in plan with rounded 0.11 x Cut of a stakehole, filled with C0034. 21/09/2007 RK Cut corners. Break of slope top and base 0.11 x Related to nearby stakehole cuts C0042, is sharp. Base is circular in plan; 0.11 C0046 and C0041. tapered sharp point in profile. arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport
    • 29 36 Pit Cut 0038 Oval in plan with rounded cor- 1.36 x Cut of possible pit, regular shape could 20/09/2007 MCH ners. Break of slope top and base 0.62 x suggest human activity. Fill C0038 may be is gradual on N and S; impercep- 0.20 a dumped deposit. tible on E and W. Sides: steep and concave on N; moderate and concave on S; gentle and smooth on E; gentle and convex on W. Base is circular in plan; concave in profile. 37 Fill 0028 Firm, weakly cemented light brown 1.10 x Context C0037 is probably a thin layer of 19/09/2007 KR silty sand. Inclusions of fine sub- 0.6 x humanly derived material. Cut C0028 is issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 angular pebbles. Occasional small 0.03 most likely a natural hollow. angular stones. Moderate flecks, and occasional small pieces of charcoal. 38 Fill 0036 Firm, mid brown sandy silt. Oc- 1.36 x Fill of cut C0036. Charcoal inclusions in 19/09/2007 MCH casional fine sub-rounded pebbles. 0.62 x fill are indicative of human activity - pos- Occasional small sub-angular stones. 0.19 sibly dumped material. Occasional small pieces of charcoal. 39 VOID 40 Stakehole 0042 Circular in plan with rounded 0.10 x Cut of possible stakehole that has been 19/09/2007 RK Cut corners. Break of slope top and base 0.07 x disturbed by root action. Related to nearby is sharp. Sides: sharp and stepped 0.12 stakehole cuts C0035, C0041, C0046. on N; steep and smooth elsewhere. Base is circular in plan; tapered blunt point in profile. 41 Stakehole 0044 Sub-circular in plan with rounded 0.1 x Cut of possible stakehole, as indicated by 19/09/2007 RW Cut corners. Break of slope top and base 0.09 x regular shape and tapered base. However, is sharp. Sides: vertical and smooth 0.12 there are several root-holes in the vicinity, on S; steep and smooth elsewhere. so this may be a natural feature. May be Base is sub-circular in plan; tapered related to possible stakehole cut C0035; rounded point in profile. and features C0023 and C0010. 42 Stakehole 0040 Soft, mid grey sandy silt. Moderate 0.10 x Fill of possible stakehole cut C0040. 19/09/2007 RK Fill flecks, small and medium pieces of 0.07 x Related to nearby stakehole cuts C0035, charcoal. 0.12 C0041, C0046. arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport
    • 30 43 Posthole Fill 0033 Firm, mid greyish brown silty sand. 0.40 x Fill of possible posthole cut C0033. 20/09/2007 ACH Inclusions of fine sub-angular peb- 0.35 x Charcoal inclusions are indicative of hu- bles. Occasional medium sub-angu- 0.38 man impact in the area - possible dump of lar stones. Occasional small pieces of material. Medium sized stones in fill may charcoal. have acted as possible packing material for post. May be related to context C0024, fill of cut C0008. 44 Stakehole 0041 Soft, dark greyish brown sandy silt. 0.1 x Fill of possible stakehole cut C0041. May 19/09/2007 RW Fill Occasional coarse pebbles. Frequent 0.09 x be related to possible stakehole cut C0035; flecks and occasional small pieces of 0.12 and features C0023 and C0010. issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 charcoal. 45 Cut 0050 Irregular in plan. Corners are square 0.62 x Context C0045 is a possible cut, how- 20/09/2007 DOS on S and W; rounded elsewhere. 0.3 x ever, the highly irregular plan and profile Break of slope to is sharp. Sides: 0.45 strongly suggests a natural formation. steep/vertical and irregular/undercut Charcoal inclusions indicate possible hu- on W; steep/vertical and irregular man activity in the area. on NE; steep and irregular on SE; vertical and smooth on SW. Break of slope base is gradual on N and NE; sharp elsewhere. Base is irregular in plan; pointed in profile. 46 Stakehole 0051 Sub-circular in plan with rounded 0.09 x Context C0046 is the cut of a stakehole. 20/09/2007 RK Cut corners. Break of slope top and base 0.08 x Related to nearby stakeholes, C0040, is sharp. Sides are steep and smooth. 0.12 C0035, C0041. Base is oval in plan; tapered point in profile. 47 Cut 0049 Irregular in plan with rounded 1.35 x Fill of possible natural feature/tree-bole. 20/09/2007 KR corners. Break of slope top is imper- 0.85 x Occasional large stones indicate possible ceptible. Sides: vertical and smooth 0.17 dump of material into cut. on N; gentle and concave elsewhere. Base is irregular in plan; concave in profile. 48 Stakehole 0054 Sub-circular in plan with rounded 0.17 x Cut of possible stakehole/driven post. May 20/09/2007 RW Cut corners. Break of slope top and base 0.12 x also be a natural feature due to irregularity is sharp. Sides are steep and irregu- 0.37 of sides and nearby root action. Related to lar. Base is irregular in plan; tapered nearby possible stakeholes C0041, C0042, rounded point in profile. Top is C0035 and C0046. orientated N from base. arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport
    • 31 49 Fill 0047 Firm, mid brown sandy silt. Occa- 1.35 x Fill of possible natural feature C0047. 20/09/2007 KR sional fine angular pebbles. Occa- 0.85 x Stone inclusions may indicate dumped sional large angular stones. 0.17 material for the purpose of levelling out the feature. May be related to cut C0052. 50 Fill 0045 Loose, friable, light greyish brown 0.62 x Single fill of context C0045, a possible cut. 20/09/2007 DOS silty (25%), sandy (15%) stones 0.3 x Probably formed naturally. Animal bur- (60%). Occasional fine and medium 0.45 rows are evident along the sides and at the angular; and coarse angular and base of the cut. sub-angular pebbles. Moderate small angular and sub-angular; and fre- issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 quent medium angular, sub-angular and sub-rounded stones. Three large stones - angular (0.25 x 0.2 x 0.08 m), sub-angular (0.24 x 0.2 x 0.04 m) and sub-rounded (0.26 x 0.16 x 0.11 m). Occasional charcoal flecks. 51 Stakehole 0046 Soft, mid grey sandy silt. Moderate 0.09 x Fill of stakehole cut C0046. Related to 20/09/2007 RK Fill flecks and small pieces of charcoal. 0.08 x nearby stakeholes, C0040, C0035, C0041. 0.12 52 Cut 0059 Linear in plan with rounded cor- 2.23 x Possible root system/dip in natural filled by 20/09/2007 MCH ners. Break of slope top and base is 0.40 x humanly dumped material. Some charcoal imperceptible. Sides are gentle and 0.11 inclusions are indicative of human activity. concave. Base is irregular in plan; In close proximity to context C0047. concave in profile. 53 VOID 54 Stakehole 0048 Firm, mid reddish brown clayey 0.17 x Fill of possible stakehole cut C0048. 20/09/2007 RW Fill silt. Occasional coarse pebbles and 0.12 x charcoal flecks. 0.37 55 Cut 0062 Irregular in plan. Break of slope top 1.10 x Context C0055 is the cut of a possible 24/09/2007 DK and base is imperceptible on NE and 0.46 x natural feature. SE; gradual on SW and NW. Sides: 0.08 gentle and smooth on NW and SW; gentle and irregular on NE and SE. Base is irregular in plan; flat in profile. arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport
    • 32 56 Posthole Cut 0061 Circular in plan with rounded cor- 0.32 x Cut of possible posthole. May be related to 21/09/2007 ACH ners. Break of slope top and base is 0.28 x posthole cuts C0033 and C0008 in close gradual. Sides: vertical and concave 0.31 proximity. on SE; vertical and smooth else- where. Base is circular in plan; flat in profile. 57 Furrow Fill 0058 Soft, mid brown sandy silt. Moder- 4.40 x Fill of a furrow, cut C0058. Naturally oc- 21/09/2007 LJ ate fine and occasional medium sub- 0.70 x curring deposited material. Related to fills angular and sub-rounded pebbles. 0.15 of other furrows in the area - C0078 and Frequent coarse sub-angular pebbles. C0077. issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 Moderate small sub-angular and sub-rounded stones. 58 Furrow Cut 0057 Linear in plan. Corners are square 4.40 x Cut of a furrow. One of three lines of fur- 21/09/2007 LJ on NE and NW; rounded on SE and 0.70 x rows all parallel to one another. Related to SW. Break of slope top and base is 0.15 other furrows, C0067, C0074 and C0076. gradual. Sides are gentle and smooth. Base is linear in plan; concave in profile. 59 Fill 0052 Firm, dark brown sandy silt. Occa- 2.23 x Fill of cut C0052, a possible natural fea- 20/09/2007 MCH sional medium sub-rounded pebbles. 0.40 x ture. Fill may represent a dump of material Occasional small sub-angular stones. 0.09 within cut. Charcoal inclusions are indica- Occasional small pieces of charcoal. tive of human influence. May be related to cut C0047, which is in close proximity. 60 VOID 61 Posthole Fill 0056 Firm, indurated, mid brown silty 0.32 x Only fill of possible posthole cut C0056. 21/09/2007 ACH sand. Occasional fine sub-rounded 0.28 x May represent a dump of material into pebbles. Occasional medium sub- 0.31 cut. Stone inclusions may be remnants of angular stones. Occasional small disturbed packing material. Charcoal is pieces of charcoal. indicative of human interference in the area. Related to nearby postholes C0033 and C0008. 62 Fill 0055 Loose, mid brown silty sand. Moder- 1.10 x Only fill of cut C0055, a possible natural 24/09/2007 DK ate small and medium sub-angular 0.46 x feature. Very shallow. Most likely deposited stones. 0.08 naturally - possibly washed in down slope. 63 VOID 64 VOID 65 VOID arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport
    • 33 66 VOID 67 Furrow Cut 0068 Linear in plan with rounded corners. 1.5 x Context C0067 is the cut of a furrow. It is 21/09/2007 BV Break of slope top is gradual. Sides: 0.37 x a continuation of furrow cut C0074 to the gentle and irregular on NE; moder- 0.1 NE. ate and irregular elsewhere. Break of slope base is sharp on NE; gradual elsewhere. Base is irregular in plan; concave in profile. 68 Furrow Fill 0067 Soft, light yellowish brown sandy 1.5 x Fill of furrow cut C0067. This context 21/09/2007 BV issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 silt. Occasional fine sub-angular, 0.37 x formed by natural factors - washed into cut and medium angular and sub-angu- 0.1 down slope. Related to cut C0074. lar pebbles. 69 Cut 0072 Oval in plan with rounded corners. 0.58 x Context C0069 is the cut of a natural fea- 21/09/2007 RK Break of slope top is sharp. Sides: 0.45 x ture, formed by root action. Charcoal and gentle and smooth on N; steep and 0.15 oxidised clay within the fill C0072 indicate smooth on S and E; moderate and a burning event within the area. convex on W. Break of slope base is imperceptible on N; gradual on W; sharp on S and E. Base is irregular in plan; concave in profile. 70 Cut 0073 Oval in plan with rounded corners. 0.37 x Context C0070 is probably a natural 21/09/2007 DOS Break of slope top is gradual on S; 0.3 x hollow. Possibly related to possible pit cut sharp elsewhere. Sides: moderate and 0.15 C0071, in close proximity. irregular on N; steep and irregular on E and W; steep/vertical and smooth on S. Break of slope base is imperceptible on N; gradual on W, SW and NW; sharp elsewhere. Base is irregular in plan and profile. 71 Cut 0075 Sub-circular in plan with rounded 0.24 x This cut represents a small hollow probably 21/09/2007 NG corners. Break of slope top is gradu- 0.21 x of natural origin - possible area of vegeta- al. Sides: moderate and irregular on 0.09 tion. Charcoal material from within cut N and W; moderate and smooth on possibly indicates human activity, however, S; steep and smooth on E. Break of could also be naturally derived. Similar to slope base is gradual. Base is irregu- natural feature C0070. lar in plan; concave in profile. arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport
    • 34 72 Fill 0069 Soft, mid grey clayey silt. Moderate 0.58 x Context C0072 is the only fill of cut 24/09/2007 RK fine and medium, and occasional 0.45 x C0069. It was formed by the burning of coarse sub-angular and sub-rounded 0.15 natural roots (possibly in-situ). pebbles. Occasional small sub-angu- lar and sub-rounded stones. Moder- ate charcoal flecks. 73 Fill 0070 Soft, light greyish brown sandy silt. 0.37 x Context C0073 is the single fill of cut 21/09/2007 DOS Moderate fine and medium angu- 0.3 x C0070, a probable natural hollow. Deposit lar, sub-angular and sub-rounded 0.15 most likely formed as a natural accumu- pebbles. Moderate coarse angular lation of material in a hollow as it was issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 pebbles. Occasional small angular washed down slope. Charcoal present in stones. Moderate flecks and small the fill suggests possible human activity pieces of charcoal. within the surroundings of the cut. 74 Furrow Cut 0078 Linear in plan with rounded corners. 1.93 x Context C0074 is a continuation of furrow 21/09/2007 MCH Break of slope top is gradual on SE 0.39 x cut C0067. Agricultural furrow most likely and NW; imperceptible on NE and 0.15 formed during ploughing. Occasional SW. Sides: moderate and concave on flecks of charcoal within fill indicates SE; gentle and concave elsewhere. nearby burning activity. Related to nearby Break of slope base is imperceptible. furrows C0067, C0076 and C0058 (paral- Base is irregular in plan; concave in lel to cut). profile. 75 Fill 0071 Soft, mid orangish brown silty clay. 0.24 x This context represents the only fill of 21/09/2007 NG Occasional coarse sub-rounded 0.21 x cut C0071, possibly deliberately dumped pebbles. Moderate small pieces of 0.09 within a natural cut to level out the sur- charcoal. face. Charcoal inclusions indicate human activity in immediate area, not in-situ burning. Close in proximity and appear- ance to cut C0070. 76 Furrow Cut 0077 Linear in plan with rounded cor- 3.24 x Cut of furrow. One of three lines of fur- 24/09/2007 ACH ners. Break of slope top and base is 0.40 x rows parallel to one another. Cut probably imperceptible. Sides are gentle and 0.07 formed by ploughing, fill probably natu- smooth. Base is irregular in plan; flat rally formed. Occasional charcoal flecks in profile. indicate possible burning in close vicinity. Related to nearby and parallel furrow cuts C0067, C0074 and C0058. arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport
    • 35 77 Furrow Fill 0076 Firm, mid brown silty sand. Oc- 3.24 x Fill of furrow cut C0076. Occasional 24/09/2007 ACH casional small sub-rounded stones. 0.40 x charcoal flecks indicate possible burning Occasional charcoal flecks. 0.07 in immediate vicinity (possible human occupation). Related to nearby and parallel furrow cuts C0067, C0074 and C0058. 78 Furrow Fill 0074 Firm, mid brown silty sand. Oc- 1.93 x Only fill of furrow cut C0074. May have 24/09/2007 MCH casional small sub-rounded stones. 0.39 x been dumped, but most likely washed into Occasional charcoal flecks. 0.15 cut. Charcoal inclusions indicate burning activity within immediate vicinity. Closely related to fill C0068 of cut C0067, a con- issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 tinuation of the same furrow. Also related to C0076 and C0058. 79 Furrow Cut 0080 Linear in plan with rounded cor- 2.7 x 0.4 Context C0079 is the cut of a linear fur- 24/09/2007 BV ners. Break of slope top and base is x 0.1 row. Formed as a result of agricultural gradual on SE and NW; impercep- practices. May be related to cut C0069 tible on NE and SW. Sides: gentle and several other furrows in the area. and smooth on NE and SW; gentle and concave on NW and SE. Base is irregular in plan; concave in profile. 80 Furrow Fill 0079 Soft, light yellowish brown sandy 2.7 x 0.4 Context C0080 is the single fill of linear 24/09/2007 BV silt. Occasional fine sub-angular and x 0.1 furrow cut C0079. Naturally deposited. It sub-rounded; and medium angular is in close proximity to cut C0069 and may pebbles. be related to several furrows in the area. 81 Cut 0082 Irregular in plan. Break of slope top 0.8 x Probable natural feature. Highly irregular 24/09/2007 DOS is sharp on N, SE and NW; gradual 0.22 x plan of the cut indicates root action. Part elsewhere. Sides: steep/vertical and 0.19 of the feature is also a natural stone socket. smooth on N; gentle and irregular Charcoal in fill C0082 may have accumu- on S; moderate and smooth on E; lated in the vicinity of human activity. steep/vertical and stepped on W. Base is irregular in plan; tapered point in profile. 82 Fill 0081 Soft, friable, mid greyish brown 0.8 x Context C0082 is the single fill of cut 24/09/2007 DOS sandy silt. Occasional fine and 0.22 x C0081, a probable natural feature. Highly medium angular and sub-angular 0.19 irregular plan of the cut indicates root pebbles. Occasional small angular action. Part of the feature is also a natural stones. Moderate flecks and small stone socket. Charcoal in fill may have pieces of charcoal. accumulated in the vicinity of human activity. arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport
    • 36 83 Cut 0086 Irregular in plan with rounded cor- 0.55 x Cut C0083 is the cut of a possible pit, 24/09/2007 RW ners. Break of slope top is sharp on 0.21 x although shallow depth and irregular shape W; gradual elsewhere. Sides: gentle 0.09 suggest it is more likely a narrow feature and irregular on N and S; moderate carved by root action. Charcoal inclusions and smooth on E; steep and irregular indicate human activity, and burning - on W. Break of slope base is imper- possibly a burnt-out root. ceptible on S; gradual on N and E; sharp on W. Base is sub-oval in plan; concave in profile. 84 Cut 0085 Irregular in plan. Corners are 0.57 x Context C0084 is the cut of a non-archae- 24/09/2007 RK issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 rounded on NE and NW; square on 0.56 x ological feature, formed through natural SE and SW. Break of slope top and 0.25 root action. Charcoal inclusions indicate a base is sharp. Sides: moderate and burning event within the area. smooth on NE; steep and smooth on SE and NW; steep and concave on SW. Base is irregular in plan; tapered point in profile. 85 Fill 0084 Soft, mid brownish grey silt. Occa- 0.57 x Context C0085 is the only fill of cut 24/09/2007 RK sional fine and coarse, and moderate 0.56 x C0084. It was formed through the burn- medium sub-angular and sub- 0.25 ing of natural root material. Charcoal rounded pebbles. Occasional small inclusions within the fill indicate burning and medium sub-angular and sub- within the area. rounded stones. Moderate flecks and small pieces, and occasional medium and large pieces of charcoal. 86 Fill 0083 Stiff, mid pinkish grey clay. Oc- 0.55 x Context C0086 is the fill of cut C0083, a 24/09/2007 RW casional coarse sub-angular pebbles. 0.21 x possible pit, but more likely to be a natural Occasional small sub-angular stones. 0.09 feature created by root action. Formation Frequent flecks and small pieces, was probably due to human activity. Char- and occasional medium pieces of coal suggests burning, possibly or roots, or charcoal. maybe burnt material deposited into pit/ depression. arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport
    • 37 87 Stakehole 0089 Oval in plan with rounded corners. 0.12 x Cut of possible stakehole. This cut may 24/09/2007 DOS Cut Break of slope top is sharp. Sides: 0.08 x also have been an animal burrow. Possibly steep and stepped on N; steep and 0.22 related to context C0088. smooth elsewhere. Break of slope base is imperceptible. Base is circular in plan; pointed in profile. The bot- tom of this feature was not reached. 88 Stakehole 0090 Sub-circular in plan with rounded 0.09 x Cut of possible stakehole. This cut may 24/09/2007 DOS Cut corners. Break of slope top is sharp. 0.08 x also have been an animal burrow. Possibly Sides are vertical; narrowing on SW 0.18 related to context C0087. issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 where a stone is projecting. Break of slope base is imperceptible. The base of this cut was not reached (too deep and narrow). 89 Stakehole 0087 Soft and loose, grey brown sandy silt. 0.12 x Fill of possible stakehole cut C0087. May 24/09/2007 DOS Fill Moderate charcoal inclusions. 0.08 x be related to context C0088. 0.22 90 Stakehole 0088 Soft and loose, mid brown sandy silt. 0.09 x Fill of possible stakehole cut C0088. May 24/09/2007 DOS Fill 0.08 x be related to context C0087. 0.18 91 Furrow Fill 0092 Very soft, mid brown clayey silt. 1.72 x Context C0091 is the fill of furrow cut 25/09/2007 RK Occasional fine, medium and 0.50 x C0092. May be related to nearby parallel coarse sub-angular and sub-rounded 0.04 furrows C0058, C0076 and C0055. pebbles. 92 Furrow Cut 0091 Linear in plan with rounded corners. 1.72 x Context C0092 is the cut of a plough fur- 25/09/2007 RK Break of slope top is gradual. Sides 0.50 x row. It runs parallel to three other lines of are gentle and smooth. Break of 0.04 furrow, indicative of a field system. Related slope base is imperceptible on E; to cuts C0058, C0076 and C0055. gradual on W. Base is flat in profile. 93 Cut 0094 Irregular in plan. Break of slope top 0.54 x Context C0093 is the cut of a probable 25/09/2007 DOS is gradual on SW; sharp elsewhere. 0.21 x natural feature. Highly irregular plan of Sides: steep/vertical and irregular/ 0.07 the cut suggests formation by root action. undercut on S; steep/vertical and Charcoal indicates area of burning in close irregular elsewhere. Break of slope proximity. base is imperceptible. Base is irregu- lar in plan. arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport
    • 38 94 Fill 0093 Soft, dark reddish brown sandy silt. 0.54 x Context C0094 is the single fill of cut 25/09/2007 DOS Occasional fine, medium and coarse 0.21 x C0093, a possible root hole. Charcoal angular pebbles. Occasional flecks 0.07 inclusions in the fill may have accumulated and small pieces of charcoal. in the vicinity of human activity. issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport
    • Clash-E3660 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3660-clash-co-tipperary/Appendix 2 Site Matrix 39
    • issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport Appendix 3 Group and subgroups Group 1 Natural Deposits This group describes the natural geological deposits identified across the area of excavation. Topsoil C.1 This subgroup describes the topsoil covering the archaeological features. It was a firm light greyish brown sandy silt. Subsoil C.2 This subgroup describes the natural subsoil that formed across the area of excavation. It was a compact light yellowish orange silty clay. Group 2 Bronze Age house This group describes the features related to the construction of a round house and the associated features within the structure. Subgroup 1 Outer line of post-holes and slot trenches Four post-holes C.8, C.31, C.33 and C.56 Post-hole C.8 was located 0.9 m to the north-east of these two post-holes. It was cir- cular in shape. It had vertical and smooth sides and was concave in profile. The fill C.24 was a brown sandy silt with inclusions of large stones and charcoal. Posthole C.31 was located 1.3 m north of the limit of excavation. It had vertical and smooth sides and a concave profile. It was filled by a firm mid yellowish brown sandy peb- bly silt C.32. Moderate flecks and small pieces of charcoal were observed within this fill. Post-holes C.33 and C.56 were located adjacent to one another 4.1 m north-east of posthole C.31. Post-hole C.33 was circular in shape. It had steep and concave sides and a flat base. It was filled by a firm mid greyish brown silty sand C.43 with occasional small pieces of charcoal inclusions. Post-hole C.56 was circular in shape. It was filled by a firm mid brown silty sand C.61 with occasional small pieces of charcoal inclusions. Slot trench C.28 was irregular in plan with rounded corners. The fill C.37 was a brown silty sand with charcoal inclusions. Slot trench C.52 was linear in plan with rounded corners. The fill C.59 was a brown sandy silt with charcoal inclusions. Context Number Dimensions (m) (l x w x d) Type 8 0.42 x 0.3 x 0.35 Post-hole 28 0.60 x 1.10 x 0.03 Slot trench 31 0.34 x 0.32 x 0.8 Post-hole 33 0.4 x 0.35 x 0.38 Post-hole 52 2.23 x 0.40 x 0.11 Slot trench 56 0.32 x 0.28 x 0.21 Post-hole Table of dimensions of post-holes and slot trenches40
    • Clash-E3660 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3660-clash-co-tipperary/ Interpretation The four post-holes and two slot trenches were located on the outer or south-easterncircuit of a structure. The interval between the posts was irregular. Three of the post-holesC.8, 31 and C.33 were deep. Packing stones were recorded in post-hole C.8. The closeproximity of post-holes C.33 and C.56 indicate that one may have been dug as a replace-ment or support post. The post-pipes did not survive which indicates that the posts mayhave been removed and did not decay insitu. The slot trenches were located on either sideof the area of the entrance. The slot trench C.28 was very shallow and truncated. Subgroup 2 Inner circuit of structure Three post-holes were present on the inner circuit of the structure C.18, C.25 andC.45. Post-hole C.18 was sub-circular in plan with rounded corners. The fill C.19 was abrown sandy silt with inclusions of large stones. Post-hole C.25 was irregular in plan. The fill C.26 was a brown silt with inclusions ofstones. Post-hole C.45 was irregular in plan with vertical sides. The fill C.50 was a brown siltysand with inclusions of large stones. Pit C10 was sub-circular in plan with sloping sides and base. The fills C.21 and C.22included charcoal and burnt clay. Pit C.36 was oval in plan with sloping sides and rounded base. The fill C.38 was abrown sandy silt with inclusions of charcoal. Slot trench C.47 was irregular in plan with sloping sides and irregular base. The fillC. 49 was a brown sandy silt with inclusions of large stones. Stakehole C.48 was oval in plan and substantial in depth. Context Number Dimensions (m) (l x w x d) Type 10 0.63 x 0.61 x 0.28 Pit 18 0.45 x 0.4 x 0.27 Post 25 0.4 x 0.38 x 0.15 Post 36 1.36 x 0.62 x 0.2 Pit 48 0.17 x 0.12 x 0.37 Stakehole 45 0.62 x 0.3 x 0.45 Possible double post 47 1.35 x 0.85 x 0.17 Truncated slot trenchTable of dimensions Interpretation The large stones in the fill of the three post-holes are packing stones. The large sizeof post-hole C.45 could indicate that it was a double post-hole or there may have been asubstantial amount of packing. The stake-hole C.48 was deep and may have functionedas an entrance post. The slot trench C.47 was irregular but the width and inclusions ofstones may indicate a packing fill and material. Subgroup 3 Internal features 41
    • issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport Four stakeholes C.35, C.40, C.41, C.46 and a pit C.23 were located in the central interior. The pit C.23 was circular in plan with steeply sloping sides and had a concave profile. It was filled by a strongly cemented mid yellowish brown silty sand C.27 that included stones and charcoal. Context Number Dimensions (m) (l x w x d) Type 23 0.45 x 0.45 x 0.35 Post-hole 35 0.11 x 0.11 x 0.11 Stake-hole 41 0.10 x 0.09 x 0.12 Stake-hole 40 0.10 x 0.07 x 0.12 Stake-hole 46 0.09 x 0.08 x 0.12 Stake-hole Table of dimensions Interpretation The dimensions for pit C.23 are comparable to other post-holes on the circuit of the structure and large stones in the fill could be packing stones. The stake-holes formed a approximate square measuring 0.25 m sq, the pit/post-hole C.23 was located to the 0.6 m to the north. The stake-holes were probably associated with a central hearth. Subgroup 4 External features Three stake-holes C. 9, C.88 and C.87 and a pit C.30 were located outside the area of the structure. Pit C.10 was sub-circular in shape with steep to vertically sloping sides and a flat profile. It was filled by two deposits. The primary fill was a stiff mid yellowish brown silty clay (21) and the secondary fill was a stiff dark greyish brown silty clay (22). Charcoal inclusions were found in both fills. Stake-holes C.88 and C.87 were located adjacent to one another 5.5 m north-east of the structure. Stake-hole C.9 was located 5 m to the west of the central hearth area of the structure. Context Number Dimensions (m) (l x w x d) Type 9 0.08 x 0.06 x 0.05 Stake-hole 10 0.63 x 0.61 x 0.28 Pit 87 0.12 x 0.08 x 0.22 Stake-hole 88 0.09 x 0.08 x 0.18 Stake-hole Table of dimensions 42
    • Clash-E3660 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3660-clash-co-tipperary/Group 3 Modern Features This group describes a modern field drain and agricultural furrows. Subgroup 1 Field Drain C.3, fills C.4, C.5, C.6, C.7, C.12 and C.13 Description A linear feature C.3 ran across the site in a north-east to south-west orientation. Itmeasured c. 63 m in length (within the area of excavation), 1.26 m in width and 0.27 indepth. It had gentle to steeply sloping sides and a concave base. It was filled by five de-posits C.4, C.5, C.6, C.7, C.12 and C.13. They were in general firm in compaction, midorangish brown in colour and sandy silt in composition. Two sherds of post-medievalpottery and an iron miscellaneous object were recovered from fill C.4. Interpretation This feature represents a field drain that was used to drain water from this area foragricultural purposes. The post-medieval finds recovered from within the fill suggest thatthis feature is modern in date. It is not marked on the 1st edition 1829-41 OS map but itis marked on the 25 inch 1897-1913 OS map. Subgroup 2 Furrows C.58, fill C.57, C.74, fill C.78, C.67, fill C.68, C.92, fill C.91, C.79, fill C.80, C.76, fillC.77. Description Six linear features were located across the western side of the excavation. Five werelocated in the south-west corner of the site. These features were similar in length, widthand depth, as seen in the table above. Furrow C.58 was located furthest south in the areaof excavation. It had gently sloping sides and was concave in profile. Furrow C.92 waslocated immediately to the north. It had gently sloping sides and a flat base. Furrow C.76was located 1.3 m to the north of C.92. It had gently sloping sides and a flat base. FurrowsC.74 and C.67 represent two parts of the same furrow 0.9 m to the north of furrow C.76.Furrow C.74 had moderate and concave sides and a concave profile. Some charcoal fleckswere recovered from the fill of this furrow. Furrow C.67 had moderate and irregular sidesand a irregular base. A single furrow C.79 was located approximately 21.5 m north of this group of features.It had gentle and smooth sloping sides and a concave profile. 43
    • issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport Context Number Dimensions (m) (l x w x d) 58 4.40 x 0.70 x 0.15 67 1.5 x 0.37 x 0.1 74 1.93 x 0.39 x 0.15 76 3.24 x 0.40 x 0.07 79 2.7 x 0.4 x 0.1 92 1.72 x 0.50 x 0.04 Table of Dimensions of furrows� Interpretation These features represent the remains of a set of agricultural furrows, most probably excavated by plough due to their regular shape. These furrows are parallel to one another suggesting that they contemporary in use, however the separation of furrow [79] also sug- gests that other furrows would have at one time been present in this area. Group 4 Natural Features This group describes a group of features located across the area of excavation which may be natural or agricultural in origin. C.11, C.16, C.55, C.69, C.70, C.71, C.83 and C.84 Description The fills are a mix of brown silty sand and silty clays with C.11 was circular in plan with sloping sides. The fill C.17 was a brown silty sand with inclusions of charcoal. It was c. 4m west of the field ditch C.3. C.16 was oval in plan with sloping sides. The fill C.20 was a brown silty sandy with inclusions of charcoal. C.55 was located 2 m south of the group of furrows in the south-western corner of the excavation. It was linear in plan with sloping sides. The fill C.62 was a brown silty sand. C.69 was located 2.5 m south of furrow C.79. It was oval in plan with sloping sides. The fill C.72 was a grey silt clay with inclusions of charcoal. C.70 was located in the northwest corner of the area of the excavation. It was oval in plan with sloping sides. The fill C.73 was a brown sandy silt with inclusions of charcoal. C.71 was located 2 m north-west of C.70. It was oval in plan with sloping sides. The fill C.75 was a brown silty clay with inclusions of charcoal. C.83 was located 16 m south-west of C.84. It was oval in plan with very sloping sides and narrow base. The fill C.86 was a pink clay with inclusions of charcoal. C.84 was located 8 m north-west of C.11. It was irregular in plan with sloping sides and irregular in base. The fill C.75 was a brown grey silt with inclusions of charcoal.44
    • Clash-E3660 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3660-clash-co-tipperary/Context Number Dimensions (m) (l x w x d)11 0.42 x 0.46 x 0.1016 0.50 x 0.55 x 0.1555 1.10 x 0.46 x 0.0869 0.58 x 0.45 x 0.1570 0.37 x 0.3 x 0.1571 0.24 x 0.21 x 0.0983 0.55 x 0.21 x 0.0984 0.57 x 0.56 x 0.25Table of Dimensions Interpretation The irregularity, lack of depth within the features and the scatter nature of themacross the area of the excavation suggests that they are natural. The similar but sterile fillswithin some of these features suggest a natural origin, while the charcoal inclusions insome of the fills could be agricultural in origin. 45
    • issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport Appendix 4 Plant remains By Penny Johnston Introduction This report details the results of plant remains analysis on material retrieved from Clash, Co. Tipperary. The site comprised a group of post-holes, stake-holes and pits that possibly represented a truncated prehistoric structure. Radiocarbon dates indicate a Late Bronze Age period of occupation. Methodology The samples were collected on site as bulk soil and were processed using machine- assisted floatation (following guidelines in Pearsall 2000). The floating material (or ‘flot’) from each sample was collected in a stack of geological sieves (the smallest mesh size was 250mm). When all the carbonised material was collected the flot was then air-dried in paper-lined drying trays prior to storage in airtight plastic bags. A total of 16 samples were sieved from this site, but 6 did not contain any charred plant remains and therefore these did not produce flots (listed in Table 1 at the end of this report). The remaining 10 samples were scanned under low-powered magnification. The re- sults of preliminary scanning were presented in an assessment report (Johnston 2009) and the assessment table is reproduced as Table 2 at the end of this report. Samples were selected for further analysis on the basis of the preliminary assessment. This selection was limited to samples that contained plant material Plant remains were extracted from the flots and the material was identified under low-powered magnification (x 10 to x 40) using a binocular microscope. The results of identification are presented in Table 3 at the end of this report. Nomenclature and taxonomic order follow Stace (1997). Use of scientific names is restricted to the tables at the end of the report in order to facili- tate easy reading of this text. Results A total of 10 samples were scanned. Assessment revealed that only 50% of these con- tained seeds (5 samples). In all cases the quantities of plant remains recovered were small, with just 15 grains of cereals found in total from the site. Where identifiable, the cereals were barley and it is likely that these were brought to site as foodstuffs. Preservation oc- curred when the plant remains were subsequently accidentally charred during domestic activity at the site. Other seeds included wild plants such as Black bindweed (from the dock family) and flax. Both of these plant remains could have been collected either as food or as accidental inclusions gathered with the crop plants.46
    • Clash-E3660 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3660-clash-co-tipperary/ All of the plant remains were found in association with three pits (C.36, C.23 andC.10) and two post-holes (C.8 and C.56) within an area of features that has been inter-preted as a possible truncated structure. Radiocarbon dates from these features indicate aperiod of occupation that is dated to the Late Bronze Age. Barley is often the dominant cereal type in Irish sites dating to the Bronze Age (Monk1985/86, 32). Sites in Co. Tipperary where archaeobotanical analysis has been carriedout bear this finding out, for example, at the Middle Bronze Age settlement site at SiteA in Chancellorsland (McClatchie 2008), and at the Late Bronze Age settlement sites atCurraghatoor (Monk 1987a, 30 – 31 and McClatchie 2007, 64 ) and Ballyveelish Monk1987b 40 – 42). At all of these sites barley was the most common Bronze Age crop type.At many of these sites retrieval was also sporadic and poor. The plant remains assemblagefrom Clash is therefore reasonably typical when compared to other domestic sites thathave been excavated in Co. Tipperary. References McClatchie, M. 2008 Plant remains from Site A, pp. 473 – 478 in Doody, M. TheBallyhoura Hills Project. Dublin. Discovery Programme Monograph No. 7. McClatchie, M. 2007 Plant remains, pp. 62 – 67 in Doody, M. Excavations atCurraghatoor, Co. Tipperary. Cork, UCC Department of Archaeology ArchaeologicalMonograph. Monk, M. 1987a Appendix I: the charred plant remains, pp. 40 – 42 in Doody, M.‘Late Bronze Age huts at Curraghatoor, Co. Tipperary’. In Cleary, R.M. Hurley, M.F.and Twohig E.A. (eds.) Archaeological Excavations on the Cork-Dublin Gas Pipeline (1981-82). Cork, Department of Archaeology. Monk, M. 1987b Appendix V: the charred plant remains from Ballyveelish, pp. 30 –31 in Doody, M. ‘Late Bronze Age settlement, Ballyveelish 2, Co. Tipperary’. In Cleary,R.M. Hurley, M.F. and Twohig E.A. (eds.) Archaeological Excavations on the Cork-DublinGas Pipeline (1981-82). Cork, Department of Archaeology. Monk, M. 1985/86. ‘Evidence from macroscopic plant remains for crop husbandry inprehistoric and early historic Ireland: A review’, Journal of Irish Archaeology 3, 31 – 36. Pearsall, D. 2000 Paleoethnobotany: a Handbook of Procedures. New York, AcademicPress. Stace, C.A. 1997 (second edition) New Flora in the British Isles, Cambridge. Cam-bridge University Press. 47
    • issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport Table 1 Sample Context 12 14 14 22 21 34 33 54 49 89 50 90 Table 1: Sieved samples that produced no flot Table 2 Sample Context Charcoal Seeds Percentage scanned 11 24 Medium Low 100 15 21 Medium Low 100 19 16 Low Absent 100 20 27 Low Low 100 25 38 High Medium 100 26 42 Low Absent 100 27 32 High Absent 100 29 44 Low Absent 100 32 51 Low Absent 100 36 61 Low Low 100 Table 2: Scanned samples from Clash, Co� Tipperary (E3660) Table 3 Context 24 21 27 38 61 Sample 11 15 20 25 36 Black bindweed (Fallopia convolvulus (L.) Á Löve) 1 Flax seed fragments (Linum L. species) 1 Barley grains (Hordeum vulgare L.) probably naked 2 1 4 barley Barley grains of indetermiante type (Hordeum spp.) 1 Barley/Wheat grains (Hordeum/Triticum) 1 1 Indeterminate cereal grains 2 2 1 Table 3: Identified plant remains from Clash, Co� Tipperary (E3660)48
    • Clash-E3660 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3660-clash-co-tipperary/Appendix 5 Lithics report By Farina Sternke MA, PhD Introduction One lithic find from the archaeological excavation of a possible prehistoric site atClash 1, Co. Tipperary was presented for analysis (Table 1). The find is associated withfour post-holes, eight stake holes and four pits. Thickn. (mm)Find Number Length (mm) Width (mm) Sub-Period Condition Complete Reliabilty Material Retouch Context Cortex Period Type E3660:1:1 1 Flint Blade No Slightly 24 15 4 No No Neolithic First High Patinated HalfTable 1 Composition of the Lithic Assemblage from Clash 1 (E3660) Methodology All lithic artefacts are examined visually and catalogued using Microsoft Excel. Thefollowing details are recorded for each artefact which measures at least 2 cm in lengthor width: context information, raw material type, artefact type, the presence of cortex,artefact condition, length, with and thickness measurements, fragmentation and the typeof retouch (where applicable). The technological criteria recorded are based on the ter-minology and technology presented in Inizan et al. 1999. The general typological andmorphological classifications are based on Woodman et al. 2006. Struck lithics smallerthan 2 cm are classed as debitage and not analysed further, unless they represent piecesof technological or typological significance, e.g. cores etc. The same is done with naturalchunks. Quantification The lithic (E3660:1:1) is a worked piece of flint. Provenance The artefact was recovered from the topsoil. Condition: The lithic survives in slightly patinated and incomplete condition. 49
    • issUE 11: EaChtra JoUrnal - issn 2009-2237 arChaEologiCal ExCavation rEport Technology/Morphology: The artefact is a blade which was produced on a single-platform core. It is missing its proximal end and measures 24 mm long, 15 mm wide and 4 mm thick. Dating: The artefact appears to date to the first half (Early to Middle) of the Neolithic period. Conservation Lithics do not require specific conservation, but should be stored in a dry, stable envi- ronment. Preferably, each lithic should be bagged separately and contact with other lith- ics should be avoided, so as to prevent damage and breakage, in particular edge damage which could later be misinterpreted as retouch. Larger and heavier items are best kept in individual boxes to avoid crushing of smaller assemblage pieces. Summary The lithic find from the archaeological excavation at Clash 1, Co. Tipperary is a flint blade which appears to date to the first half of the Neolithic period. This site makes a minor contribution to the evidence for prehistoric settlement and land use in Co. Tipperary. Bibliography Inizan, M.-L., M. Reduron-Ballinger, H. Roche and J. Tixier 1999. Technology and Terminology of Knapped Stone 5. CREP, Nanterre. Woodman, P. C., Finlay, N. and E. Anderson, 2006. The Archaeology of a Collection: The Keiller-Knowles Collection of the National Museum of Ireland. National Museum of Ireland Monograph Series 2. Wordwell, Bray.50