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Archaeological Report - Ballynamona 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)
 

Archaeological Report - Ballynamona 1, Co. Cork (Ireland)

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The excavation of the site at Ballynamona was spread over two areas (Area 1 and Area 2). Excavation revealed nine pits, two post-holes and a linear feature in Area 1 and 12 pits and two linear ...

The excavation of the site at Ballynamona was spread over two areas (Area 1 and Area 2). Excavation revealed nine pits, two post-holes and a linear feature in Area 1 and 12 pits and two linear features from Area 2. Some finds of prehistoric pottery indicated Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age activity.

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    Archaeological Report - Ballynamona 1, Co. Cork (Ireland) Archaeological Report - Ballynamona 1, Co. Cork (Ireland) Document Transcript

    • Eachtra JournalIssue 10 [ISSN 2009-2237] Archaeological Excavation Report E2428 - Ballynamona 1, Co. Cork Prehistoric activity
    • EACHTRAArchaeological Projects Archaeological Excavation Report Prehistoric activity at Ballynamona 1 Co. Cork May 2011 Client: Cork County Council Project: N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown E No: E2428Excavation Director: John Tierney Written by: John Tierney and Penny Johnston
    • Archaeological Excavation Report Prehistoric activity at Ballynamona 1 Co. Cork Excavation Director John Tierney Written By John Tierney and Penny Johnston EACHTRA Archaeological Projects CORK GALWAY The Forge, Innishannon, Co. Cork Unit 10, Kilkerrin Park, Liosbain Industrial Estate, Galwaytel: 021 4701616 | web: www.eachtra.ie | email: info@eachtra.ie tel: 091 763673 | web: www.eachtra.ie | email: galway@eachtra.ie
    • © Eachtra Archaological Projects 2011 The Forge, Innishannon, Co Cork Set in 12pt Garamond Printed in Ireland
    • Table of Contents Summary���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������iii Acknowledgements�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� iv1 Scope of the project �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Route location��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 13 Receiving environment ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 34 Archaeological and historical background ��������������������������������������������������������������������� 4 Mesolithic(c�8000to4000BC)���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4 Neolithic(c�4000to2000BC)������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 6 � BronzeAge(c�2000to500BC)���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 6 IronAge(c�500BCtoAD500)����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 7 Earlymedievalperiod(c�AD500to1100)����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 8 Highandlatermedievalperiods(c�AD1100to1650)���������������������������������������������������������������� 9 Post-medievalperiod(c�1650tothepresent)�������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 9 �5 Site Location and Topography ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 116 Excavation methodology ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 117 Excavation results ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 13 Area1��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������15 Area2��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������17 Charcoal���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������23 Plantremains����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������23 � Pottery������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������23 Radiocarbondates�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������249 Discussion �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2410 References �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 27Appendix 1 Stratigraphic Index �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 31Appendix 2 Site matrix ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 41Appendix 3 Groups and subgroups ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 43 �Appendix 4 Finds register ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 51Appendix 5 Plant remains ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 53Appendix 6 Pottery report ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������56 i
    • List of Figures Figure 1: The route of the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown Bypass overlain on the Ordnance Survey Discovery Series map� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 � Figure 2: The route of the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown Bypass overlain on the RMP map CO010, 011, 019, 020, 027 and 028� The map is based on the second edition Ordnance Survey maps� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 5 Figure 3: The route of the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown Bypass overlain on the first edition Ord- nance Survey map CO010, 011, 019, 020, 027 and 028� ��������������������������������������������������������������10 Figure 4: Post-excavation plan of Ballynamona 1 E2428������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 12 Figure 5: Post-excavation plan of Ballynamona 1 E2428 Area 1� ��������������������������������������������������������������� 14 Figure 6: Post-excavation plan of Ballynamona 1 E2428 Area 2� ��������������������������������������������������������������� 16 Figure 7: Illustration of Early Bronze Age Vase Urn, Vessel 2� ��������������������������������������������������������������������� 19 Figure 8: Illustration of Late Neolithic Grooved Ware, Vessel 1� ���������������������������������������������������������������� 19 Figure 9: Neolithic sites on and in the environs of the N8 Fermoy Mitchelstown� �����������������������������26 Figure 10: Early Bronze Age sites on and in the environs of the N8 Fermoy Mitchelstown� �������������28 List of Plates Plate 1: View of the excavation at Ballynamona 1 (Area 1) with the surrounding hills visible in the background, from the north-west (Photo: John Sunderland)� ���������������������������������������� 13 Plate 2: Working shot of excavations at Ballynamona 1 (Photo: John Sunderland)� ����������������������� 15 Plate 3: View of the excavation at Ballynamona 1 (Area 1), from the north (Photo: John Sunder- land)� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 17 Plate 4: Post-excavation view of possible cremation pit (C�86), from north��������������������������������������� 18 Plate 5: Post-excavation view of pit (C�72), from south-west� ������������������������������������������������������������������20 Plate 6: Post-excavation view of pit (C�76), from north-east� �������������������������������������������������������������������21 Plate 7: Post-excavation view of pit (C�71)� �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������22 Plate 8: Partially excavated view of pit (C�91), showing charcoal-rich fill, from north� �������������������22 � Plate 9: South-east facing section of linear feature (C�77)� �����������������������������������������������������������������������23 List of Tables Table 1: Post-hole dimensions ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 17 Table 2: Pit dimensions ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������20ii
    • Ballynamona 1-E2428 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2428-ballynamona1-co-cork/SummaryThe excavation of the site at Ballynamona was spread over two areas (Area 1 and Area2). Excavation revealed nine pits, two post-holes and a linear feature in Area 1 and 12pits and two linear features from Area 2. Some finds of prehistoric pottery indicated LateNeolithic and Early Bronze Age activity.Road project name N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown BypassSite name Ballynamona 1E no. E2428Ministerial Order no. A040Site director John TierneyTownland BallynamonaParish BrigownBarony Condons and ClangibbonOS Map Sheet No. CO19National Grid Reference 182613 111460 - 182692 111490 iii
    • iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Acknowledgements The senior archaeologist was John Tierney and the post-excavation managers were Penny Johnston and Jacinta Kiely. Administration of the project was by Choryna Kiely and Fiona Greene. Illustrations are by Ben Blakeman and Maurizio Toscano. Photographs are by John Sunderland, Hawkeye and Eachtra Archaeological Projects. Specialist analysis was carried out by Mary Dillon, Penny Johnston, Helen Roche, Eoin Grogan and the 14 Chrono Centre at Queen’s University Belfast. The project was funded by the Irish Government under the National Development Plan 2007-2013 and was commissioned by Cork County Council on behalf of the National Roads Authority. The project archaeolo- gist was Ken Hanley.iv
    • Ballynamona 1-E2428 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2428-ballynamona1-co-cork/1 Scope of the projectThe archaeological works associated with the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown Bypass wascarried out on behalf of Cork County Council, National Road Design Office, Rich-mond, Glanmire, Co. Cork. The project was funded by the Irish Government under theNational Development Plan 2007-2013. The total archaeological cost was administeredby the National Roads Authority through Cork County Council as part of the Author-ity’s commitment to protecting our cultural heritage. The purpose of the archaeologicalservices project was to conduct archaeological site investigations within the lands madeavailable, to assess the nature and extent of any potential new sites uncovered and topreserve by record those sites of agreed archaeological significance, as approved by theDepartment of Environment, Heritage and Local Government in consultation with theNational Museum of Ireland. Phase 1 of the project (archaeological testing of the route) was carried out in October2005 under licence 05E1150 issued by Department of the Environment Heritage and Lo-cal Government (DoEHLG). The principal aim of this phase of the project was to test forany previously unknown sites by a programme of centreline and offset testing and to testsites of archaeological potential identified in the EIS and geophysical surveying. Five Cul-tural Heritage Sites were tested under individual excavation licences 05E1122-05E1126. Phase 2 of the project (resolution) involved the resolution of all archaeological sitesidentified within the proposed road corridor prior to commencement of the constructionof the bypass. This phase of the project was carried out from September 2006 to Septem-ber 2007 and excavations were conducted under the management of a Senior Archaeolo-gist. A total of 28 sites were excavated during this phase of works under separate licencesissued by DoEHLG. A post-excavation assessment and strategy document was prepared in Phase 3 of theproject to present a management strategy for dealing with post-excavation work arisingfrom archaeological works along the route of the new N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown By-pass. It included a proposal for post-excavation and archiving work and a budget for theworks. The document detailed the location of the route, the receiving environment, thearchaeological and historical background, the scope of the project and the circumstancesand scope of fieldwork. The document presented a scheme-wide summary of the archaeo-logical findings, a research framework within which the findings were dealt with and apublication plan and dissemination strategy for the end results.2 Route locationThe route of the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown road is located in the rich pastureland ofNorth Cork (Figure 1). The project involves the construction of c. 16 km of the N8 fromGortore north of Fermoy to Carrigane north-east of Mitchelstown. The N8 Fermoy toMitchelstown road passes through the townlands of Gortore, Ballynacarriga, Glenwood,Ballinglanna North, Ballinrush, Caherdrinny, Gortnahown, Ballybeg, Turbeagh, Glena- 1
    • iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport N Derry Donegal Antrim Tyrone Leitrim Fermanagh Armagh Down Sligo Cavan Garryleagh 1 Carrigane 1 Louth Mayo Roscommon Longford E2433 E2434 Meath Westmeath Dublin Gal ay w Offaly Kildare Clare Laois Wicklow Kildrum 1 Carlow E3971 Tippeary r Kilkenny Limerick Wexford Kilshanny 3 Kerry N8 Waterford E2432 Cork Kilshanny 2 E2431 Ballynamona 2 Kilshanny 1 E2429 E2430 Ballynamona 1 Ballynamona 1 Glenatluckly 1 E2428 E2427 E2428 Gortnahown 2 E2426 Gortnahown 1 Gortnahown 3 E2423 E2477 Gortnahown 4 E3832 Caherdrinny 3 E2422 Caherdrinny 2 E2421 Caherdrinny 1 E2420 Ballinrush 1 E2419 Ballinglanna North 5 E2418 Ballinglanna North 4 E2417 Ballinglanna North 3 E2416 Ballinglanna North 6 E3972 Ballinglanna North 2 E2415 Ballinglanna North 1 E2414 Ballynacarriga 3 E2412 Ballynacarriga 2 E2413 Ballynacarriga 1 Key E2411 Post Medieval Gortore 1B Early Medieval E2410 Gortore 2 Prehistoric Site E3973 Prehistoric Settlement Site Burnt Mound Non-archaeological 0km 2km Townland BoundariesFigure 1: The route of the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown Bypass overlain on the Ordnance Survey Discovery Series map� 2
    • Ballynamona 1-E2428 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2428-ballynamona1-co-cork/tlucky, Ballynamona, Kilshanny, Corracunna, Kildrum, Garryleagh, and Carrigane. Thetownlands are located in the parishes of Kilcrumper, Glanworth and Brigown and Baronyof Condons & Clangibbon, with the exception of Gortore, and Glenwood, which arelocated in the Barony of Fermoy. The route begins at the northern end of the Fermoy Bypass at Gortore, c. 2km northof Fermoy, and continues northwards across the River Funshion, and to the west of theGlencorra Stream, a tributary of the Funshion, for 4 km. At Caherdrinny, it crosses overthe western extremities of the Kilworth Mountains. From there it descends north-east-wards onto the broad plain that extends east and north-eastwards from Mitchelstown. Itcrosses the existing N8 at Gortnahown and passes to the east of Mitchelstown, crossingthe R665 Mitchelstown-Ballyporeen road and links up with the N8 Cashel MitchelstownRoad at Carrigane south of Kilbeheny and 2 km west of where the borders of the Cork,Limerick and Tipperary counties meet.3 Receiving environmentThe topography of East Cork and Waterford consists of east/west valleys separated by in-tervening ridges. The ridges consist of sandstones and mudstones of the Devonian Period(Old Red Sandstone) laid down 355-410 million years ago and the valleys of Carbonifer-ous limestones laid down 290-355 million years ago. The sediments covering many ofthe rocks are mainly of glacial origin deposited by glacial ice or meltwater (Sleeman andMcConnell 1995, 1). The landscape of the area is dominated by the Galtee Mountains to the north, theBallyhoura Mountains to the north-west, the Kilworth Mountains to the east and theNagles to the south. The landscape is drained by the Blackwater River, the FunshionRiver (which flows into the Blackwater River c. 2 km north-east of Fermoy), and theGlencorra Stream, a tributary of the Funshion River. The largest population centres inthe area, Fermoy and Mitchelstown, have developed on the banks of the River Blackwaterand Gradoge (a tributary of the Funshion), respectively. The route begins at Gortore, c. 2 km north of Fermoy, at an elevation of c. 40 m OD.At Caherdrinny, it rises to its maximum elevation of c. 180 m OD as it crosses over thewestern extremities of the Kilworth Mountains, before descending onto the broad plainthat that extends east and north-eastwards from Mitchelstown, at an elevation of 100-120m OD. The soils on the southern portion of the route are characterised by acid brown earthsderived from mixed sandstone and limestone glacial till. These soils occur generally inthe valleys of Cork and Waterford (Gardiner and Radford 1980, 61), and have a wide userange, being suitable for tillage and grass production. The soils on the western limits ofKilworth Mountains are characterised by brown podzolics derived from sandstone. Thesoils on the northern portion of the route are characterised by brown podzolics derivedfrom sandstone and shale glacial till. They have a wide range of potential uses and are well 3
    • iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport suited to arable and pastoral farming (ibid., 67). Land use along the route was almost en- tirely grassland devoted to intensive dairying and cattle-rearing, with only an occasional tillage field. 4 Archaeological and historical background Archaeological sites of numerous periods were discovered along the route of the new road (Figure 2). The periods are referred to as follows: Mesolithic (c. 8000 to 4000 BC), Neolithic (c. 4000 to 2000 BC), Chalcolithic (Beaker) (c. 2500-2000 BC), Bronze Age (c. 2000 to 500 BC), and Iron Age (c. 500 BC to AD 500), early medieval period (c. AD 500 to 1100), medieval period (c. AD 1100 to 1650), post-medieval period (c. AD 1650 to the present). A number of Giant Irish Deer (Megaloceros giganteus) skulls, large antlers, antler frag- ments and various long-bones were retrieved from the clay sediments, c. 1.5 m below the peat stratum at Ballyoran Bog (04E1014) on the route of the N8 Rathcormac Fermoy. A radiocarbon date of cal BC 11201-10962 was returned for the Giant Irish Deer. Gi- ant Irish Deer are extinct but are known to have inhabited Ireland during two separate periods in the Pleistocene (from 37,000-32,000 BP and 11,750-10,950 BP), with examples from lake deposits beneath peat bogs frequently dating to the period between 11,750 BP and 10,950 BP (Woodman et al. 1997). The Ballyoran Bog examples were found in this typical location of lacustrine (lake) sediments beneath peat and they therefore pre-date the beginnings of bog formation and the first human settlement of the area. Mesolithic (c. 8000 to 4000 BC) The earliest known human settlement in Ireland dates from the Mesolithic period (c. 8000 BC - 4000 BC). In Munster, the majority of the evidence (flint scatters) for Meso- lithic occupation has ‘come from the Blackwater valley in Co. Cork’ (Woodman 1989, 116). Flint scatters were recorded in the townlands of Kilcummer Lower (CO034-060) on the northern bank of the Blackwater c. 13 km to the south-west of the route and in Ballynamona (CO018-099) and Wallstown (CO018-100) on the northern and southern sides of the Awbeg river respectively c. 20 km to the west of the route (Power et al. 2000, 2). Mesolithic sites and find spots were recorded on other road schemes in Co. Cork, these included; Rathhealy 3 03E1678 and Curraghprevin 3 03E1138 (N8 Rathcormac Fermoy Bypass), Ballynacarriaga 1 01E0567 (N25 Youghal Bypass), Ballinaspig More 5 01E0546 (N22 Ballincollig Bypass) and Carrigrohane 3 02E0431 (N22 BG). Mesolithic activity was recorded on the route of the N8 Fermoy-Mitchelstown at Gortore E2410 and at Caherdrinny 3 E2422 and Mesolithic stone tools were recovered from Ballinglanna North 1 E2414, Ballinglanna North 3 E2416 and Ballinglanna North 6 E3972.4
    • Ballynamona 1-E2428 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2428-ballynamona1-co-cork/ N Derry Donegal Antrim Tyrone Leitrim Fermanagh Armagh Down Sligo Cavan Garryleagh 1 Carrigane 1 Louth Mayo Roscommon Longford E2433 E2434 Meath Westmeath Dublin Gal ay w Offaly Kildare Clare Laois Wicklow Kildrum 1 Carlow E3971 Tippeary r Kilkenny Limerick Wexford Kilshanny 3 Kerry N8 Waterford E2432 Cork Kilshanny 2 E2431 Ballynamona 2 Kilshanny 1 E2429 E2430 Ballynamona 1 Ballynamona 1 Glenatluckly 1 E2428 E2427 E2428 Gortnahown 2 E2426 Gortnahown 1 Gortnahown 3 E2423 E2477 Gortnahown 4 E3832 Caherdrinny 3 E2422 Caherdrinny 2 E2421 Caherdrinny 1 E2420 Ballinrush 1 E2419 Ballinglanna North 5 E2418 Ballinglanna North 4 E2417 Ballinglanna North 3 E2416 Ballinglanna North 6 E3972 Ballinglanna North 2 E2415 Ballinglanna North 1 E2414 Ballynacarriga 3 E2412 Ballynacarriga 2 E2413 Ballynacarriga 1 Key E2411 Post Medieval Gortore 1B Early Medieval E2410 Gortore 2 Prehistoric Site E3973 Prehistoric Settlement Site Burnt Mound Non-archaeological 0km 2km Townland BoundariesFigure 2: The route of the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown Bypass overlain on the RMP map CO010, 011, 019, 020, 027 and 028� The map is based on the second edition Ordnance Survey maps� 5
    • iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Neolithic (c. 4000 to 2000 BC) The Neolithic Period is characterised by the introduction of agriculture and the begin- nings of the clearance of the woodlands. The population increased and became more sedentary in nature. A substantial Neolithic settlement site has been recorded at Lough Gur, Co. Limerick. Previously the nearest known Neolithic house was located in Pepper- hill (CO016-226/01) c. 30 km to the northwest of the route. It was recorded during the construction of the Bruff-Mallow gas pipeline (Gowen 1988, 44-51). The material culture includes the manufacture of pottery, flint and stone arrowheads, scrapers, axes etc. The range of monuments types includes Megalithic tombs, single burial graves and stone circles. Megalithic tombs can be sub-divided into court tombs, portal tombs, passage tombs and wedge tombs. There are few wedge tombs or stone circles known from north or east Cork. Two of the exceptions are wedge tombs located at Lab- bacallee (CO027-086), which is one of the largest wedge tombs in the country, and at Manning (CO027-091) both located c. 4 km west of the N8. Recent infrastructural work on the N8 Rathcormac to Fermoy and the Ballincollig Bypass have added significantly to the number of Neolithic sites in the county. A Neo- lithic house was excavated at Gortore (E2119), on the N8 Rathcormac to Fermoy road and another Neolithic house was excavated at Barnagore (02E0384), along the route of the Ballincollig Bypass. Both of these Cork examples produced essentially the same ra- diocarbon results (cal BC 3940-3620 at Barnagore and cal BC 3928-3655 from Gortore) and they represent the oldest known houses in the county. A single pit at Fermoy town- land (05E0078), located c. 3 km to the south of Gortore, produced 12 sherds of a Middle Neolithic Globular bowl, and another site at Curraghprevin (c.12 km south of Gortore) produced Western Neolithic (Early Neolithic) pottery and a radiocarbon date of 3090- 2580 BC (Late Neolithic). Rectangular Neolithic houses were recorded on the route of the N8 FM at Gortore 1b (E2410), Ballinglanna North 3 (E2416) and Caherdrinny 3 (E2422). A large enclosure containing several structures associated with Late Neolithic pottery was excavated at Bal- lynacarriaga 3 (E2412). Activity dating to the Neolithic was also recorded at Ballynamona 1 (E2428), Ballynamona 2 (E2429), and Gortnahown 2 (E2426) and Gortore 2 (E3973). Bronze Age (c. 2000 to 500 BC) The Bronze Age is characterised by the introduction of metallurgy and an increase in settlement and burial sites. Copper ores were mined and copper, bronze and gold items manufactured. The range of burial site types includes cist graves, pit and urn burials, cremation cemeteries, barrows, ring-ditches and wedge tombs. Stone circles and stand- ing stones also date to the Bronze Age. Both enclosed and unenclosed settlement sites are known. The most prolific Bronze Age site type is the fulacht fiadh; over 2,000 examples have been recorded in County Cork alone. These monuments survive as low mounds of charcoal rich black silt, packed with heat-shattered stones, and generally situated close to a water source. Fulachta fiadh are generally classified as ‘cooking places’, whereby stones6
    • Ballynamona 1-E2428 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2428-ballynamona1-co-cork/were heated in a hearth and subsequently placed in a trough of water, the water continuedto boil with the addition of hot stones and wrapped food was cooked within the hot wa-ter. The trough eventually filled with small stones, ash and charcoal that were removed,forming the basis of the familiar mound. The Bronze Age cemetery site at Mitchelstowndown West, c. 16 km to the north ofMitchelstown, contains 53 small barrows. The Discovery Programme Report 1 (Daly andGrogan 1992, 44) selected four of this group for excavation. Until recently, Bronze Age settlement sites were a rarity in North Cork. A Bronze Ageoccupation site was recorded underlying the medieval ringfort Lisleagh I (CO027-158)c. 2.5 km to the west of the N8 (Power et al. 2000, 210). A house site was excavated atKillydonoghoe on the route of the N8 Glanmire-Watergrasshill Bypass (Sherlock 2003).Three circular houses dating to the Middle Bronze Age were excavated at Mitchelstown(04E1072) on the N8 Mitchelstown Relief Road. A large Bronze Age settlement site con-sisting of three circular enclosures and three circular houses was excavated in 2003 atBallybrowney (03E1058), on the route of the N8 Rathcormac-Fermoy (Cotter 2005, 40). Bronze Age round houses were recorded on the route of the N8 Fermoy – Mitchelstownat Kilshanny 1 (E2432) and Ballynamona 2 (E2429). Burnt mounds/fulachta fiadh siteswere recorded at Ballinglanna North 1 (E2414), Ballinglanna North 3 (E2416), Balling-lanna North 6 (E3972), Ballynamona 2 (E2429), Caherdrinny 1 (E2420), Kilshanny 3(E2432) and Kildrum 1 (E3971). Two ring ditches and associated cists and pits burialswere recorded at Ballynacarriga 3 (E2412). Portions of several encrusted urns and foodvessels dating to the Early Bronze Age were recorded in association with the burials. Acremation burial and associated Early Bronze Age urn were also recorded at Glenatlucky(E2427).Iron Age (c. 500 BC to AD 500)Until the last decade there was little evidence of a significant Iron Age presence in theCork region. Settlement sites are few and far between as well as being difficult to identify(Woodman 2000) while the material culture of this period is limited. Linear earthworks,believed to have marked tribal boundaries, and hillforts are two of the most visible monu-ments of the period. Recent infrastructural work on the N22 Ballincollig Bypass, the N8Glanmire Watergrasshill Bypass and the M8 Rathcormac Fermoy has altered the pictureconsiderably. Three separate stretches of a linear boundary, the Claidh Dubh, have been recorded inCounty Cork. The longest stretch, c. 24 km in length extends from the Nagle Mountains,across the Blackwater valley and into the Ballyhoura Hills. Radiocarbon dating followingexcavation of a section of it revealed it dated to some time before AD100 (Doody 1995,23). Two of the four hillfort sites in Cork are located in North Cork (Power et al. 2000,205). Caherdrinny (CO019:97/01&03) is located at the western end of the KilworthMountains, c. 700 m to the west of the N8, Corrin (CO035:49/01) is located at the east- 7
    • iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport ern end of the Nagle Mountains, overlooking a pass between the Blackwater and Bride river valleys just south of Fermoy. Iron Age dates were returned from a roundhouse at Ballinaspig More 5 01E0546, a possible bowl furnace at Curraheen 1 01E1209 and the fulacht fiadh at Curraheen 4 02E1297 on the N22 Ballincollig Bypass; the Iron Age structure at Muckridge 1 01E0429 on the N25 Youghal Bypass; iron working sites at Kilrussane 01E0701 and Trabstown 01E0501 on the N8 Glanmire Watergrasshill Bypass; the iron working site at Lisnagar De- mesne 1 03E1510, the pit at Maulane East 1 03E1286, the pit at Scartbarry 3 03E1800, the corn-drying kiln at Rath-healy 1 03E1139, the burnt mound at Fermoy Wood 04E1014 and the ring ditch at Ballybrowney Lower 3 05E0233 all on the M8 Rathcormac Fermoy. Activity dating to the Iron Age was recorded on the route of the N8 Fermoy – Mitch- elstown at Ballinglanna North 3 E2416, Ballinglanna North 4 E2417, Ballynacarriaga 3 E2412, Gortnahown 1 E2423, Gortnahown 3 E2477 and Caherdrinny 3 E2422. The sites, with the exception of a single fire pit at Ballinglanna North 4 E2417, did not date exclusively to the Iron Age. Early medieval period (c. AD 500 to 1100) The early medieval period is characterised by the arrival of Christianity to Ireland. The characteristic monument type of the period is the ringfort. Ringforts are the most nu- merous archaeological monument found in Ireland, with estimates of between 30,000 and 50,000 illustrated on the first edition of the Ordnance Survey 6” maps of the 1840’s (Barry 1987). As a result of continued research, the construction of these monuments has a narrow date range during the early medieval period between the 7th and 9th centuries AD. Although there are some very elaborate examples of ringforts, they often take the form of a simple earth or stone enclosure functioning as settlements for all classes of secu- lar society (Stout 1997). A major research excavation of two ringforts was undertaken at Lisleagh, c. 2.5 km to the west of the N8 route, in the late 1980s/early1990s. Structural, domestic and industrial evidence was recorded at both sites. A number of stake and wattle round houses, and ironworking were recorded in Lisleagh I, which had two phases of occupation, ranging from the early 7th century to the 9th century AD (Monk 1995, 105-116). Souterrains, frequently associated with ringforts and enclosures, are man made un- derground chambers linked by narrow passageways. The concealed entrance is located at ground level. It is thought souterrains were used for storage or places of refuge during times of trouble (Clinton 2001). It has also been hypothesised that some may have been used for housing slaves. The monastery of Brigown (which gave the name to the modern parish in Mitch- elstown) was founded in the 7th century by Fanahan. Fanahan is reputed to have com- missioned seven smiths to make seven sickles which were used by him for self-mortifica- tion. The new monastery was named, Brí Gabhann, for the smiths (Power 1996, 3). The ecclesiastical remains comprise a church, graveyard, holy well and site of round tower8
    • Ballynamona 1-E2428 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2428-ballynamona1-co-cork/(CO019:30/01-05). A possible enclosure site with evidence of metalworking was excavatedby John Purcell in Brigown. This was possibly the enclosure of Brigown. No dates wereobtained from the site (John Purcell personal communication). A horizontal-wheeled mill (CO027-108) was located on the northern side of the Glen-corra Stream c. 120 m north of the confluence with the River Funshion. A ringfort and associated souterrain (CO027-109) were excavated on the route of theN8 Fermoy – Mitchelstown at Ballynacarriga 2 (E2413). Two circular houses and a com-prehensive range of metalworking activities were excavated at Gortnahown 2 (E2426).Sites with evidence of metalworking activities were also excavated at Ballynamona 2(E2429) and Ballinglanna North 1 (E2412).High and later medieval periods (c. AD 1100 to 1650)This period is characterized by the arrival of the Anglo-Normans and the building oftower houses. Mitchelstown was formerly known as Brigown / Mitchelstown (CO019-149). It was listed as a market town in 1299 and was located on the southern bank of theGradoge River, to the east of Mitchelstown Castle (Power et al. 2000, 595). The towndeveloped under the patronage of the House of Desmond. It passed into the hands of theEarls of Kingston in the 17th century (Power 1996, 23). The Condon family controlled the barony of Condons and Clongibbon. Two oftheir castles are located in close vicinity to the route of the N8 FM. Cloghleagh Castle(CO027:113) is located on the northern bank of the Funshion River to the east of thenew route. It was built on an outcrop of limestone bedrock. It is a 5-storey tower withassociated bawn wall (Power et al. 2000, 537). Caherdrinny Castle (CO019:97/02) is lo-cated to the west of the route. It was a 5-storey tower built within the hillfort enclosure(CO019:97/01&03). Glanworth Castle (Boherash CO027-42) is located on a sheer lime-stone cliff overlooking the River Funshion 5 km to the west of the route. The 13th-centuryhall house is associated with a four-sided walled enclosure (ibid. 516).Post-medieval period (c. 1650 to the present)The post-medieval period is characterised by mills, limekilns, workhouses, country hous-es and associated demesnes, vernacular buildings and field systems (Figure 3). Three de-mesnes associated with country houses are within the route of the N8 at Moorepark,Ballynacarriga and Glenwood. The estate system was dismantled in Ireland in the early20th century. Demesnes usually comprise of a large country house with associated stables,farm buildings and gate lodges, areas of woodland and ornamental gardens etc. The de-mesne was usually enclosed by a high stone wall such as that associated with Moorepark.Moorepark house and demesne was the seat of the Earls Mountcashell (Lewis 1988, 312).The Moorepark Estate covered an area around 800 acres and extended both north andsouth of the river Funshion. The house was sold to the British War Office c. 1903 bythe 5th Earl’s daughter (Bence-Jones 1996, 211). It burned down in 1908 and was never 9
    • iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport N Derry Donegal Antrim Tyrone Leitrim Fermanagh Armagh Down Sligo Cavan Garryleagh 1 Carrigane 1 Louth Mayo Roscommon Longford E2433 E2434 Meath Westmeath Dublin Gal ay w Offaly Kildare Clare Laois Wicklow Kildrum 1 Carlow RMP Sheet No. CO10 E3971 Tippeary r Kilkenny RMP Sheet No. CO11 Limerick Wexford Kilshanny 3 Kerry N8 Waterford E2432 Cork Kilshanny 2 E2431 Ballynamona 2 Kilshanny 1 E2429 E2430 Ballynamona 1 Ballynamona 1 Glenatluckly 1 E2428 E2427 E2428 Gortnahown 2 E2426 Gortnahown 1 Gortnahown 3 E2423 E2477 Gortnahown 4 E3832 Caherdrinny 3 E2422 Caherdrinny 2 E2421MP Sheet No. CO19 Caherdrinny 1 RMP Sheet No. CO20 E2420 Ballinrush 1 E2419 Ballinglanna North 5 E2418 Ballinglanna North 4 E2417 Ballinglanna North 3 E2416 Ballinglanna North 6 E3972 Ballinglanna North 2 E2415 Ballinglanna North 1 E2414 Ballynacarriga 3 E2412 Ballynacarriga 2 E2413RMP Sheet No. CO27 Ballynacarriga 1 Key E2411 Post Medieval Gortore 1B Early Medieval E2410 Gortore 2 Prehistoric Site E3973 Prehistoric Settlement Site Burnt Mound Non-archaeological 0km 2km RMP Sheet No. CO28 Townland BoundariesFigure 3: The route of the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown Bypass overlain on the first edition Ordnance Survey map CO010, 011, 019, 020, 027 and 028� 10
    • Ballynamona 1-E2428 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2428-ballynamona1-co-cork/rebuilt. No trace of it now survives The demesne is clearly defined by woodland on the1841-2 and 1906 edition Ordnance Survey maps, which was most likely enclosed by awall. It is likely that the demesne walls are contemporary with the mansion house andtherefore date to the 18th century. The Cork to Dublin mail coach road originally ran towest of the demesne walls as it appears on the 1841-2 and 1906 Ordnance Survey maps. The site of a workhouse (C0019-11301-) built in 1852 is located in Kilshanny townlandto the east of Mitchelstown. The complex of buildings, including a hospital chapel andmortuary, was enclosed within a three-metre high limestone wall and could accommo-date up to 600 people. Closed in 1916 and burned by the IRA in 1922, only the boundarywall and main entrance way survive today (Power 2002, 48). A late 19th century bridge of rubble limestone, approached by a causeway at eitherend, carries a tertiary road from Kilworth-Glanworth over the Glencorra Stream. A roadcrosses the stream at the same location on the 1841-2 Ordnance survey map, but thebridging structure is not named. The site is named Glencorra Bridge on the 1906 editionof the Ordnance Survey map and is of local architectural significance.5 Site Location and TopographyThe site was situated on a flat plain, in a low lying area between the hills and mountains inthe surrounding landscape (Plate 1). The site slopes slightly from the east down towardsthe west of the area of excavation. The site is split into two areas (Figure 4) covering a distance of 95 m north to south.Area 1 measured 25 m north/south and 31 m east/west and Area 2 measured 22 m north/south and 33 m east/west. They had a combined area of 1067 sq. m. The northern extentlay approximately 500 m south of Ballynamona 2 (where metalworking furnaces, a fulachtfiadh/burnt mound and associated structure and two probably Bronze Age round houseswere excavated) while the southern extent lay 650 m north of the Encrusted urn crema-tion burial at Glentalucky 1.6 Excavation methodologyThe excavation was carried out under E-Number E2428 and complied with the methodstatement approved by the Department of Environment, Heritage, and Local Govern-ment, in consultation with the National Museum of Ireland. The site was mechanicallystripped of topsoil under strict archaeological supervision. Stripping was done with atracked machine with a flat toothless bucket. Where appropriate mini-diggers were used,and in the larger areas to be stripped multiple large tracked machines were used; allstripping operations involved the use of multiple dumpers for topsoil mounding. Topsoilstripping commenced in the areas of identified archaeology and continued radially out-ward until the limit of the road take was reached or until the limit of the archaeologicalremains was fully defined. A grid was set up in the excavation area(s) and all archaeologi- 11
    • 182600 18270012 ± 91 111500 111500 107 86 67 71 57 97 72 55 89 81 60 63 101 iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 76 Area 2 Area 1 49 50 51 47 35 37 39 31 21 11 24 27 4 3 10 111450 111450 42 34 0 50m 182600 182700 Figure 4: Post-excavation plan of Ballynamona 1 E2428� archaEological Excavation rEport
    • Ballynamona 1-E2428 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2428-ballynamona1-co-cork/Plate 1: View of the excavation at Ballynamona 1 (Area 1) with the surrounding hills visible in the back- ground, from the north-west (Photo: John Sunderland)�cal features were sufficiently cleaned, recorded and excavated so as to enable an accurateand meaningful record of the site to be preserved (Plate 2). The excavation, environmentalsampling, site photographs, site drawings, find care and retrieval, on-site recording andsite archive was as per the Procedures for Archaeological works as attached to the licencemethod statements for excavation licences. The site was excavated from 26/02/07 to 16/03/07. Only areas within the CPO wereresolved. The full extent of the area of excavation at Area 1 measured 492 m2 and Area 2measured 575 m2.7 Excavation resultsThe full record of excavated contexts is recorded in the context register (Appendix 1) andthe stratigraphic matrix (Appendix 2). Detailed stratigraphic descriptions are found in thegroups and sub-groups text (Appendix 3) and the artefacts are listed in the finds register(Appendix 4). The site at Ballynamona 1 was discovered during Phase 1 archaeological testing ofthe new route, carried out under licence no. 05E1150 (Cotter et al 2006). Features foundduring testing included six pits, some containing prehistoric pottery. The site was clas-sified as a prehistoric settlement site on the basis of testing results. Excavation revealed 13
    • 182600 18262514 ± 49 111465 111465 50 51 47 35 iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 39 37 31 45 21 24 11 27 4 3 10 Area 2 111450 111450 42 34 Area 1 0 20m 182600 182625 Figure 5: Post-excavation plan of Ballynamona 1 E2428 Area 1� archaEological Excavation rEport
    • Ballynamona 1-E2428 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2428-ballynamona1-co-cork/Plate 2: Working shot of excavations at Ballynamona 1 (Photo: John Sunderland)�nine pits, two post-holes and a linear feature in Area 1 and 12 pits and two linear featuresfrom Area 2.Area 1The archaeology in Area 1 included pits, post-holes and linear features (Figure 5, Plate 3).PitsA total of nine pits were found in Area 1 (C.3, C.10, C.11, C.21, C.24, C.27, C.34, C.39and C.42). The fills of all of these pits contained charcoal and the similarity in their fillsmay suggest that these were all the result of the same type of activity. However, the exactfunction of these pits is difficult determine. Charcoal from the fill of pit C.34, identifiedas hazel/alder, indicated activity in the Early Bronze Age, cal BC 1889–1750 (UB-13173).Post-holesTwo post-holes were located in the centre of Area 1 (C.35 and C.37). On average theymeasured 0.32 m in length, 0.22 m in width and 0.13 m in depth. They were sub-circularin shape and had steeply sloping sides. The fills of both post-holes contained moderatecharcoal inclusions. There is no indication of their function, and no associated featuresto indicate whether they originally formed part of a structure or a simple fence-line. They 15
    • 182675 18270016 ± 111504 111504 91 Late Neolithic 107 Grooved Ware - Vessel 1 iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 86 Early Bronze Age 67 Vase Urn - Vessel 2 71 57 97 72 111492 111492 81 55 60 89 101 63 76 Area 2 111480 111480 Area 1 0 20m 182675 182700 Figure 6: Post-excavation plan of Ballynamona 1 E2428 Area 2� archaEological Excavation rEport
    • Ballynamona 1-E2428 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2428-ballynamona1-co-cork/Plate 3: View of the excavation at Ballynamona 1 (Area 1), from the north (Photo: John Sunderland)�may also have been simple marking posts to indicate the location of below ground pitssuch as pit C.39, which is found immediately adjacent to the two post-holes. Context Length Width Depth C.35 0.4 0.25 0.18 C.37 0.24 0.2 0.08Table 1: Post-hole dimensions Linear featuresA single linear feature (C.45) was uncovered in Area 1. It was aligned north to south andmeasured 0.84 in width and 0.2 in depth; the length of the linear feature extended beyondthe limit of the excavation. This linear feature represents a drainage ditch that was re-quired in order to remove water from low-lying Area 1. This feature probably representeda modern agricultural ditch, indicating that it post-dated the other archaeological activityon this site.Area 2The archaeology in Area 2 included pits (some of which contained funerary pottery) andtwo linear features (Figure 6).PitsA total of 12 pits were excavated in Area 2. These can be divided into three separatecategories: pits that contained prehistoric pottery (C.55 and C.86), three pits associated 17
    • iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Plate 4: Post-excavation view of possible cremation pit (C�86), from north� with pit C.55 (C.57, C.60 and C.63) and seven other charcoal-filled pits (C.67, C.71, C.72, C.76, C.81, C.91 and C.107). Prehistoric pottery was found in two pits (C.55 and C.86) in Area 2. The first (C.55) was oval in shape and concave in profile and it measured 0.85 m in length, 0.74 m in width and 0.1 m in depth. The pit contained thirty-six sherds of a Vase urn (E2428:56:1- 58) and charcoal fragments. The pottery was identified as being from a single vessel (Ves- sel 2, Figure 7). Although this pottery type is usually associated with burial there was no cremated bone in this pit and it therefore appears that this particular Vase urn was not used as funerary ware. The second pit (C.86) was located 8.5 m to the west of the pit (C.55). It was sub-circu- lar in shape and concave in profile and it measured 0.5 m in length, 0.4 m in width and 0.12 m in depth (Plate 4). Occasional charcoal pieces were recovered from both fills and nine sherds of prehistoric pottery (E2428:87:1-9) were recovered from the primary fill of this feature, all identified as being from one Grooved Ware vessel (Vessel 1, Figure 8). The pottery indicates activity in the Late Neolithic. Hazel/alder charcoal found within this pit returned a radiocarbon date of cal BC 3760–3644 (UB-12975), indicating an Early Neolithic date of activity. This pit appeared heavily truncated in modern times (possibly due to agricultural activities). Although these two pits were the only contexts at the site where pottery was found, the two contexts appear to be unrelated since the pottery from the pit (C.55) was Late Neolithic while the pottery from pit (C.86) was Early Bronze Age.18
    • Ballynamona 1-E2428 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2428-ballynamona1-co-cork/Figure 7: Illustration of Early Bronze Age Vase Urn, Vessel 2� a b c 0 cm 3 cmFigure 8: Illustration of Late Neolithic Grooved Ware, Vessel 1� There were three more pits (C.57, C.60 and C.63) found in close proximity to the pit(C.55). On average the pits measured 0.88 m in length, 0.64 m in width and 0.2 m indepth. One pit (C.57) was oval in shape, but it was extremely shallow and was probablyheavily truncated. A second pit (C.60) was irregular in shape and its primary fill was afirm mid reddish orange sandy clay (C.62). This evidence of in situ burning indicatedthat this pit may have been some type of pyre for cremating human remains. The thirdpit (C.63) contained three fills, two of which had concentrated charcoal deposits withinthem. This may have been a dump of waste burnt material resulting from the burning ofhuman remains. 19
    • iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Plate 5: Post-excavation view of pit (C�72), from south-west� Pit type Context Length Width Depth Pit with Late Neolithic 55 0.85 0.74 0.1 pottery Pit with Early Bronze Age 86 0.5 0.4 0.12 pottery Pit 57 0.86 0.64 0.08 Pit 60 0.9 0.52 0.18 Pit 63 0.9 0.78 0.34 Table 2: Pit dimensions Other pits A total of seven other pits (for example Plates 5, 6 and 7) were found in Area 2 (C.67, C.71, C.72, C.76, C.81, C.91 and C.107). Like the nine pits from Area 1, the fills of all of these pits contained charcoal (see, for example, the charcoal-rich fill in C.91, Plate 8). The fills were relatively similar to the charcoal-filled pits from Area 1 and they may have served similar functions in the past. However, the exact nature of their use is unknown. Linear features A total of two parallel linear features (C.77 and C.80) were discovered in Area 2. The linear feature (C.77) was aligned north to south and measured 1.5 in width and 0.45 in depth (Plate 9). The linear feature (C.80) was located 1.95 m to the west. It was aligned north to south and measured 1.6 m in width and 0.3 in depth. These two liner features represent two parallel field boundaries. These may have been contemporary but were20
    • Ballynamona 1-E2428 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2428-ballynamona1-co-cork/Plate 6: Post-excavation view of pit (C�76), from north-east�more likely an initial boundary that was later replaced. The sterile nature of the fills of thethree features suggests that they naturally silted up over time and post-dated the intenseburning activity that occurred in this area. This indicates that these features are later indate than the other activity at the site and possibly represent modern agricultural activity.Natural featuresA total of ten natural features were observed across Area 1 and Area 2. In Area 1, sixfeatures were observed (C.4, C.31, C.47, C.49, C.50 and C.51). In Area 2 four naturalfeatures were found (C.89, C.97, C.101 and C.103). The irregularity in shape, the lack ofdepth and sterile fills of these features suggests that they are natural in origin, possiblyvegetation bowls. Four of the ten natural features contained charcoal within their fills.The charcoal inclusions within their fills are most likely the result of contamination bysurrounding burning activity.CharcoalCharcoal from this site was identified by Mary Dillon in advance of radiocarbon dating.The results indicate that wood species such as hazel (Corylus) and Alder (Alnus) were usedat the site. 21
    • iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Plate 7: Post-excavation view of pit (C�71)� Plate 8: Partially excavated view of pit (C�91), showing charcoal-rich fill, from north�22
    • Ballynamona 1-E2428 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2428-ballynamona1-co-cork/Plate 9: South-east facing section of linear feature (C�77)�Plant remainsThe plant remains from this site were examined by Penny Johnston (Appendix 5). Fifteensamples from this site were scanned for plant remains but material was only recoveredfrom five of these: C.64 (S.44), C.73 (S.53), C.87 (S.62), C.88 (S.63) and C.76/C.94 (S.70).All of the plant material was identified as fragments of hazelnut shell fragments and thisis not considered a significant assemblage.PotteryPottery was the only artefact-type retrieved from this site. It was examined by HelenRoche and Eoin Grogan (Appendix 6). The pit (C.86) contained fifteen sherds of LateNeolithic Grooved Ware, all from a single vessel (Vessel 1). This example included someunusual forms of decoration for this type of pottery. There was also carbonised residue onthe interior surface of some sherds and this indicates that the vessel was originally usedfor cooking. Early Bronze Age pottery was also identified; 66 sherds from a Vase urn (Vessel 2) wasidentified from another cremation pit (C.55). Once again, carbonised residue is presenton the interior surface of this vessel, although Vase urns are not generally seen as cookingvessels. 23
    • iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport The pottery results indicate archaeological activity that is spread from the Late Neo- lithic to the Early Bronze Age, with Grooved Ware usually dated to c. 2900 – 2450 BC and pottery from the Vase Tradition usually dated to c. 1903 – 1830 BC. This suggests a significant gap between the depositions of these separate pottery vessels. The composition of the pottery from this site is similar to that retrieved from the nearby site of Ballyna- carriga 3, where Late Neolithic Grooved Ware and Early Bronze Age vessels in the Vase Tradition were found in much larger quantities. Radiocarbon dates Radiocarbon analysis was carried out by the 14 Chrono Centre in Queen’s University Belfast. Dates were calibrated using Calib Rev5.0.2 (©1986-2005 M.Stuiver & P.J. Re- imer) and in conjunction with Stuiver & Reimer 1993 and Reimer et al. 2004. Lab Context Material Un-cali- δ 13 C 2 sigma 1 sigma Period code brated date calibration calibration UB- C.88 (fill of Hazel/Alder 4912 +/- 25 -27.0 cal BC cal BC Early 12975 pit C.86) (Corylus/ Alnus) 3760-3742 3698-3658 Neolithic With Grooved charcoal 3731-3730 Ware pottery 3714-3644 UB- C.41 (fill of Hazel (Corylus) 3499 +/- 24 -26.2 cal BC cal BC Early 13173 pit C.34 in charcoal 1889-1750 1880-1867 Bronze Area 1) (0.2 g) 1848-1774 Age24
    • Ballynamona 1-E2428 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2428-ballynamona1-co-cork/9 DiscussionThe archaeological results from Ballynamona 1 indicated that there was some Early Neo-lithic activity in Area 2 (hazel and alder charcoal returned an Early Neolithic radiocarbondate). This is combined with artefactual (ceramic) evidence from Area 2, where Late Neo-lithic and Early Bronze Age pottery types were recovered. Early Neolithic radiocarbon dates were recovered from numerous sites excavatedalong the route of the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown (see Figure 9). These included sitesat Ballinglanna North 3, Caherdrinny 3 and Gortore 1b (where typical Early Neolithichouses were excavated), as well as Ballynacarriga 3 (where Early Neolithic dates wereobtained from deposits, but were not associated with any definite occupation from thisperiod). The results from Ballynamona 1 fall into a similar category as those obtainedfrom Ballynacarriga 3: the date indicates some form of activity in the Early Neolithic, butthe exact nature of this activity is unclear. The site at Ballynamona 1 contained two pits with prehistoric pottery, dated to theLate Neolithic and the Early Bronze Age. The Late Neolithic pottery from the site, iden-tified as Grooved Ware, is a type that is not necessarily associated with burials, but doesappear to have ritualistic connotations. It is often found associated with passage tombsand timber circles (Grogan et al. 2007, 136 – 9). It is also usually associated with highquality material culture (Cooney 2000, 17). However, at Ballynamona 1, although severalpits were excavated near the area where Grooved Ware was found, there was no identifi-able pattern in the archaeological features: they do not appear to have formed a circle, orportion of a circle. There was also no evidence for other high status cultural material atthis site. The fact that an Early Neolithic date was returned from charcoal within a pit whereLate Neolithic pottery was also found suggests that there was some residual material atthe site during Late Neolithic occupation at the site. It is possible that this was from ear-lier occupation, or alternatively that it was simply old wood that was burnt in the LateNeolithic. Carbonised residue adhered to the interior of the Early Bronze Age Vase urn found atBallynamona 1 (Appendix 6). This find suggests that at Ballynamona 1 this pot was usedfor domestic purposes. In fact, the evidence from other pottery vessels from the Vase tra-dition found along the route of the N8 Fermoy to Mitchelstown route suggests that thiswas the norm: carbonised residue was found on the interior surfaces of all three encrustedurns discovered at Ballynacarriga 3 and Glenatlucky, in one vessel the deposits were verythick. Carbonised residue was also found on the interior surfaces of two of the three foodvessels found at Ballynacarriga 3. All of these vessels belong to the Early Bronze Age Vasetradition and are usually associated with burials (Waddell 1998, 144 – 5) and at Ballyna-carriga 3 and Glenatlucky they pottery was associated with cremated bone. The absenceof cremated bone from Ballynamona 1 and the more domestic nature of the site couldsuggest that funerary urns were also occasionally used in settlement contexts. 25
    • 174694 18969426 GA LTY MOU NTAINS IN S Ke a le NTA Shanbally U Tar MO Funshion A Sheep UR O YH MITCHELSTOWN LL BA Ogeen n Duag Funshio 112074 112074 ge iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 Fa a do r ah Gr y TAINS M OU N RTH KILWO Awb e g l in Arag Glencorra 103574 103574 Funshion Do Gl o ug una las gad Gl e n f i ni s h FERMOY ter Glenmore Blackwater a Blackw 174694 189694 Barrow (24) Cave (3) Lithic Scatter (5) Settlement (14) 0 10 Cairn (3) Kerb circle (2) Megalithic tomb (3) Standing stone (19) Kilometres Figure 9: Neolithic sites on and in the environs of the N8 Fermoy Mitchelstown� ¢ archaEological Excavation rEport
    • Ballynamona 1-E2428 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2428-ballynamona1-co-cork/ On the other hand, the absence of cremated bone may simply indicate that these pitswere not burials deposits, but ‘blind’ burials or cenotaphs instead (i.e. deposits that con-tained cremation deposit or pyre-like material, but no bone). This was widely identifiedat Killoran 10, Lisheen, Co. Tipperary and along the route of the gas pipeline to the west(Grogan et al. 2007, 118). In the case of Ballynamona 1 the deposits, although contain-ing some charcoal, did not appear to be pyre material. This suggests that the deposits arenot blind burials. However, whether these are formal deposits or the remains of domesticoccupation at Ballynamona 1 is unclear. What is clear is the fact that the Early BronzeAge material from Ballynamona 1 is found within a landscape where there is significantevidence for contemporary activity (Figure 10). The recovery of Early Neolithic radiocarbon dates and both Late Neolithic and EarlyBronze Age pottery suggests a relatively long-lived phase of occupation/use at Ballyna-mona 1. The pottery evidence also indicates a continuity between the Late Neolithic andthe Early Bronze Age. This is common and Early Bronze Age activity often masked LateNeolithic material (Cooney 2000, 17). In total, the Early Neolithic radiocarbon date fromArea 1 suggests that it significantly predates the activity from Area 2, where artefactualand radiocarbon dates indicates activity from the Late Neolithic and the Early BronzeAge. 27
    • 174694 18969428 GA LTY MOU NTAINS IN S Ke a le NTA Shanbally U Tar MO Funshion A Sheep UR O YH MITCHELSTOWN LL BA Ogeen n Duag Funshio 112074 112074 e iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 Fa dog r ah G ra y UN TAINS H MO ORT Awb KILW e g l in Arag Glencorra 103574 103574 Funshion Do Gl o u gla una s gad Gl e n finis h FERMOY ter Glenmore Blackwater a Blackw 174694 189694 Barrow (25) Cairn (3) Fulacht Fiadh (163) Lithic Scatter (5) Standing stone (19) 0 10 Burial (33) Cave (3) Kerb circle (2) Settlement (22) Kilometres Figure 10: Early Bronze Age sites on and in the environs of the N8 Fermoy Mitchelstown� ¢ archaEological Excavation rEport
    • Ballynamona 1-E2428 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2428-ballynamona1-co-cork/10 ReferencesBarry, T. (1987) The Archaeology of Medieval Ireland. London, Methuen & Co. Ltd.Bence-Jones, M. (1996) A Guide to Irish County Houses. London, Constable & Co. Ltd.Clinton, M. (2001) The Souterrains of Ireland. Bray, Wordwell.Cooney, G. (2000) Landscapes of Neolithic Ireland. London, Routledge.Cotter, E., Buckley, K. & Drumm, M. (2006) N8 Fermoy Mitchelstown Phase 1 – final archaeological testing report, unpublished report for licence no. 05E1150.Cotter, E. (2005) ‘Bronze Age Ballybrowney, Co. Cork’, Recent Archaeological Discoveries on National Road Schemes 2004. National Roads Authority Monograph Series No.2.Daly, A. and Grogan, E (1992) ‘Excavation of Four Barrows in Mitchelstowndown West, Knocklong, Co. Limerick’, Discovery Programme Reports 1. Dublin, Royal Irish Academy.Doody, M. (1995) ‘Ballyhoura Hills project’, Discovery Programme Reports 2, 12-44. Dublin, Royal Irish Academy.Gardiner, M.J. and Radford,T. (1980) Soil Assocaitions of Ireland and Their Land Use Potential. Dublin, An Foras Talúntais.Gowen, M. (1988) Three Irish Gas pipelines: new archaeological evidence in Munster. Dublin, Wordwell.Grogan, E., O’Donnell, L. and Johnston, P. (2007) The Bronze Age Landscapes of the Pipeline to the West. Bray, Wordwell.Lewis, S. (1988) Lewis’ Cork: A Topographical Dictionary of the Parishes, Towns and Villages of Cork City and County. Cork, Collins Press.Monk, M. (1995) ‘A Tale of Two Ringforts Lisleagh I and II’, Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society Vol.100,.105-116.Power, D., Lane, S. and Byrne, E., Egan, U., Sleeman, M., with Cotter, E., Monk, J. (2000) Archaeological Inventory of County Cork, Volume 4: North Cork Parts I & II. Dublin, The Stationery Office. 29
    • iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Power, B. (1996) From the Danes to Dairygold A History of Mitchelstown. Mount Cashell Books. Power, B. (2002) Images of Mitchelstown, Stories and pictures from my own place. Mount Cashell Books. Reimer, P.J., Baillie, M.G.L., Bard, E., Bayliss, A., Beck, J.W., Bertrand, C., Blackwell, P.G., Buck, C.E., Burr, G., Cutler, K.B., Damon, P.E., Edwards, R.L., Fairbanks, R.G., Friedrich, M., Guilderson, T.P., Hughen, K.A., Kromer, B., McCormac, F.G., Manning, S., Bronk Ramsey, C., Reimer, R.W., Remmele, S., Southon, J.R., Stuiver, M., Talamo, S., Taylor, F.W., van der Plicht, J. and Weyhenmeyer, C.E. (2004) ‘IntCal04 Terrestrial Radiocarbon Age Calibration, 0–26 Cal Kyr BP’, Radiocarbon 46, 1029-1058. Stuiver, M., and Reimer, P.J. (1993) ‘Extended (super 14) C data base and revised CALIB 3.0 (super 14) C age calibration program’, Radiocarbon 35, 215-230. Sherlock, R. (2003) ‘Killydonoghoe’ Bennett, I. (Ed) Excavations 2001. Bray, Wordwell. Sleeman, A.G., & McConnell, B. (1995) Geology of East Cork-Waterford. Dublin, Geological Survey of Ireland. Stout, M. (1997) The Irish Ringfort. Dublin, Four Courts Press. Waddell, J. (1998) The Prehistoric Archaeology of Ireland. Galway, Galway University Press. Woodman, P. McCarthy, M. and Monaghan, N.T. (1997) ‘The Irish Quaternary Fauna Project’, Quaternary Science Reviews 16 (2), 129-159. Woodman, P.C. (1989) ‘The Mesolithic in Munster: a preliminary assessment’, pp. 116 – 124 in Bonsall, C. (ed) The Mesolithic in Europe. Edinburgh, John Donald. Woodman, P.C. (2000) ‘Hammers and Shoeboxes: New Agendas for Prehistory’., pp. 1 -10 in Desmond, A., Johnson, G., McCarthy, M., Sheehan, J. and Shee Twohig, E. New Agendas in Irish Prehistory. Papers in commemoration of Liz Anderson. Bray, Wordwell.30
    • Appendix 1 Stratigraphic Index Context # Context Type Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 1 Topsoil 2 Dark brownish silty clay of loose compaction with occasional Extent of trench cut small angular stones. Ballynamona 1-E2428 2 Natural 1 Compact reddish/yellow/orange sandy clay with a little silt. Con- Extent of trench cut taining occasional small and medium angular stones. 3 Cut 6, 7, 9 7 2 Oval, flat bottomed pit with gradual break of slope and gentle 0.9 x 0.54 x 0.3-0.4 smooth sides. Fills = C6, C7 and C9. 4 Cut 5, 8 8 2 Very shallow irregular shaped pit. Most likely to be a natural 0.7 x 0.5 x 0.08 depression filled with topsoil. 5 Fill 4 1 8 Upper fill. Firm dark brownish black clayey silt with occasional 0.5 x 0.3 x 0.04 sub-angular pebbles. Also with occasional flecks and moderate small pieces of charcoal. 6 Fill 3 1 9 Upper fill. Very soft dark black silt with frequent charcoal flecks. 0.3 x 0.18 x 0.08 Upper fill of flat bottomed pit C3. 7 Fill 3 9 3 Very soft light brown clay silt with occasional small sub-angular 1.0 x ? X 0.3 stones and frequent charcoal flecks. Fill of C3 (lower). Co-ordi- nates: A - 97.8E/108.65N; B - 97.35E/107.66N. 8 Fill 4 5 4 Firm light pinkish brown clay silt with occasional charcoal ? X 1.8 x 1.8 flecks. This is the lower fill of irregular shallow (0.08m) pit. Most likely a natural feature. Co-ordinates: A - 99.74E/115.0N; B - 99.67E/114.0N. 9 Fill 3 6 7 Soft light white sandy clay. Small deposit within fill C7 of pit C3. ? X 0.1 x 0.08 Co-ordinates: A - 97.8E/108.65N, B - 97.35E/107.66N. 10 Cut 13, 14, 15, 18 2 Oval/irregular pit containing seven fills. The sides are relatively 1.1 x 0.6 x 0.4 16, 17, 18, steep and smooth with an irregular concave base. From read- 19 ing the sheets relating to this feature, but not actually seeing the feature, it may be a root bole as it is irregular with a number of lenses and a couple of depressions. One suggested as a stakehole filled by C14, this maybe a result of root action. Co-ordinates: A - 98.95E/108.8N; B - 98.76E/107.65N. http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2428-ballynamona1-co-cork/31
    • 32 Context # Context Type Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 11 Cut 12, 20 12 2 A large irregular shaped shallow pit with concave sides and an ir- 1.3 x 1.05 x 0.25 regular base. This pit appears natural, however a possible posthole is located towards the S. The fills contain small charcoal flecks, however the feature still appears natural in structure. Co-ordi- nates: A - 99.36E/116.55N; 99.75E/115.49N. 12 Fill 11 20 11 Compact light yellow brown silty clay with moderate flecks 0.6 x 0.4 x 0.25 and small pieces of charcoal. This was the fill of the possible posthole situated at the S edge of pt C11. Co-ordinates: A - 99.36E/116.55N; 99.75E/115.49N. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 13 Fill 10 1 15 Very soft dark black clay with frequent small charcoal pieces. 0.5 x 0.45 x 0.06 This is the uppermost fill of irregular pit C10. Co-ordinates: A - 98.95E/108.8N; B - 98.76E/107.65N. 14 Fill 10 17 16, 19 Very soft mid pinkish brown clayey silt with frequent charcoal ? X 0.4 X 0.14 flecks. This was filling what appeared to be a small stakehole at the W of the larger cut C10. It may also be root action. Co-ordi- nates: A - 98.95E/108.8N; B - 98.76E/107.65N. 15 Fill 10 13 17 Soft mid yellow sandy clay with occasional flecks of charcoal. ? X 0.2 X 0.1 One of seven fills of pit C10. Co-ordinates: A - 98.95E/108.8N; B - 98.76E/107.65N. 16 Fill 10 14 18 Soft mid yellow brown clayey silt with moderate charcoal flecks. ? X 0.3 X 0.08 One of seven fills of pit (tree bole) C10. Co-ordinates: A - 98.95E/108.8N; B - 98.76E/107.65N. 17 Fill 10 15 14 Firm light yellowish white sandy clay. No charcoal. A thin ? X 0.11 x 0.02 lens making one of seven fills in pit C10. Co-ordinates: A - 98.95E/108.8N; B - 98.76E/107.65N. 18 Fill 10 16, 19 10 Firm light white sandy clay, basal fill of pit C10. Co-ordinates: A - ? X 0.12 X 0.07 98.95E/108.8N; B - 98.76E/107.65N. 19 Fill 10 14 18 Firm light yellow sandy clay, side/basal fill of C10. This fill is ? X 0.1 x 0.23 situated along the N edge of the cut, suggesting the fill slumped in from the side, possibly soon after the cut was opened. This fill is sterile from any organic material and may be the original soil extracted from the pit, or cavity where the loosened natural soil re-filled. Co-ordinates: A - 98.95E/108.8N; B - 98.76E/107.65N. archaEological Excavation rEport
    • Context # Context Type Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 20 Fill 11 1 12 Firm mid brown silty clay with moderate small sub-angular 0.7 x 0.5 x 0.08 stones and occasional small pieces and small charcoal flecks. This is a mixed fill of topsoil and natural soils. This feature would be of a natural origin, a natural depression. Co-ordinates: A - 99.36E/116.55N; B - 99.75E/115.49N. 21 Cut 22, 23 23 2 A shallow circular feature with a sub-circular base. All sides 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.14 Ballynamona 1-E2428 were moderately sloped. This feature may be modern due to the barbed wire found in the upper fill C22. There is no clear relation between the other features. Co-ordinates: A - 92.86E/116.95N; B - 92.85E/116.23N. 22 Fill 21 1 23 Loose mid brown sand clay with occasional small charcoal 0.57 x 0.59 x 0.14 pieces. This is the upper fill of a most likely modern feature due to the barbed wire found within this fill. This fill is one of two, but is the main fill. Co-ordinates: A - 92.86E/116.95N; B - 92.85E/116.23N. 23 Fill 21 22 2 Firm dark black silty clay with occasional coarse sub-angular 0.28 x 0.25 x 0.03 pebbles. It contained frequent small pieces and flecks of charcoal. This is the basal fill of C21. The pebbles were heat-affected. Co- ordinates: A - 92.86E/116.95N; B - 92.85E/116.23N. 24 Cut 25, 26 26 2 Oval shaped shallow feature with rounded corners and moderately 0.6 x 0.4 x 0.16 sloped concave sides. The base was oval with a tapered blunt point. This cut contained two fills, the lower fill with moderate charcoal. Due to the shallow and slightly irregular nature of this feature, it may be a natural depression backfilled by surrounding material. Co-ordinates: A - 102.10E/116.79N; B - 102.15E/117.78N. 25 Fill 24 1 26 Firm mid brown silty clay with a clear boundary to next fill/ 0.6 x 0.4 x 0.16 layer. This is the upper fill of pit C24 and appears similar to the surrounding subsoil. Co-ordinates: A - 102.10E/116.79N; B - 102.15E/117.78N. 26 Fill 24 25 24 Firm dark brown silty clay with moderate small pieces and flecks 0.6 x 0.4 x 0.08 of charcoal. This is the basal fill of oval feature C24. This fill is similar to the upper fill C25, just has a relatively high % of char- coal. Co-ordinates: A - 102.10E/116.79N; B - 102.15E/117.78N. 27 Cut 28, 29 29 2 This feature is circular in plan with moderately sloped con- 0.56 x 0.56 x 0.21 cave sides and a concave base. The break of slope on top is sharp. This is a small pit. Co-ordinates: A - 90.85E/115.30N; B - 90.68E/114.59N. http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2428-ballynamona1-co-cork/33
    • 34 Context # Context Type Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 28 Fill 27 1 29 Compact mid grey brown silty sand with moderate coarse and me- 0.56 x 0.56 x 0.16 dium sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles. Moderate medium and small sub-angular and sub-rounded stones were also within the fill. It contained moderate small pieces and flecks of charcoal. Co-ordinates: A - 90.85E/115.30N; B - 90.68E/114.59N. 29 Fill 27 28 27 Soft dark black sandy silt with moderate sub-angular and sub- 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.05 rounded pebbles. This is the basal fill of C27. It also contained frequent charcoal flecks. This is a very thin lens. Co-ordinates: A - 90.85E/115.30N; B - 90.68E/114.59N. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 30 VOID 31 Cut 32 32 2 An irregular shaped feature with gentle to steep concave sides 2.8 x 1.5 x 0.3 and an irregular blunt point base. The nature and irregularity of this feature would suggest it is a root bole. Co-ordinates: A - 100.68E/116.34N; B - 100.34E/119.10N. 32 Fill 31 1 31 Firm light orange brown silty clay with moderate small charcoal 2.8 x 1.5 x 0.3 pieces and occasional charcoal flecks. This fill is similar to the surrounding natural subsoil other than the charcoal content. This is most likely the fill of a tree bole. Co-ordinates: A - 100.68E/116.34N; B - 100.34E/119.10N. 33 VOID 34 Cut 41 41 2 This is a sub-rectangular feature with gentle sloping sides and an 0.46 x 0.3 x 0.18 irregular flat base. This maybe a natural depression due to it being so shallow. The fill C41 has occasional charcoal flecks. Co-ordi- nates: A - 100.29E/105.87N; B - 100.86E/106.52N. 35 Cut 36 36 2 A sub-circular feature with steep smooth sides and a sub-circular 0.4 x 0.25 x 0.18 concave base. This is possibly a posthole. Co-ordinates: A - 97.14E/120.13N; B - 97.51E/120.15N. 36 Fill 35 1 35 Firm mid yellow brown silty clay with occasional small pieces 0.4 x 0.25 x 0.18 of charcoal and moderate charcoal flecks. This is a single fill of a possible posthole. This feature is in close proximity to two other features C39 and C37 with similar fills. Co-ordinates: A - 97.14E/120.13N; B - 97.51E/120.15N. archaEological Excavation rEport
    • Context # Context Type Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 37 Cut 38 38 40 A sub-circular feature with mainly vertical smooth sides and 0.24 x 0.2 x 0.08 a sub-circular flat base. This may be the base of a posthole, which has been truncated by C39. It is situated at the SW edge of large feature C39. Co-ordinates: A - 97.46E/120.08N; B - 97.82E/120.02. 38 Fill 37 1 37 Firm mid yellow brown silty clay with occasional small charcoal 0.24 x 0.2 x 0.08 Ballynamona 1-E2428 pieces and moderate charcoal flecks. Single fill of possible posthole C37, or remains of one as it is very shallow at only 0.08m. Co- ordinates: A - 97.46E/120.08N; B - 97.82E/120.02. 39 Cut 40 40 2 An irregular shaped feature with both steep and sloping sides 1.4 x 1.1 x 0.24 and an irregular concave base. This feature has the possible remains of a posthole C37 at its WSW edge. Co-ordinates: A - 97.61E/120.18N; B - 98.89E/119.86N. 40 Fill 39 37 39 Firm mid yellow brown silty clay with occasional sub-angular 1.4 x 1.1 x 0.24 stones. It also contained moderate small charcoal pieces and occasional charcoal flecks. This is the single fill of feature C39. Co-ordinates: A - 97.61E/120.18N; B - 98.89E/119.86N. 41 Fill 34 1 34 Very soft mid brown sandy clay with occasional small charcoal 0.36 x 0.64 x 0.18 pieces and charcoal flecks. This is a single fill of a small shallow sub-rectangular pit. This fill may be residue from another source ploughed into a shallow, possibly natural depression. Co-ordi- nates: A - 100.29E/105.87N; B - 100.86E/106.52N. 42 Cut 43, 44 44 2 This is a sub-rectangular, mostly steep-sided shallow pit with 0.44 x 0.4 x 0.18 an irregular concave base. This pit contained two fills C43 and C44. Occasional charcoal flecks found in the upper fill C43. The basal fill, C44, is almost natural suggesting it may be a natural depression filled with contaminated soil. Similar to feature C34. Co-ordinates: A - 98.25E/106.84N; B - 98.74E/107.58N. 43 Fill 42 1 44 Soft mid pinkish red sandy clay with occasional charcoal 0.40 x 0.32 x 0.1 flecks. This is the secondary fill of pit C42. Co-ordinates: A - 98.25E/106.84N; B - 98.74E/107.58N. 44 Fill 42 43 42 Very soft mid yellow brown sandy clay. No charcoal. This is the ? X 0.24 X 0.16 basal fill of shallow pit C42. This fill is very similar to the sur- rounding natural soil, suggesting that this may, as with feature C34, be a natural depression filled by contaminated soil. Co- ordinates: A - 98.25E/106.84N; B - 98.74E/107.58N. http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2428-ballynamona1-co-cork/35
    • 36 Context # Context Type Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 45 Cut 46 46 2 This is linear in plan, the SE side gently sloping with a stepped 19.88 x 0.84 x 0.2 shape; the NW side is moderately sloped with a smooth shape. The base is sub-rectangular and flat. This may be a drainage ditch which has been silted up, C46, see fill. Co-ordinates: A - 95.00E/127.38N; B - 94.00E/128.00N. 46 Fill 45 1 45 Very soft mid yellow brown clayey sand with moderate fine sub- 19.88 x 0.84 x 0.2 angular pebbles. Organically sterile fill, possibly silted up drainage ditch. Co-ordinates: A - 95.00E/127.38N; B - 94.00E/128.00N. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 47 Cut 48 1 Irregular round cornered feature with moderately sloped concave 0.86 x 0.42 x 0.14 sides. It had an irregular concave base. This feature was most like- ly to be a natural depression. Co-ordinates: A - 100.38E/121.30N; B - 101.12E/120.42N. 48 Fill 47 1 47 Compact mid grey brown clayey sand. This fill is organically 0.86 x 0.42 x 0.14 sterile and would appear to be a form of subsoil/topsoil rede- posited in a naturally occurring depression. Co-ordinates: A - 100.38E/121.30N; B - 101.12E/120.42N. 49 Cut 52 52 2 A circular/oval shallow feature with gently sloping smooth sides 0.48 x 0.3 x 0.1 and a circular concave base. This is most likely to be a natural depression. 50 Cut 53 53 2 Oval in plan with smooth, gentle sloping sides and a flat base. 0.6 x 0.3 x 0.08 This is most likely to be a natural depression. 51 Cut 54 54 2 Oval in plan with smooth, gentle sloping sides and a circular flat 0.38 x 0.2 x 0.08 base. This is most likely to be a natural depression. 52 Fill 49 1 49 Compact dark brown clayey sand with occasional fine sub-round- 0.36 x 0.3 x 0.08 ed pebbles and occasional charcoal flecks. This appear to be a contaminated fill of a natural depression. 53 Fill 50 1 50 Compact mid yellow brown clayey sand with occasional fine sub- 0.7 x 0.4 x 0.08 rounded pebbles and occasional charcoal flecks. This appears to be a contaminated fill of a natural depression. 54 Fill 51 1 51 Compact dark brown clayey sand with occasional fine sub-round- 0.4 x 0.37 x 0.08 ed pebbles and occasional charcoal flecks. This appear to be a contaminated fill of a natural depression. 55 Cut 56 56 2 An oval shallow pit with both steep and gentle concave sides with 0.85 x 0.74 x 0.1 an oval slightly concave base. With the large number of pottery sherds this may be a heavily truncated cremation pit. Soil analysis will aid our interpretation if bone/seed/food residue is discovered. archaEological Excavation rEport
    • Context # Context Type Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 56 Fill 55 1 55 Firm mid grey black sandy clay with moderate small angular 0.85 x 0.74 x 0.1 stones and frequent charcoal flecks/pieces ranging from small to medium. Also many pottery sherds. Soil analysis will aid with interpretation and hopefully produce possible bone, seed or other residues. 57 Cut 58, 59 58 2 Irregular/oval in plan with smooth, gently sloping sides and an 0.86 x 0.64 x 0.08 Ballynamona 1-E2428 irregular flat/tapered pointed base. This is a very shallow, but large feature which has been heavily truncated, as pottery was found in the basal fill C58. 58 Fill 57 59 57 Compact mid brown grey clayey sand with occasional small an- 0.86 x 0.64 x 0.03 gular stones and moderate charcoal flecks. One pottery sherd was identified in this fill. 59 Fill 57 1 58 Compact dark black clayey sand with moderate medium charcoal 0.26 x 0.22 x 0.07 pieces. This is one of two fills in pit C57. The upper fill. 60 Cut 61, 62 62 Irregular in plan shallow pit with moderately to steep sloped con- 0.9 x 0.52 x 0.18 cave sides and an irregular concave base. This feature may be two conjoined pits. 61 Fill 60 1 62 Compact mid black silty sand with occasional small angular 0.4 x 0.27 x 0.17 stones. This was the upper fill of two within a large irregular pit. 62 Fill 60 61 60 Firm mid reddish orange sandy clay with occasional small angular 0.8 x 0.54 x 0.2 stones. Basal fill of irregular shaped shallow pit. 63 Cut 64, 65, 66 66 2 Oval in plan with steep concave sides and a circular concave base. 0.9 x 0.78 x 0.34 This pit contained three fills. 64 Fill 63 1 65 Compact mid grey silty sandy clay with occasional small angular 0.26 x 0.17 x 0.06 stones and frequent medium charcoal pieces. This is the upper fill of pit C63. 65 Fill 63 64 66 Firm mid yellow brown sandy clay with occasional small angular 0.6 x 0.45 x 0.18 stones. This is a secondary fill in pit C63. 66 Fill 63 65 63 Firm mid brown grey sandy clay with occasional small and me- 0.6 x 0.5 x 0.3 dium angular stones. It also contained frequent medium and large charcoal pieces. This is the primary fill of C63. 67 Cut 68, 69 69 2 Oval, smooth gentle sloping sides with an oval flat base. This is a 1.34 x 0.94 x 0.18 very shallow feature situated near other small features. http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2428-ballynamona1-co-cork/37
    • 38 Context # Context Type Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 68 Fill 67 1 69 Compact dark reddish brown clayey sand with moderate medium 1.0 x 0.85 x 0.18 sub-angular pebbles and moderate charcoal flecks. A thin lens of charcoal lies within this fill. 69 Fill 67 68 67 Compact mid brown yellow clayey sand with occasional medium 0.18 x ? X 0.16 sub-angular pebbles and occasional charcoal flecks. This is a small fill at the E side of the feature. This fill is similar to the surround- ing natural and may have got contaminated by other fills. 70 VOID iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 71 Cut 73, 74 74 2 Oval in plan shallow feature with gentle sloping sides and an ir- 0.8 x 0.6 x 0.2 regular flat base. This contained two fills. 72 Cut 75 75 2 Sub-rectangular shallow pit with steep, smooth sides and an ir- 0.64 x 0.54 x 0.23 regular flat base. 73 Fill 71, 107 1 74 Compact dark brown black clayey sand with occasional coarse 0.8 x 0.6 x 0.08 angular pebbles, and frequent charcoal flecks. This is the second- ary fill of two fills within C71. 74 Fill 71 73 71 Very soft mid yellow brown sandy clay with occasional small ? X 0.58 X 0.12 sub-angular stones and frequent coarse sub-angular stones. It also contains moderate charcoal flecks. 75 Fill 72 1 72 Compact dark greyish brown clayey sand with frequent coarse and 0.63 x 0.54 x 0.14 occasional medium sub-angular pebbles. It also contains occa- sional charcoal flecks. 76 Cut 93, 94 94 2 Oval smooth steep sloped sided feature with a sub-circular flat 1.21 X 0.76 X 0.58 base. 77 Cut 78, 95, 96 95, 100 2 Linear feature with moderate sloping concave sides and a concave 20.0 x 1.5 x 0.45 base. 78 Fill 77 1 96 Compact mid brownish grey silty clay with moderate coarse 20.0 x 1.5 x 0.45 sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles. Also occasional small, sub-angular and sub-rounded small stones. Upper fill of modern boundary ditch. 79 VOID 80 Cut 84 84 2 Linear feature with gently sloping concave sides and a concave 17.0 x 1.6 x 0.3 base. This linear feature is running parallel to C77. They are situ- ated 1.84m apart. 81 Cut 82, 83 83 2 Oval shallow pit with smooth moderately sloped sides and a flat 0.66 x 0.48 x 0.22 base. archaEological Excavation rEport
    • Context # Context Type Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 82 Fill 81 1 83 Very soft dark brown clayey silt with occasional small sub-angular 0.66 x 0.48 x 0.22 stones and occasional charcoal flecks. 83 Fill 81 82 81 Very soft mid yellow brown sandy clay with occasional coarse sub- ? X 0.5 X 0.14 angular pebbles and occasional small sub-angular stones. It also contained occasional charcoal flecks. This is the lower fill of two within this feature. Ballynamona 1-E2428 84 Fill 80 1 80 Compact mid brownish grey silty sand with moderate coarse 17.0 x 1.6 x 0.3 sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles. This is the fill of boundary ditch C80. 85 VOID 86 Cut 87, 88 88 2 Sub-circular shallow feature with gently sloping concave sides and 0.5 x 0.4 x 0.12 a concave base. 87 Fill 86 1 88 Compact dark brown silty sand with occasional medium sized 0.5 x 0.4 x 0.05 sub-angular pebbles and occasional charcoal flecks. This is the lower fill of two within pit C86. 88 Fill 86 87 86 Compact mid yellow brown clayey sand with occasional medium 0.4 x 0.35 x 0.07 sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles and small charcoal pieces. 89 Cut 99 99 2 Irregular in plan with gently sloped irregular sides and an irregular 2.6 x 2.0 x 0.27 concave base. 90 VOID 91 Cut 92 92 2 Circular gently sloped, smooth sided, with a sub-rectangular con- 0.38 x 0.3 x 0.17 cave base. This pit has only one fill C92. This may be a natural hollow/depression. 92 Fill 91 1 91 Compact mid brown clayey sand with moderate medium sub-an- 0.42 x 0.32 x 0.17 gular pebbles and occasional charcoal flecks. This is the single fill of a shallow small pit C91. This may be a contaminated fill within a possible natural hollow. 93 Fill 76 1 94 Very soft dark brown stony sandy clay. It contained occasional me- 1.13 x 0.7 x 0.58 dium sized sub-angular stones and frequent coarse sub-rounded pebbles. It also had occasional charcoal flecks. This was the upper fill of pit C76. http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2428-ballynamona1-co-cork/39
    • 40 Context # Context Type Fill of Filled with Strat above Strat below Short Description Dimensions (m) 94 Fill 76 93 76 Very soft mid grey sandy clay with occasional medium sized sub- ? X 0.25 x 0.3 angular stones. This fill was in two areas at the base of cut C76. Fill C93 was separating the two areas. This clay may be water- logged or silting at the base of such a vertical deep hole. Dimen- sions given refer to two parts. 95 Fill 77 96 77 Compact light yellow brown clayey sand with occasional medium ? X 1.28 x 0.21 sub-angular and sub-rounded stones. This is the basal layer in linear feature C75. iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 96 Fill 77 78 95, 100 Compact dark greyish black silty sand. ? X 1.6 x 0.04 97 Cut 98 98 99 Circular feature with gently sloping concave sides and a circular 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.18 concave base. This is possibly part of a root bole. A natural feature. 98 Fill 97 1 97 Firm mid grey sandy clay with occasional small angular stones. 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.18 This is the fill of a most likely root hole - natural. 99 Fill 89 97 89 Firm mid grey sandy clay with moderate small angular stones. Fill 2.6 x 2.0 x 0.27 of possible root hole? 100 Fill 77 96 77 Compact light orange yellow clayey sand. This is the fill of the ? X 1.04 x 0.2 modern field boundary C77. 101 Cut 102 102 2 Circular pit with moderate sloping concave sides and a circular 0.54 x 0.5 x 0.19 concave base. Possible root action. 102 Fill 101 1 101 Firm mid grey sandy clay. Possible root action. 0.54 x 0.5 x 0.19 103 Cut 104 104 2 Circular with gently sloping concave sides and a circular concave 0.2 x 0.1 x 0.1 base. Possible root action. 104 Fill 103 1 103 Firm mid grey sandy clay. 0.2 x 0.1 x 0.1 105 Fill 107 73 107 Compact mid reddish yellow clayey sand with moderate coarse 1.10 x 1.00 x 0.14 angular pebbles. Possible natural. Near feature C71. 106 Spread 73 2 Compact light grey sandy clay with frequent charcoal flecks. 0.5 x 0.4 X 0.4 Small deposit at lying underneath fill C.73. Originally from C71 the deposit is very shallow and not very long in section. See con- text sheet C105 for drawing details. 107 Cut 73, 105 105 2 Small circular pit under spread connected with C72. 1.10 x 1.00 x 0.14 archaEological Excavation rEport
    • Ballynamona 1-E2428 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2428-ballynamona1-co-cork/Appendix 2 Site matrix 41
    • iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport42
    • Ballynamona 1-E2428 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2428-ballynamona1-co-cork/Appendix 3 Groups and subgroupsGroup 1 Natural DepositsThis group describes the natural geological deposits identified across both areas ofexcavation.Subgroup {1001} TopsoilList of Contexts; C.1DescriptionThis subgroup describes the topsoil covering the archaeological features in Areas 1 and 2.For both areas it was a loose dark brown silty clay.Subgroup {1002} SubsoilList of Contexts; C.2DescriptionThis subgroup describes the natural subsoil that formed across Areas 1 and 2. For bothareas it was a compact reddish orange sandy clay.Group 2 Cremation PitsThis group describes the cremation pits and associated features observed in Area 2.Subgroup {2001} Cremation PitsList of Contexts; C. [55], 56, [86], 87, 88DescriptionTwo cremation pits were located in Area 2. Pit [55] measured 0.85 m in length, 0.74 m in width and 0.1 m in depth. It wasoval in shape, concave in profile and sides varied from gentle to steep in gradient. It wasfilled by a firm mid greyish black sand clay (56). Frequent small pieces of charcoal andburnt bone were recovered from this fill. Thirty-six sherds of prehistoric pottery were alsorecovered from this fill. Pit [86] was located 8.5 m to the west of pit [55]. It measured 0.5 m in length, 0.4m in width and 0.12 m in depth. It was sub-circular in shape, concave in profile and hadgently sloping sides. The primary fill was a compact mid yellowish brown clayey sand(88) and the secondary fill was a compact dark brown silty sand (87). Occasional charcoalpieces were recovered from both fills. 22 sherds of prehistoric pottery were recovered fromthe primary fill of this feature.InterpretationThese two pits represent the remains of two heavily truncated cremations. This indicatedby the evidence of burning, burnt bone and the abundance of pottery sherds within the 43
    • iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport primary fills of both of these pits. The pottery appears to be prehistoric in date giving an approximate date for these features. These features appear to be have been heavily trun- cated, probably by later agricultural activities e.g. ploughing. Subgroup {2002} Associated Pits List of Contexts; C. [57], 58, 59, [60], 61, 62, [63], 64, 65, 66 Description Three associated features were located in close proximity to cremation pit [55]. Pit [57] was located 1.7 m north of pit [55]. It measured 0.86 m in length, 0.64 m in width and 0.08 m in depth. It was oval on shape, flat in profile and had gently sloping sides. The primary fill was a compact mid brownish grey clayey sand (58) and the second- ary fill was a compact dark black clayey sand (59). Moderate amounts of flecks and small pieces of charcoal were observed in both fills. A sherd of prehistoric pottery was recovered from the primary fill of this feature. Pit [60] was located 0.5 m to the east of pit [55]. It measured 0.9 m in length, 0.52 m in width and 0.18 m in depth. It was irregular in shape, concave in profile and sides varied from moderate to steep in gradient. The primary fill was a firm mid reddish orange sandy clay (62) and the secondary fill was a compact mid black silty sand (61). Pit [63] was located 1.6 m to the east of pit [55]. It measured 0.9 m in length, 0.78 m in width and 0.34 m in depth. It was oval in shape, concave in profile and had steeply sloping sides. The primary fill was a firm mid brownish grey sandy clay (66) with frequent medium and large pieces of charcoal inclusions. The secondary fill was a firm mid yel- lowish brown sandy clay (65) and the final fill was a compact mid grey silty clay (64) with frequent medium pieces of charcoal inclusions. Interpretation The three features were located in close proximity to, and probably had a close relation- ship with, cremation pit [55]. Pit [57] contained a sherd of prehistoric pottery relating it directly with the finds from cremation [55] but for what function is unknown. Pit [63] contained three fills, two of which had concentrated charcoal deposits within them. This may have been a dump of burnt material (waste) resulting from the burning of the human remains. Pit [60] appeared to have evidence of in-situ burning within its primary fill. This pit may have provided an alternative method of cremating the human remains that a pyre. Group 3 Postholes This group describes two postholes located in the centre of Area 1 List of Contexts; C. [35], 36, [37], 38 Description Two postholes were located in the centre of Area 1. Posthole [35] measured 0.4 m in length, 0.25 m in width and 0.18 m in depth. It was sub-circular in shape, concave in profile and had steeply sloping sides. It was filled44
    • Ballynamona 1-E2428 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2428-ballynamona1-co-cork/by a firm mid yellowish brown silty clay (36) with occasional small pieces and moderateflecks of charcoal inclusions. Posthole [37] was located 0.14 m east of posthole [35]. It measured 0.24 m in length,0.2 m in width and 0.08 m in depth. It was sub-circular in shape with a flat base andvertical sides. It was filled by a firm mid yellowish brown silty clay (38) with occasionalsmall pieces and moderate flecks of charcoal inclusions. It was truncated by large pit [39].InterpretationThese two postholes represent the only structural elements that have survived on this site.The charcoal inclusions within the fills of these post-holes suggest they had a close rela-tionship with the burning activity took place in this area. They may represent the remainsof a burial pyre, possibly used to cremate human remains before they were placed in thecremation burials described in group 2. This is supported by the fact that the postholeswere fairly small in size and probably could not support anything substantial in size.Group 4 PitsThis group describes sixteen pits excavated across Areas 1 and 2.Subgroup {4001} Area 1List of Contexts; C. [3], 6, 7, 9, [10], 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, [11], 12, 20, [21], 22, 23, [24],25, 26, [27], 28, 29, [34], 41, [39], 40, [42], 43, 44.DescriptionNine pits were located across Area 1.Four pits were located to the south of Area 1. Pit [3] measured 0.9 m in length, 0.54 m in width and 0.4 m in depth. It was ovalin shape with a flat profile and gently sloping sides. It was filled by three deposits. Theprimary deposit was a very soft light brown clayey silt (7), the secondary deposit was asoft white sandy clay (9) and the final deposit was a very soft dark black silt (6). Frequentcharcoal flecks inclusions were observed in fills (6) and (7). Pit [10] was located 0.7 m to the east. It measured 1.1 m in length, 0.6 m in widthad 0.4 m in depth. It was oval in shape, concave in profile and had steeply sloping sides.It was filled by seven deposits. They varied in colour from light yellowish white to darkblack and varied in composition from sandy clay to clayey silt. Frequent flecks of charcoalwere observed from four of the seven fills. Pit [34] was located 1.9 m south-east of pit [10]. It measured 0.46 m in length, 0.3 m inwidth and 0.18 m in depth. It was sub-rectangular in shape with a flat profile and gentlysloping sides. It was filled by a very soft mid brown sandy clay (41) with occasional flecksand small pieces of charcoal inclusions. Pit [42] was located 0.55 m south of pit [10]. It measured 0.44 m in length, 0.4 m inwidth and 0.18 m in depth. It was sub-rectangular in shape, concave in profile and shad 45
    • iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport steeply sloping sides. The primary fill was a soft mid yellowish brown sandy clay (44) and the secondary fill was a soft mid pinkish red sandy clay (43). This fill contained occasional charcoal fleck inclusions. Three pits were located in the centre of Area 1. Pit [11] measured 1.3 m in length, 1.05 m in width and 0.25 m in depth. It was irregular in shape, concave in profile and had moderately steep sloping sides. The primary fill was a compact light yellowish brown silty clay (12) and the secondary deposit was a firm mid brown silty clay (20). Occasional flecks and small pieces of charcoal were recovered from both fills. Pit [24] was located 1.88 m to the north-east. It measured 0.6 m in length, 0.4 m in width and 0.16 m in depth. It was oval in shape, concave in profile and had moderately steep sloping sides. The primary fill was a firm dark brown silty clay (26) and the sec- ondary deposit was a firm mid brown silty clay (25). Moderate flecks and small pieces of charcoal were recovered from fill (26). Pit [39] was located 2.95 m north of pit [11]. It measured 1.4 m in length, 1.1 m in width and 0.24 m in depth. It was irregular in shape, concave in profile and had steeply sloping sides. It was filled by a firm mid yellowish brown silty clay (40) with occasional flecks and moderate amounts of small pieces of charcoal inclusions. This pit truncated earlier posthole [37] as described in group 3. Two pits were located to the west of Area 1 Pit [21] measured 0.6 m in diameter and 0.14 m in depth. It was circular in shape and had moderately steep sides. The primary fill was a firm dark black silty clay (23). Frequent flecks and small pieces of charcoal and burnt stone were observed within this fill. The sec- ondary fill was a loose mid brown sandy clay (22) with occasional small charcoal pieces. A piece of barbed wire was recovered from the secondary fill. Pit [27] was located 2.1 m south-west of pit [21]. It measured 0.56 m in diameter and 0.21 m in depth. It was circular in shape, concave in profile and had moderately steep sides. The primary fill was a soft dark black sandy silt (29) and the secondary fill was a compact mid greyish brown silty sand (28). Moderate flecks and small pieces of charcoal were observed within these fills. Interpretation The fills of all nine of these pits contained charcoal. This suggests that these pits had a strong relationship to the burning activity that occurred in this area, possibly in associa- tion with the burning and burial of human remains. We can assume that some of these pits post date the burial activity as pit [39] truncated posthole [37]. However, without further information the exact function of these pits is difficult determine. These features may have been backfilled recently, possibly to level the ground surface for agricultural purposes. This can be seen by the barbed wire found within pit [21].46
    • Ballynamona 1-E2428 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2428-ballynamona1-co-cork/Subgroup {4002} Area 2List of Contexts; C.[67], 68, 69, [71], 73, 74, [72], 75, [76], 93, 94, [81], 82, 83, [91], 92,[107], 105, 106.DescriptionSeven pits were located across Area 2.Five pits were located in the centre of Area 2.Pit [67] measured 1.34 m in length, 0.94 m in width and 0.18 m in depth. It was oval inshape, flat in profile and had gently sloping sides. The primary fill was a compact midbrownish yellow clayey sand (69) and the secondary fill was a compact dark reddishbrown clayey sand (68). Moderate charcoal flecks were observed within both fills. Pit [71] was located 0.48 m to the south-west. It measured 0.8 m in length, 0.6 m inwidth and 0.2 m in depth. It was oval in shape, flat in profile and had gently sloping sides.The primary fill was a very soft mid yellowish brown sandy clay (74). Pit [105] was locatedjust to the north of pit [71]. It was circular in shape and measured 1.1 m in length, 1 m inwidth and 0.14 min depth. The primary fill was a compact mid reddish yellow clayey sand(105). The secondary fill of both of these pits was a compact dark brownish black clayeysand (73) with occasional charcoal fleck inclusions. Fill (73) also overlay spread (106), acompact light grey clay with frequent charcoal flecks. Pit [72] was located 0.7 m south of pit [67]. It measured 0.64 m in length, 0.54 m inwidth and 0.23 m in depth. It was sub-rectangular in shape, flat in profile and had steeplysloping sides. It was filled by a compact dark greyish brown clayey sand (75) with occa-sional charcoal flecks inclusions. Pit [81] was located 1.5 m south-east of pit [72]. It measured 0.66 m in length, 0.48m in width and 0.22 m in depth. It was oval in shape, flat in profile and had moderatelysteep sides. The primary fill was a very soft mid yellowish brown clay (83) and the sec-ondary fill was a soft dark brown clayey silt (82). Both fills contained occasional charcoalflecks. Pit [76] was located to the south of Area 2. It measured 1.21 m in length, 0.76 m inwidth and 0.58 m in depth. It was oval in shape, flat in profile and had steeply slopingsides. The primary fill was a mid grey sandy clay (94) and the secondary fill was a softdark brown stony clay (93). Occasional flecks of charcoal inclusions were observed withinthe secondary fill. Pit [91] was located between field boundaries [77] and [80] as described in group 5. Itmeasured 0.38 m in length, 0.3 m in width and 0.17 m in depth. It was circular in shape,concave in profile and had gently sloping sides. It was filled by a compact mid brownclayey sand (92) with occasional flecks of charcoal inclusions.InterpretationAll seven pits found in Area 2 contained charcoal within their fills. This may link thesepits to the high concentration of burning activity occurring within this area, possibly 47
    • iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport associated with the cremation and burial of human remains. However, without further information their exact function is difficult to determine. Group 5 Linear Features This group describes the single linear feature in Area 1 and the two linear features in Area 2 Subgroup {5001} Area 1 List of Contexts; C. [45], 46 Description A single linear feature was uncovered in Area 1. It was orientated north to south and measured 0.84 in width and 0.2 in depth. It was linear in shape with a flat profile and gently sloping and stepped sides. It was filled by a very soft mid yellowish brown clayey sand (46). Interpretation This linear feature represents a drainage ditch in order to drain the easily waterlogged field in which Area 1 was located. The sterile nature of the fills suggests this feature natu- rally silted up after the intense burning activity that occurred in this area. This indicated that this feature post dated the burials on this site, possibly represented a modern agri- cultural ditch. Subgroup {5002} Area 2 List of Contexts; C. [77], 78, 95, 96, 100, [80], 84. Description Two parallel linear features were discovered in Area 2. Linear [77] was orientated north to south and measured 1.5 in width and 0.45 in depth. It was linear in shape with a concave profile and moderately steep sloping sides. Its primary fills were a compact light yellowish brown clayey sand (95) and a compact light orangish yellow clayey sand (100). These fills were overlain by the secondary deposit, a compact dark greyish black silty sand (96). The final fill was a compact mid brownish grey silty clay (78). Linear [80] was located 1.95 m to the west. It was orientated north to south and mea- sured 1.6 m in width and 0.3 in depth. It was linear in shape with a concave profile and gently sloping sides. It was filled by compact mid brownish grey silty sand (84). Interpretation These two liner features represent two parallel field boundaries. These may have been con- temporary in nature but were more likely an initial boundary that was later replaced. The sterile nature of the fills suggests that the boundaries naturally silted up over time after48
    • Ballynamona 1-E2428 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2428-ballynamona1-co-cork/the intense burning activity that occurred in this area. This suggests that they are later indate than the burials and possibly represent modern agricultural activity.Group 6 Natural FeaturesThis group describes ten natural features located both in Areas 1 and 2.Subgroup {6001} Area 1List of Contexts; C. [4], 5, 8, [31], 32, [47], 48, [49], 52, [50], 53, [51], 54.DescriptionContext No Dimensions (m)4 0.7 x 0.5 x 0.0831 2.8 x 1.5 x 0.347 0.86 x 0.42 x 0.1449 0.48 x 0.3 x 0.150 0.6 x 0.3 x 0.0851 0.38 x 0.2 x 0.08Table1: Dimensions of natural features in Area 1 These six features varied greatly in length, width and depth, as seen in the table above.They were generally oval or irregular in shape and the sides were gentle to steep in gradi-ent. The fills of these features varied in colour from light orangish brown to dark blackand were in general clayey sand in composition. Charcoal inclusions were present in thefills of five of these features.Subgroup {6002} Area 2List of Contexts; C. [89], 99, [97], 98, [101], 102, [103], 104.DescriptionContext No Dimensions (m)89 2.6 x 2.0 x 0.2797 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.18101 0.54 x 0.5 x 0.19103 0.2 x 0.1 x 0.1Table 2 Dimensions of natural features in Area 2 These four features varied greatly in length, width and depth, as seen in the tableabove. They were generally irregular or circular in shape and had gently sloping sides. Thefills of these features were in general mid grey in colour and sandy clay in composition. 49
    • iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Group Interpretation The irregularity in shape, the lack of depth and sterile fills of these features suggests that they are natural in origin, possibly vegetation bowls. The charcoal inclusions within their fills are most likely the result of contamination by surrounding burning activity.50
    • Ballynamona 1-E2428 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2428-ballynamona1-co-cork/Appendix 4 Finds registerContext NMI Area Category Fabric Artefact Type Short Description/Comments rt# Find Description/Comments #56 1 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd Decorated - carved lines56 2 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd56 3 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd Decorated - carved lines56 4 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd Decorated - carved lines56 5 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd Decorated - carved lines56 6 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd56 7 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd Decorated - carved lines56 8 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd56 9 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd Decorated - carved lines56 10 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd Decorated - carved lines56 11 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd56 12 2 Ceramic Pottery Rim Sherd Decorated - carved motif56 13 2 Ceramic Pottery Rim Sherd Decorated - carved lines56 14 2 Ceramic Pottery Rim Sherd Decorated - carved lines56 15 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd Decorated - carved lines56 16 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd56 17 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd Decorated - carved lines56 18 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd Decorated - carved lines56 19 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd Decorated - carved lines56 20 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd56 21 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd56 22 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd Decorated - carved lines56 23 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd Decorated - carved lines56 24 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd Decorated - carved lines56 25 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd Decorated - carved lines56 26 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd Decorated - carved lines56 27 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd Decorated - carved lines56 28 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd56 29 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd56 30 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd Decorated - carved lines56 31 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd Decorated - carved lines56 32 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd Decorated - carved lines56 33 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd56 34 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd56 35 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd56 36 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd Decorated - carved lines56 37 2 Ceramic Pottery Basal Sherd56 38 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd Decorated - carved lines56 39 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd Decorated - carved lines56 40 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd56 41 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd56 42 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd Decorated - carved lines56 43 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd56 44 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd56 45 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd56 46 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherds x4 small fragments56 47 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Crumbs x5 51
    • iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport 56 48 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd originally 2 fragments 56 49 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd 56 50 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd 56 51 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd 56 52 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd (originally 3 fragments) Deco- rated - carved lines 56 53 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd 56 54 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd 56 55 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd 56 56 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd 56 57 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd 56 58 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd Decorated - carved lines 87 1 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd 87 2 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd 87 3 2 Ceramic Pottery Rim Sherd 87 4 2 Ceramic Pottery Rim Sherd 87 5 2 Ceramic Pottery Rim Sherd 87 6 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd 87 7 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd 87 8 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherd 87 9 2 Ceramic Pottery Body Sherds x6 small fragments52
    • Ballynamona 1-E2428 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2428-ballynamona1-co-cork/Appendix 5 Plant remainsIntroductionThis report presents the results of plant remains analysis from Ballynamona 1. The sitecomprised a series of pits, including two possible cremation pits. Artefacts includedGrooved Ware and Vase urns, indicating activity dating to the Late Neolithic and theEarly Bronze Age. The plant remains were all identified as hazelnut shell fragments.MethodologyThe samples were collected on site as bulk soil and were processed using machine-as-sisted floatation (following guidelines in Pearsall 2000). The floating material (or ‘flot’)from each sample was collected in a stack of geological sieves (the smallest mesh size was250mm). When all the carbonised material was collected the flot was then air-dried inpaper-lined drying trays prior to storage in airtight plastic bags. The samples were scannedunder low-powered magnification (x 10 to x 40) using a binocular microscope. Nomen-clature and taxonomic order follows Stace (1997).ResultsA total of 24 samples were examined but plant remains were only present in 7 of thesamples. The plant remains were identified as barley and indeterminate cereal grains andfragments of hazelnut shell.Sample Context Charcoal Seeds % scanned2 7 Medium Absent 1008 12 Low Absent 10011 13 High Absent 10012 14 Medium Absent 10014 16 Low Absent 10019 32 Medium Absent 10022 26 Medium Absent 10024 23 Medium Absent 10027 36 Medium Low 10031 43 Low Absent 10038 56 Medium Absent 10041 30 High Absent 10042 61 Low Absent 10043 62 Low Absent 10044 64 Low Absent 10045 65 Low Absent 10050 69 Low Absent 10052 56 High Medium 10053 73 Medium Low 100 53
    • iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport 54 74 Low Absent 100 62 87 Low Low 100 63 88 Medium Low 100 68 92 Low Absent 100 70 76/94 Low Low 100 Table 1: Scanned samples from Ballynamona 1, Co� Cork (E2428) Where plant material was found, it was retrieved in moderate quantities. The identi- fied material (presented in Table 2) was predominantly cereal remains, grains in particu- lar, which were primarily barley. Context 36 53 64 73 87 88 94 Sample 27 73 44 53 62 63 70 Hazelnut shell fragments (Corylus avellana L.) 1 61 4 33 11 6 4 Barley grains (Hordeum vulgare L.) 1 3 4 5 Indeterminate cereal grains 1 4 1 1 Table 2: Plant material in samples from Ballynamona 1, Co� Cork (E2428) Hazelnut shell fragments are ubiquitous finds in Irish archaeobotanical assemblages. Eating hazelnuts creates quite a large amount of waste (Monk 2000, 75) and archaeobota- nists generally agree that a small collection of hazelnut shell fragments is unlikely to be a significant indicator of site diet (e.g. McClatchie 2007, 65). Therefore, the few fragments retrieved from this site are probably relatively unimportant. The archaeological remains suggest that these deposits are Late Neolithic and this site therefore adds to the relatively scant evidence of barley cultivation in Ireland during the Neolithic (Monk 1986, 32). In Britain, Grooved Ware sherds generally have no cereal impressions and therefore settlements associated with Grooved Ware were traditionally associated with pastoral cultures, rather than arable agriculture. This assumption was turned on its head by the systematic flotation of samples associated with Grooved Ware sites: Jones (1980) proved that carbonised grain was regularly found in deposits from this period. In Britain the results demonstrated that cereals from the Late Neolithic included emmer and bread wheat and barley and that hazelnut shells and crab apple pips were also found. Flotation has been carried out at a limited number of Grooved Ware sites in Ireland including Ballynamona 1. The Irish results suggest that barley was probably the most common cereal type (as at Ballynamona 1) and that hazelnut shells and apple pips were also relatively common.54
    • Ballynamona 1-E2428 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2428-ballynamona1-co-cork/ReferencesJohnston, P. 2007 Analysis of Carbonised Plant Remains, pp. 70 – 79 in Grogan, E., O’Donnell, L. and Johnston, P. The Bronze Age Landscapes of the Pipline to the West. Bray, Wordwell.Jones, M. 1980 ‘Carbonised cereals from Grooved Ware contexts,’ Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 46, 61– 63.McClatchie, M. 2007 ‘The plant remains,’ in Doody, M. Excavations at Curraghatoor, Co. Tipperary. Cork, UCC Department of Archaeology Archaeological Monograph, 62 – 67.Monk, M. 2000 ‘Seeds and soils of discontent: an environmental archaeological contribution to the nature of the Early Neolithic,’ 67 – 87 in Desmond, A., Johnson, G., McCarthy, M., Sheehan, J. and Shee Twohig, E. (eds) New Agendas in Irish Prehistory. Bray, Wordwell.Pearsall, D. 2000 Paleoethnobotany: a Handbook of Procedures. New York, Academic Press.Stace, C.A. 1997 New Flora in the British Isles. (2nd edition) Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. 55
    • iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport Appendix 6 Pottery report By Helen Roche and Eoin Grogan Summary This small assemblage of 81 sherds (weight 1028g) represents a Late Neolithic Grooved Ware vessel and an Early Bronze Age vase urn. Detailed descriptions of the sherds and contexts are presented in the Catalogue, after a general discussion of the assemblages. The excavation number is omitted throughout this report, only the context number (in bold in the Catalogue) followed by the find number is included. Area 2 The Late Neolithic Grooved Ware Vessel Fifteen sherds of Grooved Ware were found in a possible cremation pit (Context 86), consisting of three base-anglesherds, five bodysherds and seven fragments representing a single barrel-shaped flat-based cordoned vessel. The good quality burnished, thin-walled fabric is slightly weathered and small cavities are present on both surfaces. Decoration is present in the form of a horizontal row of faint, closely spaced comb impressions imme- diately above the cordon; a row of closely-spaced comb impressions, and sometimes just an incised line, is present around the circumference of the external surface of the base. Cordons are a feature on a small number of Grooved Ware vessels in Ireland, for example, Longstone Cullen, Co. Tipperary (Roche 1995, fig. 49), and decoration is present on the exterior surface of the base of vessels from Longstone, Geroid Island, Lough Gur, Co. Limerick (Roche 1995, figs 44, 48, 27), and Knowth, Co. Meath (Eogan and Roche 1997, 157, fig. 28: V.2 and V.8). However, the presence of comb impressed decoration has not previously been identified on Irish Grooved Ware. Carbonised residue is present on the interior surface indicating that they had, at some stage, been used for cooking. Discussion The Ballynamona 1 site and associated assemblage is one of the latest additions to the growing number of Grooved Ware sites Ireland, dating to c. 2900–2450 BC (Eogan and Roche 1997, 219). Although still not plentiful, it has become more common throughout the country but with a particular concentration in the north-eastern part of the coun- try. The majority of the sites appear to represent ritual activity especially associated with timber circles. The context of the Ballynamona 1 vessel, in a possible cremation pit, is important as such associations are not common. The vessel from Ballynamona 1 can be readily paralleled by material from other Irish sites as close as Longstone Cullen, and as far away as Knowth and Bettystown, Co. Meath, Whitewell, Co. Westmeath, and Ballynahatty, Co. Down (Eogan and Roche 1997, fig. 21; J. Eogan 1999; Phelan 2007;56
    • Ballynamona 1-E2428 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2428-ballynamona1-co-cork/Hartwell 1998, 32–44), and more recently from timber circles at Balgatheran, Co. Louth(Ó Drisceoil 2003), an enclosure at Balregan, Co. Louth (Grogan and Roche 2005), anda pit at Rathmullan, Co. Meath (Bolger 2002, 8–9). In the immediate area a large as-semblage of Grooved Ware came from Ballynacarriga 3 on the Fermoy to MitchelstownBypass scheme.Early Bronze Age vase urnSixty six sherds, consisting of 10 rimsherds, 10 shouldersherds, a base-anglesherd, 17bodysherds and 28 fragments, representing a single vase urn were found in a second pos-sible cremation pit (Context 55). The vessel, with its rounded rim, vertical neck, roundedshoulder and a belly that slopes down to a narrow base is consistent with Brindley’s (2007,278–79) Stage 2 vase urns. The hard but loose textured fabric with a moderate to highcontent of inclusions is somewhat weathered. The vase is elaborately decorated. Obliquelines of whipped cord impressions occur on the rim top. The exterior surface of the rimand neck are decorated with vertical and oblique broad incised lines, at the neck/shoul-der junction is a horizontal row of rounded impressions bounded by horizontal rows ofwhipped cord impressions. The rounded shoulder has a horizontal row of oblique broadincised lines, below which is a horizontal row of rounded impressions bounded by hori-zontal rows of whipped cord impressions. At the shoulder/belly junction is a horizontalrow of short oblique lines of whipped cord impressions. The belly of the vessel is deco-rated with a broad incised lattice pattern. The interior surface of the rim and neck have aherringbone pattern of two rows of oblique and opposing broad incised lines. Carbonisedresidue is present on the interior surface. Vase urns are not common in this region, having a more dominant distribution in thenorth and northeast. However, an example came from a funerary context at Ballinvoher,Co. Cork (Waddell 1990, 58). Vase urns were in contemporary use with other pottery ofthe Vase Tradition, such as food vessels and encrusted urns, and research has establisheda date range of c. 1930/1920–c. 1830 BC for this ceramic type (Brindley 2007, 328). 57
    • iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport References Brindley, A. L. 2007 The Dating of Food Vessels and Urns in Ireland. Department of Archaeology, National University of Ireland, Galway. Bolger, T. 2002 Three sites on the M1 Motorway at Rathmullan, Co. Meath, Ríocht na Midhe 13, 8–17. Eogan, J. 1999 Recent Excavations at Bettystown, Co. Meath. Irish Association of Professional Archaeologists Newsletter 30, 9. Eogan, G. and Roche, H. 1997 Excavations at Knowth (2). Royal Irish Academy and Department of Arts, Culture and the Gaeltacht, Dublin. Grogan, E. and Roche, H. 2005 The prehistoric pottery from Balregan 1, Co. Louth (03E0157). Unpublished Report for Irish Archaeological Consultancy Ltd. Hartwell, B. 1998 The Ballynahatty Complex. In A. Gibson and D. Simpson (eds), Prehistoric Ritual and Religion, 32–44. Sutton Publishing Ltd., Gloucestershire. Ó Drisceoil, C. 2003 Balgatheran Site 4. Late Neolithic ritual/settlement site, Co. Louth. In I. Bennett (ed.), Excavations 2001, 255–57. Wordwell, Bray. Phelan, S. 2007 1903. Whitewell. Grooved Ware timber circle. In E. Grogan, L. O’Donnell and Johnson, P. The Bronze Age landscapes of the Pipeline to the West, 349‒50. Bord Gais/ Wordwell, Bray. Roche, H. 1995 Style and Context for Grooved Ware in Ireland: with special reference to the assemblage at Knowth, Co. Meath. Unpublished M.A. Thesis. Department of Archaeology, National University of Ireland, Dublin. Waddell, J. 1990 The Bronze Age Burials of Ireland. Galway University Press.58
    • Ballynamona 1-E2428 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2428-ballynamona1-co-cork/CatalogueThe excavation number E2428 is omitted throughout; only the context number followedby the find number is included. Where the pottery is listed in the catalogue the context numbers are in bold: e.g.bodysherds: 87:2–4. Sherd numbers incorporating a forward slash indicates joining sherds, e.g. 888/444.The colour reference refers to the outer surface/core/inner surface, e.g. orange/grey/black. The thickness refers to an average dimension; where relevant a thickness range isindicated. Vessel numbers have been allocated to pottery where some estimation of the form ofthe pot is possible, or where the detailed evidence of featured sherds (e.g. rims, shoulders)or the fabric indicates separate vessels.Area 2Late Neolithic Grooved Ware VesselVessel 1. Represented by three base-angle sherds 87:2–4, two cordon sherds 87:6a–b, fivebodysherds 87:1, 5, 6a–b, 8 (two with cordons) and seven fragments 87:7, 9a–f from abarrel-shaped flat based vessel with a low raised cordon probably not far below the rim. Thin-walled hard compact fabric with a moderate to high content of crushed quartziteinclusions (≤ 2.7mm). The smooth burnished surfaces are slightly weathered and smallcavities are present on both surfaces. Carbonised residue is present on the interior surface.A horizontal row of faint closely spaced comb impressions is present immediately abovethe cordon. A row of closely-spaced comb impressions and sometimes just an incised lineis present around the circumference of the external surface of the base. Colour: brown-orange/dark orange-grey/black. T: 3.2–7.9mm. Weight: 135g.Early Bronze Age Vase UrnVessel 2. Represented by ten rimsherds 56:2–3, 7, 10, 13–14, 23, 32, 38, 40, ten shoul-dersherds 56:9, 25, 29–30, 36, 39, 43, 48, 53, 55, a base-angle fragment 56:37, seventeenbodysherds 56:1, 4–5, 8, 15, 18–19, 22, 26, 31, 49–52, 54, 57–58 and twenty eight frag-ments 56:2, 6, 11, 16–17, 20a–b, 21, 24, 27–28, 33–35, 41–42, 44–45, 46a–d, 47a–e, 56from a vessel with a rounded rim, vertical neck, rounded shoulder and the belly slopesdown to a narrow base. Hard but loose textured fabric with a moderate to high content of crushed inclu-sions (≤ 5.1mm). The smoothed surfaces are somewhat weathered. Carbonised residueis present on the interior surface. The interior surface of the rim and neck are decoratedwith a herringbone pattern of two rows of oblique and opposing broad incised lines. Thetop of the rim is decorated with oblique lines of whipped cord impressions. The exteriorsurface of the rim and neck are decorated with vertical and oblique broad incised lines,at the neck/shoulder junction is a horizontal row of rounded impressions bounded by 59
    • iSSUE 10: Eachtra JoUrnal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaEological Excavation rEport horizontal rows of whipped cord impressions. The rounded shoulder is decorated with a horizontal row of oblique broad incised lines, below which is a horizontal row of rounded impressions bounded by horizontal rows of whipped cord impressions. At the shoulder/ belly junction is a horizontal row of short oblique lines of whipped cord impressions. The belly of the vessel is decorated with a broad incised lattice pattern. Colour: orange/dark grey-black/brown-black. T: 7.2–11.8mm. Weight: 893g.60